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Nov 14, 2016

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Physics for You

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340 просмотров81 страницаPhysics for You

© All Rights Reserved

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Managing Editor

Mahabir Singh

Editor

Anil Ahlawat

(BE, MBA)

No. 10

October 2016

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CONTENTS

Class 11

NEET | JEE Essentials

25

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Brain Map

46

Class 12

NEET | JEE Essentials

40

Brain Map

47

56

Exam Prep

65

Core Concept

72

MPP-4

76

Competition Edge

Physics Musing Problem Set 39

80

82

83

Crossword

85

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definite and unchanged shape. The distances

between all pairs of particles of such a body do not

change. e.g., fan, pen, stone etc.

For a system of particles, centre of mass is an

imaginary point at which its total mass is supposed

to be concentrated.

If co-ordinates of particles of masses m1, m2, ...... are

(x1, y1, z1), (x2, y2, z2), ...... then position vector of their

center of mass is RCM = xCM i + yCM j + zCM k

m1 (x1 i + y1 j + z1 k) + m2 (x2 i + y2 j + z2 k)

=

+ m3 (x3 i + y3 j + z3 k) + ......

m1 + m2 + m3 + ......

+ (m1z1 + m2 z2 + .....)k

m1 + m2 + m3 + ......

m x + m2 x2 + ............ 1

= mi xi

xCM = 1 1

m1 + m2 + .......... M

m y + m2 y2 + ............ 1

yCM = 1 1

= mi yi

m1 + m2 + .................... M

m z + m2 z2 + ............ 1

zCM = 1 1

= mi zi

m1 + m2 + .................... M

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

treating the mass element dm at position r as a

point mass and replacing summation by integration.

1

RCM = r dm

M

1

1

1

and xCM = xdm, yCM = ydm, zCM = zdm

M

M

M

It may be inside or outside of the body.

Its position depends on the shape of the body.

For a given shape it depends on the distribution of

mass within the body and is closer to massive part.

For symmetrical bodies having homogeneous

distribution of mass it coincides with centre of

symmetry of geometrical centre.

If we know the centre of mass of parts of the system

and their masses, we can get the combined centre of

mass by treating the parts as point particles placed

at their respective centre of masses.

centre of mass of a ring is at its centre whatever be

the co-ordinate system.

If the origin of co-ordinate system is at centre of

mass, i.e., RCM = 0

1

Then by definition

mi ri = 0 mi ri = 0

M

The sum of the moments of the masses of a

system about its centre of mass is always zero.

Hemispherical shell

R

yc = , xc = 0

2

Solid hemisphere

yc =

3R

, xc = 0

8

yc =

h

, x =0

4 c

yc =

b

xc = ,

2

L

yc =

2

Semi-circular ring

2R

yc =

, xc = 0

Semi-circular disc

yc =

4R

, xc = 0

3

m r + m2r2 + m3r3 + .......

is RCM = 1 1

m1 + m2 + m3 + ......

Velocity of CM

m v + m2v2 + ......

vCM = 1 1

m1 + m2 + ......

dr

=v

dt

Acceleration of CM

m a + m2a2 + ....

aCM = 1 1

m1 + m2 + ....

dv

a =

dt

to the product of mass of the system with the

velocity of its centre of mass.

If no external force acts on a system the velocity of

its centre of mass remains constant, i.e., velocity of

centre of mass is unaffected by internal forces.

d(MvCM )

From Newtons second law Fext =

dt

If Fext = 0 then vCM = constant.

10

h

, x =0

3 c

At the centroid,

h

yc =

3

xc = 0

Make full use of the symmetry of the object, be it

point, line, or plane.

each of these parts as a particle, located at its own

center of mass.

Choose the axis wisely : If given system is a group

of particles, choose one of the particles as origin. If

system is a body with a line of symmetry, consider

it as x-axis. The choice of origin is completely

arbitrary ; the location of the centre of mass is same

regardless of the origin from which it is measured.

the perpendicular distance of each particle remains

constant from a fixed line or point and do not move

parallel to the line, and that line is known as axis of

rotation.

s

Angular displacement =

r

Where s = length of arc traced by the particle.

r = distance of particle from the axis of rotation.

Angular velocity =

I = mi ri 2

i =1

d

dt

d

dt

All the parameters , and are same for all the

particles. Axis of rotation is perpendicular to the

plane of rotation of particles.

If = constant, then

where 0 = initial angular speed

= 0 + t

given axis is the sum of the product of the masses

of its constituent particles and the square of their

respective distances from the axis of rotation.

depend upon the mass of the body but also upon the

distribution of its mass about the axis of rotation.

Greater is the part of the mass of the body away

from the axis of rotation, greater is the moment of

inertia of the body about that axis.

The radius of gyration

K of a body about

an axis of rotation is

defined as the root

mean square distances

of the particles from the

axis of rotation and its

square when multiplied with the mass of the body

gives moment of inertia of the body about the axis.

Angular acceleration =

= 0t +

1 2

t

2

t = time interval

K=

axis OZ.

Two Important Theorems on Moment of

Inertia :

2 = 20 + 2

These equations are known as equations of rotational

motion.

1

1

Total kinetic energy = m1v21 + m2v22 + ..........

2

2

1

= (m1r12 + m2r22 + ........) 2

2

1

= I2; where I = Moment of inertia = m1r 12 + m2r 22 + ....

2

= angular speed of body.

12

any change in its state of rotation about an axis is

known as moment of inertia.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

to plane lamina (that means for 2-D objects

only)):

Iz = Ix + Iy

Where Iz = moment of

inertia of the body about

z-axis.

Ix = moment of inertia of

the body about x-axis.

Iy = moment of inertia of

the body about y-axis.

Iy = Ix + Iz

(Object is in x-z plane)

Ix = Iy + Iz

(Object is in y-z plane)

MOMENT OF INERTIA

n

of object) :

13

Where

Icm = Moment of inertia of the

object about an axis passing

through centre of mass and

parallel to axis AB

axis AB

M = Total mass of object

d = Perpendicular distance between axis

about which moment of inertia is to be

calculated and the one passing through

the centre of mass.

Moment of inertia and radius of gyration of some regular bodies about specific axis

Body

Axis of rotation

Moment of

inertia (I)

Radius of

gyration (K)

to its plane

MR2

1

MR2

2

3

MR2

2

3

R

2

2MR2

R 2

to its plane

1

MR2

2

of mass M and radius R

about a tangent in its own plane

of mass M and radius R

and mass M

about a diameter

about a tangent in its own plane

1

MR2

4

5

MR2

4

R/2

5

R

2

3

MR2

2

3

R

2

2

MR2

5

2

R

5

7

MR2

5

7

R

5

2

MR2

3

2

R

3

5

MR2

3

5

R

3

1

MR2

2

R and mass M

l 2 R2

about an axis passing through centre of mass and

+

M

12 4

l, radius R and mass M

l 2 R2

+

12 4

l 2 R2

M +

4

3

l 2 R2

+

3

4

14

MR2

Hollow cylinder of

R2 l 2

about an axis passing through its centre of mass and

mass M and radius R

+

M

perpendicular to its own axis

2 12

R

R2 l 2

+

2 12

to the rod

ML2

12

ML2

3

12

l 2 + b2

Rectangular lamina of about an axis passing through its centre of mass and

M

12

l 2 + b2

12

Uniform cone of radius about an axis passing through its centre of mass and

R and height h

joining its vertex to centre of base

Parallelopiped of length

l, breadth b, height h about its central axis

and mass M

l 2 + b2

M

12

TORQUE

point = r F ,

where F = force applied

P = point of application

of force

Q = point about which we

want to calculate the torque.

r = position vector of the point of application

of force from the point about which we want to

determine the torque.

3

10

l 2 + b2

12

If forces F1 and F2 are applied on the body to

rotate it in anti-clockwise direction and F3

makes body to rotate in clockwise direction.

Then,

resultant = F1r1 + F2r2 F3r3 (in anti-clockwise

direction)

produce change in the rotational motion of the body.

Torque of force F about a

= rF sin = rF = rF

Where = angle between the direction of force

and the position vector of P with respect to Q.

r = perpendicular distance of line of action of

force from point Q.

F = force arm

Torque acting on the body about the axis of

rotation, = r F

r = position vector of the point of application of

force about the axis of rotation

3

MR2

10

net = 1 + 2 + 3 + .........

Torque produced by a force about an axis can

be zero if force vector

(i) is parallel to the axis of rotation.

(ii) passes through the axis of rotation.

then the body is said to be in rotational equilibrium.

i.e., ext = 0.

=I

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

15

dL

=

dt

a torque applied on a body rotates it through an

angle , the work done by the torque is

W =

or work done = torque angular displacement

Power of a torque is given as

W

P=

=

=

t

t

about this axis will be given by L = I

Angular momentum of a rigid body in rotation plus

translation about a general axis

ANGULAR MOMENTUM

a fixed point (O)

Suppose a particle A has a linear momentum

p = mv as shown in the figure.

O will be, L = r p = r (mv ) = m(r v )

Magnitude of L is L = mvr sin = mvr where

is the angle between r and p .

screw rule. As shown in figure, direction of L

is perpendicular to paper inwards.

If the particle passes through point O, r = 0.

Therefore, angular momentum is zero.

Angular momentum of a rigid body in pure rotation

about axis of rotation

MOTION OF A RIGID BODY

(a) Ic

(b) mvcr = mvr

From right hand screw rule, we can see that

Ic and mvr both terms are perpendicular to

the paper in inward direction. Hence, they are

added.

or LTotal = Ic + mvr

In a problem, if these two terms are in opposite

directions then they will be subtracted.

Law of conservation of angular momentum : If

no external torque acts on a system, total angular

momentum of the system remains unchanged.

In the absence of any external torque,

L = I = constant

2

2

or I11 = I22 or I1

= I2

T1

T2

be simplified by considering

The translational motion of centre of mass of

the rigid body.

Rotational motion about the centre of mass.

Now, velocity of point

(90 )

P is the vector sum of

two terms v and r.

=

Here v is common for

all points, while r is

different for different

points, as r is different.

vp = v 2 + (r)2 + 2(v )(r)cos(90 )

16

= v 2 + r 2 2 + 2vr sin

a

an = r2

(acceleration of CM)

(acting towards centre O)

d

dt

Again, here a is

common for all

points, while

an and at are

different.

at = r = r

(acting tangentially)

ROUGH INCLINED SURFACE

tan

mR2

I

If = 0, body will slip downwards (only translational

motion) with an acceleration,

a1 = g sin

If > min , body will roll down without slipping

with an acceleration, (rotation + translation both)

1+

Minimum

value

of

coefficient of friction

required for pure rolling,

min =

then, a = R is an additional condition for pure

rolling on horizontal ground, which takes place in

the presence of some external forces.

Here friction plays very

important role. Magnitude

and direction of friction is

so adjusted that equation

a = R is satisfied. If friction

is insufficient for satisfying the equation a = R,

slipping (either forward or backward) will occur

and kinetic friction will act.

constant.

Condition of pure rolling is

v = R. In this case

bottommost point of

the spherical body is at

rest. It has no slipping

with its contact point on

ground. Because ground

point is also at rest.

If v > R, then net velocity of point P is in the

direction of v. This is called forward slipping.

If v < R, then net velocity of point P is in

opposite direction of v. This is called backward

slipping.

condition for no slipping between spherical

body and plank is, v R = v0

a2 =

g sin

I

1+

mR2

17

Magnitude of this force is,

mg sin

f =

mR2

1+

I

If < min , body will roll downwards with

forward slipping. Maximum friction will act in

this case. The acceleration of body is

a3 = g sin g cos

Comparison of pure rolling and pure sliding on a

inclined plane

p r

=

I

(p r) = angular impulse = change in angular

momentum = I.

Physical

quantities

Pure

rolling

g sin

Acceleration

1+

Velocity

gsin

K2

r2

2 gh

1+

Time taken to

cover the distance

s, where K is the

radius of gyration.

Pure

sliding

2gh

2s

g sin

ANGULAR IMPULSE

distance gives angular impulse. Angular impulse is

also equal to change in angular momentum.

Translational

motion

Rotational motion

about a fixed axis

Displacement x

Angular displacement

Velocity v = dx/dt

Angular velocity

= d/dt

Acceleration

a = dv/dt

Angular acceleration

= d/dt

Mass M

Moment of inertia I

Force F = Ma

Torque = I

Work dW = Fds

Work dW = d

translational motion motion

KR = I2/2

KT = Mv2/2

r2

K2

2s 1 +

r2

g sin

MOTION AND ROTATIONAL MOTION

Power P = Fv

Power P =

Linear momentum

p = Mv

Angular

momentum L = I

Equations of

translational motion

(i) v = u + at

Equations of

rotational motion

= 0 + t

1

= 0t + t 2

2

1 2

(ii) s = ut + at

2

(iii) v2 u2 = 2as

a

(iv) snth = u + (2n 1)

2

2 02 = 2

nth = 0 +

(2n 1)

2

18

at a point by a linear impulse p at a perpendicular

distance r from C as shown. Since it is hit at

some perpendicular distance from C its motion is

rotational plus translational. Velocity of centre of

p

mass will be given by, v =

m

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

ANSWER KEY

1.

6.

11.

16.

21.

26.

(a)

(b)

(b)

(d)

(b,c)

(5)

2.

7.

12.

17.

22.

27.

(c)

(d)

(a)

(a)

(a,b,d)

(a)

3.

8.

13.

18.

23.

28.

(c)

(a)

(c)

(b)

(a,d )

(a)

4.

9.

14.

19.

24.

29.

(d)

(a)

(d)

(d)

(1)

(c)

5.

10.

15.

20.

25.

30.

(c)

(c)

(c)

(a,b,c)

(6)

(b)

(a) 6 mv 02

(b) 12 mv 02

Kx 2

, where K is a

L

constant and x is the distance from one end is

(c) 4 mv 02

(d) 8 mv 02

3L

L

K

3K

(b)

(c)

(d)

4

8

L

L

2. A uniform rod AB of mass m and length 2a is

falling freely without rotation under gravity with

AB horizontal. Suddenly the end A is fixed when

the speed of the rod is v. The angular speed with

which the rod begins to rotate is

4v

v

v

3v

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

3a

2a

3a

4a

3. A semicircular lamina of mass m, radius r and

centre at C is shown in the figure. Its centre of mass

is at a distance x from C. Its

moment of inertia about an axis

through its centre of mass and

perpendicular to its plane is

1 2

1 2

(a)

mr

(b)

mr

2

4

1 2

1 2

(c)

mr + mx 2

(d)

mr mx 2

2

2

4. Three identical rings, each of mass M and radius

R are arranged as shown in figure. The moment of

inertia of the arrangement about YY is

(a) 1 MR2

2

(b) MR2

(c) 5 MR2

2

7

(d)

MR2

2

(a)

attached to the ring as

shown in the figure. The

centre of the ring has a

speed v0. If the system is

in pure rolling then the

kinetic energy of the

system is

are rolled down on two inclined planes of heights

h1 and h2 respectively. If at the bottom of the plane

the two objects have same linear velocities, then the

ratio of h1 : h2 is

(a) 2 : 3

(b) 7 : 5

(c) 14 : 15 (d) 15 : 14

7. A horizontal turn table in the form

of a disc of radius r carries a gun at

G and rotates with angular velocity

0 about a vertical axis passing

through the centre O. The increase

in angular velocity of the system if

the gun fires a bullet of mass m with a tangential

velocity v with respect to the gun is

(moment of inertia of gun + table about O is I0)

2 mvr

mvr

(b)

(a)

I0

I + mr 2

0

mvr

v

(d)

2I 0

2r

8. Three identical rods, each of length l, are joined to

form an equilateral triangle. Its radius of gyration

about an axis passing through a corner and

perpendicular to the plane of the triangle is

(c)

(a)

l

2

(b)

3

l

2

(c)

l

2

(d)

l

3

centre at origin. Its moment of inertia about the axis

x = 2R and y = 0 is equal to the moment of inertia

about the axis y = d and z = 0. Where d is equal to

15

4

17

R

R

R (c) 3R

(b)

(d)

2

3

2

10. A constant power is supplied to a rotating disc.

Angular velocity () of disc varies with number of

rotations (n) made by the disc as

(a)

(a) n1/3

(c) n2/3

(b) n3/2

(d) n2

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

19

ratio of its rotational KE to the total KE?

(a) 1 : 3

(b) 3 : 1

(c) 1 : 2

(d) 2 : 1

12. A boat of 90 kg is floating in still water. A boy of

mass 30 kg walks from the stern to the bow. The

length of the boat is 3 m. Find the distance through

which the boat will move.

(a) 0.75 m (b) 0.90 m (c) 1.0 m (d) 1.5 m

13. A disk and a sphere of same radius but different

masses roll off on two inclined planes of the same

altitude and length. Which one of the two objects

gets to the bottom of the plane first?

(a) Both reach at the same time

(b) Depends on their masses

(c) Disk

(d) Sphere

[NEET Phase I 2016]

14. From a disc of radius R and mass M, a circular

hole of diameter R, whose rim passes through the

centre is cut. What is the moment of inertia of the

remaining part of the disc about a perpendicular

axis, passing through the centre?

(a) 11 MR2/32

(b) 9 MR2/32

2

(c) 15 MR /32

(d) 13 MR2/32

[NEET Phase I 2016]

15. A uniform circular disc of radius 50 cm at rest is free

to turn about an axis which is perpendicular to its

plane and passes through its centre. It is subjected

to a torque which produces a constant angular

acceleration of 2.0 rad s2. Its net acceleration in

m s2 at the end of 2.0 s is approximately

(a) 6.0

(b) 3.0

(c) 8.0

(d) 7.0

[NEET Phase I 2016]

16. An automobile moves on a road with a speed of

54 km h1. The radius of its wheels is 0.45 m and

the moment of inertia of the wheel about its axis of

rotation is 3 kg m2. If the vehicle is brought to rest

in 15 s, the magnitude of average torque transmitted

by its brakes to the wheel is

(a) 10.86 kg m2 s2 (b) 2.86 kg m2 s2

(c) 6.66 kg m2 s2 (d) 8.58 kg m2 s2

[AIPMT 2015]

17. In the figure shown ABC is

a uniform wire. If centre of

mass of wire lies vertically

BC

below point A, then

is

AB

close to

(a) 1.85

(b) 1.5

(c) 1.37

(d) 3

[JEE Main Online 2016]

20

together two cones at their

vertices O. It is kept on two

rails AB and CD which are

placed

asymmetrically

(see figure), with its axis

perpendicular to CD and its centre O at the centre

of line joining AB and CD (see figure). It is given a

light push so that it starts rolling with its centre O

moving parallel to CD in the direction shown. As it

moves, the roller will tend to

(a) turn left

(b) turn right

(c) go straight

(d) turn left and right alternately

[JEE Main Offline 2016]

19. A cubical block of side 30 cm is

moving with velocity 2 m s1 on

a smooth horizontal surface.

The surface has a bump at a point O as shown in

figure. The angular velocity (in rad/s) of the block

immediately after it hits the bump, is

(a) 13.3

(b) 5.0

(c) 9.4

(d) 6.7

[JEE Main Online 2016]

20. Concrete mixture is made by mixing cement, stone

and sand in a rotating cylindrical drum. If the drum

rotates too fast, the ingredients remain stuck to the

wall of the drum and proper mixing of ingredients

does not take place. The maximum rotational speed

of the drum in revolutions per minute (rpm) to

ensure proper mixing is close to

(Take the radius of the drum to be 1.25 m and its

axle to be horizontal)

(a) 27.0

(b) 0.4

(c) 1.3

(d) 8.0

[JEE Main Online 2016]

SOLUTIONS

1. (a) :

L

4

L

3

L Kx

L

4

dx

3L

0 x dm = 0 L

x

=

=

=

CM

L

2

3

0 dm L Kx dx L 4

0 L

3

2. (d) :

i.e., Li = Lf

m(2a)2

or mva = I or mva =

3

3v

=

4a

3. (d) : We know, IC = mr2/2

Using parallel axes theorem,

IC = ICM + mx2

ICM = IC mx2 = mr2/2 mx2

4. (d) : Moment of inertia of ring I about YY =

3

MR2

2

3

2

Moment of inertia of ring II about YY = MR

2

1

Moment of inertia of ring III about YY = MR2

2

Moment of inertia of the system about YY

3

3

1

7

= MR2 + MR2 + MR2 = MR2

2

2

2

2

5. (a) : As we know, KE = KEtran. + KErot.

2

1

1

v

KE = m(v02 ) + (mR2 ) 0

R

2

2

1

1

+ (3m)( 2v0 )2 + (m)(2v0 )2 = 6mv2

0

2

2

6. (c) : In case of pure rolling of a solid sphere,

KR 2

=

KT 5

KT = Translational kinetic energy.

Then at the bottom of the plane, KR + KT = mgh1

or

5

KT = mgh1

7

KR

KT

KR 2

as K = 5

T

1

=

2

As, KR + KT = mgh2

2

KT = mgh2

3

At the bottom, both have the same linear velocities,

i.e., they have the same translational kinetic

energies

h1 14

5

2

mgh1 = mgh2

=

h2 15

7

3

7. (a) : Given, I0 is the moment of inertia of table and

gun and m is the mass of bullet.

Initial angular momentum of system about centre

Li = (I0 + mr2) 0

...(i)

Let be the angular velocity of table after the bullet

is fired. Final angular momentum

Lf = I0 + mr2 mvr

or Lf = I0 m (v r) r

...(ii)

where (v r) is absolute velocity of bullet to the

right.

From eqs. (i) and (ii), we get

mvr

( 0 ) =

I0 + mr 2

This is the increase in angular velocity.

8. (c) : Moment of inertia of all the three rods is

3l 3 2

Ml 2 Ml 2 Ml 2

I=

+

+

+ M

= Ml

2 2

3

3

12

As I = MK2

3

l

So, 3MK 2 = Ml 2 K =

2

2

9. (b) : An axis passing

through x = 2R, y = 0 is

in direction as shown

in figure. Moment of

inertia about this axis

will be

1

9

I1 = mR2 + m(2R)2 = mR2

...(i)

2

2

Axis passing through y = d, z = 0 is shown by dotted

line in figure. Moment of inertia about this axis will

be

1

I2 = mR2 + md 2

...(ii)

4

By equations (i) and (ii), we get

1

9

17

mR2 + md 2 = mR2 or d =

R

4

2

2

10. (a) : We have P = .

P

d

or I = P or 2d = d

I

d

On integration, we find that ()1/3

or (n)1/3

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

21

1

1

11. (a) : Etot = Etran + Erot = mv 2 + I 2

2

2

1

1 1

v2

= mv 2 + mr 2

2

2 2

r2

1

1

3

= mv 2 + mv 2 = mv 2

2

4

4

1 2

Erot 4 mv

1

=

= = 1: 3

Etot 3 mv 2 3

4

12. (a) : As shown in figure, let C1, C2 and C be the

centres of mass of the boy, boat and the system (boy

and boat) respectively. Let x1 and x2 be the distances

of C1 and C2 from the shore. Then the centre of mass

will be at a distance,

30 x1 + 90 x2

xCM =

30 + 90

both

td

ts

3 5

15

td > ts

=

2 7

14

Hence, the sphere gets to the bottom first.

M

14. (d) : Mass per unit area of disc =

2

Mass of removed portion of disc, R

=

30[x1 (3 d )] + 90(x2 + d )

30 + 90

As xCM = xCM

=

xCM

30(x1 3 + d ) + 90(x2 + d ) 30 x1 + 90 x2

=

120

120

or 90 + 30 d + 90 d = 0

or d = 0.75 m

13. (d) : Time taken by the body to reach the bottom

when it rolls down on an inclined plane without

slipping is given by

t=

22

2l 1 + k

R2

g sin

M

R

=

2

4

2

R

Moment of inertia of removed

portion about an axis passing

through centre of disc O and

perpendicular to the plane of

disc,

2

IO

= IO + Md

M =

boat moves backward through a distance d so that

position of the centre of mass of the system remains

unchanged.

k2

R2

1 + d2

1+

R =

2R2 k = R , k = 2 R

=

d

s

5

2R2

2

ks2

1+

1+ 2

5R 2

R

1 M R 2 M R 2

+

2 4 2

4 2

2

2

2

= MR + MR = 3MR

32

16

32

When portion of disc would not have been removed,

the moment of inertia of complete disc about centre

O is

1

IO = MR2

2

So, moment of inertia of the disc with removed

portion is

I = IO IO

=

1

3MR2 13MR2

MR2

=

2

32

32

At the end of 2 s,

Tangential acceleration, at = r = 0.5 2 = 1 m s2

Radial acceleration, ar = 2r = (0 + t)2r

= (0 + 2 2)2 0.5 = 8 m s2

Net acceleration,

a=

at2 + ar2 = 12 + 82 = 65 8 m s 2

Speed of the automobile,

5

v = 54 km h 1 = 54 m s 1 = 15 m s 1

18

Moment of inertia of the wheel about its axis of

rotation, I = 3 kg m2

Time in which the vehicle brought to rest, t = 15 s

The initial angular speed of the wheel is

1

1500

100

v 15 m s

rad s 1 =

rad s 1

=

=

45

3

R 0.45 m

and its final angular speed is

f = 0 (as the vehicle comes to rest)

The angular retardation of the wheel is

100

f i 0 3

100

=

=

=

rad s 2

t

15

45

The magnitude of required torque is

i =

q 2 p2

+

2

p 2

4 p2 + pq = q2 + p

=

2 ( p + q)

2

1+

q

=

p

q

=

p

18. (a)

q2

q 1

1 q

+ =0

2 2

p 2

p

p

1

(1) (1)2 4(1)

2

2 1

Possible value of

1 3

2

q 1+ 3

=

= 1.366 1.37

p

2

therefore total angular momentum of the system

about point O remains constant.

24

After hitting , Lf = I

mva

a

mv = I or =

2I

2

Here, I = moment of inertia of cube about its edge

2

2a

2

2

2

a2

= m + m

= ma + ma = 2ma

6

6

2

3

2

mva 3 3v

32

=

=

=

= 5 rad s 1

2 4 a 4 0 .3

2 2ma

20. (a) : Radius of the drum, R = 1.25 m

For just one complete rotation, speed of the drum

at top position,

Angular velocity of the drum, =

BC = q

= linear mass density

of the rod

According to question,

centre of mass of the rod lies vertically below point A.

q

p

(q) + (p) cos 60

2

2

XCM = p cos 60 =

( p + q)

a

2

v = Rg

100

= I | | = (3 kg m2 )

rad s 2

45

20

=

kg m2s 2 = 6.66 kg m2s 2

3

Before hitting, Li = mv

v

g

=

R

R

10

60 10

rad s 1 =

rpm = 27 rpm

1.25

2 1.25

CLASS XI Series 4

Gravitation and Mechanical

Properties of Solids

Maximum Marks : 70

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(i)

(ii)

Q. no. 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.

(iii) Q. no. 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.

(iv) Q. no. 11 to 22 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each.

(v)

(vi) Q. no. 24 to 26 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.

(vii) Use log tables if necessary, use of calculators is not allowed.

SECTION-A

1. What is the Youngs modulus for a perfect rigid

body?

2. Why are space rockets usually launched from west

to east in the equatorial plane?

3. Why do spring balances show wrong readings after

they have been used for a long time?

4. The shear modulus of a material is always

considerably smaller than the Young modulus for

it. What does it signify?

5. If the earth were hollow, but still had the same mass

and radius, would your weight be different?

SECTION-B

6. A particle is projected upward from the surface of

the earth (radius R) with kinetic energy equal to half

the minimum value needed for it to escape. To which

height does it rise above the surface of the earth?

7. Discuss the variation of acceleration due to gravity

with the altitude.

What is the significance of negative sign in this

expression?

9. The breaking stress for aluminium is 7.5 107 N m2.

Find the greatest length of aluminium wire that

can hang vertically without breaking. Density of

aluminium is 2.7 103 kg m3.

OR

How is the knowledge of elasticity useful in selecting

metal ropes used in cranes for lifting heavy loads?

10. How will you weigh the sun, that is estimate its

mass? The mean orbital radius of the earth around

the sun is 1.5 108 km.

SECTION-C

11. A rocket is fired from the earth towards the

sun. At what distance from the earths centre

is the gravitational force on the rocket zero?

Mass of the sun = 2 1030 kg, mass of the earth

= 6 1024 kg. Neglect the effect of other planets etc.

(orbital radius = 1.5 1011 m).

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

25

Name the physical quantities which remain constant

during the planetary motion.

13. Compute the bulk modulus of water from the

following data : Initial volume = 100.0 litre, pressure

increase = 100.0 atm (1 atm = 1.013 105 Pa), final

volume = 100.5 litre. Compare the bulk modulus

of water with that of air (at constant temperature).

Explain in simple terms why the ratio is so large.

14. Four identical hollow cylindrical columns of mild

steel support a big structure of mass 50,000 kg. The

inner and outer radii of each column are 30 cm and

60 cm respectively. Assuming the load distribution to

be uniform, calculate the compressional strain of each

column. The Youngs modulus of steel is 2.0 1011 Pa.

15. A structural steel rod has a radius of 10 mm and a

length of 1 m. A 100 kN force F stretches it along its

length. Calculate (a) the stress, (b) elongation, and (c)

strain on the rod. Given that the Young's modulus, Y,

of the structural steel is 2.0 1011 N m2.

16. Define the term stress. Give its units and dimensions.

Describe the different types of stress.

17. Two identical heavy spheres are separated by a

distance 10 times their radius. Will an object placed

at the mid point of the line joining their centres be

in stable equilibrium or unstable equilibrium? Give

reason for your answer.

18. A mass m is placed at P a distance

h along the normal through the

centre O of a thin circular ring of

mass M and radius r as shown in

the figure. If the mass is removed

further away such that OP becomes 2h, by what

factor the force of gravitation will decrease, if h = r ?

19. Frictional force increases the velocity of a satellite.

Discuss.

OR

A star like the sun has several bodies moving around

it at different distances. Consider that all of them are

moving in circular orbits. Let r be the distance of

the body from the centre of the star and let its linear

velocity be v, angular velocity , kinetic energy K,

gravitational potential energy U, total energy E and

angular momentum L. As the radius r of the orbit

increases, determine which of the above quantities

increase and which ones decrease.

20. If the normal density of sea water is 1.00 g cm3,

what will be its density at a depth of 3 km? Given

26

1 atmospheric pressure = 106 dyne cm2, g = 980 cm s2.

21. How will the value of g be affected if (i) the rotation

of the earth stops (ii) the rotational speed of the

earth is doubled (iii) the rotational speed of the

earth is increased to seventeen times its present

value?

22. The planet mars has two moons, phobos and deimos.

(i) phobos has a period of 7 h, 39 min and an orbital

radius of 9.4 103 km. Calculate the mass of mars.

(ii) Assume that earth and mars move in circular

orbits around the sun, with the martian orbit being

1.52 times the orbital radius of the earth, what is the

length of the martian year in days?

SECTION-D

23. Sohan is a student of class XI and reads an article

on astronomy in a magazine. Astronauts spend

weeks and months in orbiting spacecrafts and

space stations. Although gravity acts on them,

the astronauts experience long durations of zero

gravity due to centripetal motion. On earth, gravity

provides the force that causes our muscles and

bones to develop to the proper strength so that we

may function in our environment. After reading the

article some questions arise in his mind. He goes to

his physics teacher to know the answer. Answer the

following questions based on the information.

(a) What happens to muscles and bones in a zero

gravity environment?

(b) How is our circulatory system affected?

(c) Do astronauts lose blood in zero gravity

environment.

(d) What inference do you draw from the above

discussion?

SECTION-E

24. What is escape velocity? Obtain an expression for

the escape velocity on the earth in different form.

Why is it that there is no atmosphere on the moon?

Explain.

OR

expressions for the orbital velocity of a satellite.

Show that the escape velocity of a body from the

earth's surface is 2 times its velocity in a circular

orbit just above the earth's surface.

25. What is meant by gravitational potential energy of

a body? What is the zero level of potential energy?

Derive an expression for the gravitational potential

from the centre of the earth.

OR

Explain what happens when the load on a metal

wire suspended from a rigid support is gradually

increased. Illustrate your answer with a suitable

stress-strain graph.

26. (a) A steel wire with a circular cross section has

a radius of 0.1 cm. The wire is 10 m long when

measured lying horizontal, and hangs from a

hook on the wall. A mass of 25 kg is hung from

the free end of the wire. Assuming the wire to be

uniform and lateral strains << longitudinal strains,

find the extension in the length of the wire. The

density of steel is 7860 kg m3 (Youngs modulus

Y = 2 1011 N m2).

what is the maximum weight that can be hung at

the lower end of the wire?

OR

Consider a long steel bar under a tensile stress due

to forces F acting at the edges along the length of

the bar (see figure). Consider a plane making an

angle with the length. What are the tensile and

shearing stresses on this plane?

readings shown by such balances will be wrong.

4.

solids over one another than to pull them apart or

to squeeze them close together.

GM

same, i.e., g = 2 .

R

6. For the particle to escape, kinetic energy = potential

energy

1 2 GMm

mve =

R

2

GMm

1 1

But supplied kinetic energy = mve2 =

2 2

2R

Suppose the particle rises to a height h, then

1 1 2 GMm

mve =

R+h

2 2

GMm GMm

or

=

2R

R+h

h=R

5.

7.

R and centre O. Then the acceleration due to gravity

at a point A on the surface of the earth will be

GM

g= 2

(i)

R

If gh is the acceleration due to gravity at a point B at

a height h from the earth's surface, then

GM

gh =

(ii)

(R + h)2

Dividing equation (ii) by (i), we get

gh

GM

R2

=

g (R + h)2 GM

SOLUTIONS

1.

We know, Y =

stress

longitudinal strain

Hence, Youngs modulus for such a body is infinite.

2.

3.

as such all points on the earth have velocity from

west to east. Moreover, this velocity is maximum in

the equatorial plane as v = R. This maximum linear

velocity is added to the launching velocity of the

rocket and consequently launching becomes easier.

When spring balances have been used for a long

time, they develop elastic fatigue in them. The

springs of such balances will take more time to

or

gh

R2

=

g (R + h)2

or

gh

=

g

R2

2

h

R2 1 +

R

h

= 1 +

R

=1

2h

R

or

2h

g h = g 1

R

27

8.

9.

the longitudinal strain is called Poisson's ratio.

Suppose the length of the loaded wire increases

from l to l + l and its diameter decreases from D to

D D.

l

Longitudinal strain =

l

D

Lateral strain =

D

Poisson's ratio is

D / D

Lateral strain

=

=

l / l

Longitudinal strain

l D

or = .

D l

The negative sign indicates that longitudinal and

lateral strains are in opposite sense.

Let L be the greatest length of aluminium wire that

can hang without breaking.

Mass of the wire, M = AL

Mg ( AL) g

Stress =

= Lg

=

A

A

As breaking stress = 7.5 107 N m2,

7

or

Lg = 7.5 10 N m

7.5 107

7.5 107

L=

=

g

2.7 103 9.8

= 2.8 103 m = 2.8 km

the sun is F =

r2

of the earth around the sun.

Now, the centripetal force acting on the earth due

to the sun is

4 2

Fc = ME r2 = ME r 2 , angular velocity

T

Since, this centripetal force is provided by the

gravitational pull of the sun on the earth, so,

4 2r 2

4 (3.14)2 (1.5 1011 )3

MS =

=

GT 2 (6.67 1011 ) (365 24 60 60)2

2 1030 kg

sun and the earth become equal and opposite. Then

distance of rocket from the sun = (r d). If m is the

mass of rocket then

GMS m GME m

(r d )2 MS

or

=

=

ME

(r d )2

d2

d2

MS

r d

=

d

ME

Given, MS = 2 1030 kg; ME = 6 1024 kg;

r = 1.5 1011 m

or

OR

heavy loads is decided from the knowledge of the

elastic limit of the material and the factor of safety.

Suppose a crane having steel ropes is required to

lift load of 10 ton i.e., 104 kg. The rope is usually

designed for a safety factor of 10 i.e., it should not

break even when a load of 104 10 =105 kg is applied

to it. If r is the radius of the rope, then

F Mg 105 9.8

Ultimate stress = = 2 =

A r

r 2

The ultimate stress should not exceed the elastic

limit (= 30 107 N m2) for steel.

105 9.8

= 30 107

2

r

or r = 0.032 m = 3.2 cm

A single wire of this much radius would be a rigid

rod. For the ease in manufacture and to impart

flexibility and strength to the rope, it is always made

of a large number of thin wires braided together.

28

GMS ME

r d

2 1030 103

=

=

d

3

6 1024

or

r

10 3

1=

d

3

or

d=

or

r 3

3 + 10

r

10 3

3 + 10 3

= 1+

=

d

3

3

1.5 1011 3

3 + 10 3

= 2.6 108 m

Law of orbits (first law) : Each planet revolves

around the sun in an elliptical orbit with the sun

situated at one of the two foci.

The planets move around the sun in an elliptical

orbit. An ellipse has two foci S and S', the sun

remains at one focus S.

29

The points P and A on the orbit are called the

perihelion and the aphelion and represent the closest

and farthest distances from the sun respectively.

Law of areas (second law) : The radius vector drawn

from the sun to a planet sweeps out equal areas in

equal intervals of time i.e., the areal velocity (area

covered per unit time) of a planet around the sun

is constant.

Suppose a planet takes same time to go from position

A to B as in going from C to D. From Kepler's

second law, the areas ASB and CSD must be equal.

Clearly, the planet covers a larger distance CD when

it is near the sun than AB when it is farther away in

the same interval of time. Hence the linear velocity

of a planet is more when it is closer to the sun than

its linear velocity when away from the sun.

period of revolution of a planet around the sun is

proportional to the cube of the semimajor axis of

its elliptical orbit.

If T is the period of revolution of a planet and R is

the length of semimajor axis of its elliptical orbit,

then

T2 R3

or T2 = KR3

where K is a proportionality constant.

For two different planets, we can write

T12 R13

=

T22 R23

Thus larger the distance of a planet from the sun,

the larger will be its period of revolution around the

sun.

5

3

Final volume, V1 = 100.5 litre = 100.5 103 m3

V = change in volume = V1 V

= (100.5 100) 103 m3 = 0.5 103 m3

P

As we know, Bw =

V

V

100 1.013 105 100 103

Bw =

0.5 103

or Bw = 2.026 109 Pa

30

is given by

Bair = 105 Pa

Bw 2.026 109

=

Bair

105

The ratio is too large. It means gases are highly

compressible whereas liquids are almost

incompressible.

11

Pa,

Inner radius of each column, r1 = 30 cm = 0.3 m;

Outer radius of each column, r2 = 60 cm = 0.6 m

Therefore, area of cross-section of the each column,

The mass supported on the four columns,

M = 50,000 kg

The whole weight of the structure will be shared by

the four columns. Therefore, compressional force

on one column,

Mg 50, 000 9.8

F=

=

N

4

4

F/A

Now, Y =

l/L

Therefore, compression strain,

l

F

50, 000 9.8

=

=

= 7.22 107

L AY 4 0.27 2.0 1011

15. Here, r = 10 mm = 0.01 m, l = 1 m,

F = 100 kN = 105 N, Y = 2.0 1011 N m2

F

F

105

(a) Stress = = 2 =

A r

(3.14) (0.01)2

8

= 3.18 10 N m2

F l

(b) As Y = .

A l

Elongation,

F l 3.18 108 1

l = . =

A Y

2.0 1011

3

= 1.59 10 m = 1.59 mm

l 1.59 103 m

(c) Strain =

=

1m

l

= 1.59 103 = 0.16%

16. The internal restoring force developed per unit area

If F is the deforming force applied to an area A of a

body and if the body is within elastic limit, then by

definition

restoring force deforming force F

=

=

Stress =

A

area

area

(a) Normal stress : When the elastic force

developed is perpendicular to the surface, the stress

is called the normal stress. Such type of stress is

developed when there is either longitudinal or

volume strain. Normal stress is of two types

(i) Tensile stress : when there is an increase in

length or volume

(ii) Compressive stress : when there is a

decrease in length or volume.

(b) Tangential stress or Shearing stress : When the

elastic force developed is parallel (tangential) to the

surface, the stress is called the tangential or shearing

stress. Such type of stress is developed when there is

shearing strain.

In figures (a) and (b), different types of normal

stresses: (i) longitudinal stress (tensile and

compressive), and, (ii) volume stress have been

shown, where F is normal to the surface.

stability, if mass m is displaced towards right by

small distance r, then the force on the mass m, due

to object B is

GMm

FB =

(5R r )2

Force on mass m due to object A is

GMm

FA =

(5R + r )2

At new point, FB > FA and the object starts moving

towards sphere B. So, object of mass m will be in

unstable equilibrium.

the force is parallel to the surface.

The SI unit of stress is N m2 or pascal (Pa).

The dimensional formula for stress is [ML1 T 2] as

force [MLT2 ]

= [ML1T 2].

=

Stress =

2

area

[L ]

17.

by each sphere on the mass m, is given by

GMm

F=

(5R)2

Also x2 = r2 + h2

Gravitational force between dM and m

G(dM )m

dF =

x2

Now, dF has two components as shown in figure.

dF cos along PO and dF sin perpendicular to PO.

Due to symmetry of ring, dF sin = 0

So, net force on mass m due to ring is given by

G(dM )m h

F = dF cos =

x

x2

F=

F=

Gm

x

h dM =

GMm h

x3

GMmh

(r + h2 )3/2

Now, when h = r,

GMmr

GMm

F = 2 2 3/ 2 =

(r + r )

2 2r 2

When, h = 2r,

2GMm

GMm(2r )

F = 2

=

2 3/ 2

5 5r 2

(r + 4r )

2

F 5 5 4 2

=

=

1

F

5 5

2

2 2

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

31

GMm

Potential energy of the satellite, U =

r

1 2 GMm

Kinetic energy of the satellite, K = mv =

2

2r

(as v = GM / r )

Total energy of the satellite, i.e.,

GMm GMm

GMm

E=K+U=

=

2r

r

2r

GMm

For the sake of clarity, take

=x

2r

Clearly U = 2x, K = x, E = x

The orbiting satellite loses energy due to frictional

force acting on it due to atmosphere and as such it

loses height. Let the new orbital radius be r/2 (say).

Clearly,

U' = 4x, K' = 2x, E' = 2x

Clearly, E' < E, U' < U and K' > K. Since kinetic

energy has increased, the velocity of the satellite

increases.

OR

radius r. Orbit is circular.

Then, linear velocity of the body orbiting a star is,

GM

v=

r

When r increases, v decreases.

v

GM

Angular velocity = =

r

r3

When r increases, decreases.

1

GMm

Kinetic energy, K = mv 2 =

2

2r

When r increases, K decreases.

Potential energy, U = GMm

r

When r increases, U increases (U becomes less negative).

GMm GMm

Total energy, E = K + U =

+

2

r

r

GMm

E=

2r

When r increases, E increases (E becomes less negative).

GM

r

Angular momentum, L = mvr = m

r

2

or L = GMm r

When r increases, L increases.

1

1

20. B =

=

Compressibility 0.0005

32

= 2 109 dyne cm2

P = hg = 3 105 1 980

= 294 106 dyne cm2

[ h = 3 km = 3 105 cm, (water) = 1 g cm3]

PV

As B =

V

V =

PV 294 106 1

=

B

2 109

[ V = 1 cm3]

= 0.147 cm3

Volume of 1 g of water at a depth of 3 km,

V' = V V = 1 0.147 = 0.853 cm3

mass

1

=

Density =

= 1.1723 g cm3

volume 0.853

21. (i) If the rotation of the earth stops, no centrifugal

g increases to maximum value at the equator. As no

centrifugal force acts on the body at poles, so the

value of g is not affected.

(ii) If the rotational speed of the earth is doubled,

the centrifugal force on the bodies increases. The

value of g decreases maximum at the equator and is

not affected at poles.

(iii) If the rotational speed of the earth is increased

to seventeen times its present value, the value of g at

the equator will become zero.

geq = g (17 )2R

= 9.80 (17)2

4 (3.14)2

2

64 105 0

(24 3600)

At the poles, the value of g remains unchanged.

6

Mass of mars,

4 2 r 3

4 9.87 (9.4)3 1018

MM =

=

GT 2 6.67 1011 (459 60)2

= 6.48 1023 kg

(ii) Here, RM = 1.52 RE, TE = 365 days

According to Kepler's law of periods,

2

TM

TE2

3

RM

RE3

R

TM = M

RE

3/ 2

TE

quickly, i.e., muscles lose mass at the rate of 5%

per week. Bone loss also occurs at a rate of 1% per

month.

(b) When we stand, the blood pressure in our feet

(about 200 mm Hg) is much greater than in our

heads (60-80 mm Hg) because of the downward

pull of gravity. In zero gravity environment, blood

pressure equalizes at above 100 mm Hg throughout

the body.

(c) Above normal blood pressure in the head is

interpreted by the brain as indicating that there

is too much blood in the body and the blood

production is signalled to slow down. Astronaut can

lose some amount of blood as a result of equalized

blood pressure in zero gravity.

(d) Astronauts have to undergo rigorous physical

fitness programmes before going into space.

24. Escape velocity is the minimum velocity with which

order that it may just escape the gravitational field

of the earth.

Consider the earth to be a

sphere of mass M and radius

R with centre O. Suppose a

body of mass m lies at point

P at distance x from its centre,

as shown in the figure. The

gravitational force of attraction

GMm

on the body at P is F =

x2

The small work done in moving

the body through small distance

PQ = dx against the gravitational

force is given by

GMm

dW = Fdx =

dx

x2

The total work done in moving the body from the

surface of the earth (x = R) to a region beyond the

gravitational field of the earth (x = ) will be

GMm

W = dW = 2 dx

R x

1

= GMm x dx = GMm

x R

R

2

1 1 GMm

= GMm + =

R

R

1

kinetic energy mve2 imparted to the body at the

2

surface of the earth will be just sufficient to perform

work W.

1 2 GMm

2GM

mve =

or ve2 =

R

2

R

2GM

Escape velocity, ve =

(i)

R

GM

or GM = gR2

As g = 2

R

2 gR2 or v = 2 gR

e

R

If is the mean density of the earth, then

4

M = R3

3

ve =

(ii)

8 G R2

2G 4 3

ve =

R =

(iii)

R 3

3

Equations (i), (ii) and (iii) give different expressions

for the escape velocity of a body. Clearly, the escape

velocity does not depend on the mass of the body

projected.

Due to the small value of g, the escape velocity on

the moon surface is small (2.38 km s1). The air

molecules have thermal velocities greater than the

escape velocity. Therefore, the air molecules escape

away and cannot form atmosphere on the moon.

OR

velocity required to put

the satellite into its orbit

around the earth.

In figure, let

M = mass of the earth,

R = radius of the earth,

m = mass of the satellite

v0 = orbital velocity of the

satellite

h = height of the satellite above the earth's surface

R + h = orbital radius of the satellite

According to the law of gravitation, the force of

gravity on the satellite is

GMm

F=

(R + h)2

Required centripetal force is provided by the

gravitational pull of the earth, so

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

33

mv02

GMm

=

R + h (R + h)2

F=

v02 =

Orbital velocity, v0 =

GM

R+h

(i)

surface, then

GM

2

g = 2 or GM =gR

R

Hence v0 =

gR 2

g

=R

R+h

R+h

the earth, h = 0

The orbital velocity will become

(ii)

v0 = gR

The escape velocity of a body from the earth's

(iii)

surface is, ve = 2gR

From eqns (ii) and (iii), we get

ve

2 gR

=

= 2 or ve = 2 v0

v0

gR

Hence the escape velocity of a body from the earth's

surface is 2 times its velocity in a circular orbit

just above the earth's surface.

x2

The small work done in

moving the body through

small distance AB (= dx) is

given by

GMm

dW = Fdx =

dx

2

x

The total work done in

bringing the body from

infinity (x = ) to the point

P(x = r) will be

r

r

GMm

W = dW = 2 dx = GMm x 2 dx

x

potential energy U of the body of mass m located at

distance r from the centre of the earth.

GMm

U =

r

OR

which is gradually being loaded.

34

gravitational field of another body and is measured

by the amount of work done in bringing a body

from infinity to a given point in the gravitational

field of the other.

When one body lies at infinity from another body,

the gravitational force on it is zero. Consequently its

potential energy is zero. This is called zero level of

potential energy.

As shown in figure, suppose the earth is a uniform

sphere of mass M and radius R. We wish to calculate

the potential energy of a body of mass m located at

point P such that OP = r and r > R.

Suppose at any instant the body is at point A, such

that

OA = x

The gravitational force of attraction on the body at

A is

GMm

1

1 1

= GMm = GMm =

r

x

r

GM

R+h

or

GMm

line indicating that stress is proportional to strain.

Upto the point A, Hooke's law is obeyed. The point

A is called the proportional limit. In this region, the

wire is perfectly elastic.

(ii) After the point A, the stress is not proportional

to strain and a curved portion AB is obtained.

However, if the load is removed at any point

between O and B, the curve is retraced along BAO

and the wire attains its original length. The portion

point B is called elastic limit or yield point. The

stress corresponding to the yield point is called

yield strength (Sy).

(iii) Beyond the point B, the strain increases more

rapidly than stress. If the load is removed at any

point C, the wire does not come back to its original

length but traces dashed line CE. Even on reducing

the stress to zero, a residual strain equal to OE is left

in the wire. The material is said to have acquired a

permanent set. The fact that the stress-strain curve

is not retraced on reversing the strain is called

elastic hysteresis.

(iv) If the load is increased beyond the point C,

there is large increase in the strain or the length of the

wire. In this region, the constrictions (called necks

and waists) develop at few points along the length of

the wire and the wire ultimately breaks at the point

D, called the fracture point. In the region between

B and D, the length of wire goes on increasing even

without any addition of load. This region is called

plastic region and the material is said to undergo

plastic deformation. The stress corresponding to

the breaking point is called ultimate strength or

tensile strength of the material.

26. (a) Let AB = L, Mass of wire = m,

mg = weight of wire

Wire is fixed at point A and a mass M

is hanged at point B.

the wire of length L due to its mass.

(mg )(L / 2) mgL

=

... (i)

YA

2YA

(ii) Suppose L2 is the extension in the wire due to

hanged mass M.

(Mg )L MgL

L2 =

=

... (ii)

YA

YA

Hence, total extension in the wire,

mgL MgL

+

L = L1 + L2 =

2YA YA

gL m

+M

L =

... (iii)

YA 2

M = 25 kg, Y = 2 1011 N m2, = 7860 kg m3

A = r2 = 3.14 106 m2

m = (r2L) = 3.14 106 10 7860

0.25 kg

Put these values in eqn. (iii),

Then, L1 =

L =

10 10

(0.125 + 25)

2 10 3.14 106

= 4 103 m

(b) Yield strength = 2.5 108 N m2

Yield force = Yield strength A

= 2.5 108 3.14 106 = 785 N

At the yield point, (m + Mmax)g = 785

Here, Mmaxg = maximum weight sustain by the wire

0.25 + Mmax = 78.5 Mmax = 78.25 kg

11

OR

F produces tensile stress and F|| produces shear

stress, on the plane aa.

Let A = area of plane aa

A

A

sin =

A =

A

sin

Tensile stress on the plane aa is

F

F sin F 2

= =

= sin

A A / sin A

Shearing stress on the plane aa

F|| F cos F sin cos F (2 sin cos )

= =

=

=

A A / sin

A

2A

F sin 2

=

2A

(a) For maximum tensile stress,

sin2 = 1 = 90

(b) For maximum shearing stress,

sin2 = 1 2 = 90 = 45

35

Class XI

extent of understanding of specied chapters. Give yourself four

marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.

Self check table given at the end will help you to check your

readiness.

Total Marks : 120

Only One Option Correct Type

velocity about its axis and g is the gravitational

acceleration on the surface of earth then the cube of

the radius of orbit of a geostationary satellite will be

equal to

Rg

R 2 2

R2 g

R2 g

(a)

(b)

(c) 2

(d)

g

stationary in water. Neglect water resistance. The

man now moves to the other end of the boat and

again becomes stationary. The centre of mass of the

man plus boat system will remain stationary with

respect to water

(a) in all cases

(b) only when the man is stationary initially and

finally

(c) only if the man moves without acceleration on

the boat

(d) only if the man and the boat have equal masses

3. Weights of 1 g, 2 g, ...., 100 g are suspended from the

1 cm, 2 cm, ...., 100 cm marks respectively of a light

metre scale. Where should it be supported for the

system to be in equilibrium?

(a) 55 cm mark

(b) 60 cm mark

(c) 66 cm mark

(d) 72 cm mark

4. The gravitational force between two bodies is

1

1

directly proportional to

not

, where R is

R

R2

36

speed for this force in circular orbit is proportional

to

1

1

(a)

(b) R2

(c) R

(d)

2

R

R0

5. The imaginary angular velocity of the earth for

which the effective acceleration due to gravity at the

equator shall be zero is equal to

(Take g = 10 m s2 and Re = 6400 km)

(a) 1.25 103 rad s1 (b) 2.50 103 rad s1

(c) 3.75 103 rad s1 (d) 5.0 103 rad s1

6. A ball rolls without slipping. The radius of gyration

of the ball about an axis passing through its centre

of mass is K. If radius of the ball be R, then the

fraction of total energy associated with its rotation

will be

(a)

(c)

K 2 + R2

R2

K2

K 2 + R2

(b)

(d)

K2

R2

R2

K 2 + R2

constant angle with an axis of rotation which

passes through one end of the rod. Its moment of

inertia about this axis is

(a)

ml 2

3

(c)

ml 2 2

sin

3

ml 2

sin

3

ml 2

cos2

(d)

3

(b)

uniform spherical shell of mass 3m and radius R.

The gravitational potential on the surface of the

shell is

3Gm

Gm

(a)

(b)

R

R

4Gm

2Gm

(d)

(c)

R

R

9. A rope is wound round a hollow cylinder of mass

3 kg and radius 40 cm. If the rope is pulled with a

force of 30 N, angular acceleration of the cylinder

will be

(a) 10 rad s2

(b) 15 rad s2

2

(c) 20 rad s

(d) 25 rad s2

(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not

the correct explanation of assertion

(c) If assertion is true but reason is false

(d) If both assertion and reason are false.

the ratio 4 : 3 are separated by a distance of

1 m. When another point mass C of mass M is

placed in between A and B, the force between A and

frictionless inclined plane will undergo slipping

(not rolling motion).

Reason : For perfect rolling motion, work done

against friction is zero.

rd

1

C is of the force between B and C. Then the

3

distance of C from A is

1

2

1

2

m (d) m

m (b) m (c)

(a)

4

7

3

3

11. The diameter of a flywheel is 1 m. It has a mass of

20 kg. It is rotating about its axis with a speed of

120 rotations per minute. Its angular momentum in

kg m2 s1 is

(a) 13.4

(b) 31.4

(c) 41.4

(d) 43.4

12. Two bodies of masses m1 and m2 are initially at

rest and infinite distance apart from each other.

Now, they are allowed to move towards each other

under mutual gravitational attraction. Their relative

velocity of approach at a distance r between them is

(a)

2G(m1 + m2 )

r

(b)

(c)

G(m1 + m2 )

r

(d)

2G m1m2

(m1 + m2 )r

G m1m2

(m1 + m2 )r

assertion is followed by a statement of reason. Mark the

correct choice as :

(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the

correct explanation of assertion

satellite close to surface of earth is smaller than that

revolving far from surface of earth.

Reason : The square of time period of revolution

of a satellite is directly proportional to cube of its

orbital radius.

14. Assertion : Position of centre of mass is independent

of the reference frame.

Reason : Centre of mass is same as centre of

gravity.

Only One Option Correct Type

external radius b. Taking the potential at infinity

be zero, the ratio of the gravitational potential at

a point on the outer surface to that on the inner

surface is

(a)

(c)

2(b3 a3 )

3b(b2 a2 )

3b (b2 a2 )

2 (b3 a3 )

(b)

(d)

(b3 a3 )

3b(b2 a2 )

a (b2 a2 )

(b3 a3 )

17. A carpet of mass M, made of inextensible, material

is rolled along its length in the form of a cylinder

of radius R and is kept on a rough floor. The carpet

starts unrolling without sliding on the floor when

a negligibly small push is given to it. Calculate the

horizontal velocity of the axis of the cylindrical part

of the carpet when its radius reduces to R/2.

3

14

21

Rg (b) 3Rg (c)

Rg

Rg (d)

2

3

2

18. A circular plate of uniform thickness has a diameter

of 56 cm. A circular portion of diameter 42 cm is

removed from one edge of the plate as shown in the

figure. Find the position of the centre of mass of the

remaining portion.

(a)

37

bigger circle

(b) 2.5 cm to left of centre of

bigger circle

(c) 9 cm to left of centre of

bigger circle

(d) 4.2 cm to right of centre

of bigger circle

19. A cockroach, mass m, runs counterclockwise

around the rim of a lazy Susan (a circular dish

mounted on a vertical axle) of radius R and rotational

inertia I with frictionless bearings. The cockroachs

speed (relative to the earth) is v, whereas the lazy

Susan turns clockwise with angular speed . The

cockroach finds a bread crumb on the rim and, of

course, stops. What will be the angular speed of the

lazy Susan after the cockroach stops?

mvR I

I mvR

(a)

(b)

2

I + mR

mR2

(2m + 1)

(c)

(d)

m

More than One Options Correct Type

m tied to its end is wound on a

uniform solid cylinder of mass M

and radius R as shown in the figure.

At a moment t = 0 the system is set

in motion. Assuming the friction

in the axle of the cylinder to be

negligible, at any time t

(a) the angular velocity of the cylinder is

gt

M

1 +

R

2m

(b) the angular velocity of the cylinder is

gt

m

1 +

R

2M

(c) the kinetic energy of the whole system is

mg 2t 2

M

1 +

2

2m

(d) the kinetic energy of the whole system is

m2 g 2t 2

2

2m

1 +

earths surface and then coast upward. (R is radius

of the earth and g is acceleration due to gravity.)

38

(b) Rocket will escape from the earth.

(c) Speed of the rocket at very far from the earth is

2gR .

(d) Speed of the rocket in the orbit is gR / 2 .

22. A thin uniform rod of mass m and length l is free

to rotate about its upper end. When it is at rest, it

receives an impulse J at its lowest point, normal to

its length. Immediately after impact,

(a) the angular momentum of the rod is Jl

(b) the angular velocity of the rod is 3J/ml

(c) the kinetic energy of the rod is 3J2/2m

(d) the linear velocity of the midpoint of the rod is

3J/m.

23. A sphere of uniform density has within it a

spherical cavity whose centre is at distance a from

the centre of the sphere. Then

(a) The gravitational field within the cavity is nonuniform.

(b) The gravitational field within the cavity is

uniform.

(c) The magnitude of gravitational field within the

4Ga2

.

3r

(d) The magnitude of gravitational field within the

4Ga

cavity is

.

3

cavity is

with velocity v0 (k ) strikes

the bottom of a stationary

vertical uniform ring of

same mass m and radius R = 1 m. The ring lies

in xy plane with its topmost point hinged on the

ceiling. The ring can rotate about x-axis. There is

no friction between the hinge and the ring. The

bullet gets embedded in the ring immediately after

(in rad s1) just after collision. (Take v0 = 11 m s1]

Column I

(A) Angular momentum (P)

revolving around the earth in circular orbit is

4 MJ. Find the additional energy (in MJ) that

should be given to the satellite so that it escapes

from the gravitational field of earth. Assume earths

gravitational force to be the only gravitational force

on the satellite and no atmospheric resistance.

26. A solid disc is rolling with slipping on a level surface

at constant speed of 5 m s1. If the disc rolls up a 28

ramp, how far (in m) along the ramp will it move

before it stops? (Given sin 28 = 0.4695)

Comprehension Type

is suspended by a frictionless

hinge at the point O as shown

in figure. A bullet of mass m

moving with velocity v in a

horizontal direction strikes

the end of the rod and gets

embedded in it.

Column II

Increases

by satellite signal

(C) Potential energy

(R) Becomes double

(D) Kinetic energy

(S) Becomes half

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

A

S

P

P

Q

B

Q, S

P

S

P

C

Q

P, S

Q, S

P, S

D

S

Q, S

P

R

on a stationary horizontal surface with an angular

velocity and with v0 as the velocity of its centre

of mass, match the entries in column I with those

given in column II.

Column I

before collision is

(a) mvL

(b) MvL

1

1

(c) mvL

(d) MvL

2

2

28. The angular velocity acquired by the rod just after

the collision is

mv

2mv

(a)

(b)

(3m + M )L

ML

3mv

3mv

(c)

(d)

L

(3m + M )L

Matrix Match Type

7000 km around the earth. If it is transferred to a

circular orbit of double the radius then match the

entries of column I with those given in column II.

Column II

CM of the body in one

full rotation while slipping

forward

(B) The speed of the bottommost point on its

circumference

(C) The speed of the topmost

point on its circumference

(D) The speed of a point on

the circumference at angle

90 with line joining the

bottom-most point and

the centre of the body

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

A

S

Q

R

P

B

Q

P

S

P

C

R

Q

Q

R

(P)

2 v0

(Q)

2v0

(R)

> 2R

(S)

zero

D

P

R

P

S

> 90%

EXCELLENT WORK !

You can score good in the nal exam.

You need to score more next time

90-75%

GOOD WORK !

74-60%

SATISFACTORY !

< 60%

39

Maximize your chance of success, and high rank in NEET, JEE (Main and Advanced) by reading this column.

This specially designed column is updated year after year by a panel of highly qualied teaching experts well-tuned

to the requirements of these EntranceTests.

First law : Whenever there is change in magnetic

flux with respect to time for a coil or circuit, an emf

induced in it and remains in it till change in flux

takes place.

Second law : The magnitude of the induced emf is

directly proportional to the rate of change of flux

through the coil.

Mathematically, the induced emf is given by

d

= B

dt

The negative sign indicates the direction of and

hence the direction of current in the closed loop.

Induced emf does not depend on nature of the coil

i.e. resistance.

Magnitude of induced emf is directly proportional

to the relative speed of coil and magnet system.

Lenzs Law

This law states that the direction of induced current

in the coil is in such a way that it always opposes the

cause by which it is produced.

d

where negative sign indicates the Lenzs law.

dt

Direction of induced emf ()

= ()

f

Average induced emf av =

t

f

Instantaneous induced emf

40

= lim

= d

t 0 t

dt

Induced current flow at this instant in the

1 d

closed circuit I = =

R R dt

t 2

dt

R

d

R

antiparallel, will become zero.

Some special cases for motional emf :

f

field (dB/dt) always produces induced electric

field in all space surrounding it. Induced emf

= Ein dl

As =

d

dt

so = Ein dl =

d

dt

If = 90 i.e. v , B and l

are perpendicular to

each other.

Induced emf = Blv

emf induced in small element dx

d = (v B) dx = vBdx

1

Net emf = vBdx = B xdx = Bl 2

2

in nature.

Its field lines are concentric circular closed

curves.

Induced emf may exist in an open circuit, but there

is no induced current and induced charge in the

open circuit.

When a conducting rod moves in an external

magnetic field in such a way it cuts the field. So all

the free electrons in the rod transfer from one end

to another end (C to D) and emf is induced in the

rod. This emf is known as motional emf.

d = (v B) dl

Net emf across the rod,

= (v B) dl = vBl sin

Induced electric field in the rod,

Ein = (v B) = (B v )

higher potential.

A rotating conducting disc :

Induced emf between

centre C and circumference

D is

1

= BR2

2

A conductor of arbitrary shape :

Induced emf in this conductor

= Induced emf in straight

conductor connected between

C and D

= Blv sin

For a given circuit, if the metal rod moves with

uniform velocity v by an external agent then all the

induced parameters are possible in the circuit.

Bvl

=

R R

41

action of induced current

Fm = I (l B) ; Fm = BIl where = 90

B 2l 2v

R

External mechanical force required for uniform

velocity of metal rod

For constant velocity resultant force on metal

f

rod must zero and for that Fext = Fm

B 2l 2v

f

Fext = Fm =

R

f

If (B, l, R) constant Fext v

For uniform motion of metal rod, mechanical power

delivered by external source is given as

Pmech = Pext = Fext v = Fext v

to time

dI dB d

f

electromagnetic induction link

dt

dt

dt

d

dI

= L ,

f

N = LI or, N

dt

dt

d

where N

called self induced emf of coil s.

dt

dI

s = L

dt

current in a electric circuit so it is also called inertia

of the electric circuit.

For a real inductor

Fm =

Pext = Pmech =

B 2l 2v 2

R

Thermal power developed across resistor

Bvl

B l v

Pth = I 2 R =

R=

R

R

f

22 2

with the principle of conservation of energy.

Self Induction

When current through a coil changes with respect

to the time then magnetic flux linked with the coil

also changes with respect to time. Due to this an

emf and a current induced in the coil. According

to Lenzs law induced current opposes the change

in magnetic flux. This phenomenon is called self

induction and a factor by virtue the coil shows

opposition for change in magnetic flux called self

inductance of coil.

When current through a coil is constant,

I B constant

No electromagnetic induction

Total flux of coil (N) current through the coil

f

f

N I

N = LI

N NBA total

,

L=

=

=

I

I

I

where L is self inductance

of the coil.

42

N

I

+

V K

Rn

current becomes constant then there is no role of L.

Coefficient of self inductance of planar circular

coil

N 2 R

Lc = 0

2

N 2A

Ls = 0

= 0n2 Al = 0n2V

l

Here, V = volume of solenoid = Al

A = area of cross section of frame of solenoid

Mutual Induction

Whenever current passing through a primary coil or

circuit changes with respect to time then magnetic

flux in a neighbouring secondary coil or circuit

will also changes with respect to time. According

to Lenzs law for opposition of flux change an emf

and a current induced in the neighbouring coil

or circuit. This phenomenon is called as mutual

induction.

f

Total flux linked into secondary coil is directly

proportional to the current flowing through the

primary coil.

f

N2 2 I1, N2 2 = MI1

N 22 N 2 B1A2 (T )s

=

=

,

I1

I1

Ip

where M is mutual inductance of circuits.

When current through primary coil changes with

respect to time,

M=

dI1

dB

d

d

1 1 2

dt

dt

dt

dt

Electromagnetic induction link

N22 = MI1 or, N 2

d2

dI

= M 1 ,

dt

dt

Emf equation : V = IR + L

current in circuit increases exponentially with

respect to time. The current in circuit at any instant

t is given by

I = I0(1 et/)

Just after the closing of key, inductance behaves like

open circuit and current in circuit is zero.

dI

m = M 1

dt

and coplanar coils

N N r 2

Mc c = 0 1 2 2

1 2

2r1

NN A

Ms s = 0 1 2

12

l

Combination of Inductances

Two inductors of inductances L1 and L2 are

connected in series and are kept apart so that their

mutual inductance is negligible, then the equivalent

inductance of the combination is given by

LS = L1 + L2

dI

dt

dt

of secondary coil m.

connected in parallel and are kept far apart so that

mutual inductance between them is negligible, then

their equivalent inductance is given by

LL

1 1

1

= +

or L = 1 2

L L1 L2

L1 + L2

are connected in series and they have mutual

inductance M, then the equivalent inductance of

the combination is given by

behaves like short circuit and current in circuit is

constant.

I0 =

V

(maximum or peak value of current)

R

on self inductance of coil.

Time constant : It is a time in which current

increases up to 63% or 0.63 times of peak current

L

value. =

R

L = L1 + L2 2M

The plus sign occurs if windings in the two coils

are in the same sense, while minus sign occurs if

windings are in opposite sense.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

43

dI

Emf equation : IR + L = 0

dt

f

The mean value of ac over any half cycle is that

value of dc which would send same amount

of charge through a circuit as is sent by the ac

through same circuit in the same time.

Average value of current for half cycle

f

T /2

<I>=

final maximum steady value, if suddenly required

switching positions (S1 and S2) are interchanged

then current starts decreasing exponentially with

respect to time. The current in the circuit at any

instant t is given by

44

dt

T /2

Iav

= 0

I0 sin t dt

T /2

dt

Irms =

2I0

2I

[ cos t ]T0 /2 = 0

T

T 2

f

It is that value of dc which would produce same

heat in a given resistance in a given time as is

done by the alternating current when passed

through the same resistance for the same time.

0 I dt

T

0 dt

0 (I0 sin t )

T

0 dt

dt

I

1 T 1 cos 2t

dt = 0

0

2

T

Phase : I = I0 sin (t )

f

Initial phase = (it does not change with time)

f

Instantaneous phase = t (it changes with time)

Phase difference :

V = V0 sin (t + 1), I = I0 sin (t + 2)

f

Phase difference of I with respect to V

= 2 1

f

Phase difference of V with respect to I

= 1 2

V leads I or I lags V It means, V reaches maximum

before I.

Let if V = V0 sin t then

I = I0 sin (t )

and if V = V0 sin (t + )

then I = I0 sin t

f

half cycle :

= I0

Voltage or current is said to be alternating if it

changes continuously magnitude and periodic in

direction with the time. It can be represented by a

sine curve or cosine curve.

I = I0 sin t or I = I0 cos t

I = Instantaneous value of current at time t

I0 = Amplitude or peak value

2

= Angular frequency (rad s1) =

= 2

T

T = Time period, = Frequency

Idt

0

T /2

0

I = I0 et/

V

f

Just after opening of key t = 0 I = I0 =

R

f

Some time after opening of key t I0 0

Time constant () : It is a time in which current

decreases up to 37% or 0.37 times of peak current

L

value =

R

Let if V = V0 sin t then

I = I0 sin (t + )

and if V = V0 sin (t )

then I = I0 sin t

Components L, C and R in ac circuit separately

Term

Circuit

Supply voltage

V = V0 sin t

V = V0 sin t

V = V0 sin t

Current

I = I0 sin t

I = I0 sin t

2

I = I0 sin t +

2

Peak current

V

I0 = 0

R

V

I0 = 0

L

I0 =

Impedance ()

V0

=R

I0

V0

= L = X L

I0

V0

1

=

= XL

I 0 C

XL = Inductive reactance

+ (V leads I)

2

XC = Capacitive reactance

(V lags I)

2

1

XL

Inductive susceptance

L passes dc easily (because

XL = 0) while gives a high

impedance for the ac of high

frequency (XL )

1

XC

Capacitive susceptance

V V

Z = 0 = rms

I0 Irms

R = Resistance

Phase difference and zero

Phasor diagram

(V and I are in same phase)

Variation of Z with

V0

1 / C

R does not

depend on

G, SL, SC

(mho, seiman)

G=

1

= conductance

R

in dc and ac

Ohms law

VR = IR

SL =

VL = IXL

SC =

C blocks dc (because XC = )

while provides an easy path

for the ac of high frequency

1

XC

VC = IXC

Term

RL

RC

LC

I is same in R and L

I is same in R and C

I is same in L and C

Circuit

45

Phasor diagram

V

Phase difference

between V and I

= VR2

+ VL2

V leads I 0 to

2

V 2 = VR2 + VC2

V lags I to 0

2

V = VL VC

V = VC VL

V lags I , if XC > X L

2

V leads I + , if X L > XC

2

Impedance

Z = R2 + X L2

Z = R2 + XC2

Z = X L XC

Z

XC

XL

At very low

R ( X L 0)

XC

At very high

XL

Circuit diagram

Phasor diagram

If VL > VC then

If VC > VL then

48

be present in circuit.

At resonance,

f

XL = XC , VL = VC

f

= 0 (V and I are in same phase)

V

f

Zmin = R, I max =

R

1

Resonance frequency : ... XL = XC L =

C

1

1

=

or, r =

LC

2 LC

Variation of Z with

If < r then XL < XC , circuit is capacitive,

f

(negative).

f

At = r , XL = XC, circuit is resistive, = zero.

If > r then XL > XC circuit is inductive,

f

(positive).

As increases, Z first decreases then increases,

V = VR2 + (VL VC )2 , Z = R2 + ( X L XC )2

Impedance triangle

X XC VL VC

tan = L

=

R

VR

( XC 0)

Variation of I with

A circuit is said to be resonant when the natural

frequency of the circuit is equal to frequency of the

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

circuit is minimum so it is called acceptor circuit

as it most readily accepts that current out of many

currents whose frequency is equal to its natural

frequency. In radio or TV tuning we receive the

desired station by making the frequency of the

circuit equal to that of the desired station.

Band width = 2 1

gives an idea about stored energy and lost energy.

maximum energy stored per cycle

Q = 2

maximum energy lost per cycle

f

It represents the sharpness of resonance.

f

It is unitless and dimensionless quantity.

( XL )r

Q=

r

1 L r

=

=

R C band width

Sharpness quality factor

R decrease Q increases sharpness

increases

( XC )r 2r L

=

R

R

Power in ac circuit

Let V = V0 sin t and I = I0 sin (t )

Instantaneous power P = V0 sin t . I0 sin (t )

= V0 I0 sin t (sin t cos sin cos t)

Average power <P>

2

current.

Power is dissipated only in resistor even circuit has

RL, RC or LCR combination.

LC Oscillation

The oscillation of energy between capacitor (electric

field energy) and inductor (magnetic field energy)

is called LC-oscillation.

1

Frequency of oscillation =

2 LC

If charge varies sinusoidally with time t as

q = q0 cos t then current varies periodically with t

dq

as I =

= q0 cos t +

2

dt

1 q02

2C

If the capacitor is fully discharged, then total

electrical energy is stored in the inductor in the

form of magnetic energy.

1

U B = LI02 where I0 = Maximum current

2

Transformer

A transformer is an electrical device which is used

for changing alternating voltages. It is based on the

phenomenon of mutual induction.

If it is assumed that there is no loss of energy in

the transformer then the power input = the power

output, and since P = I V then

IPVP = ISVS

Although some energy is always lost, this is a good

approximation, since a well designed transformer

may have an efficiency of more than 95%.

I P VS N S

=

=

I S VP N P

A transformer affects the voltage and current. We

have

energy stored in capacitor is U E =

1

(V I sin2 t cos V0 I0 sin t cos t sin )dt

T 0 0

0

V I cos

<P> = 0 0

< P > = Vrms Irms cos

2

rms power Prms = Vrms Irms

Average power

Power factor (cos ) =

rms power

R

cos =

Z

Power dissipation is maximum in resistive circuit

or at resonance in a LCR series circuit.

No power is dissipated in purely inductive or

capacitive circuit even a current is flowing in the

Choke Coil

Circuit with a choke coil is a series L R circuit. If

resistance of choke coil = r (very small). Current in

V

the circuit, I = with Z = (R + r )2 + (L)2

Z

It has a high inductance and negligible resistance

coil.

It is used to control current in ac circuit at negligible

power loss.

V

r

r

0

cos = =

2

2 2

Z

L

r + L

49

N

VS = S

NP

NP

VP and I S = N

IP

(VS > VP). This type of arrangement is called a stepup transformer.

If NS < NP, we have a step-down transformer. In

this case VS < VP and IS > IP. The voltage is stepped

down and the current is increased.

Displacement Current

Maxwell assumed that a current also flows in the

gap between the two plates of a capacitor, during

the process of charging, known as displacement

current ID. This displacement current originates

due to time varying electric field between the plates

of capacitor and is given by

d

I D = 0

dt

where is the electric flux linked with the space

between the two plates of the capacitor.

Using the concept of displacement current ID,

Amperes circuital law can be modified as

B dl = 0 (IC + I D )

f

f

50

d

E dl = dtB (Faradays law)

d E

dt

(Ampere-Maxwell law)

given by,

1

c=

= 3 108 m s 1

0 0

The instantaneous magnitude of the electric and

magnetic field vectors in electromagnetic wave are

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

0 0

and magnetic field vectors of electromagnetic wave.

Therefore the energy density of the electric field,

1

uE = 0 E 2 and

2

1 B2

.

the energy density of magnetic field, uB =

2 0

Average energy density of the electric field,

1

< uE > = 0 E02 and average energy density of the

4

B2

1

magnetic field < uB > = 0 = 0 E02 .

4 0

4

Average energy density of electromagnetic wave is

<u> =

B dl = 0 IC + 00

Electromagnetic Waves

An electromagnetic wave is a wave radiated by an

accelerated charge which propagates through space

as coupled electric and magnetic fields, oscillating

perpendicular to each other and to the direction of

propagation of the wave.

an electromagnetic wave is given by

1

c 1

1

, Also v =

v= =

n n 0 0

So that n =

Maxwells equations:

q

f

E dA = 0 (Gausss law for electricity)

f

related as

|E|

= c or E = Bc

|B|

B2

1

0 E02 = 0 .

2

20

as energy crossing per unit area per unit time

perpendicular to the directions of propagation of

electromagnetic wave. The intensity I is given by

the relation

1

I = < u > c = 0 E02c

2

The electromagnetic wave also carries linear

momentum with it. The linear momentum carried

by the portion of wave having energy U is given by

p = U/c.

surface is completely absorbed, it delivers energy U

and momentum p = U/c to the surface.

the surface, the momentum delivered to the

surface is U/c (U/c) = 2U/c. It follows that the

electromagnetic wave incident on a surface exerts a

force on the surface.

The current changes in the first coil according

to equation I = I0 sin t, where I0 = 10 A and

= 100 rad s1. The maximum value of emf in the

second coil is (in V)

(a) 2

(b) 5

(c) 6

(d) 12

2. An express train takes 16 hours to cover the

distance of 960 km between Patna and Gaziabad.

The rails are separated by 130 cm and the vertical

component of the earths magnetic field is

4.0 105 T. If the leakage resistance between the

rails is 100 , the retarding force on the train due to

the magnetic field will be

(a) 5 1010 N

(b) 8 1010 N

5

(c) 15 10 N

(d) 5 105 N

3. An inductor of inductance

L = 400 H and resistors of

resistances R1 = 2 and

R2 = 2 are connected to

a battery of emf 12 V as

shown in figure. The internal resistance of the

battery is negligible. The switch S is closed at t = 0.

The potential drop across L as a function of time is

12 3t

(a) 6e5t V

(b)

e V

t

(c) 6(1 et/0.2) V (d) 12e5t V

4. A uniform magnetic field B exists in a direction

perpendicular to the plane of a square frame made

of copper wire. The wire has a diameter of 2 mm

and a total length of 40 cm. The magnetic field

changes with time at a steady rate dB/dt = 0.02 T s1.

What will be the current induced in the frame?

(Resistivity of copper = 1.7 108 m)

(a) 0.1 A

(b) 0.2 A

(c) 0.3 A

(d) 0.4 A

in the form of semicircle of radius r rotates about

the diameter of the circle with angular frequency

. The axis of rotation is perpendicular to the field.

If the total resistance of the circuit is R, then mean

power generated per period of rotation is

Br 2

(Br 2 )2

(b)

2R

8R

2

(Br )

(Br 2 )2

(c)

(d)

2R

8R

6. If a resistance of 100 , an inductance of 0.5 H and

a capacitance of 10 106 F are connected in series

through 50 Hz ac supply, the impedance will be

(a)

(a) 1.87

(c) 18.7

(b) 101.3

(d) 189.7

at some separation. The first loop is cut and a battery

is inserted in between to drive a current in it. The

current changes slightly because of the variation in

resistance with temperature. During this period,

the two loops

(a) attract each other

(b) repel each other

(c) do not exert any force on each other

(d) attract or repel each other depending on the

sense of the current.

8. The instantaneous values of alternating current and

voltage in a circuit are given as

1

1

I=

sin (100t) A and =

sin (100t + /3) V

2

2

The average power in watts consumed in the circuit

is

1

3

1

1

(b)

(c)

(d)

4

4

2

8

9. An electromagnetic wave of frequency 3 MHz

passes from vacuum into a dielectric medium with

permittivity r = 4. Then

(a) the wavelength and frequency both remain

unchanged

(b) the wavelength is doubled and the frequency

remains unchanged

(c) the wavelength is doubled and the frequency

becomes half

(d) the wavelength is halved and the frequency

remains unchanged.

(a)

51

coming from the sun is 720 N C1. The average total

energy density of the electromagnetic wave is

(a) 3.3 103 J m3 (b) 4.58 106 J m3

(c) 6.37 109 J m3 (d) 81.35 1012 J m3

11. The amplitude of the electric field in a parallel beam

of light of intensity 2.0 W m2 is

(a) 38.8 N C1

(b) 49.5 N C1

1

(c) 32.7 N C

(d) 35.5 N C1

12. A free electron is placed in the path of a plane

electromagnetic wave. The electron will start

moving

(a) along the electric field

(b) along the magnetic field

(c) along the direction of propagation of the wave

(d) in a plane containing the magnetic field and

the direction of propagation.

13. An inductor 20 mH, a capacitor 50 F and a resistor

40 are connected in series across a source of emf

V = 10 sin 340t. The power loss in ac circuit is

(a) 0.76 W (b) 0.89 W (c) 0.51 W (d) 0.67 W

[NEET Phase I 2016]

14. A small signal voltage V(t) = V0 sint is applied

across an ideal capacitor C

(a) Current I(t) is in phase with voltage V(t)

(b) Current I(t) leads voltage V(t) by 180

(c) Current I(t), lags voltage V(t) by 90

(d) Over a full cycle the capacitor C does not

consume any energy from the voltage source.

[NEET Phase I 2016]

15. A long solenoid has 1000 turns. When a current

of 4 A flows through it, the magnetic flux linked

with each turn of the solenoid is 4 103 Wb. The

self-inductance of the solenoid is

(a) 2 H

(b) 1 H

(c) 4 H

(d) 3 H

[NEET Phase I 2016]

16. Out of the following options which one can be used

to produce a propagating electromagnetic wave?

(a) A chargeless particle

(b) An accelerating charge

(c) A charge moving at constant velocity

(d) A stationary charge

[NEET Phase I 2016]

17. An arc lamp requires a direct current of 10 A at

80 V to function. If it is connected to a 220 V (r.m.s.),

52

work is close to

(a) 80 H

(b) 0.08 H

(c) 0.044 H

(d) 0.065 H

[JEE Main Offline 2016]

18. A series LR circuit is connected to a voltage source

with V(t) = V0 sint. After very large time, current

L

R

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

[JEE Main Online 2016]

r is placed perpendicular to a magnetic field which

constants, at time t = 0. If the resistance of the loop

is R then the heat generated in the loop after a long

time (t ) is

(a)

2r 4 B04

2 R

(b)

2r 4 B02

2 R

(c)

2r 4 B02 R

(d)

2r 4 B02

R

20. Microwave oven acts on the principle of

(a) giving rotational energy to water molecules

(b) giving translational energy to water molecules

(c) giving vibrational energy to water molecules

(d) transferring electrons from lower to higher

energy levels in water molecule.

[JEE Main Online 2016]

SOLUTIONS

d

dI

1. (b) : As || = M = M (I0 sin t) = MI0 cos t,

dt

dt

max = MI0 = (0.005)(10)(100) V = 5 V

2. (a) : As the train moves in a magnetic field, a

motional emf = vBl is produced across its width.

Here B is the component of the magnetic field in a

direction perpendicular to the plane of the motion,

i.e., the vertical component.

960 km

= 16.67 m s 1

16 h

Thus, = (16.67 m s1) (4.0 105 T)(1.3 m)

= 8.6 104 V

The leakage current is I = /R and the retarding

force is

The speed of the train is v =

F = IlB =

8.6 104 V

1.3 m 4.0 105 T

100

3. (d) : If I1 is the current through R1 and I2 is the

and

R1

I2 = I0(1 et/),

L 400 10 3

= 0.2 s

=

Where =

R2

2

12

=6A

and I0 =

=

R2 2

Thus, I2 = 6(1 et/0.2)

Potential drop across L, i.e.,

R2I2 = 12 V 2 6(1 et/0.2) V = (12e5t) V

4. (a) : Here, total length l = 40 cm = 40 102 m,

Resistivity = 1.7 108 m

The area A of the loop

40 cm 40 cm

2

=

= 0.01 m

4 4

If the magnetic field at an instant is B, the flux

through the frame at that instant will be = BA.

As the area remains constant, the magnitude of the

emf induced will be

d

dB

=

=A

dt

dt

= (0.01 m) (0.02 T s1) = 2 104 V

The resistance of the loop is

(1.7 108 m)(40 102 m)

3.14 1 106 m2

= 2.16 103

I=

2 104 V

3

2.16 10

1 2

5. (b) : As B = BA cos t = B r cos t,

2

d B 1

=

= Br2 sin t

dt

2

Instantaneous power, P =

T

Pav =

Pdt

T

2 (Br 2 )2

=

sin2 t

R

4R

(Br 2 )2 (T / 2)

4R

T

T

(as 0 sin2 t = T / 2)

(Br 2 )2

8R

6. (d) : As XL = 2L = 2 (50)(0.5) = 157.1 ,

1

1

=

= 318.4

XC =

2C 2(50)(10 5 )

=

Z = R2 + ( X L XC )2 = (100)2 + (161.3)2

= 189.7

7. (a)

8. (d) : As rms =

I0

(1 / 2 )

2

(1 / 2 )

1

V,

2

1

A,

2

2

2

1

and cos = cos /3 =

2

1 1 1 1

Pav = rmsIrms cos = = W

2 2 2 8

Irms =

medium.

c 1 / 0 0

= r r

Refractive index, n = =

v

1 /

Since r is very close to 1, n = r = 4 = 2

Thus, medium = =

n 2

1

1

2

10. (b) : uav = 0 E02 = 0 ( 2 Erms )2 = 0 Erms

2

2

E

(as Erms = 0 )

2

= (8.85 1012)(720)2 = 4.58 106 J m3

11. (a) : The intensity of a plane electromagnetic wave

is

1

I = uav c = 0E02c

2

2I

2 2. 0

or E0 =

=

0 c

8.85 10 12 3 108

= 38.8 N C 1

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

53

12. (a)

13. (c) : Here, L = 20 mH = 20 103 H,

C = 50 F = 50 106 F

R = 40 , V = 10 sin 340t = V0 sint

= 340 rad s1, V0 = 10 V

XL = L = 340 20 103 = 6.8

1

1

104

XC =

=

=

= 58.82

C 340 50 106 34 5

Total flux linked with the solenoid, = N0

= 1000 4 103 Wb = 4 Wb

Since, = LI

Self-inductance of solenoid,

4 Wb

L= =

=1 H

I

4A

16. (b) : An accelerating charge is used to produce

oscillating electric and magnetic fields, hence the

electromagnetic wave.

17. (d) : For a dc source

I = 10 A, V = 80 V

Resistance of the arc lamp,

V 80

R= = =8

I 10

For an ac source,

rms = 220 V

= 50 Hz

= 2 50 = 100 rad s1

54

rms

or R2 + 2 L2 = rms

2

2 2

I

R + L

220

or 82 + (100 )2 L2 =

10

2

22 8

or L2 =

(100 )2

2

2

Z = R2 + (XC X L )2 = (40) + (58.82 6.8)

The peak current in the circuit is

V

10

40

R

I0 = 0 =

A , cos = =

Z 65.62

Z 65.62

Power loss in ac circuit,

1

= Vrms Irms cos = V0 I0 cos

2

1

10

40

= 10

= 0.46 W

2

65.62 65.62

14. (d) : When an ideal capacitor is connected with

an ac voltage source, current leads voltage by 90.

Since, energy stored in capacitor during charging

is spent in maintaining charge on the capacitor

during discharging. Hence over a full cycle, the

capacitor does not consume any energy from the

voltage source.

I=

L=

30 14

= 0.065 H

100

I=

sin t

2

R2 + 2 L2

V0

Area of the circular loop, A = r2

Flux linked with the loop at any time, t,

= BA = r 2 B0e

t

d

1

Emf induced in the loop, =

= r 2 B0 e

dt

2

2t

2r 4 B02

= dt =

e dt

R

2 R

=

2r 4 B02

2r 4 B02

2 R

22 R

1

2t

2 e

(0 1) =

2r 4 B02

2R

20. (a)

ANSWER KEY

MPP-4 CLASS XI

1.

6.

11.

16.

21.

26.

(d)

(c)

(b)

(a)

(b,c)

(4)

2.

7.

12.

17.

22.

27.

(a)

(c)

(a)

(d)

(a,b,c)

(a)

3.

8.

13.

18.

23.

28.

(c)

(c)

(a)

(c)

(b,d)

(d)

4.

9.

14.

19.

24.

29.

(d)

(d)

(c)

(a)

(4)

(b)

5.

10.

15.

20.

25.

30.

(a)

(a)

(b)

(a,c)

(2)

(c)

Optics

Maximum Marks : 70

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(i)

(ii)

Q. no. 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.

(iii) Q. no. 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.

(iv) Q. no. 11 to 22 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks

each.

(v)

(vi) Q. no. 24 to 26 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.

(vii) Use log tables if necessary, use of calculators is not allowed.

SECTION-A

1. For what angle of incidence, the lateral shift

produced by a parallel sided glass slab is maximum?

2. Light of wavelength 6000 in air enters a medium

of refractive index 1.5. What will be its frequency in

the medium?

3. No interference pattern is detected when two

coherent sources are infinitely close to one another.

Why?

4. Differentiate a ray and a wavefront.

5. Why are mirrors used in searchlights (or car

headlights) parabolic in shape and not concave

spherical?

SECTION-B

index 1 to medium 2 of refractive index 2, where

2 < 1. Write an expression for critical angle of

incidence.

7. A convex lens made of material of refractive index 2

56

2016

2015

2014

Delhi

AI

Delhi AI

Delhi AI

VSA

SA-I

SA-II

VBQ

LA

1

1

1

1

2

_

2

_

2

_

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

_

2

_

Trace the path of a parallel beam of light passing

through the lens when

(a) l = 2 , (b) 1 < 2 and (c) l > 2 .

8. What is the focal length of a combination of a

convex lens of focal length 30 cm and a concave lens

of focal length 20 cm ? Is the system a converging or

diverging lens? Ignore thickness of the lenses.

9. In a double-slit interference experiment, the two

coherent beams, have slightly different intensities I

and (I + I) where I << I. Show that the resultant

intensity at the maxima is nearly 4I, while at the

minima is nearly

| I |2

4I

OR

The ratio of the intensities at minima to the maxima

in the Young's double slit experiment is 9:25. Find

the ratio of the widths of the two slits.

reflected wave from an aeroplane shows a frequency

difference of 2.7 103 Hz on the higher side. Deduce

the velocity of aeroplane in the line of sight.

SECTION-C

1 mm2 is being viewed at a distance of 9 cm through

a magnifying glass (a converging lens of focal length

10 cm) held close to the eye.

(a) What is the magnification produced by the

lens? How much is the area of each square in

the virtual image?

(b) What is the magnifying power of the lens?

(c) Is the magnification in (a) equal to the

magnifying power in (b)? Explain.

1 1 1

= for a concave

f v u

lens, using the necessary ray diagram.

of deviation with the angle of incidence i for

a monochromatic ray of light passing through a

glass prism of refracting angle A. Hence deduce the

relation

+ A

sin m

2

.

=

A

sin

2

14. Define angular dispersion and dispersive power.

Derive the expressions for these quantities in terms

of refractive index.

15. A convex lens, of focal length 20 cm, is placed

co-axially with a convex mirror of radius of

curvature 20 cm. The two are kept 15 cm apart from

each other. A point object is placed 60 cm in front

of the convex lens. Draw a ray diagram to show

the formation of the image by the combination.

Determined the nature and position of the image

formed.

16. A Cassegrain telescope uses two mirrors as shown

in figure. Such a telescope is built with the mirrors

20 mm apart. If the radius of curvature of the

large mirror is 220 mm and the small mirror is

140 mm, where will the final image of an object at

infinity be?

In a single slit diffraction pattern, how does the

angular width of central maximum change, when

(a) slit width is decreased, (b) distance between the

slit and screen is increased and (c) light of smaller

visible wavelength is used? Justify your answer in

each case.

18. Two wavelengths of sodium light, 590 nm and

596 nm, are used in turn, to study the diffraction

taking place at a single slit of aperture 2.0 104 m.

The distance between the slit and the screen is 1.5 m.

Calculate the separation between the positions of

first maximum of the diffraction pattern obtained

in the two cases.

19. Discuss the intensity of transmitted light when

a polaroid sheet is rotated between two crossed

polaroids ?

20. Figure shows a modified Young's double slit

4

destructive interference.

(b) Obtain an expression for the fringe width.

(c) Locate the position of the central fringe.

OR

What do you mean by coherent and incoherent

sources of light? Why are coherent sources required

to produce interference of light?

State the conditions, which must be satisfied for two

light sources to be coherent.

21. The absolute refractive index of air is 1.0003 and

wavelength of yellow light in vacuum is 6000 .

Find the thickness of air column which will contain

one more wavelength of yellow light than in the

same thickness of vacuum.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

57

Under what conditions does it take place?

How totally reflecting prism can be used to (a) deviate

a ray through 90 (b) deviate a ray through 180.

SECTION-D

the discovery channel. He came to know from the

observation recorded on the surface of the moon

that sunrise and sunset are abrupt there and the

sky appears dark from there. He was surprised

and determined to know the reason behind it. He

discussed it with his Physics teacher next day, who

explained him the reason behind it.

(a) What were the values being displayed by Rama?

(b) Why are sunrise and sunset abrupt on the

surface of the moon?

(c) Why does the sky appear dark from the moon?

SECTION-E

an image due to a point object placed on the axis

of a spherical surface separating the two media of

refractive indices 1 and 2. Establish the relation

between the distances of the object, the image and

the radius of curvature from the central point of the

spherical surface. Hence derive the expression of

the lens makers formula.

OR

(a) How does one demonstrate, using a suitable

diagram, that unpolarised light when passed

through a polaroid gets polarised?

(b) A beam of unpolarised light is incident on a

glass-air interface. Show, using a suitable ray

diagram, that light reflected from the interface

is totally polarised, when = tan iB, where is

the refractive index of glass with respect to air

and iB is the Brewster's angle.

25. Draw a ray diagram for a compound microscope.

Derive an expression for the magnifying power

when the final image is formed at the least distance

of distinct vision. State the expression for the

magnifying power when the image is formed at

infinity. Why is the focal length of the objective lens

of a compound microscope kept quite small?

OR

Draw a ray diagram for the formation of image of a

distant object at least distance of distinct vision by

58

for its magnifying power. Write two basic features

which can distinguish between a telescope and a

compound microscope.

26. (a) Use Huygen's geometrical construction to show

how a plane wavefront at t = 0 propagates and

produces a wavefront at a later time.

(b) Verify, using Huygen's principle, Snell's law of

refraction of a plane wave propagating from a

rarer to a denser medium.

(c) Illustrate with the help of diagrams the action

of (i) convex lens and (ii) concave mirror, on a

plane wavefront incident on it.

OR

In Youngs experiment, deduce the conditions for

the constructive and destructive interference pattern

observed on the screen by drawing the necessary

diagram. Hence establish the relation between the

fringe width, the wavelength of the monochromatic

source, separation between the two slits and the

distance between the screen and the plane of the

slits. If the set-up were to be put up in a medium

optically denser than air, what effect would there be

on the observed fringe width? Give reason for your

answer.

SOLUTIONS

the thickness of the slab.

t sin(i r )

d=

cos r

dmax =

t sin(90 r )

cos r

t cos r

cos r

=t

2. Frequency in air,

=

c

3 108

=

= 5 1014 Hz

6000 1010

from air to the given medium.

Frequency in medium = 5 1014 Hz

D

d

1

i.e., , when d 0,

d

Fringe width is very large. Even a single fringe may

occupy the entire screen. The interference pattern

cannot be observed.

3. Fringe width, =

a line drawn normal to the wavefront and pointing

in the direction of propagation of the wave or

wavefront.

5. A spherical mirror of large aperture suffers with the

spherical aberration. However, a parabolic reflector

is free from spherical aberration. Therefore, when

a source of light is placed at the focus point of a

parabolic mirror, it produces a perfect parallel beam

of light which is visible even from a long distance.

6. As shown in figure, when i = ic , r = 90

Using Snell's law of refraction,

1 sin ic = 2 sin90

sinic = 2

1

or ic = sin

= 2 I + I + 2 I 1 +

= 4I neglecting I and

I

I min = [ I + I I ]2 = I[(1 + I / I )1/2 1]2

2

OR

I

9

Given, min =

I max 25

or

2

9

r 1

=

25

r +1

r 1 3

or 5r 5 = 3r + 3

=

r +1 5

a

r = 4 = 1 , the amplitude ratio

a2

or

| I |2

I

I

= I 1 + 1 = I =

2I

2I

4I

or

1 2

I

I

w1 I1 a12 16

=

=

=

= 16 : 1

w2 I2 a22

1

v

As = .

c

v=

8. Given, focal length of convex lens, f1 = + 30 cm

Focal length of concave lens, f2 = 20 cm

Focal length of the combination is given by

1

1

1

1

1

1

= +

=

+

=

f

f1 f2 30 20

60

or f = 60 cm

The negative value of f indicates that the

combination behaves as a diverging lens.

9. For any interference pattern,

I max = (a1 + a2 )2 = ( I1 + I 2 )2

2

and I min = (a1 a2 )2 = ( I1 I2 )2 (as I a )

2

I max = ( I + I + I )

= I + ( I + I ) + 2 I ( I + I )

2.7 103

.c =

3 108 = 100 m s 1

9

8.1 10

by radar waves is double of its actual velocity of

approach, therefore,

Actual velocity of the aeroplane

= 50 m s1 = 180 km h1

11. (a) Here, area of each square = 1 mm2

u = 9 cm, f = + 10 cm

1 1 1

As =

v u f

1 1 1 1 1

1

= + =

=

v f u 10 9

90

or v = 90 cm

Magnitude of magnification is

v 90

=

= 10

9

u

Area of each square in the virtual image

= (10)2 1 = 100 mm2 = 1 cm2

m=

59

25

D

=

= 2.8

|u| 9

(c) No, Magnification of an image by a lens and

angular magnification (or magnifying power) of

a optical instrument are two separate concepts.

The latter is the ratio of the angular size of the

object to the angular size of the object if placed

at the near point (25 cm). Thus magnification

v

25

and magnifying power is

.

magnitude is

u

|u|

Only when the image is located at the near

(b) Magnifying power, M =

as will be seen.

12. Suppose O be the optical centre and F be the

principal focus of concave lens of focal length f. AB

is an object placed perpendicular to its principal

axis. A virtual, erect and diminished image AB is

formed due to refraction through the lens.

A B BO

...(i)

=

AB

BO

Also, ABF and MOF are similar

A B FB

=

MO FO

But MO = AB, therefore

A B FB

...(ii)

=

AB

FO

From (i) and (ii), we get

BO FB FO BO

=

=

BO

FO

FO

Using new cartesian sing convention, we get

BO = u, BO = v, FO = f

v f + v

=

f

u

or vf = uf uv or uv = uf vf

Dividing both sides by uvf, we get

As

60

1 1 1

=

f v u

This is the thin lens formula for a concave lens.

13. For a given prism and for a given colour of light, the

angle depends on i only. As i increases, the angle

of first decreases and reaches a minimum value

m and then increases. Clearly, any given value of

corresponds to two angles of incidence i and i . This

fact is expected from the symmetry of i and i in the

equation : = i + i A i.e., remains the same as

i and i are interchanged. Physically, it means that

the path of the ray in figure (a) can be traced back,

resulting in the same angle of deviation.

The minimum value of the angle of deviation

suffered by a ray of light on passing through a prism

is called the angle of minimum deviation and is

denoted by m.

deviation, ray of light passes symmetrically through

the prism so that

i = i, r = r, = m

As A + = i + i

A + m

A + m = i + i or i =

2

Also A = r + r = r + r = 2r

A

r=

2

From Snell's law, the refractive index of the material

of the prism will be

A + m

sin

sin i

2

=

or =

A

sin r

sin

2

14. When a beam of white light passes through a prism,

it gets dispersed into its constituent colours. Let V,

R and be the angles of deviation for violet, red

and yellow (mean) colours respectively, as shown

in figure.

mirror = OI1 OO = (30 15) cm = 15 cm

For the convex mirror : u2 = + 15 cm and R = +20 cm

Using mirror formula, we get

1

1

2

1

1

2

+

=

i.e.,

+ =

v2 u2 R

v2 15 20

V = (V 1) A

R = (R 1) A

= ( 1) A

where V, R and are the refractive indices of the

prism material for violet, red and yellow (mean)

colours, respectively.

The angular separation between the two extreme

colours (violet and red) in the spectrum is called

the angular dispersion.

Angular dispersion = V R

= (V 1) A (R 1) A

= (V R)A

Clearly, the angular dispersion produced by a prism

depends upon (i) angle of the prism and (ii) nature

of the material of the prism.

Dispersive power is the ability of the prism material

to cause dispersion. It is defined as the ratio of the

angular dispersion to the mean deviation.

Dispersive power,

Then

Angular dispersion

Mean deviation

R

or = V

1

R

= V

combination, is shown in figure.

Using thin lens formula, we get

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

=

or

=

=

v1 60 20

v1 20 60 30

or v1 = 30 cm

In the absence of the mirror, the lens would have

formed the image of P at I1, which acts as a virtual

object for the convex mirror.

or

1

1

1

1

=

=

v2 10 15 30

v2 = +30 cm

Hence the final image I is a virtual image formed at

a distance of 30 cm behind the convex mirror.

16. Image formed by concave mirror acts as a virtual

object for convex mirror.

Here parallel rays coming from infinity will focus at

110 mm an axis away from concave mirror.

= 110 20 = 90 mm

For convex mirror

1 1 1

u = 90 mm, f = 70 mm + =

v u f

1 1 1 1

1

= =

v f u 70 90

v = 315 mm

Hence image is formed at 315 mm from smaller

convex mirror.

17. Diffraction of light occurs when the size of the

obstacle or aperture is comparable to the wavelength

of the light.

2D

Linear width of central maximum, 0 =

d

0 2

Angular width of central maximum =

=

D

d

(a) When slit width d decreases, angular width

increases.

(b) When distance D between the slit and screen is

increased, angular width does not change.

(c) When light of smaller wavelength is used,

angular width decreases.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

61

of screen from the slit, D = 1.5 m; 1 = 590 nm

= 5.9 107 m and 2 = 596 nm = 5.96 107 m

We know that for first diffraction maxima,

3

a sin =

2

3

If is small, then sin =

2a

Linear distance of first maximum from central

maximum,

3 D

x = D =

2a

3 D

For wavelength 1, x1 = 1

2a

3 D

and for wavelength 2, x2 = 2

2a

3D

x2 x1 =

( 1 )

2a 2

3 1. 5

=

[5.96 107 5.90 107 ] m

4

2 2.0 10

= 0.0675 mm

19. Let intensity of polarised light after passing through

the first polaroid P1 be I. When polaroid P is rotated

between two crossed polaroids P1 and P2, let at a

certain instant, P is inclined at an angle with P1

and an angle (90 ) from P2.

Intensity of light after passing through P

= I cos2

and final intensity of light transmitted even through P2

= I = (I cos2). cos2 (90 )

I = I cos2 sin2

I

I

= . 4 cos2 sin2 = sin2 (2)

4

4

From this result, we concluded that intensity of

transmitted light is maximum when 2 = 90, so

that sin 2 = 1. Thus, for maximum transmitted

intensity, the polaroid sheet must be placed at an

angle of 45 between two crossed polaroids and

I

then, I = .

4

20.

62

4

Path difference between disturbances from S1 and

S2 at point P,

xd

=

D

Total path difference between the two disturbances

at P,

xd

T = 0 + = +

4 D

In general for constructive interference,

x d

T = + n = n ; n = 0, 1, 2,...

4

D

0 = SS2 SS1 =

xnd

1

= n

D

4

For destructive interference,

x d

T = + n = (2n 1)

4

2

D

x n d

1

or

= 2n 1

D

2 2

or

or

...(i)

x n d

3

= 2n

D

2 2

D

d

The position x0 of central fringe is obtained by

putting n = 0 in equation (i). Therefore,

D

x0 =

4d

The negative sign shows that the central fringe is

obtained at a point O below the (central) point O.

Fringe width, = xn + 1 xn =

OR

Two sources of light which continuously emit light

waves of same frequency (or wavelength) with a

zero or constant phase difference between them, are

called coherent sources.

Two sources of light which do not emit light

waves with a constant phase difference are called

incoherent sources.

When two monochromatic waves of intensity I1, I2

and phase difference meet at a point, the resultant

intensity is given by

I = I1 + I 2 + 2 I1I 2 cos

The last term 2 I1 I 2 cos is called interference

term. There are two possibilities:

intensity at any point will be constant. The

2

intensity will be maximum ( I1 + I 2 )

at points, where cos = +1 and minimum

sources in this case are coherent.

(b) If cos varies continuously with time assuming

both positive and negative values, then the

average value of cos will be zero. Then

interference term averages to zero. There will

be same intensity, I = I1 + I2 at every point. The

two sources in this case are incoherent.

Hence to observe interference, we need to have

two sources with the same frequency and with

a stable phase difference. Such a pair of sources

is called coherent sources.

Conditions for obtaining two coherent sources of

light :

(a) The two sources of light must be obtained from

a single source by some method. Then the

relative phase difference between the two light

waves from the sources will remain constant

with time.

(b) The two sources must give monochromatic

light. Otherwise, different colours will produce

different interference patterns and fringes of

different colours will overlap.

21. Wavelength of yellow light in vacuum,

= 6000

Wavelength of yellow light in air,

and partly refracted to the rarer medium. This

reflection is called internal reflection. Under certain

conditions, the whole of the incident light can be

made to be reflected back into the denser medium.

This gives rise to an interesting phenomenon called

total internal reflection.

(i) Light must travel from an optically denser to an

optically rarer medium.

(ii) The angle of incidence in the denser medium

must be greater than the critical angle for the

two media.

(a) To deviate a ray through 90 : A right angled

prism shown in figure (a), as the light is incident

normally on one of the faces containing right

angle, it enters the prism without deviation. It

is incident on the hypotenuse face at an angle

of 45, greater than the critical angle. The light

is totally internally reflected. Having been

deviated through 90, the light passes through

third face without any further deviation. Such

prisms are used in periscopes.

6000

=

1.0003

Let a thickness t of vacuum contain n waves and the

same thickness t of air contain n + 1 waves.

t

t

...(i)

Then n = =

6000

=

and n + 1 =

1.0003 t

t

=

6000

...(ii)

1.003 t

t

+1 =

or t + 6000 = 1.0003 t

6000

6000

or t = 2 107 = 2 mm

22. If light passes from an optically denser medium

to rarer medium, then at the interface, the light

through 180 : As shown in figure (b), the light

is incident normally on the hypotenuse face, it

first suffers total internal reflection from one

shorter face and then from the other shorter

face. The final beam emerges through the

hypotenuse face, parallel to the incident beam.

The deviation is 180. Such a prism is called a

porroprism.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

63

(b) Moon has no atmosphere. There is no refraction

of light. Sunlight reaches moon straight covering

shortest distance. Hence sunrise and sunset are

abrupt.

(c) Moon has no atmosphere, so there is nothing to

scatter sunlight towards the moon. No skylight

reaches the moon surface, sky appears dark in

the day time as it does at night.

24. Refer to point 6.5 (5 (i)), 6.6 (1) page no. 372, 374

(MTG Excel in Physics)

OR

(a) Refer to point 6.15 (7) page no. 453 (MTG

Excel in Physics)

(b) Refer to point 6.15 (9) page no. 455 (MTG

Excel in Physics)

25. Refer to point 6.9 (1 (iv)) page no. 381 (MTG

Excel in Physics)

Angular magnification of objective will be large

when u0 is slightly greater than f0. Now a compound

64

so u0 is small. Consequently, f0 has to be small.

OR

Refer to point 6.9 (2) page no. 382 (MTG Excel in

Physics)

The two important differences between a telescope

and a compound microscope are

(a) The aperture of the objective of a microscope is

very small while that of the telescope is large.

(b) Both the lenses of a compound microscope

have short focal length while the objective of a

telescope has large focal length.

26. (a) Refer to point 6.11 (1) page no. 444 (MTG

Excel in Physics)

(b) Refer to point 6.11 (5) page no. 445 (MTG

Excel in Physics)

(c) Refer to point 6.12 (1, 3) page no. 445 (MTG

Excel in Physics)

OR

Refer to point 6.13 (6, 7, 8 (v)) page no. 447, 448

(MTG Excel in Physics)

Useful for All National and State Level Medical/Engg. Entrance Exams

ATOMS

state corresponding to n = 3 state is E. What is its

potential energy with proper sign?

(a) 2E (b) 2E

(c) E

(d) E

2. The energy levels of a certain atom for 1st, 2nd

and 3rd levels are E, 4E/3 and 2E respectively.

A photon of wavelength is emitted for a transition

3 1. What will be the wavelength of emission for

transition 2 1?

4

3

(a)

(d) 3

(b)

(c)

3

3

4

3. In Bohr model of hydrogen atom, the ratio of period

of revolution of an electron in n = 2 and n = 1 orbit

is

(a) 2 : 1 (b) 4 : 1 (c) 8 : 1 (d) 16 : 1

4. A hydrogen atom and a Li2+ ion are both in the

second excited state. If lH and lLi are their respective

electronic angular momenta, and EH and ELi their

respective energies, then

(a) lH > lLi and EH > ELi

(b) lH = lLi and EH < ELi

(c) lH = lLi and EH > ELi

(d) lH < lLi and EH < ELi

5. The ratio of the longest and shortest wavelengths in

Brackett series of hydrogen spectra is

9

4

25

17

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

5

3

9

6

6. The electric potential between a proton and an

r

electron is given by V = V0 ln , where r0 is a

r0

write variation of rn with n, n being the principal

quantum number.

1

(a) rn n

(b) rn

n

1

(c) rn n2

(d) rn 2

n

7. A hydrogen atom is excited up to 9th level. The total

number of possible spectral lines emitted by the

hydrogen atom is

(a) 36

(b) 35

(c) 37

(d) 38

8. The radius of the hydrogen atom in its ground

state is a0. The radius of a muonic hydrogen atom

in which the electron is replaced by an identically

charged muon with mass 207 times that of an

electron, is a equal to

a0

a0

(c)

(d) a0 207

(a) 207a0 (b)

207

207

9. Which energy state of doubly ionised lithium has

the same energy as that of the ground state of

hydrogen ? (Given Z for lithium = 3)

(a) 4

(b) 3

(c) 2

(d) 1

10. When the electron in hydrogen atom is excited

from the 4th stationary orbit to the 5th stationary

orbit, the change in the angular momentum of the

electron is (Plancks constant, h = 6.63 1034 J s)

(a) 4.16 1034 J s

(b) 3.32 1034 J s

(c) 1.05 1034 J s

(d) 2.08 1034 J s

257

11. If the atom 100

Fm follows the Bohr model and the

257

Fm is N times the Bohr

radius of fifth orbit of 100

radius, then the value of N is

(a) 100 (b) 200

(c) 4

(d) 1/4

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

65

an atom is

k

(a) 2

(b) 3 k

2

2

k

6

2

k

12

2

13. Taking the Bohr radius as a0 = 53 pm, the radius of

Li++ ion in its ground state, on the basis of Bohrs

model, will be about

(a) 53 pm (b) 27 pm (c) 18 pm (d) 13 pm

(c)

(d)

through 180 by a fixed uranium nucleus. The

distance of closest approach is of the order of

(a) 1

(b) 1010 cm

12

(c) 10 cm

(d) 1015 cm

15. The wavelength of the first spectral line in the Balmer

series of hydrogen atom is 6561 . The wavelength

of the second spectral line in the Balmer series of

singly-ionized helium atom is

(a) 1215

(b) 1640

(c) 2430

(d) 4687

NUCLEI

1

4

4 1H 2 He + 2e+ + Energy

Given

1

: Mass of 1H = 1.007825 u

4

Mass of 2 He = 4.002603 u

+

Mass of e = 0.000548 u

(c) 25.7 MeV

(d) 49.34 MeV

1.25 1010 years decays into B which is stable.

A sample of rock from a planet is found to contain

both A and B present in the ratio 1 : 16. The age of

the rock is

(a) 9.6 1010 years (b) 4.2 1010 years

(c) 5 1010 years

(d) 1.95 1010 years

18. A heavy nucleus at rest breaks into two fragments

which fly off with velocities in the ratio 3 : 1. The

ratio of radii of the fragments is

(a) 1 : 31/3 (b) 31/3 : 4 (c) 4 : 1

(d) 2 : 1

5-particles. The ratio of number of neutrons to

that of protons will be

66

AZ

A Z 12

(b)

Z 1

Z 6

A Z 11

(d)

(c) A Z 11

Z 1

Z 6

20. A radioactive sample has half life of 5 days. To decay

from 8 microcurie to 1 microcurie, the number of

days taken will be

(a) 40

(b) 25

(c) 15

(d) 10

21. A free neutron decays spontaneously into

(a) a proton, an electron and anti-neutrino

(b) a proton, an electron and a neutrino

(c) a proton and electron

(d) a proton, and electron, a neutrino and an

anti-neutrino.

22. The radius of germanium (Ge) nuclide is measured

9

to be twice the radius of 4Be. The number of

nucleons in Ge are

(a) 72

(b) 73

(c) 74

(d) 75

(a)

because

(a) nuclei break up at high temperature

(b) atoms get ionised at high temperature

(c) kinetic energy is high enough to overcome the

coulomb repulsion between nuclei

(d) molecules break up at high temperature.

24. To generate power of 3.2 MW, the number of fissions

of 235U per minute is

(Energy released per fission = 200 MeV,

1 eV = 1.6 1019 J)

(a) 6 1018

(b) 6 1017

17

(c) 10

(d) 6 1016

232

25. The 90Th atom has successive alpha and beta decays

208

to the end product 82Pb. The numbers of alpha and

beta particles emitted in the process respectively

are

(a) 4, 6

(b) 4, 4

(c) 6, 2

(d) 6, 4

26. An element X decays first by positron emission

and then two -particles are emitted in successive

radioactive decay. If the product nucleus has mass

number 227 and atomic number 89, the mass

number and atomic number of element X are

(a) (273, 93)

(b) (235, 94)

(c) (238, 93)

(d) (237, 92)

27. A radioactive isotope has a decay constant and a

molar mass M. Taking the Avogadro constant to be

L, what is the activity of a sample of mass m of this

isotope?

mL

M

m

mL

(c)

(d)

ML

M

28. In a nuclear reactor, moderators slow down the

neutrons which come out in a fission process. The

moderator used have light nuclei. Heavy nuclei will

not serve the purpose because

(a) they will break up

(b) elastic collision of neutrons with heavy nuclei

will not slow them down

(c) the net weight of the reactor would be unbearably

high

(d) substances with heavy nuclei do not occur in

liquid or gaseous state at room temperature.

(a) mML

(b)

time at the end of which (1/20)th of radon sample

will remain undecayed (given log10 2 = 0.30103) is

(a) 3.8 days

(b) 16.5 days

(c) 33 days

(d) 76 days

30. A radioactive sample consists of two distinct species

having equal number of atoms initially. The mean

life time of one species is and that of the other

is 5. The decay products in both cases are stable.

A plot is made of the total number of radioactive

nuclei as function of time. Which of the following

figures best represents the form of this plot?

(a)

(d)

SOLUTIONS

1. (b)

2. (d) :

E3 E1 = 2E E = E

From figure,

E2 E1 = E2 E3 + E3 E1

Tn =

402 h3n3

me 4

Tn n3

3

T2 2 8

= =

T1 1 1

h

So, lH = lLi = 3

2

2

while E Z and ZH = 1, ZLi = 3

So, ELi = 9 EH or EH < ELi

5. (a) : For Brackett series,

1

1

1

= R

2

4 n2

where n = 5, 6, 7, 8, ........

For longest wavelength, n = 5

1

1 1

= R

Longest

42 52

.... (i)

.... (ii)

r0

hc

=E

of revolution of electron in nth orbit is given as

6. (a) : Given : V = V0 ln r

(Using (i))

9

1 1

= R =

R

16 25 400

For shortest wavelength, n =

1

1 R

1

= R

=

2

Shortest

4

2 16

Dividing (ii) by (i), we get

Longest R 400 25

=

=

Shortest 16 9R 9

(b)

(c)

4

= E 2E + 2E E

3

2

1

= E+E= E

3

3

hc 1 hc

=

3

= 3

...(i)

Potential energy, U = eV

dU

r

r 1

or U = eV0 ln

= eV0 0

r r0

dr

r0

eV

dU

Force, F =

= 0

dr

r

or

F =

eV0

r

eV0

r

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

67

mv 2

r

eV0

or v =

eV0

m

nh

By Bohrs postulate, mvr =

2

nh

or v =

2mr

...(i)

...(ii)

eV0

nh

=

m

2mr

or

h

2

r=

or r =

1

meV0

nh

m

2m

eV0

rn n

7. (a) : Number of spectral lines emitted is

n(n 1)

N=

2

9(9 1) 9 8

=

= 36

Here n = 9 N =

2

2

h 2 0

a

=

8. (b) : 0

me 2

h 2 0

a =

(207m)e 2

Dividing (ii) by (i), we get

a

a

1

=

or a = 0

a0 207

207

.... (i)

.... (ii)

CZ 2

, where C is a constant.

n2

For ground state of hydrogen atom, Z = 1, n = 1

C(1)2

=C

(1)2

For nth state of Li2+ ion (Z = 3)

En =

E1 =

C(3)2

9C

n

n2

As En = E1

9C

= C or n2 = 9 or n = 3

n2

10. (c) : According to Bohrs quantisation condition

nh

Ln =

2

4h

5h

For n = 4, L4 =

and for n = 5, L5 =

2

2

Change in angular momentum when an

electron is excited from n = 4 to n = 5 is

68

n2

a , where n is the orbit number.

Z 0

For 257

100 Fm, Z = 100

25

1

rs

a0 = a0

r5 =

a = N

100

4

0

r5

1

=N =

a0

4

11. (d) : As rn =

k

L = l(l + 1)

2

For 3d orbital, l = 2

k

k

L = 2(3) = 6

2

2

13. (c) : Radius of Li++ ion in its ground state, i.e.,

is given as

En =

5h 4h

2 2

h 6.63 1034

J-s = 1.05 1034 J s

=

=

2

2 3.14

L = L5 L4 =

r0 =

0 h 2

mZe 2

53 pm

h2

a

18 pm

As Bohr radius, a0 = 0 2 r0 = 0 =

me

( for Li, Z = 3)

= Loss in kinetic energy of -particle

1 Ze 2e

5 1.6 1013 =

4 0

r0

2

1

2Ze

r0 =

4 0 5 1.6 1013

=

5 1.6 1013

= 5.3 1014 m = 5.3 1012 cm 1012 cm

15. (a) :

1

1

1

= RZ 2

2

2

n1 n2

1

1 1 5

= R(1)2 = R

1

22 32 36

1

1 3

1

= R(2)2 = R

2

2

42 4

2

2 = 5 4 = 5

1 36 3 27

5

5

or 2 = 1 = 6561 = 1215

27

27

16. (c) : The given nuclear reaction is

1

4

4 1H 2 He + 2e+ + Energy

The energy released during the process is

1

4

Q = [4m(1H) m( 2He) 2(me+)]c2

= [4 1.007825 4.002603 2 0.000548]u c2

= [4.0313 4.002603 0.001096]u c2

= (0.027601 u)c2

= (0.027601)(931.5) MeV = 25.7 MeV

17. (c) : According to Rutherford and Soddy law for

radioactive decay,

Number of atoms remained undecayed after time

t is

N = N0et

N

N

e t = 0 or t = ln 0

N

N

1 N0

t = ln

N

T1/2 N 0 1.25 1010 16

ln

t=

ln

=

ln 2 N

ln 2

1

10

1.25 10 4 ln 2

= 5 1010 years

=

ln 2

18. (a) : As the heavy nucleus at rest breaks, therefore

according to law of conservation of momentum,

we get

m1v1 + m2v2 = 0

and

v1 m2 3

=

=

v2 m1 1

As nuclear density is same,

4 3

m1 3 R1 R13

=

=

3

4

m2

R23 R2

3

R13 m1 1

=

=

or

R23 m2 3

or

....(i)

(Using (i))

R1 : R2 = 1 : 31/3

19. (d) : During the emission of -particle, the mass

number and atomic number decreases by four and

two respectively. During the emission of -particle

the mass number remains the same while the atomic

number increases by 1.

3

5

12)

( A 12)

( A

(Z 6)Y (Z 1)Y

Number of neutrons A 12 (Z 1)

=

Number of protons

Z 1

A Z 11

=

Z 1

20. (c) : Here,

Half life, T1/2 = 8 days

Initial activity, R0 = 8 microcurie

Final activity, R = 1 microcurie

A

ZX

R 1

= where n is the number of half lives

As

R0 2

n

1 1

1 1

= or =

2 2

8 2

or n = 3

t

As n =

or t = nT1/2 = (3)(5 days) = 15 days

T1/2

spontaneously into a proton, an electron and

antineutrino.

n p + e +

neutron

proton

electron

anti-neutrino

or R (A)1/3

or

RBe (9)1/3

=

RGe ( A)1/3

RBe

(9)1/3

=

2RBe ( A)1/3

(A)1/3 = 2 (9)1/3

or

A = 23 9 = 72

The number of nucleons in Ge is 72.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

69

needed because at high temperature, the kinetic

energy becomes large enough to overcome the

coulomb repulsion between nuclei.

24. (a) : Here, power = 3.2 MW = 3.2 106 W

Energy released per fission = 200 MeV

= 200 106 eV = 200 106 1.6 1019 J

Number of fissions per minute

3.2 106 60

=

= 6 1018

200 106 1.6 1019

25. (d) : Let number of particles emitted be x and

number of -particles emitted be y.

Difference in mass number = 4x = 232 208 = 24

or x = 6

Difference in atomic number = 2x y = 90 82 = 8

12 y = 8 or y = 4

26. (b) : Let A and Z be mass number and atomic

number of element X.

+

mL

m

N = L or A =

M

M

28. (b) : During an elastic collision between two

particles, the maximum kinetic energy is transferred

from one particle to the other when they have the

same mass. Consequently, a neutron loses all of

its kinetic energy when it collides head-on with

a proton, in analogy with the collision between a

moving billiard ball and a stationary one. For this

reason, materials which are abundant in hydrogen

such as paraffin and water, are good moderators

for neutrons.

N

29. (b) : Here, T1/2 = 3.8 days, N = 0

20

Disintegration constant,

0.693 0.693

day 1

=

=

T1/2

3.8

As N = N0et

Z A1Y ZA58Y

Since the product nucleus has mass number 227

and atomic number 89.

A 8 = 227 or A = 235

and Z 5 = 89 or Z = 94

A

ZX

27. (b) : A = N

N = nL where n is the number of moles and L is the

Avogadro number.

m

Now, n =

where m is the mass of the isotope,

M

N0

= N 0e t or e t = 20

20

Taking natural logarithm,

t = loge 20 or t = 2.303 log10 20

=

days

0.693

=16.43 days 16.5 days

or

t=

30. (d)

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micromanip

71

when the magnetic flux through a closed conducting

loop is changed, a current is induced within the loop

such that it opposes the change that has produced it.

According to Faraday's law, the induced emf in the

loop is,

d

= B

dt

where B is magnetic flux through the loop.

Induced current,

d

B

I=

= dt

R

resistance of the loop

Now, the question that should pop up in our head is

how does current appear; i.e., what actually makes the

free electrons of the loop push along the length of the

wire? In current electricity chapter, you must have learnt

that the terminals of the battery creates a potential

difference across the length of the conductor which

creates an electric field and hence the free electrons

get pushed due to which current appears. So, it was

the conservative electric field there since they were

produced by static charges at the ends of the battery

terminals.

But how do we explain the generation of current

without battery?

An interesting observation found in nature is that a

changing magnetic field leads to an induction of electric

field in the surrounding and vice versa.

So in time varying magnetic field, current is generated

due to induced electric field which is very different

from the conservative electric field. How do we know

that its electric field only which is making the charges

push along the length of conductor and not magnetic

forces?

Had it been magnetic forces, they would have been

perpendicular to velocity [F = q(v B)] and hence

could not have moved.

Now, how do we find the strength of the induced

electric field?

We go back to the definition of emf of a battery

which was the work done per unit charge by the nonconservative forces developed within the battery in

moving the charges from one terminal to the other.

Similarly, for induced emf, it will be the work done

per unit charge by induced electric field in taking the

charge through a closed loop once. Induced emf can

be found out from Faraday's law as

d

= B

dt

where B is the magnetic flux through the loop.

Hence combining the two definitions,

=

q

qEi dl

d B

q

dt

d

Ei dl = B

dt

where Ei is the induced electric field's value at an

elemental length dl of the loop.

To avoid the confusion of positive and negative in the

above result, it would be convenient to use this law

in two parts.

1. Calculation of magnitude using

d

E dl = dtB

2. Calculation of direction of induced electric field

using Lenz's law, according to which if a conducting

loop is placed in a region of time varying magnetic

field (TVMF), current will be induced in it such that

the induced magnetic field due to induced current

is in opposite direction with respect to inducing

72

increases with respect to time and in same direction

if the strength decreases with respect to time.

The direction of induced current would give us the

direction of induced electric field.

We will restrict our discussion to a cylindrical region

of TVMF.

Let us consider a cylindrical region of radius R which

has a magnetic field uniform in space (along the length

of cylinder) but variable in time and changing at the

dB

rate

.

dt

We would be interested in finding out the induced

electric field (Ei ) for internal as well as external

points.

At whichever point Ei is to be found out, we imagine

that if we had placed a conducting loop in this

cylindrical region symmetrically and passing through

the given point, there would have been an induced

current certainly and this induced current would give

us the direction of Ei .

dB

>0

dt

For internal points ( r < R):

Current would have induced in

anticlockwise sense, so would

be the direction of Ei . Hence,

note that Ei is forming closed

circular loop.

Ei dl = Eidl cos

Let us assume

= Ei dl cos 0 = Ei (2r)

dB

d B

= r 2

dt

dt

r dB

Ei =

2 dt

Ei (2r) =

dB

Ei (2r) = R2

dt

2 dB

Ei = R

2r dt

If the strength of Ei is plotted against r :

(i) Ei r for r < R

1

(ii) Ei for r R

r

74

Ei are

These are non-conservative in nature and hence

work done by such field in a closed path is

non-zero. In fact, work done in closed path =

charge emf of loop.

Induced electric field lines form closed loops.

Potential energy cannot be associated with them.

This comes not due to static charges but rather

due to TVMF. Hence if a charge particle is placed

at rest in a TVMF, it will experience a non-zero

force due to induced electric field.

Now, let us see some applications of it :

Q1. A charge particle of charge q, mass m is placed at a

distance 2R from the centre of a cylindrical region

of radius R with TVMF where magnetic field varies

^

as B = (4t 2 2t + 6) k where t in sec gives B in tesla.

Find the acceleration of the charge at t = 2 s.

(Take R = 1 m)

Sol.:

dB

= 8t 2

dt

At t = 2 s

dB

= 14 T s 1

dt

which is greater than zero, so induced electric

field must try to decrease the strength of inducing

magnetic field, so must be circular loops in

anticlockwise sense.

7

R2 dB 1

= (14) = N C 1

2

2(2R) dt 4

F qE 7q

a= = i =

m m 2m

Ei =

in a cylindrical region of

uniform magnetic field of

strength B and of radius R.

It is attached to one end of a

relaxed spring of stiffness

switched off, find the maximum elongation or

compression in the spring.

Sol.: Switching off the magnetic field is decreasing

the magnetic flux, to oppose which electric field

would be induced in anticlockwise sense for the

short duration in which the magnetic field changed

its value from non-zero to zero value due to which

the particle will experience an impulsive force and

gain a kinetic energy using which the spring gets

deformed. Clearly to increase the flux electric field

gets induced in clockwise direction, hence spring

will be elongated.

The momentum gained by charge in switching

duration

p = mv 0 = F dt

= (qEi ) dt = q

a dB

dt

2 dt

qa

q

dB = aB

2

2

qaB

v=

2m

1 2

1

kxmax

= mv 2

2

2

=

m qaB

xmax =

k 2m

in a cylindrical region of TVMF of radius R where

dB

> 0. Find the potential difference across the

dt

ends of the rod.

Sol.: Isn't there a contradiction in what has been

taught in theory and numerical since we learnt that

potential term cannot be associated with induced

electric field.

No, there isn't! Induced electric field pushes the

free electrons of the conductor from one end to the

other which creates a separation of charges across

the ends of the rod and these separated charges

create conservative electric field along the length of

the rod in opposite direction to the component of

induced electric field.

We consider an arbitrary point on the rod at a radial

distance r. The component of Ei along the length of

rod,

E|| = Eicos

r dB y

=

2 dt r

y dB

=

2 dt

= 2

2

interesting here? The

value is independent of r !

This E|| pushed the free electrons towards left.

At equilibrium, if the drift of electron stops,

conservative field strength,

y dB

Ec = E|| =

2 dt

Potential difference across the ends

y dB

l=

V = Ecl =

2 dt

l2

4 dB l

2

dt

R2

conducting loop PQRS

placed in a cylindrical

region of radius R of

dB

TVMF where

>0

dt

is known. Find the

induced emf across

the ends QR.

Sol.: Let us observe the distribution of induced

electric field in the region once

There cannot be an

induced emf in the

section PS since Ei

is perpendicular to

length [Ei dl = 0].

In the remaining 4

sections, PQ, QT, TR

and RS, the induced

emf will be identical

as can be seen from

symmetry.

Hence, the induced emf of the loop = 4 times in QT

=

d B R2 dB

=

= 4QT

2 dt

dt

QT =

R2 dB

8 dt

QR = 2QT =

R2 dB

4 dt

75

Class XII

extent of understanding of specied chapters. Give yourself four

marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.

Self check table given at the end will help you to check your

readiness.

Total Marks : 120

NEET / AIIMS / PMTs

A carrying a current I. Let there be n free electrons

per unit volume. An observer places himself on

a trolley moving in the direction opposite to the

I

current with a speed v =

and separated from

Ae

the wire by a distance r. The magnetic field seen by

the observer is very nearly

0 I

2 0 I

I

(a) 0

(b) zero (c)

(d)

r

r

2 r

2. Two short magnets of equal

dipole moments M are fastened

perpendicularly at their centres

as shown in the figure. The

magnitude of the magnetic field

at a distance d from the centre

on the bisector of the right angle

is

0 2M

M

(a) 0 3

(b)

4 d3

4 d

0 2 2M

0 2 M

(c) 4

(d)

3

4 d3

d

3. An electron accelerated through a potential

difference V passes through a uniform transverse

magnetic field and experiences a force F. If the

accelerating potential is increased to 2V, the electron

in the same magnetic field will experience a force

F

(a) F

(b)

(c) 2 F

(d) 2F

2

76

circular wire of radius a through diametrically

opposite points. A charged particle q moving along

the axis of the circular wire passes through its centre

at speed v. The magnetic force acting on the particle

when it passes through the centre has a magnitude

0 I

0 I

(a) qv

(b) qv

2a

2 a

0 I

(c) qv

(d) zero

a

5. A beam consisting of protons and electrons moving

at the same speed goes through a thin region in

which there is a magnetic field perpendicular to the

beam. The protons and the electrons

(a) will go undeviated

(b) will be deviated by the same angle and will not

separate

(c) will be deviated by different angles and hence

separate

(d) will be deviated by the same angle but will

separate.

6. A charged particle of mass 103 kg and charge

105 C enters a magnetic field of induction 1 T. If

g = 10 m s2, for what value of velocity will it pass

straight through the field without deflection?

(a) 103 m s1

(b) 103 m s 1

6

1

(c) 10 m s

(d) 1 m s1

7. Mark out the correct options.

(a) Diamagnetism does not occur in all materials.

(b) Diamagnetism results from the partial

alignment of permanent magnetic moment.

free space.

(d) The magnetic field of induced magnetic

moment is opposite to the applied field.

8. A particle is moving with velocity v = i + 3 j and it

produces an electric field at a point given by E = 2k.

It will produce magnetic field at that point equal to

(all quantities are in SI units)

(a) (6i 2 j ) 0 0

(b) (6i + 2 j ) 0 0

(c) zero

(d) cannot be determined from the given data

9. A point charge is moving in clockwise direction in

a circle with constant speed. Consider the magnetic

field produced by the charge at a fixed point P

(not at the center of circle) on the axis of the circle.

Then,

(a) it is constant in magnitude only

(b) it is constant in direction only

(c) it is constant both in direction and magnitude

(d) it is constant neither in magnitude nor in

direction

10. A dip circle is so that its needle moves freely in the

magnetic meridian. In this position, the angle of

dip is 40. Now the dip circle is rotated so that the

plane in which the needle moves makes an angle

of 30 with the magnetic meridian. In this position,

the needle will dip by an angle

(a) 40

(b) 30

(c) more than 40

(d) less than 40

11. What should be the current in a circular coil of

radius 5 cm to annul BH = 5 105 T?

(a) 0.4 A

(b) 4 A

(c) 40 A

(d) 1 A

12. A particle of mass 2 105 kg moves horizontally

between two horizontal plates of a charged parallel

plate capacitor between which there is an electric

field of 200 N C1 acing upward. A magnetic

induction of 2.0 T is applied at right angles to the

electric field in a direction normal to both B and v .

If g is 9.8 m s2 and the charge on the particle is 106 C,

then find the velocity of charge particle so that it

continues to move horizontally.

(a) 2 m s1

(b) 20 m s1

(c) 0.2 m s1

(d) 100 m s1

assertion is followed by a statement of reason. Mark the

correct choice as :

(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the

correct explanation of assertion.

(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not

the correct explanation of assertion.

(c) If assertion is true but reason is false.

(d) If both assertion and reason are false.

13. Assertion : The sensitivity of a moving coil

galvanometer is increased by placing a suitable

magnetic material as a core inside the coil.

Reason : Soft iron has a high magnetic permeability

and cannot be easily magnetized or demagnetized.

14. Assertion : The true geographic north direction is

found by using a compass needle.

Reason : The magnetic meridian of the earth is

along the axis of rotation of the earth.

15. Assertion : The net force on a closed circular

current carrying loop placed in a uniform magnetic

field is zero.

Reason : The torque produced in a conducting

circular ring is zero when it is placed in a uniform

magnetic field such that the magnetic field is

perpendicular to the plane of loop.

JEE MAIN / JEE ADVANCED / PETs

is released from origin at time t = 0 with velocity

v = v0 (i + j ) in a uniform magnetic field B = B0 i.

are

( B0)

2v0 v0

v0

, 0, 0

,

(a) 0,

(b)

2 B0

B0 B0

2v0

v0

v

2v

, 0,

(c) 0, 0 , 0 (d)

B0

B0

B0 2 B0

17. A small block of mass m, having charge q, is placed

on a frictionless inclined plane making an angle

with the horizontal as shown in figure. There exists

a uniform magnetic field B parallel to the inclined

plane but perpendicular to the length of a spring.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

77

If m is slightly pulled on

the incline in downward

direction, the time period of

oscillation will be (assume

that the block does not leave

contact with the plane)

(a) 2 m / k

(b) 2 2m / k

(c) 2 qB / K

(d) 2 qB / 2K

uniformly distributed over its surface. If the disk

rotates at an angular frequency about its axis,

then magnetic dipole moment of the disk is

qR 2

qR 2

(b)

(c) qR2

(d) 2qR2

2

4

19. From a cylinder of radius R, a cylinder

of radius R/2 is removed, as shown

in the figure. Current flowing in

the remaining cylinder is I. Then,

magnetic field strength is

(a)

(b) zero at point B

I

(c) 0 at point A

2 R

(d)

0 I

at point B

3 R

20. A conductor ABCDEF, shaded as shown, carries a

current I. It is placed in the xy plane with the ends

A and E on the x-axis. A uniform magnetic field of

magnitude B exists in the region. The force acting

on it will be

(b) BI in the z-direction, if B is in the y-direction

(c) BI in the negative y-direction, if B is in the

z-direction

(d) 2aBI, if B is in the x-direction

21. A microammeter has a resistance of 100 and a full

scale range of 50 A. It can be used as a voltmeter

or as a higher range ammeter provided a resistance

is added to it. Pick the correct range and resistance

combination(s)

78

(b) 10 V range with 200 k resistance in series

(c) 5 mA range with 1 resistance in parallel

(d) 10 mA range with 1 resistance in parallel

22. A direct current I flows

along a long straight wire

as shown in the figure.

From point O the current

spreads radially all over on

infinite conducting plane

perpendicular to the wire.

Then

(a) Magnetic field in region 1 is non-uniform

(b) Magnetic field in region 2 in non-uniform

(c) Magnetic field in region 3 is non-uniform

(d) Magnetic field in region 3 is zero.

23. A current I flows in a long round uniform

cylindrical wire made of paramagnetic material

with susceptibility . Which of following statements

are correct regarding the surface molecular current

(Is) and the volume molecular current (Iv) ?

(a) Both the currents Is and Iv have same

magnitude.

(b) Both the currents Is and Iv have different

magnitude.

(c) Both the currents Is and Iv flow in the same

direction.

(d) Both the currents Is and Iv flow in the opposite

directions.

Integer Answer Type

24. A current I = 10 A flows in a ring of radius r0 = 15 cm

made of a very thin wire. The tensile strength of the

wire is equal to T = 1.5 N. The ring is placed in a

magnetic field, which is perpendicular to the plane

of the ring so that the forces tend to break the ring.

Find B (in T) at which the ring is broken.

25. An elevator carrying a charge

of 0.5 C is moving down with

a velocity of 5 103 m s1. The

elevator is 4 m from the bottom

and 3 m horizontally from P as

shown in figure. What magnetic

field (in T) does it produce at point P?

26. An iron of volume 104 m3 and relative permeability

1000 is placed inside a long solenoid wound with

5 turns per cm. If a current of 0.1 A is passed

through the solenoid, find the magnetic moment of

the rod.

Comprehension Type

Column I

Column II

(A) In the given situation, (P) Resultant force is

acting along Pm

(B) If loop is rotated (Q) Resultant force

is acting opposite

such that Pm is along

positive z-direction

to Pm

(C) If loop is rotated (R) Fx = 0, Fy = 0

such that Pm is along

negative z-direction

(D) If loop is rotated (S) Fx = 0, Fz = 0

such that Pm is along

positive y-direction

A

B

C

D

(a) P

P, R

S

Q

(b) S

P, R

P, R

Q, S

(c) Q

P, R

P, R

P, S

(d) R

R, S

Q, R

P, Q

0.200 m is attached to the floor by a frictionless hinge at

point P as shown in the figure. A horizontal spring with

force constant k = 4.80 N m1 connects the other end of

the rod to a vertical wall.

The rod is in a uniform

magnetic field B = 0.340 T

directed into the plane of

the proper. There is current

I = 6.50 A in the rod, in the

direction shown.

27. Calculate the torque due to the magnetic force on

the rod, for an axis at P.

(a) 0.0442 N m1, clockwise

(b) 0.0442 N m1, anticlockwise

(c) 0.022 N m1, clockwise

(d) 0.022 N m1, anticlockwise

28. When the rod is in equilibrium and makes an angle

of 53.0 with the floor, is the spring stretched or

compressed?

(a) 0.05765 m, stretched

(b) 0.05765 m, compressed

(c) 0.0242 m, stretched

(d) 0.0242 m, compressed

Matrix Match Type

29. An elementary current loop is placed in a nonuniform magnetic field as shown in the figure. Where,

Pm is magnetic moment of loop.. In column I

different orientations of loop are described and in

column II, the corresponding forces experienced by

the loop. Match the entries of column I with entries

of column II.

current I in different directions.

Four loops enclosing the wires in

different manners as shown in the

figure. The direction of dl is shown

in each loop. Match the entries

of column I with entries of column II.

Column I

Column II

(A) Along closed loop 1

(P) B dl = 0 I

B dl

B dl = 0

= 0 I

the magnetic force to

move a unit charge

along the loop is zero

A

B

C

D

(a) P, Q

Q, R

Q, S

R, S

(b) Q, S

P, S

R, S

R, S

(c) P, Q

P, R

Q, S

P, S

(d) P, S

Q, S

R, S

R, S

Keys are published in this issue. Search now!

> 90%

EXCELLENT WORK !

90-75%

GOOD WORK !

74-60%

SATISFACTORY !

< 60%

79

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In every issue of Physics For You, 10 challenging problems are proposed in various topics of JEE (Main and Advanced) / various PMTs. The detailed

solutions of these problems will be published in next issue of Physics For You.

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spring of stiffness k fires a shell of mass m with

muzzle velocity u. The recoil velocity of the cannon is

mu cos

mu sin

(b)

M +m

2M + m

mu cos

2mu cos

(d)

(c)

M +m

M +m

2. A uniform disc of mass m and radius R with a spring

connected (spring constant K) to its centre stands in

static equilibrium on a very rough inclined plane.

Now a constant moment of couple M0, is applied at

the centre as shown in the figure such that the disc

rolls down the incline. The maximum distance the

discs centre of mass will go down as measured from

initial position is

(a)

M0 2mg sin

(a)

+

Rk

3k

(c)

2 M0

Rk

(b)

2 M0 2mg sin

+

Rk

k

(d)

2 M0 mg sin

+

Rk

k

of length 120 cm is used and tuned with a tuning

fork of frequency 340 Hz. If water is poured into

the pipe, then which of the following statements is

incorrect? [Velocity of sound in air is 340 m s1,

neglect end correction]

(a) Minimum length of water column to have the

resonance is 45 cm.

(b) The distance between two successive nodes is

50 cm.

(c) The maximum length of water column to create

the resonance is 95 cm.

(d) The distance between two successive nodes

is 25 cm.

4. A ball is hung vertically by a thread of length l

from a point P of an inclined wall that makes an

angle with the vertical. The thread with ball is

deviated through a small angle ( > ) and set

free. Assuming the wall to be perfectly elastic, the

period of such pendulum is

(a)

l

g

1

2 sin

(b)

l

g

1

sin

(c)

l

g

1

cos

(d) 2

l

g

1

cos

By Akhil Tewari, Author Foundation of Physics for JEE Main & Advanced, Professor, IITians PACE, Mumbai.

80

COMPREHENSION TYPE

The pressure of a monoatomic gas increases linearly

from 4 105 N m2 to 8 105 N m2 when its volume

increases from 0.2 m3 to 0.5 m3. Calculate

5. Work done by the gas

(a) 2.8 105 J

(b) 1.8 106 J

5

(c) 1.8 10 J

(d) 1.8 102 J

6.

(a) 4.8 105 J

(b) 4.8 104 J

5

(c) 6.8 10 J

(d) 4.8 106 J

7.

(a) 8.6 105 J

(b) 12.6 105 J

5

(c) 6.6 10 J

(d) 10.6 105 J

(a) 20.1 J mol1 K1

(b) 17.14 J mol1 K1

(c) 18.14 J mol1 K1

(d) 20.14 J mol1 K1

SUBJECTIVE TYPE

surface of the earth with a velocity sufficient to

carry it to infinity. Calculate the time taken by it to

reach height h.

10. In Young's double slit experiment if the source

consists of two wavelengths 1 = 4000 and

2 = 4002 . Find the distance from the centre

where the fringes disappear, if d =1cm ; D =1 m.

81

Y U ASK

WE ANSWER

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Use the vast expertise of our mtg team to get to the

bottom of the question. From the serious to the silly,

the controversial to the trivial, the team will tackle the

questions, easy and tough.

The best questions and their solutions will be printed in

this column each month.

Equations of motion become at time t1

v1 = 0 gt1 = 9.8t m s1

1

h = 0 gt 2 = 4.9 t 2 m

2

v12 = 0 2 gy = 19.6h m2s 2

Hence signs of u, v, a and h are negative as they are

chosen along negative y-direction.

rest mass?

Basavraj S. Awatiger, Hubballi (Karnataka)

In relativistic dynamics,

rest mass of a particle, m0 = m 1 v 2 /c 2 ;

m = moving mass of particle,

(a) a t graph

(b) v t graph

(c) h t graph

For photon, v = c m0 = m 1 c 2 /c 2 = 0

Rest mass of photon is zero.

Q2. Explain why Gausss law is not very useful in

calculating the electric field of a charged disc.

Aquil Ahmed, Banda (U.P.)

case of high symmetry, where one can produce a

Gaussian surface on which the electric field is either

constant or has no perpendicular component. It is

not possible to do so in any simple way for the case

of a charged disc. Gausss law still applies but it is

just not particularly useful to find electric field.

Q3. What are the sign used for initial velocity (u),

final velocity (v), acceleration (a), and height (h)

during free fall motion of an object and why?

Priyanka Soren

is in y-direction. Choose

upward direction as positive

so motion of an object

under free fall is in negative

y-direction.

Since acceleration due to

gravity is always downward

so a = g = 9.8 m s2 .

82

experiences a torque but no net force. An iron

nail near a bar magnet, however, experiences

a force of attraction in addition to a torque.

Why?

Inova Singh, Dispur (Assam)

a magnetised needle experiences no net force.

An iron nail near a bar magnet is in the nonuniform magnetic field of the magnet. The nail

is magnetised due to magnetic induction. This

nail, which behaves like a small magnet, apart

from experiencing a torque, does experience a

force.

I do know that everything

is interesting if you go into

it deeply enough.

Richard Feynman

SOLUTION SET-38

1

2 2

2

1. (c) : Since, kinetic energy K = m A cos t

2

1

2 2

2

and potential energy, U = m A sin t

2

1

2 2

2

2

or K U = m A [cos t sin t ]

2

Angular frequency = 2,

2 T

2

= =

=

time period, =

2

2

T

4

=

=2 s

2

2. (b) : Linear momentum is conserved.

p1 = p2

K2 = 54 K1

...(i)

From (i) and (ii), K1 + 54 K1 = 5.5 MeV

55 K1 = 5.5 MeV

K1 =

1

10

or

K1 =

...(ii)

5.5

55

MeV

54

K2 = 54K1 or K 2 =

or

K2 = 5.4 MeV

Kinetic energy of -particle = 5.4 MeV.

10

MeV

dM

(L )

3. (d) : Heat of radiator, P =

dt

Pt

M

L=

L

M

t

4. (c) : Missing ones are dark fringes

1

d 2 + b2 d = n

2

1 b2

1

1

b2

d 1 +

= n

d = n or

2

2

2

d

2d

2

or

P=

2

b2 3

= =b

2d 2

3d

5. (c) : As =

nv n T

=

2l 2l

and I = II

nI < nII

Gm(dM )

x2

A + Bx 2

= Gm

dx

x2

a+L

1

F = Gm 2 dx ( A + Bx 2 )

x

a

or

For n = 2,

dF =

216K1 = 4K2 or

b2

b2

=

=

2d 2

d

So the mass of length dx is dM = dx(A + Bx2)

1

= m 2 A2 cos 2t

2

or

For n = 1,

a+L

A

A

A

= Gm 2 + B dx = Gm

+ BL

a a+L

x

a

number of division on the circular scale = 50

1 mm

= 0.02 mm

Least Count, L.C =

50

The instruments has a positive zero error

e = n L.C = 6 0.02 = 0.12 mm

i.e. zero correction = 0.12 mm

Linear scale reading (LSR) = 3 1 mm = 3 mm

Circular scale reading (CSR) = 31 (0.02 mm)

= 0.62 mm

Measured reading = LSR + CSR

= 3 + 0.62 = 3.62 mm

True reading = 3.62 0.12 = 3.50 mm

SET-38

2. Trideep Jyotida, New Delhi

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER '16

83

thickness dr. Let d be the corresponding induced

emf, then

d

d = (dN )

dt

L=

=

N

d = dr (r2 B0 cos t)

a

L=

N B0 cos t 2

= d =

r dr

a

0

a

N (B0 cos t )a

N B0 cos ta

=

3a

3

3

max =

Na 2 B0

t0

1/2

(F0 kt ) dt

t0

2

(F0 kt )3/2 0

(3k)

2

3k

2

3k

k=

=

dx =

d

(2 B0 sin t)

dt

d = dN

F03/2

(Using (i))

3

333

2 F0

2

=

3 L 3 1 3 10 2

23

3 0. 1

= 20 N s 1

We get, n = 3

9. When outer surface is grounded charge Q resides

on the inner surface of sphere B.

Now sphere A is connected to earth, potential on

its surface becomes zero.

Let the charge on the surface A becomes q

kq kQ

a

=0 q= Q

a

b

b

In this position energy stored

U1 =

Q2

1 a

1 a

Q

Q ( Q )

+

+

8 0 a b 8 0 b 4 0 b b

outer surface of shell B.

In this position energy stored

2

U2 =

1 a

1 Q 2

8 0 b b

Heat produced = U1 U2 =

Q 2 a (b a)

8 0 b3

= 1. 8 J

F

...(i)

t0 = 0

k

where F0 = 3 N

dx

F kt

T

= 0

Now, v =

dt

84

s Preeti Dahiya, Sonipat (Haryana)

s Maduree Shirimal, Sehore (Madhya Pradesh)

s Nabanika Das, Lohit (Arunachal Pradesh)

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ACROSS

1. A diffraction grating made of parallel glass

plates, each of which extends slightly beyond

the next, used to examine extremely fine

structures through interferometry. [7, 7]

2. A propulsion engine in which a fuel burns in

air that has been compressed by the forward

motion of the engine only. [6]

7. A thermometer designed for the measurement

of very low temperatures. [9]

10. The removal of any unwanted a.c. components

from a circuit or circuit element. [10]

11. The dissociation of molecules by nuclear

radiation. [10]

14. A tradename for an alloy of iron, cobalt and

nickel with an expansivity similar to that of

glass. [5]

15. A mixture of two substances that solidifies

as a whole when cooled, without change in

composition. [8]

18. Absence of an electron in a semiconductor. [4]

21. A quantum mechanical description of an

elementary vibrational motion in which a

lattice of atoms or molecules uniformly oscillates at a single

frequency. [6]

23. An instrument for measuring the total solar radiation

intensity received on a horizontal surface. [11]

25. A non SI unit of luminance. [3]

27. Process of connecting a charged object to earth to remove

objects unbalanced charge. [9]

28. Point of maximum displacement of two superimposed

waves. [8]

29. The study of the behaviour and characterstics of nucleons or

atomic nuclei. [10]

30. A now-discarded hypothetical medium once thought to fill

all space and to be responsible for carrying light waves and

other electromagnetic waves. [6]

31. The process of preventing the plasma from coming into

contact with the walls of the reaction vessel in a controlled

thermonuclear reaction. [11]

DOWN

3. The molecular attraction exerted between the surfaces of

bodies in contact. [8]

4. A grid or pattern placed in the eyepiece of an optical

instrument, used to establish scale or position. [7]

5.

6.

8.

9.

12.

13.

16.

17.

19.

20.

22.

24.

26.

Study of motion of particles acted on by forces. [8]

An instrument for studying thin films on solid surfaces. [12]

An apparatus for generating very high frequency currents at

high potential. [5, 4]

Roughly spherical ice particles, usually a few millimeters in

radius, produced in very turbulent clouds. [4]

Number of decays per second of a radioactive substance. [8]

Two or more sounds that, when heard together, sound

pleasant. [10]

The amount of potential energy stored in an elastic substance

by means of elastic deformation. [10]

A hypothetical quantum of gravitational energy, regarded as

a particle. [8]

Defect of eye, in which distant objects focus in front of the

retina. [6]

An exposed ring surroundings a strongly illuminated spot

on a photographic emulsion. [8]

A portable insulation tester calibrated directly in mega ohms. [6]

Point where disturbances caused by two or more waves

result in no displacement. [4]

85

86

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