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## CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11

The Definite Integral: More generally, suppose that f (x) is a function that is continuous

in a closed interval a x b. For the moment (that is, in Sections 11A and 11B),
suppose that f (x) is never negative anywhere within this interval. Then the area
under the curve y = f (x) from x = a to x = b is called the definite integral of
! b
f (x) from x = a to x = b, and is given the symbol
f (x) dx. The function f (x)

is called the integrand, and the numbers a and b are called the lower bound and
the upper bound of the integral.
With this notation, the calculations above mean that
! 1
x2 dx = 13 ,
0

and the process which was carried out can be described as follows:

INTEGRATION BY FIRST PRINCIPLES: To find a definite integral by first principles, dissect the interval into n equal subintervals, construct upper and lower rectangles
on each subinterval, and find the sums of the upper and lower rectangles. Then
their common limit will be the value of the integral.

## Leibnizs striking notation for the definite integral arises

from the intuitive understanding of the previous limiting
process. Dissect the region a x b into infinitely many
slices, each of infinitesimal width dx. Each slice, being infinitesimally thin, is essentially a rectangle of width dx and
height f (x), so the area of each slice is f (x)" dx. Now sum
these slices from x = a to x = b. The symbol is an old form
! b
of the letter S, and thus
f (x) dx becomes the symbol for

## the sum of all the areas.

b x

Contrast the smooth sum of the integral with the jagged sum of the sigma
b
#
\$
un introduced in Chapter Six, where the symbol
is the Greek
notation
n =a

letter capital sigma, also meaning S and also standing for sum.

The name integration suggests putting parts together to make a whole, and the
approach and the notation both arise from building up a region in the plane out
of an infinitely large number of infinitesimally thin strips. So integration is indeed
making a whole of these thin slices. Notice that the definite integral has been
defined geometrically in terms of areas associated with the graph of a function,
and that the language of functions has now been brought into the study of areas.

Further Examples of Definite Integrals: When the function is linear, the integral can

be calculated using area formulae from mensuration, as in the first two examples
(but a quicker method will be developed later). The last example involves a
circular function.

WORKED EXERCISE:
(a)

## Evaluate using a graph and area formulae:

! 4
! a
!
4
(x 1) dx (b)
(x 1) dx (c)
|x| dx (d)
2

%
25 x2 dx

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SOLUTION:
(a)

## 11A Finding Areas by a Limiting Process

(b)

1
2

(x 1) dx =

1
2

= 4 12

(c)

4
2

=4

(d)

a x

a
a

(x 1) dx = 2 12 (1 + 3)

33

401

|x| dx = 2 12 a a
= a2

5
5

"
25 x2 dx =

1
2

52

= 12 12

Note:

Three area formulae from earlier mensuration have been used here:

FOR A TRIANGLE:
A = 12 bh

FOR A TRAPEZIUM:
A = 12 h(a + b)

FOR A CIRCLE:
A = r2

Exercise 11A
1. Sketch a graph of each integral, then use area formulae to evaluate it:
! 4 "
! 6
! 8
2
(c)
(x 4) dx
16 x dx
(2x + 1) dx
(e)
(a)
4
4
3
! 3
! 3
! 0 "
2
(x + 5) dx
5 dx
(b)
(f)
(d)
25 x dx
1

## 2. The notes above this exercise used arguments involv! 1

x2 dx = 13 . The diagram
ing limits to prove that
0

y
1

## on the right shows the graph of y = x2 from x = 0

to x = 1, drawn with a scale of 20 little divisions to
1 unit. This means that 400 little squares make up
1 square unit.

(a) Count how many little squares there are under the
graph from x = 0 to x = 1 (keeping reasonable
track of fragments of squares), then divide by 400
! 1
to check how close this result is to
x2 dx = 13 .

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402

## the appropriate squares, check this result for a = 14 , a =

a
0
1
2,

x2 dx = 13 a3 . By counting
a = 35 , a =

3
4

and a = 45 .

DEVELOPMENT

## 3. Using exactly the same setting

! 1 out as in the example in the notes above this exercise,
show by first principles that
x3 dx = 14 , using upper and lower rectangles and taking
0

## the limit as the number of rectangular strips becomes infinite.

Note: This calculation will need the formula 13 + 23 + 33 + + n3 = 14 n2 (n + 1)2 for
the sum of the first n cubes, proven in Section 6N using mathematical induction.

4. Prove the following two definite integrals by first principles, using upper and lower rectangles and taking the limit as the number of rectangular strips becomes infinite:
! a
! a
a3
a4
2
(b)
x dx =
x3 dx =
(a)
3
4
0
0
EXTENSION

5. Draw a large sketch of y = x2 for 0 x 1, and let U be the point (1, 0). For some
positive integer n, let P0 (= O), P1 , P2 , . . . , Pn be the points on the curve with x-coor2
n
1
= 1. Join the chords P0 P1 , P1 P2 , . . . and
dinates x = 0, x = , x = , . . . , x =
n
n
n
Pn 1 Pn , and join Pn U .
(a) Use the area formula for a trapezium to find the area of the polygon P0 P1 P2 . . . Pn U .
! 1
(b) Explain geometrically why this area is always greater than
x2 dx.
0
! 1
1
(c) Show that its limit as n is equal to 3 , that is, equal to
x2 dx.
0

## 11 B The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

The fundamental theorem will allow us to evaluate definite integrals quickly using
a quite straightforward algorithm based on primitives. Because the details of the
proof are rather demanding, the algorithm is presented first, by means of some
worked examples, and the proof is left to the end of the section.

Statement of the Fundamental Theorem (Integral Form): The integral form of the fun-

integral.

## THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM (INTEGRAL FORM): Let f (x) be a function continuous in

the closed interval a x b, and let F (x) be a primitive of f (x). Then
! b
f (x) dx = F (b) F (a).
a

This means that a definite integral can be evaluated by writing down any primitive F (x) of f (x), then substituting the upper and lower bounds into it and
subtracting.

Using the Fundamental Theorem to Evaluate an Integral: The conventional way to set
out these calculations is to enclose the primitive in square brackets, writing the
upper and lower bounds as superscript and subscript respectively.

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## 11B The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

WORKED EXERCISE:
(a)

x2 dx =

1 3
3x

1
3
1
3

\$1
0

= 0
=
(as calculated in Section 11A)
! 2
#
\$2
(c)
(x3 + 8) dx = 14 x4 + 8x
2

(b)

(x 1) dx =

1 2
2x

\$4
x
2

= (8 4) (2 2)
=4
(as calculated in Section 11A)
! 2
#
\$2
(d)
x2 dx = x1

= (4 + 16) (4 16)
= 32

403

= 12 + 1
= 12

Change of Pronumeral: The rest of this section is an exposition of the proof of the

fundamental theorem. First, notice that the pronumeral in the definite integral
notation is a dummy variable, meaning that it can be replaced by any other
pronumeral. For example, the four integrals
! 1
! 1
! 1
! 1
2
2
2
x dx =
t dt =
y dy =
2 d
0

1
3

all have the same value the letter used for the variable has changed, but the
function remains the same and so the area involved remains the same. Similarly
the pronumeral in sigma notation is a dummy variable. For example,
4
%

n =1

n =

4
%

r =

r =1

4
%

x=1

x =

4
%

=1

## The Definite Integral as a Function of its Upper Bound: The value

of the definite integral

## a or b is changed. This means that it is a function both of its

upper bound b and of its lower bound a. In order to suggest
the functional relationship with the upper bound b more
closely, we shall replace the letter b by the letter x, which
is conventionally the variable of a function. The original
letter x needs to be replaced in turn by some other letter
a suitable choice is t, which is also conventionally a variable.
Then we can speak clearly about the definite integral
! x
A(x) =
f (t) dt

being a function of its upper bound x. This integral is represented in the sketch above.

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus Differential Form: There are two forms of

the theorem, the integral form stated above, and the following dierential form
which will
! be proven first. The dierential form claims that this definite integral
x

A(x) =

## f (t) dt is a primitive of f (x). It has been stated so as to make clear

that the two processes of dierentiation and integration are inverse processes and
cancel each other out.

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404

! is conx

f (t) dt,

## regarded as a function of its upper bound x, is a primitive of f (x):

! x
d
f (t) dt = f (x), for a < x < b.
dx a

Examples of the Fundamental Theorem: Before proving the theorem, let us look at two
examples which should make the statement of the theorem clear.
! a
x2 dx = 13 a3 .
First, we have shown in Exercise 11A that
!0 x
t2 dt = 13 x3 ,
Changing the variables as described above,
!0 x
d
t2 dt = x2 , as the theorem says.
and dierentiating,
dx! 0
a
x3 dx = 14 a4 .
As a second example, we showed also that
0
! x
d
t3 dt = x3 , as the theorem says.
Changing variables and dierentiating,
dx 0

Proof of the Differential Form: The proof is based on the sandwiching technique. Notice
that in constructing this proof, we are still working under the assumption that
f (x) is never negative anywhere within the interval a x b.
! x
f (t) dt, then we must prove that A (x) = f (x).
Let
A(x) =
a

## Recall the definition of the derivative as a limit:

y
A(x + h) A(x)
A (x) = lim
.
h0
h
! x
! x+h
f (t) dt
f (t) dt
Now A(x + h) A(x) =
a
a
! x+h
=
f (t) dt,
x
t
!
a
x x+h
1 x+h

f (t) dt.
so
A (x) = lim
h0 h x
Suppose that f (t) is increasing in the interval x t x + h, as in the diagram above.
Then the lower rectangle on the interval x t x + h has height f (x),
and the upper rectangle on the interval x t x + h has height f (x + h),
! x+h
f (t) dt h f (x + h)
so, using areas, h f (x)
x
! x+h
1
h
f (x)
f (t) dt f (x + h).
h x
Since f (x) is continuous, f (x + h) f (x) as h 0,
!
1 x+h
and so lim
f (t) dt = f (x), meaning that A (x) = f (x), as required.
h0 h x
If f (x) is decreasing in x t x + h, the argument applies with inequalities reversed.

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405

## Proof of the Integral Form: It is given that F (x) is a primitive of f (x),

! x
and the fundamental theorem says that
f (t) dt is also a primitive of f (x),
a
! x
f (t) dt and F (x) must dier only by a constant,
so the primitives
a
! x
f (t) dt = F (x) + C, for some constant C.
that is,
!a a
f (t) dt = F (a) + C,
Substituting x = a,
a
! a
f (t) dt = 0, because the area in this definite integral has zero width,
but
so

## Hence C = F (a), and

Changing letters,

0 = F (a) + C.

! ab
a

## f (x) dx = F (b) F (a).

Note: Some readers who may have noticed a lack of rigour in the preceding arguments could benefit from the treatment in a more advanced text. In particular,
we assumed in the proof of the dierential form that f (t) was either increasing or
decreasing in the closed interval x < t < x + h, and we also assumed that h was
positive. Secondly, the proof of the integral form actually requires that A(x) be
dierentiable in the closed interval a x b, which in turn requires constructing
a definition of one-sided derivatives at the endpoints, in a manner similar to the
definition of continuity in a closed interval.
More fundamentally, the definite integral was defined in terms of area, but it is
not at all clear that a region bounded by curves actually has an area, since area
had previously only been defined for rectangles and then by dissection for regions
bounded by straight lines. More rigorous treatments turn a generalisation of the
first principles calculation of integrals into the definition of the definite integral,
and then define area in terms of the definite integral.

## The Area of a Circle:

r
r

r
r

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406

## CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11

In earlier years, the formula A = r2 for the area of a circle was proven. Because
the boundary is a curve, some limiting process had to be used in that proof. For
comparison with the arguments used above about the definite integral, here is
the most common version of that argument a little rough in its logic, but very
quick. It involves dissecting the circle into infinitesimally thin sectors, and then
rearranging them into a rectangle.

The height of the rectangle in the lower diagram is r. Since the circumference 2r
is divided equally between the top and bottom sides, the length of the rectangle
is r. So the rectangle has area r2 , which is therefore the area of the circle.

Exercise 11B
1. Evaluate the following definite integrals using the fundamental theorem:
! 2
! 1
! 4
4
(d)
(g)
(a)
2x dx
10x dx
(4x3 + 3x2 + 1) dx
1
1
1
! 5
! 6
! 3
2
x dx
(2x + 1) dx
(b)
(e)
(h)
(x + x2 + x3 ) dx
!0 3
!3 7
!0 1
3x2 dx
dx
(c)
(f)
(2x2 7x + 5) dx
(i)
2

## 2. (a) Evaluate the following definite integrals:

! 3
! 10
x2 dx
(ii)
2x3 dx
(i)
5

(iii)

1
1
2

x5 dx

(b) By writing them with negative indices, evaluate the following definite integrals:
! 4
! 1
! 2
dx
dx
3
(ii)
(iii)
dx
(i)
2
3
1 x4
1 x
1 x
2

3. By expanding the brackets where necessary, evaluate the following definite integrals:
! 2
! 0
! 1
1 + x2
(c)
(e)
3x(2 + x) dx
dx
(1 x2 )2 dx
(a)
2
x
1
1
!0 3
'2
! 9
! 3&
(
) (
)
1
(x + 2)2 dx
(b)
(f)
x+1
x 1 dx
dx
x+
(d)
x
1
4
1
DEVELOPMENT

(a)
y

(b)
y

## 5. Find the value of k if:

! k
3
9
dx = 10
(a)
2
2 x

4 x

(b)

3
0

kx dx = 4

(c)

4 x

(3x2 + 4x + k) dx = 30

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407

## 6. Sketch the integrand and explain why this calculation is invalid:

+1
*
! 1
1
dx
=
= 1 1 = 2.
2
x 1
1 x
EXTENSION

! x
d
7. (a) Find
(4t3 3t2 + t 1) dt.
dx 3
! 2
d
(7 6t)4 dt.
(b) Find
dx x
(c) The derivative of the function U (x) is u(x).

! x
U (t) dt and a is a constant.
(i) Find V (x), where V (x) = (a x)U (x) +
0
! a
! a
U (x) dx = aU (0) +
(a x)u(x) dx.
(ii) Hence prove that
0

## 8. Is it possible to have a non-negative function f (x) defined on the interval 0 x 1 such

! 1
f (x) dx = 0?
that f (c) > 0 for some c such that 0 < c < 1, but
0

## 11 C The Definite Integral and its Properties

This section will first extend the theory to functions with negative values. Then
some properties of the definite integral will be established using fairly obvious
arguments about the dissection of the area associated with the integral.

Integrating Functions with Negative Values: When a function has negative values, its

graph is below the x-axis, so the heights of the little rectangles in the dissection
are negative numbers. This means that areas below the x-axis should contribute
negative values to the final integral. The fundamental theorem will then allow
these integrals to be evaluated in the usual way.

## DEFINITION: Let f (x) be a function which is continuous in some closed interval

! b
f (x) dx is the area between the curve
a x b. The definite integral

y = f (x) and the x-axis from x = a to x = b, with areas above the x-axis
counted as positive and areas below the x-axis counted as negative.

## In the diagram to the right, the region B

is below the x-axis, and so is counted as
negative in the definite integral:
! b
f (x) dx = area A area B + area C.

## Because areas under the x-axis are counted

as negative, the definite integral is sometimes referred to as the signed area under
the curve, to distinguish it from area, which
is always positive.

A
a

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408

WORKED EXERCISE:

## Evaluate and sketch: (a)

(x 4) dx

(b)

SOLUTION:
! 4
#
\$4
(a)
(x 4) dx = 12 x2 4x

(x 4) dx

= (8 16) (0 0)
= 8
! 6
#
\$6
(b)
(x 4) dx = 12 x2 4x

C
B
4

M
6 x

A 4
= (18 24) (0 0)
= 6
Notice that the area of the shaded triangle OAB below the x-axis has area 8, and
accordingly the first integral is 8. The shaded triangle BCM above the x-axis
has area 2, and accordingly the second integral is 8 + 2 = 6.

Odd and Even Functions: The first example below shows the graph of y = x3 4x.

Because the function is odd, the area of each shaded hump is the same, so the
whole integral from x = 2 to x = 2 is zero, because the equal humps above and
below the x-axis cancel out. But if the function is even, as in the second example,
there is a doubling instead of a cancelling:

ODD FUNCTIONS:

## If f (x) is odd, then

6
EVEN FUNCTIONS: If f (x) is even, then

!a
a
a

f (x) dx = 0.
!
f (x) dx = 2

f (x) dx.

WORKED EXERCISE:
(a)

## Sketch, then evaluate using symmetry:

! 2
3
(x 4x) dx = 0
(b)
(x2 + 1) dx
2

SOLUTION:
! 2
(a)
(x3 4x) dx = 0, since the integrand is odd.

## (Without this simplification the calculation is

! 2
#
\$2
(x3 4x) dx = 14 x4 2x2
2

= (4 8) (4 8)
= 0, as before.)

## (b) Since the integrand is even,

! 2
! 2
2
(x + 1) dx = 2
(x2 + 1) dx
2
0
#
\$2
= 2 13 x3 + x

= 2(2 23 + 2) (0 + 0)
= 9 13 .

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2 x

409

## dissected the region by dissecting the interval over which the

integration is being performed. If f (x) is continuous in the
interval a x b and the number c lies in this interval,
then:
! b
! c
! b
7
DISSECTION:
f (x) dx =
f (x) dx +
f (x) dx
a

b x

## of the fundamental theorem, the trivial remark was made

that if the interval has width zero, then the integral is zero.
Provided that a function f (x) is defined at x = a, then:
! a
8
INTERVALS OF ZERO WIDTH:
f (x) dx = 0

Inequalities with Definite Integrals: If f (x) and g(x) are two functions continuous in

the interval a x b, with f (x) g(x) throughout the interval, then the
integral of f (x) is less than the integral of g(x).

## INEQUALITY: If f (x) g(x) in the interval a x b, then

! b
! b
f (x) dx
g(x) dx.
a

When both functions are positive, then the region under the curve y = f (x) is
contained within the region under the curve y = g(x). If one or both functions
become negative, then the inequality still holds because of the qualification that
areas under the x-axis are counted as negative.

## Sketch the graph of f (x) = 4 x2 for

! 2
2 x 2, and explain why 0
(4 x2 ) dx 16.

WORKED EXERCISE:

y=4

## SOLUTION: Since 0 4x2 4 in the interval 2 x 2, it

follows that the region associated with the integral is inside
the square of side length 4 in the diagram opposite.

2 x

## Running an Integral Backwards: A further small qualification must be made to the

definition of the definite integral. Suppose that the function f (x) is defined in
the closed interval a x b. Then:

10

## REVERSING THE INTERVAL:

f (x) dx =

f (x) dx

So if the integral runs backwards over the interval, then the integral reverses in
sign. This agrees perfectly with the fundamental theorem, because
(
)
F (a) F (b) = F (b) F (a) .

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410

## CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11

WORKED EXERCISE:
!

By this definition,
! 2
(x2 + 1) dx =
(x2 + 1) dx

## = 9 13 (the last integral was calculated above).

Alternatively, calculating the integral directly,
! 2
#
\$2
(x2 + 1) dx = 13 x3 + x
2

=
=

(2 23
9 13 .

2) (2 23 + 2)

Linear Combinations of Functions: When two functions are added, the two regions are
piled on top of each other, so that:

11

INTEGRAL OF A SUM:

!
,
f (x) + g(x) dx =

f (x) dx +

g(x) dx

## Similarly, when a function is multiplied by a constant, the region is expanded

vertically by that constant, so that:

12

INTEGRAL OF A MULTIPLE:

kf (x) dx = k

f (x) dx

## Example: Using these rules about linear combinations,

! 1
! 1
! 1
2
2
(3x + 2x) dx =
3x dx +
2x dx
0
0
0
! 1
! 1
x2 dx + 2
x dx
=3
0
0
! 1
!
3
1
1
1
x dx = 3 and
= 3 3 + 2 2 , since
0

x2 dx = 12 ,

= 2, as before.
This result should be checked by the simpler direct evaluation of the integral.

Exercise 11C
1. Calculate each definite integral using a graph and area formulae. In computing the integral,
recall that areas above the x-axis are counted as positive, and areas below the x-axis are
counted as negative.
! 4
! 1"
! 0
(c)
(a)
(e)
1 x2 dx
(3 2x) dx
(x + 2) dx
0
2
3
! 3 , "
! 4
! 10
2
9x
dx
(2) dx
(b)
(d)
(5 x) dx
(f)
3

## 2. Evaluate the following definite integrals using the fundamental theorem:

! 2
! 2
! 6
3
2
(e)
(a)
x dx
(x 6x) dx
(4x3 2x) dx
(c)
1
0
0
! 1
! 10
! 1
3
5
(x

x)
dx
(12 3x) dx
(d)
(f)
(b)
6x dx
1

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## 3. (a) Evaluate the following definite integrals:

! 4
! 1
1
1
x 2 dx
(ii)
x 2 dx
(i)
0

(iii)

8
1

411

x 3 dx

(b) By writing them with fractional indices, evaluate the following definite integrals:
! 4
! 9
! 9

dx

(i)
x dx
(ii)
x x dx
(iii)
x
1
1
1

4. By expanding the brackets where necessary, evaluate the following definite integrals:
'
! 2
! 4 3
! 4&

3
x 3
dx
(a)
x(1 x) dx
dx
2 x
(c)
(e)
x3
x
0
1
1
! 8
! 2
! 5
(
)
3
(f)
(b)
(d)
(2 x)(1 + x) dx
x(x + 1)(x 1) dx
x + x dx
0

DEVELOPMENT

(a)
y

(b)
y

2
1

4 x

! k
(x + 1) dx = 6
(a)

(b)

k
1

(k + 3x) dx =

13
2

(c)

k
dx = 4
x

## 7. Use the properties of the definite integral to evaluate, stating reasons:

! 3"
! 1
! 347
1
3
2
(a)
(c)
(e)
9 x dx
x dx
dx
3
3
1
347 5x 7x
! 4
! 5
! 2
x
3
2
3
(x 3x + 5x 7) dx (d)
(b)
(x 25x) dx
dx
(f)
2
4
5
2 1 + x
!
(ax5 + cx3 + ex) dx = 0
8. Using the properties of the definite integral, explain why: (a)

!
!
5
4
3
2
(ax + bx + cx + dx + ex + f ) dx = 2
(bx4 + dx2 + f ) dx
(b)

9. (a) On one set of axes, sketch y = x and y = x, showing the point of intersection.
! 1
! 1

2
x dx <
x dx < 1.
(b) Hence explain why 0 <
0

## 10. (a) Calculate using a graph and area formulae: (i)

1 dx (ii)

x dx

(b) Using these results, and the properties of integrals of sums and multiples, evaluate:
! 5
! 5
! 5
(i)
2x dx
(ii)
(x + 1) dx
(iii)
(3x 2) dx
0

ISBN: 9781107633322
Bill Pender, David Sadler, Julia Shea, Derek Ward 2012
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412

## CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11

11. (a) Calculate the following definite integrals using a graph and area formulae:
! 1
! 2
! 1
4
(ii)
|x + 5| dx
(iii)
(|x| + 3) dx
(1 4x) dx
(i)
1
4

(b) Hence write down the values of the following definite integrals:
! 5
!
! 1
4
(ii)
|x
+
5|
dx
(iii)
(1 4x) dx
(i)
1
4

(|x| + 3) dx

dx =
dx = 1.
3
2
1
! 4
! 3
! 2
x dx = 25
x dx = 23
x dx = 1.
(ii) Show that 27
3
2
1
! 4
! 3
! 2
2
2
3
3
3
x dx = 19
x dx = 7
x2 dx = 1.
(iii) Show that 37

## 12. (a) (i) Show that

dx =

(b) Using the above results and the theorems on the definite integral in Section 11C only,
calculate the following:
! 4
! 1
! 3
2
(i)
(iii)
(v)
dx
x dx
7x2 dx
1
2
1
! 3
! 2
! 4
x dx
(x2 + 1) dx
(3x2 6x + 5) dx
(ii)
(iv)
(vi)
1

EXTENSION

13. State with reasons whether the following statements are true or false:
! 90
! 1
! 1
3
x
(a)
(d)
sin x dx = 0
2 dx <
3x dx
90
0
0
! 0
! 0
! 30
2x dx <
3x dx
(e)
(b)
sin 4x cos 2x dx = 0
1
1
30
! 1
! 1
! 1
dt
dt
2

, where n = 1, 2, 3, . . . .
(f)
2x dx = 0
(c)
n
n +1
0 1+t
0 1+t
1

14. First evaluate the integrals, then establish the following results. Give a sketch of each
situation.
! N
! N
dx
dx
diverges to as N .
(c)
converges to 1 as N .
(a)
2
x
x
!1 1
!1 1
dx
dx
converges to 2 as 0+ .
diverges to as 0+ .
(b)
(d)
2
x
x

## 11 D The Indefinite Integral

Having established primitives as the key to calculating definite integrals, we now
turn again to the calculation of primitives.

The Indefinite Integral: Because of the close connection established by the fundamental

theorem between primitives and definite integrals, the term indefinite integral
is often used for the primitive, and the usual notation for the primitive of a
function f (x) is an integral sign without any limits of integration. For example,
the primitive or indefinite integral of x2 + 1 is

ISBN: 9781107633322
Bill Pender, David Sadler, Julia Shea, Derek Ward 2012
Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party

413

## (x2 + 1) dx = 13 x3 + x + C, for some constant C.

The word indefinite implies that the integral cannot be evaluated further because
no limits of integration have yet been specified. Whereas a definite integral is a
pure number whose pronumeral is a dummy variable, an indefinite integral is a
function of x whose pronumeral is carried across to the answer. The constant is
an important part of the answer, despite being a nuisance to write every time,
and it must always be written down. In most problems, it will not be zero.

Standard Forms for Integration: The previous rules in Section 10 J for finding primi-

tives can now be restated a little more elegantly in this new notation.
!
xn +1
+ C, for some constant C.
STANDARD FORMS: (a)
xn dx =
n+1
!
13
(ax + b)n +1
(b) (ax + b)n dx =
+ C, for some constant C.
a(n + 1)

Integrals are usually found using the fundamental theorem, so the word integration is commonly used to refer both to the finding of a primitive and to the
evaluating of a definite integral.

WORKED EXERCISE:

## Here are some examples of integration techniques.

!
dx

(a)
(5 2x)2 dx
(b)
9 ! 2x
1
(5 2x)3
= (9 2x) 2 dx
=
+C
(2) 3
1
= 16 (5 2x)3 + C
= 12 21 (9 2x) 2 + C

= 9 2x + C
! 2
'2
! &
x 1
1

(d)
dx
(c)
x
dx
x!
x
!
1
1
)
( 2
= (x1 2 x 2 ) dx
=
x 2 + x2 dx
!

= 13 x3 2x

1
+C
x

= 25 x2 2 2x 2 + C

Exercise 11D
1. Find the indefinite integral of each of the following:
(a) 4
(b) 2x
(c) 3x2

(d) 0
(e) 4x5
(f) x04

## (g) 7x13 + 3x8

(h) 4 3x
(i) 3x2 8x3 + 7x4

(j) ax2 + bx
(k) xa , a = 1
(l) axa + bxb , a, b = 1

2. Write these functions using negative indices, then find the indefinite integrals, giving your
1
1
axa
1
(a) 2
, a = 0
(c) 3
(e) a , a = 1
(g)
x
5x
x
x
xa
3
1
1
xa + xb
(f) b , a b = 1
(b) 4
(d) 2 5
(h)
, b a = 1
x
x
x
x
xa

ISBN: 9781107633322
Bill Pender, David Sadler, Julia Shea, Derek Ward 2012
Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party

414

## CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11

3. Write these functions with fractional indices and find the indefinite integrals:

1
3
(a) x
(b) 3 x
(c)
(d) x2
x
4. By expanding the brackets where necessary, perform the following integrations:
!
! 7
!
)
(
x + x4
2
(d)
(g)
(a)
x (5 3x) dx
x 3 x x dx
dx
x6
!
!
!
) (
)
(
2x3 x4
dx
x2
x + 2 dx
(b) (2x + 1)2 dx
(e)
(h)
4x
! 2
!
!
)2
(
x + 2x
2 2

dx
(i)
(c)
(1 x ) dx
(f)
2 x 1 dx
x
DEVELOPMENT

(ax + b)n +1
(ax + b)n dx =
+ C, find:
a(n + 1)
!
(d) (3x + 1)4 dx
'3
! &
x
dx
(e)
1
5
!
1
dx
(f)
(x + 1)3
6. Find each of the following indefinite integrals:
!
!
!

3
x + 1 dx
4x 1 dx
(a)
(d)
(g)
!
!
!

dx
(h)
2x 1 dx
(b)
(e)
3x + 5
! .
!
!

7 4x dx
1 12 x dx
(f)
(i)
(c)
5. By using the formula
!
(a)
(x + 1)5 dx
!
(b) (x + 2)3 dx
!
(c)
(4 x)4 dx

! 2
(x + 1)4 dx
(a)
!0 3
(2x 5)3 dx
(b)
2
! 2
(c)
(1 x)5 dx
(d)

2
5&

x
5

'4

dx

(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)

!0 1
0

9 8x dx

!2 7
0

(ax + b)2 dx

dx
x+2

x + 1 dx
EXTENSION

(g)

2(2x 1)10 dx

8
dx
(4x + 1)5
!
4
dx
(i)
5(1 4x)2

(h)

'
1
1

+
dx
x+1
x+2
'
&

1
dx
4x+
4x
'
&

1
dx
ax +
ax
&

,
2x + 7(3x 4)6 dx
'
!1 2 &

+ x + 2 dx
(j)
x+2
1
! 5

3x + 1 dx
(k)
!1 0

1 5x dx
(l)
(i)

!

## (b) Hence find

x 1 + x dx.

dv
dx = uv
u
dx

du
dx.
dx

9. A question in Exercise 11B asked for an explanation, with a sketch, why this calculation
is invalid:
*
+1
! 1
dx
1
=
= 1 1 = 2.
2
x 1
1 x
Given that it is invalid, can any meaning nevertheless be given to the final result?

ISBN: 9781107633322
Bill Pender, David Sadler, Julia Shea, Derek Ward 2012
Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party