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400

The Definite Integral: More generally, suppose that f (x) is a function that is continuous

in a closed interval a x b. For the moment (that is, in Sections 11A and 11B),

suppose that f (x) is never negative anywhere within this interval. Then the area

under the curve y = f (x) from x = a to x = b is called the definite integral of

! b

f (x) from x = a to x = b, and is given the symbol

f (x) dx. The function f (x)

is called the integrand, and the numbers a and b are called the lower bound and

the upper bound of the integral.

With this notation, the calculations above mean that

! 1

x2 dx = 13 ,

0

and the process which was carried out can be described as follows:

INTEGRATION BY FIRST PRINCIPLES: To find a definite integral by first principles, dissect the interval into n equal subintervals, construct upper and lower rectangles

on each subinterval, and find the sums of the upper and lower rectangles. Then

their common limit will be the value of the integral.

from the intuitive understanding of the previous limiting

process. Dissect the region a x b into infinitely many

slices, each of infinitesimal width dx. Each slice, being infinitesimally thin, is essentially a rectangle of width dx and

height f (x), so the area of each slice is f (x)" dx. Now sum

these slices from x = a to x = b. The symbol is an old form

! b

of the letter S, and thus

f (x) dx becomes the symbol for

b x

Contrast the smooth sum of the integral with the jagged sum of the sigma

b

#

$

un introduced in Chapter Six, where the symbol

is the Greek

notation

n =a

letter capital sigma, also meaning S and also standing for sum.

The name integration suggests putting parts together to make a whole, and the

approach and the notation both arise from building up a region in the plane out

of an infinitely large number of infinitesimally thin strips. So integration is indeed

making a whole of these thin slices. Notice that the definite integral has been

defined geometrically in terms of areas associated with the graph of a function,

and that the language of functions has now been brought into the study of areas.

Further Examples of Definite Integrals: When the function is linear, the integral can

be calculated using area formulae from mensuration, as in the first two examples

(but a quicker method will be developed later). The last example involves a

circular function.

WORKED EXERCISE:

(a)

! 4

! a

!

4

(x 1) dx (b)

(x 1) dx (c)

|x| dx (d)

2

%

25 x2 dx

ISBN: 9781107633322

Bill Pender, David Sadler, Julia Shea, Derek Ward 2012

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SOLUTION:

(a)

(b)

1

2

(x 1) dx =

1

2

= 4 12

(c)

4

2

=4

(d)

a x

a

a

(x 1) dx = 2 12 (1 + 3)

33

401

|x| dx = 2 12 a a

= a2

5

5

"

25 x2 dx =

1

2

52

= 12 12

Note:

Three area formulae from earlier mensuration have been used here:

FOR A TRIANGLE:

A = 12 bh

FOR A TRAPEZIUM:

A = 12 h(a + b)

FOR A CIRCLE:

A = r2

Exercise 11A

1. Sketch a graph of each integral, then use area formulae to evaluate it:

! 4 "

! 6

! 8

2

(c)

(x 4) dx

16 x dx

(2x + 1) dx

(e)

(a)

4

4

3

! 3

! 3

! 0 "

2

(x + 5) dx

5 dx

(b)

(f)

(d)

25 x dx

1

x2 dx = 13 . The diagram

ing limits to prove that

0

y

1

to x = 1, drawn with a scale of 20 little divisions to

1 unit. This means that 400 little squares make up

1 square unit.

(a) Count how many little squares there are under the

graph from x = 0 to x = 1 (keeping reasonable

track of fragments of squares), then divide by 400

! 1

to check how close this result is to

x2 dx = 13 .

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402

a

0

1

2,

x2 dx = 13 a3 . By counting

a = 35 , a =

3

4

and a = 45 .

DEVELOPMENT

! 1 out as in the example in the notes above this exercise,

show by first principles that

x3 dx = 14 , using upper and lower rectangles and taking

0

Note: This calculation will need the formula 13 + 23 + 33 + + n3 = 14 n2 (n + 1)2 for

the sum of the first n cubes, proven in Section 6N using mathematical induction.

4. Prove the following two definite integrals by first principles, using upper and lower rectangles and taking the limit as the number of rectangular strips becomes infinite:

! a

! a

a3

a4

2

(b)

x dx =

x3 dx =

(a)

3

4

0

0

EXTENSION

5. Draw a large sketch of y = x2 for 0 x 1, and let U be the point (1, 0). For some

positive integer n, let P0 (= O), P1 , P2 , . . . , Pn be the points on the curve with x-coor2

n

1

= 1. Join the chords P0 P1 , P1 P2 , . . . and

dinates x = 0, x = , x = , . . . , x =

n

n

n

Pn 1 Pn , and join Pn U .

(a) Use the area formula for a trapezium to find the area of the polygon P0 P1 P2 . . . Pn U .

! 1

(b) Explain geometrically why this area is always greater than

x2 dx.

0

! 1

1

(c) Show that its limit as n is equal to 3 , that is, equal to

x2 dx.

0

The fundamental theorem will allow us to evaluate definite integrals quickly using

a quite straightforward algorithm based on primitives. Because the details of the

proof are rather demanding, the algorithm is presented first, by means of some

worked examples, and the proof is left to the end of the section.

Statement of the Fundamental Theorem (Integral Form): The integral form of the fun-

integral.

the closed interval a x b, and let F (x) be a primitive of f (x). Then

! b

f (x) dx = F (b) F (a).

a

This means that a definite integral can be evaluated by writing down any primitive F (x) of f (x), then substituting the upper and lower bounds into it and

subtracting.

Using the Fundamental Theorem to Evaluate an Integral: The conventional way to set

out these calculations is to enclose the primitive in square brackets, writing the

upper and lower bounds as superscript and subscript respectively.

ISBN: 9781107633322

Bill Pender, David Sadler, Julia Shea, Derek Ward 2012

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WORKED EXERCISE:

(a)

x2 dx =

1 3

3x

1

3

1

3

$1

0

= 0

=

(as calculated in Section 11A)

! 2

#

$2

(c)

(x3 + 8) dx = 14 x4 + 8x

2

(b)

(x 1) dx =

1 2

2x

$4

x

2

= (8 4) (2 2)

=4

(as calculated in Section 11A)

! 2

#

$2

(d)

x2 dx = x1

= (4 + 16) (4 16)

= 32

403

= 12 + 1

= 12

Change of Pronumeral: The rest of this section is an exposition of the proof of the

fundamental theorem. First, notice that the pronumeral in the definite integral

notation is a dummy variable, meaning that it can be replaced by any other

pronumeral. For example, the four integrals

! 1

! 1

! 1

! 1

2

2

2

x dx =

t dt =

y dy =

2 d

0

1

3

all have the same value the letter used for the variable has changed, but the

function remains the same and so the area involved remains the same. Similarly

the pronumeral in sigma notation is a dummy variable. For example,

4

%

n =1

n =

4

%

r =

r =1

4

%

x=1

x =

4

%

=1

of the definite integral

upper bound b and of its lower bound a. In order to suggest

the functional relationship with the upper bound b more

closely, we shall replace the letter b by the letter x, which

is conventionally the variable of a function. The original

letter x needs to be replaced in turn by some other letter

a suitable choice is t, which is also conventionally a variable.

Then we can speak clearly about the definite integral

! x

A(x) =

f (t) dt

being a function of its upper bound x. This integral is represented in the sketch above.

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus Differential Form: There are two forms of

the theorem, the integral form stated above, and the following dierential form

which will

! be proven first. The dierential form claims that this definite integral

x

A(x) =

that the two processes of dierentiation and integration are inverse processes and

cancel each other out.

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404

! is conx

f (t) dt,

! x

d

f (t) dt = f (x), for a < x < b.

dx a

Examples of the Fundamental Theorem: Before proving the theorem, let us look at two

examples which should make the statement of the theorem clear.

! a

x2 dx = 13 a3 .

First, we have shown in Exercise 11A that

!0 x

t2 dt = 13 x3 ,

Changing the variables as described above,

!0 x

d

t2 dt = x2 , as the theorem says.

and dierentiating,

dx! 0

a

x3 dx = 14 a4 .

As a second example, we showed also that

0

! x

d

t3 dt = x3 , as the theorem says.

Changing variables and dierentiating,

dx 0

Proof of the Differential Form: The proof is based on the sandwiching technique. Notice

that in constructing this proof, we are still working under the assumption that

f (x) is never negative anywhere within the interval a x b.

! x

f (t) dt, then we must prove that A (x) = f (x).

Let

A(x) =

a

y

A(x + h) A(x)

A (x) = lim

.

h0

h

! x

! x+h

f (t) dt

f (t) dt

Now A(x + h) A(x) =

a

a

! x+h

=

f (t) dt,

x

t

!

a

x x+h

1 x+h

f (t) dt.

so

A (x) = lim

h0 h x

Suppose that f (t) is increasing in the interval x t x + h, as in the diagram above.

Then the lower rectangle on the interval x t x + h has height f (x),

and the upper rectangle on the interval x t x + h has height f (x + h),

! x+h

f (t) dt h f (x + h)

so, using areas, h f (x)

x

! x+h

1

h

f (x)

f (t) dt f (x + h).

h x

Since f (x) is continuous, f (x + h) f (x) as h 0,

!

1 x+h

and so lim

f (t) dt = f (x), meaning that A (x) = f (x), as required.

h0 h x

If f (x) is decreasing in x t x + h, the argument applies with inequalities reversed.

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405

! x

and the fundamental theorem says that

f (t) dt is also a primitive of f (x),

a

! x

f (t) dt and F (x) must dier only by a constant,

so the primitives

a

! x

f (t) dt = F (x) + C, for some constant C.

that is,

!a a

f (t) dt = F (a) + C,

Substituting x = a,

a

! a

f (t) dt = 0, because the area in this definite integral has zero width,

but

so

Changing letters,

0 = F (a) + C.

! ab

a

Note: Some readers who may have noticed a lack of rigour in the preceding arguments could benefit from the treatment in a more advanced text. In particular,

we assumed in the proof of the dierential form that f (t) was either increasing or

decreasing in the closed interval x < t < x + h, and we also assumed that h was

positive. Secondly, the proof of the integral form actually requires that A(x) be

dierentiable in the closed interval a x b, which in turn requires constructing

a definition of one-sided derivatives at the endpoints, in a manner similar to the

definition of continuity in a closed interval.

More fundamentally, the definite integral was defined in terms of area, but it is

not at all clear that a region bounded by curves actually has an area, since area

had previously only been defined for rectangles and then by dissection for regions

bounded by straight lines. More rigorous treatments turn a generalisation of the

first principles calculation of integrals into the definition of the definite integral,

and then define area in terms of the definite integral.

r

r

r

r

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406

In earlier years, the formula A = r2 for the area of a circle was proven. Because

the boundary is a curve, some limiting process had to be used in that proof. For

comparison with the arguments used above about the definite integral, here is

the most common version of that argument a little rough in its logic, but very

quick. It involves dissecting the circle into infinitesimally thin sectors, and then

rearranging them into a rectangle.

The height of the rectangle in the lower diagram is r. Since the circumference 2r

is divided equally between the top and bottom sides, the length of the rectangle

is r. So the rectangle has area r2 , which is therefore the area of the circle.

Exercise 11B

1. Evaluate the following definite integrals using the fundamental theorem:

! 2

! 1

! 4

4

(d)

(g)

(a)

2x dx

10x dx

(4x3 + 3x2 + 1) dx

1

1

1

! 5

! 6

! 3

2

x dx

(2x + 1) dx

(b)

(e)

(h)

(x + x2 + x3 ) dx

!0 3

!3 7

!0 1

3x2 dx

dx

(c)

(f)

(2x2 7x + 5) dx

(i)

2

! 3

! 10

x2 dx

(ii)

2x3 dx

(i)

5

(iii)

1

1

2

x5 dx

(b) By writing them with negative indices, evaluate the following definite integrals:

! 4

! 1

! 2

dx

dx

3

(ii)

(iii)

dx

(i)

2

3

1 x4

1 x

1 x

2

3. By expanding the brackets where necessary, evaluate the following definite integrals:

! 2

! 0

! 1

1 + x2

(c)

(e)

3x(2 + x) dx

dx

(1 x2 )2 dx

(a)

2

x

1

1

!0 3

'2

! 9

! 3&

(

) (

)

1

(x + 2)2 dx

(b)

(f)

x+1

x 1 dx

dx

x+

(d)

x

1

4

1

DEVELOPMENT

(a)

y

(b)

y

! k

3

9

dx = 10

(a)

2

2 x

4 x

(b)

3

0

kx dx = 4

(c)

4 x

(3x2 + 4x + k) dx = 30

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407

+1

*

! 1

1

dx

=

= 1 1 = 2.

2

x 1

1 x

EXTENSION

! x

d

7. (a) Find

(4t3 3t2 + t 1) dt.

dx 3

! 2

d

(7 6t)4 dt.

(b) Find

dx x

(c) The derivative of the function U (x) is u(x).

! x

U (t) dt and a is a constant.

(i) Find V (x), where V (x) = (a x)U (x) +

0

! a

! a

U (x) dx = aU (0) +

(a x)u(x) dx.

(ii) Hence prove that

0

! 1

f (x) dx = 0?

that f (c) > 0 for some c such that 0 < c < 1, but

0

This section will first extend the theory to functions with negative values. Then

some properties of the definite integral will be established using fairly obvious

arguments about the dissection of the area associated with the integral.

Integrating Functions with Negative Values: When a function has negative values, its

graph is below the x-axis, so the heights of the little rectangles in the dissection

are negative numbers. This means that areas below the x-axis should contribute

negative values to the final integral. The fundamental theorem will then allow

these integrals to be evaluated in the usual way.

! b

f (x) dx is the area between the curve

a x b. The definite integral

y = f (x) and the x-axis from x = a to x = b, with areas above the x-axis

counted as positive and areas below the x-axis counted as negative.

is below the x-axis, and so is counted as

negative in the definite integral:

! b

f (x) dx = area A area B + area C.

as negative, the definite integral is sometimes referred to as the signed area under

the curve, to distinguish it from area, which

is always positive.

A

a

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408

WORKED EXERCISE:

(x 4) dx

(b)

SOLUTION:

! 4

#

$4

(a)

(x 4) dx = 12 x2 4x

(x 4) dx

= (8 16) (0 0)

= 8

! 6

#

$6

(b)

(x 4) dx = 12 x2 4x

C

B

4

M

6 x

A 4

= (18 24) (0 0)

= 6

Notice that the area of the shaded triangle OAB below the x-axis has area 8, and

accordingly the first integral is 8. The shaded triangle BCM above the x-axis

has area 2, and accordingly the second integral is 8 + 2 = 6.

Odd and Even Functions: The first example below shows the graph of y = x3 4x.

Because the function is odd, the area of each shaded hump is the same, so the

whole integral from x = 2 to x = 2 is zero, because the equal humps above and

below the x-axis cancel out. But if the function is even, as in the second example,

there is a doubling instead of a cancelling:

ODD FUNCTIONS:

6

EVEN FUNCTIONS: If f (x) is even, then

!a

a

a

f (x) dx = 0.

!

f (x) dx = 2

f (x) dx.

WORKED EXERCISE:

(a)

! 2

3

(x 4x) dx = 0

(b)

(x2 + 1) dx

2

SOLUTION:

! 2

(a)

(x3 4x) dx = 0, since the integrand is odd.

! 2

#

$2

(x3 4x) dx = 14 x4 2x2

2

= (4 8) (4 8)

= 0, as before.)

! 2

! 2

2

(x + 1) dx = 2

(x2 + 1) dx

2

0

#

$2

= 2 13 x3 + x

= 2(2 23 + 2) (0 + 0)

= 9 13 .

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2 x

409

integration is being performed. If f (x) is continuous in the

interval a x b and the number c lies in this interval,

then:

! b

! c

! b

7

DISSECTION:

f (x) dx =

f (x) dx +

f (x) dx

a

b x

that if the interval has width zero, then the integral is zero.

Provided that a function f (x) is defined at x = a, then:

! a

8

INTERVALS OF ZERO WIDTH:

f (x) dx = 0

Inequalities with Definite Integrals: If f (x) and g(x) are two functions continuous in

the interval a x b, with f (x) g(x) throughout the interval, then the

integral of f (x) is less than the integral of g(x).

! b

! b

f (x) dx

g(x) dx.

a

When both functions are positive, then the region under the curve y = f (x) is

contained within the region under the curve y = g(x). If one or both functions

become negative, then the inequality still holds because of the qualification that

areas under the x-axis are counted as negative.

! 2

2 x 2, and explain why 0

(4 x2 ) dx 16.

WORKED EXERCISE:

y=4

follows that the region associated with the integral is inside

the square of side length 4 in the diagram opposite.

2 x

definition of the definite integral. Suppose that the function f (x) is defined in

the closed interval a x b. Then:

10

f (x) dx =

f (x) dx

So if the integral runs backwards over the interval, then the integral reverses in

sign. This agrees perfectly with the fundamental theorem, because

(

)

F (a) F (b) = F (b) F (a) .

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410

WORKED EXERCISE:

!

By this definition,

! 2

(x2 + 1) dx =

(x2 + 1) dx

Alternatively, calculating the integral directly,

! 2

#

$2

(x2 + 1) dx = 13 x3 + x

2

=

=

(2 23

9 13 .

2) (2 23 + 2)

Linear Combinations of Functions: When two functions are added, the two regions are

piled on top of each other, so that:

11

INTEGRAL OF A SUM:

!

,

f (x) + g(x) dx =

f (x) dx +

g(x) dx

vertically by that constant, so that:

12

INTEGRAL OF A MULTIPLE:

kf (x) dx = k

f (x) dx

! 1

! 1

! 1

2

2

(3x + 2x) dx =

3x dx +

2x dx

0

0

0

! 1

! 1

x2 dx + 2

x dx

=3

0

0

! 1

!

3

1

1

1

x dx = 3 and

= 3 3 + 2 2 , since

0

x2 dx = 12 ,

= 2, as before.

This result should be checked by the simpler direct evaluation of the integral.

Exercise 11C

1. Calculate each definite integral using a graph and area formulae. In computing the integral,

recall that areas above the x-axis are counted as positive, and areas below the x-axis are

counted as negative.

! 4

! 1"

! 0

(c)

(a)

(e)

1 x2 dx

(3 2x) dx

(x + 2) dx

0

2

3

! 3 , "

! 4

! 10

2

9x

dx

(2) dx

(b)

(d)

(5 x) dx

(f)

3

! 2

! 2

! 6

3

2

(e)

(a)

x dx

(x 6x) dx

(4x3 2x) dx

(c)

1

0

0

! 1

! 10

! 1

3

5

(x

x)

dx

(12 3x) dx

(d)

(f)

(b)

6x dx

1

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! 4

! 1

1

1

x 2 dx

(ii)

x 2 dx

(i)

0

(iii)

8

1

411

x 3 dx

(b) By writing them with fractional indices, evaluate the following definite integrals:

! 4

! 9

! 9

dx

(i)

x dx

(ii)

x x dx

(iii)

x

1

1

1

4. By expanding the brackets where necessary, evaluate the following definite integrals:

'

! 2

! 4 3

! 4&

3

x 3

dx

(a)

x(1 x) dx

dx

2 x

(c)

(e)

x3

x

0

1

1

! 8

! 2

! 5

(

)

3

(f)

(b)

(d)

(2 x)(1 + x) dx

x(x + 1)(x 1) dx

x + x dx

0

DEVELOPMENT

(a)

y

(b)

y

2

1

4 x

! k

(x + 1) dx = 6

(a)

(b)

k

1

(k + 3x) dx =

13

2

(c)

k

dx = 4

x

! 3"

! 1

! 347

1

3

2

(a)

(c)

(e)

9 x dx

x dx

dx

3

3

1

347 5x 7x

! 4

! 5

! 2

x

3

2

3

(x 3x + 5x 7) dx (d)

(b)

(x 25x) dx

dx

(f)

2

4

5

2 1 + x

!

(ax5 + cx3 + ex) dx = 0

8. Using the properties of the definite integral, explain why: (a)

!

!

5

4

3

2

(ax + bx + cx + dx + ex + f ) dx = 2

(bx4 + dx2 + f ) dx

(b)

9. (a) On one set of axes, sketch y = x and y = x, showing the point of intersection.

! 1

! 1

2

x dx <

x dx < 1.

(b) Hence explain why 0 <

0

1 dx (ii)

x dx

(b) Using these results, and the properties of integrals of sums and multiples, evaluate:

! 5

! 5

! 5

(i)

2x dx

(ii)

(x + 1) dx

(iii)

(3x 2) dx

0

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412

11. (a) Calculate the following definite integrals using a graph and area formulae:

! 1

! 2

! 1

4

(ii)

|x + 5| dx

(iii)

(|x| + 3) dx

(1 4x) dx

(i)

1

4

(b) Hence write down the values of the following definite integrals:

! 5

!

! 1

4

(ii)

|x

+

5|

dx

(iii)

(1 4x) dx

(i)

1

4

(|x| + 3) dx

dx =

dx = 1.

3

2

1

! 4

! 3

! 2

x dx = 25

x dx = 23

x dx = 1.

(ii) Show that 27

3

2

1

! 4

! 3

! 2

2

2

3

3

3

x dx = 19

x dx = 7

x2 dx = 1.

(iii) Show that 37

dx =

(b) Using the above results and the theorems on the definite integral in Section 11C only,

calculate the following:

! 4

! 1

! 3

2

(i)

(iii)

(v)

dx

x dx

7x2 dx

1

2

1

! 3

! 2

! 4

x dx

(x2 + 1) dx

(3x2 6x + 5) dx

(ii)

(iv)

(vi)

1

EXTENSION

13. State with reasons whether the following statements are true or false:

! 90

! 1

! 1

3

x

(a)

(d)

sin x dx = 0

2 dx <

3x dx

90

0

0

! 0

! 0

! 30

2x dx <

3x dx

(e)

(b)

sin 4x cos 2x dx = 0

1

1

30

! 1

! 1

! 1

dt

dt

2

, where n = 1, 2, 3, . . . .

(f)

2x dx = 0

(c)

n

n +1

0 1+t

0 1+t

1

14. First evaluate the integrals, then establish the following results. Give a sketch of each

situation.

! N

! N

dx

dx

diverges to as N .

(c)

converges to 1 as N .

(a)

2

x

x

!1 1

!1 1

dx

dx

converges to 2 as 0+ .

diverges to as 0+ .

(b)

(d)

2

x

x

Having established primitives as the key to calculating definite integrals, we now

turn again to the calculation of primitives.

The Indefinite Integral: Because of the close connection established by the fundamental

theorem between primitives and definite integrals, the term indefinite integral

is often used for the primitive, and the usual notation for the primitive of a

function f (x) is an integral sign without any limits of integration. For example,

the primitive or indefinite integral of x2 + 1 is

Bill Pender, David Sadler, Julia Shea, Derek Ward 2012

Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party

413

The word indefinite implies that the integral cannot be evaluated further because

no limits of integration have yet been specified. Whereas a definite integral is a

pure number whose pronumeral is a dummy variable, an indefinite integral is a

function of x whose pronumeral is carried across to the answer. The constant is

an important part of the answer, despite being a nuisance to write every time,

and it must always be written down. In most problems, it will not be zero.

Standard Forms for Integration: The previous rules in Section 10 J for finding primi-

tives can now be restated a little more elegantly in this new notation.

!

xn +1

+ C, for some constant C.

STANDARD FORMS: (a)

xn dx =

n+1

!

13

(ax + b)n +1

(b) (ax + b)n dx =

+ C, for some constant C.

a(n + 1)

Integrals are usually found using the fundamental theorem, so the word integration is commonly used to refer both to the finding of a primitive and to the

evaluating of a definite integral.

WORKED EXERCISE:

!

dx

(a)

(5 2x)2 dx

(b)

9 ! 2x

1

(5 2x)3

= (9 2x) 2 dx

=

+C

(2) 3

1

= 16 (5 2x)3 + C

= 12 21 (9 2x) 2 + C

= 9 2x + C

! 2

'2

! &

x 1

1

(d)

dx

(c)

x

dx

x!

x

!

1

1

)

( 2

= (x1 2 x 2 ) dx

=

x 2 + x2 dx

!

= 13 x3 2x

1

+C

x

= 25 x2 2 2x 2 + C

Exercise 11D

1. Find the indefinite integral of each of the following:

(a) 4

(b) 2x

(c) 3x2

(d) 0

(e) 4x5

(f) x04

(h) 4 3x

(i) 3x2 8x3 + 7x4

(j) ax2 + bx

(k) xa , a = 1

(l) axa + bxb , a, b = 1

2. Write these functions using negative indices, then find the indefinite integrals, giving your

answers in fractional form:

1

1

axa

1

(a) 2

, a = 0

(c) 3

(e) a , a = 1

(g)

x

5x

x

x

xa

3

1

1

xa + xb

(f) b , a b = 1

(b) 4

(d) 2 5

(h)

, b a = 1

x

x

x

x

xa

Bill Pender, David Sadler, Julia Shea, Derek Ward 2012

Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party

414

3. Write these functions with fractional indices and find the indefinite integrals:

1

3

(a) x

(b) 3 x

(c)

(d) x2

x

4. By expanding the brackets where necessary, perform the following integrations:

!

! 7

!

)

(

x + x4

2

(d)

(g)

(a)

x (5 3x) dx

x 3 x x dx

dx

x6

!

!

!

) (

)

(

2x3 x4

dx

x2

x + 2 dx

(b) (2x + 1)2 dx

(e)

(h)

4x

! 2

!

!

)2

(

x + 2x

2 2

dx

(i)

(c)

(1 x ) dx

(f)

2 x 1 dx

x

DEVELOPMENT

(ax + b)n +1

(ax + b)n dx =

+ C, find:

a(n + 1)

!

(d) (3x + 1)4 dx

'3

! &

x

dx

(e)

1

5

!

1

dx

(f)

(x + 1)3

6. Find each of the following indefinite integrals:

!

!

!

3

x + 1 dx

4x 1 dx

(a)

(d)

(g)

!

!

!

dx

(h)

2x 1 dx

(b)

(e)

3x + 5

! .

!

!

7 4x dx

1 12 x dx

(f)

(i)

(c)

5. By using the formula

!

(a)

(x + 1)5 dx

!

(b) (x + 2)3 dx

!

(c)

(4 x)4 dx

! 2

(x + 1)4 dx

(a)

!0 3

(2x 5)3 dx

(b)

2

! 2

(c)

(1 x)5 dx

(d)

2

5&

x

5

'4

dx

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

!0 1

0

9 8x dx

!2 7

0

(ax + b)2 dx

dx

x+2

x + 1 dx

EXTENSION

(g)

2(2x 1)10 dx

8

dx

(4x + 1)5

!

4

dx

(i)

5(1 4x)2

(h)

'

1

1

+

dx

x+1

x+2

'

&

1

dx

4x+

4x

'

&

1

dx

ax +

ax

&

,

2x + 7(3x 4)6 dx

'

!1 2 &

+ x + 2 dx

(j)

x+2

1

! 5

3x + 1 dx

(k)

!1 0

1 5x dx

(l)

(i)

!

x 1 + x dx.

dv

dx = uv

u

dx

du

dx.

dx

9. A question in Exercise 11B asked for an explanation, with a sketch, why this calculation

is invalid:

*

+1

! 1

dx

1

=

= 1 1 = 2.

2

x 1

1 x

Given that it is invalid, can any meaning nevertheless be given to the final result?

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