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Types of Maps

There are several types of maps. Each show different information. Most maps include a compass
rose, which indicates which way is north, south, east and west. They also include a scale so you
can estimate distances. Here's a look at some different types of maps.
Climate maps
give general information about the climate and precipitation (rain and snow) of a region.
Cartographers, or mapmakers, use colors to show different climate or precipitation zones.
Economic or resource maps
feature the type of natural resources or economic activity that dominates an area.
Cartographers use symbols to show the locations of natural resources or economic
activities. For example, oranges on a map of Florida tell you that oranges are grown
Physical maps
illustrate the physical features of an area, such as the mountains, rivers and lakes. The
water is usually shown in blue. Colors are used to show reliefdifferences in land
elevations. Green is typically used at lower elevations, and orange or brown indicate
higher elevations.
Political maps
do not show physical features. Instead, they indicate state and national boundaries and
capital and major cities. A capital city is usually marked with a star within a circle.
Road maps
show majorsome minor highwaysand roads, airports, railroad tracks, cities and other
points of interest in an area. People use road maps to plan trips and for driving directions.
Topographic maps
include contour lines to show the shape and elevation of an area. Lines that are close
together indicate steep terrain, and lines that are far apart indicate flat terrain.

Geologic map

A geologic map or geological map is a special-purpose map made to show geological features.
Rock units or geologic strata are shown by color or symbols to indicate where they are exposed
at the surface. Bedding planes and structural features such as faults, folds, foliations, and
lineations are shown with strike and dip or trend and plunge symbols which give these features'
three-dimensional orientations.
Stratigraphic contour lines may be used to illustrate the surface of a selected stratum illustrating
the subsurface topographic trends of the strata. Isopach maps detail the variations in thickness of

stratigraphic units. It is not always possible to properly show this when the strata are extremely
fractured, mixed, in some discontinuities, or where they are otherwise disturbed.
Rock units are typically represented by colors. Instead of (or in addition to) colors, certain
symbols can be used. Different geologic mapping agencies and authorities have different
standards for the colors and symbols to be used for rocks of differing types and ages.
Geologists take two major types of orientation measurements (using a hand compass like a
Brunton compass): orientations of planes and orientations of lines. Orientations of planes are
often measured as a "strike" and "dip", while orientations of lines are often measured as a "trend"
and "plunge".
Strike and dip symbols consist of a long "strike" line, which is perpendicular to the direction of
greatest slope along the surface of the bed, and a shorter "dip" line on side of the strike line
where the bed is going downwards. The angle that the bed makes with the horizontal is along the
dip direction is written next to the dip line. In the azimuthal system, strike and dip are often
given as "STRIKE / DIP" (for example: 347/15, for a strike that is slightly West of North and a
dip of 15 degrees below the horizontal).
Trend and plunge are used for linear features, and their symbol is a single arrow on the map. The
arrow is oriented in the downgoing direction of the linear feature (the "trend") and at the end of
the arrow, the number of degrees that the feature lies below the horizontal (the "plunge") is
noted. Trend and plunge are often notated as PLUNGE TREND

Road map
A road map or route map is a map that primarily displays roads and transport
links rather than natural geographical information. It is a type of navigational map
that commonly includes political boundaries and labels, making it also a type of
political map. In addition to roads and boundaries, road maps often include points of
interest, such as prominent businesses or buildings, tourism sites, parks and
recreational facilities, hotels and restaurants, as well as airports and train stations.
A road map may also document non-automotive transit routes, although often
these are found only on transit maps.

Road maps often distinguish between major and minor thoroughfares (such as motorways vs.
surface streets) by using thicker lines or bolder colors for the major roads.[7]

Printed road maps commonly include an index of cities and other destinations found on the map;
smaller-scale maps often include indexes of streets and other routes. These indexes give the
location of the feature on the map via a grid reference.
Inset maps may be used to provide greater detail for a specific area, such as a city map inset into
a map of a state or province.

Highway maps generally give an overview of major routes within a medium to large region
ranging from a few dozen to a few thousand miles or kilometers.Street maps usually cover an
area of a few miles or kilometers (at most) within a single city or extended metropolitan area.
City maps are generally a specialized form of street map.A road atlas is a collection of road maps
covering a region as small as a city or as large as a continent, typically bound together in a book.
Topographic map

n modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and
quantitative representation of relief, usually now using contour lines, but historically using a
variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both natural and
man-made features. A topographic map is typically published as a map series, made up of two or
more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places
of equal elevation.
The Canadian Centre for Topographic Information provides this definition:[1]
A topographic map is a detailed and accurate graphic representation of cultural and natural
features on the ground.
Other authors define topographic maps by contrasting them with another type of map; they are
distinguished from smaller-scale "chorographic maps" that cover large regions,[2][3] "planimetric
maps" that do not show elevations,[4] and "thematic maps" that focus on specific topics.[5]
However, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief (contours) is
popularly held to define the genre, such that even small-scale maps showing relief are commonly
(and erroneously, in the technical sense) called "topographic".[3]
The study or discipline of topography is a much broader field of study, which takes into account
all natural and man-made features of terrain.

Topographic maps have multiple uses in the present day: any type of geographic planning or
large-scale architecture; earth sciences and many other geographic disciplines; mining and other
earth-based endeavours; civil engineering and recreational uses such as hiking and orienteering.
Topographic maps are also commonly called contour maps or topo maps. In the United States,
where the primary national series is organized by a strict 7.5-minute grid, they are often called
topo quads or quadrangles.
Topographic maps conventionally show topography, or land contours, by means of contour lines.
Contour lines are curves that connect contiguous points of the same altitude (isohypse). In other
words, every point on the marked line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level.
These maps usually show not only the contours, but also any significant streams or other bodies
of water, forest cover, built-up areas or individual buildings (depending on scale), and other
features and points of interest.
Today, topographic maps are prepared using photogrammetric interpretation of aerial
photography, lidar and other Remote sensing techniques. Older topographic maps were prepared
using traditional surveying instruments.

Weather map
A weather map displays various meteorological features across a particular area at
a particular point in time and has various symbols which all have specific meanings.
Such maps have been in use since the mid-19th century and are used for
research and weather forecasting purposes. Maps using isotherms show
temperature gradients,[2] which can help locate weather fronts. Isotach maps,
analyzing lines of equal wind speed,[3] on a constant pressure surface of 300 mb or
250 mb show where the jet stream is located. Use of constant pressure charts at the
700 and 500 hPa level can indicate tropical cyclone motion. Two-dimensional
streamlines based on wind speeds at various levels show areas of convergence and
divergence in the wind field, which are helpful in determining the location of
features within the wind pattern. A popular type of surface weather map is the
surface weather analysis, which plots isobars to depict areas of high pressure and
low pressure. Special weather maps in aviation show areas of icing and turbulence
for the other.

Plotting of data
A station model is a symbolic illustration showing the weather occurring at a given
reporting station. Meteorologists created the station model to plot a number of
weather elements in a small space on weather maps. Maps filled with dense stationmodel plots can be difficult to read, but they allow meteorologists, pilots, and
mariners to see important weather patterns. A computer draws a station model for
each observation location. The station model is primarily used on surface-weather
maps, but can also be used to show the weather aloft. A completed station-model
map allows users to analyze patterns in air pressure, temperature, wind, cloud
cover, and precipitation.[20]
Constant pressure charts
Constant pressure charts normally contain plotted values of temperature, humidity,
wind, and the vertical height above sea level of the pressure surface
Surface weather analysis
A surface weather analysis is a type of weather map that depicts positions for high
and low-pressure areas, as well as various types of synoptic scale systems such as
frontal zones.