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2.1
2.1

LINEAR MOTIONs

Physical Quantity

Definition, Quantity, Symbol and unit

Distance, s

Distance is the …… Quantity:

SI unit :

Displacement, s

(a) The distance in

(b) the distance between ….

….direction. (c) The distance of its final specified . Quantity:

.

SI unit:

Speed,v

Speed is the

Speed =

Quantity:

SI unit:

Velocity, v

Velocity is the

Velocity =

Direction of velocity is Quantity :

SI unit:

Average speed

v =

Example: A car moves at an average speed / velocity of 20 ms -1 On average, the car moves a distance/ displacement of

Average velocity

v

Displacement

TotalTime

2-1

Uniform speed

Speed that remains the same in

 

Uniform velocity

Velocity that remains

 

An object has a non- uniform velocity if

(a)

The direction of motion changes or the motion is not linear.

(b)

The magnitude of its velocity changes.

 

Acceleration, a

When the velocity of an object

 
 

v

u

Acceleration is defined as the

a

 
 

t

Acceleration=

Change in velocity

   
 

Time taken

Final velocity,v - Initial velocity,u

 

Unit: ms -2

   

=

Time taken,t

Acceleration is positive

The velocity of an object increases from an initial velocity, u, to a higher final velocity, v

an initial velocity, u , to a higher final velocity, v Deceleration acceleration is negative .

Deceleration

Deceleration

acceleration is negative.

The rate of decrease in speed in a specified direction.

 

Zero acceleration

An object moving at a constants velocity, that is,

 

Constant acceleration

Velocity increases at a uniform rate. When a car moves at a constant or uniform acceleration of 5 ms -2 , its velocity

 

1. Constant =

 

2. increasing velocity =

 

3. decreasing velocity =

4. zero velocity =

 

5. negative velocity = object moves at opposite direction

 

6. zero acceleration =

 

7. negative acceleration = deceleration

2-2

Comparisons between distance and displacement

Comparisons between speed and velocity

Distance

Displacement

Speed

Velocity

Total path length travelled from one location to another

The distance between two locations measured along the shortest path connecting them in specific direction

The rate of change of distance

The rate of change of displacement

Scalar quantity

Vector quantity

     

Scalar quantity

 

It has magnitude but no direction

 

SI unit

SI unit :

Fill in the blanks:

1. A steady speed of 10 ms -1 = A distance of

2. A steady velocity of -10 ms -1

3. A steady acceleration of 4 ms -2 = Speed

4. A steady deceleration of 4 ms -2 =

5. A steady velocity of 10 ms -1

= A displacement of

= A displacement of 10 m is travelled every 1 second to the right.

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Example 1 Every day Rahim walks from his house to the junction which is 1.5km from his house. Then he turns back and stops at warung Pak Din which is 0.5 km from his house.

Example 2 Every morning Amirul walks to Ahmad’s house which is situated 80 m to the east of Amirul’s house. They then walk towards their school which is 60 m to the south of Ahmad’s house.

(a) What is the distance travelled by Amirul and his displacement from his house?

(a)

What is the distance travelled by Amirul and his displacement from his house?

(b)

If the total time taken by Amirul to travel from his house to Ahmad’s house and then to school is 15 minutes, what is his speed and velocity?

Speed =

(a)

What is Rahim’s displacement from his house,

 

when he reaches the junction.

   

Velocity =

 

when he is at warung Pak Din.

 

(b)

After, Rahim walks back to his house. breakfast When he reaches home,

(i)

What is the total distance travelled by Rahim?

(ii)

What is Rahim’s total displacement from his house?

Example 3 Salim running in a race covers 60 m in 12 s.

Example 4 An aeroplane flies towards the north with a velocity 300 km hr -1 in one hour. Then, the plane moves to the east with the velocity 400 km hr -1 in one hour.

(a)

What is his speed in ms -1

(b)

If he takes 40 s to complete the race, what is his distance covered?

(a)

What is the average speed of the plane?

 

(b)

What is the average velocity of the plane?

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(c) What is the difference between average speed and average velocity of the plane?

Example 5 The speedometer reading for a car travelling due north shows 80 km hr -1 . Another car travelling at 80 km hr -1 towards south. Is the speed of both cars same? Is the velocity of both cars same?

A ticker timer

Use:

1 tick = time interval

The time taken to make 50 ticks on the ticker tape is 1 second. Hence, the time interval between 2 consecutive dots is

1 tick =

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ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on Relating displacement, velocity, acceleration and

Relating displacement, velocity, acceleration and time using ticker tape.

VELOCITY

 

FORMULA

Time, t = 10 dicks x 0.02 s = 0.2 s displacement, s = x

Time, t = 10 dicks x 0.02 s = 0.2 s displacement, s = x cm

velocity =

velocity =

ACCELERATION

 
Initial velocity, u =

Initial velocity, u =

Initial velocity, u =

final velocity, v =

final velocity, v =

Elapsed time, t = (5 1) x 0.2 s = 0.8 s or t = (50 10) ticks x 0.02 s = 0.8 s

acceleration, a =

acceleration, a =
TICKER TAPE AND CHARTS TYPE OF MOTION  Distance between the dots increases uniformly 
TICKER TAPE AND CHARTS
TYPE OF MOTION
Distance between the dots increases uniformly

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ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on - Distance between the dots
ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on - Distance between the dots

- Distance between the dots decrease uniformly

Example 6

The diagram above shows a ticker tape chart for a moving trolley. The frequency of the ticker-timer used is 50 Hz. Each section has 10 dots-spacing.

(a) What is the time between two dots?

(b) What is the time for one strips?

(c)

What is the initial velocity?

(d)

What is the final velocity?

(e)

velocity to final velocity?

What is the time interval to change from initial

velocity? What is the time interval to change from initial (f) What is the acceleration of

(f) What is the acceleration of the object?

a =

v u

t

2

THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION

v

u

 

at

u=

s

ut

1

at

2

v

t

=

=

 

2

s=

v

2

2

u

2

as

a=

 

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2.2
2.2

MOTION GRAPHS

DISPLACEMENT TIME GRAPH

Velocity is obtained from

A – B : gradient of the graph is

A B : gradient of the graph is

B C : gradient of the graph =

object is

 

D : gradient of the graph The object

C

VELOCITY-TIME GRAPH

Area below graph

Positive gradient

Positive gradient

Negative gradient

Zero gradient

GRAPH s versus t v versus t a versus t Zero velocity Negative constant velocity
GRAPH
s versus t
v versus t
a versus t
Zero
velocity
Negative
constant
velocity
Positive
Constant
velocity

2-8

GRAPH s versus t v versus t a versus t Constant acceleration Constant deceleration
GRAPH
s versus t
v versus t
a versus t
Constant
acceleration
Constant
deceleration

Example 1:

 

Example 2:

velocity/ m s - 1 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 t i m

velocity/ m s -1

20 10 0 10 20 30 40
20
10
0
10
20
30
40

time/

Based on the s-t graph above:

(a)

Calculate the acceleration at:

(a)

Calculate the velocity at

 

(ii)

JK

(ii) KL

(iii) LM

(i)

AB

(ii) BC

(iii) CD

 

(b)

Describe the motion of the object at:

(b)

Describe the motion of the object at:

(i)

AB

(ii) BC

(iii) CD

(ii)

JK

(ii) KL

(iii) LM

(c)

Find

 

(c)

Calculate

(i)

total distance

 

(iii)

The total displacement

(ii)

total displacement

(iv)

The average velocity

(d)

Calculate

 

(i)

The average speed

 

(ii)

The average velocity of the moving particle

2-9

2.3
2.3

INERTIA

Inertia

The inertia of an object is the tendency of the object

Newton’s first law

Every object

Relation between inertia and mass

The larger the mass,

SITUATIONS INVOLVING INERTIA

SITUATION

 

EXPLANATION

  When the cardboard is pulled away quickly, the coin drops straight into the glass.
 

When the cardboard is pulled away quickly, the coin drops straight into the glass.

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Chilli sauce in the bottle can be easily poured out if the bottle is moved down fast with a sudden stop. The sauce inside the bottle moves together with the bottle.

When the bottle stops suddenly,

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Body moves forward when the car stops suddenly The passengers were in a state of motion when the car was moving.

When the car stopped suddenly,

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A boy runs away from a cow in a zig zag motion. The cow has a large inertia

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ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on  The head of hammer
ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on  The head of hammer

The head of hammer is secured tightly to its handle by knocking one end of the handle, held vertically, on a hard surface.

This causes the hammer head to continue on its downward motion when the handle has been stopped, so that the top end of the handle is slotted deeper into the hammer head.

The drop of water on a wet umbrella will fall when the boy rotates the umbrella.

This is because the drop of water on the surface of the

umbrella moves simultaneously as the umbrella is rotated.

When the umbrella stops rotating, the inertia of the drop of water will continue to maintain its

inertia of the drop of water will continue to maintain its Ways to reduce the negative

Ways to reduce the negative effects of inertia

maintain its Ways to reduce the negative effects of inertia 1. Safety in a car: (a)Safety

1. Safety in a car:

(a)Safety belt secure the driver to their seats. When the car stops suddenly, the seat belt provides the external force that prevents the driver from being thrown forward. (b)Headrest to prevent injuries to the neck during rear- end collisions. The inertia of the head tends to keep in its state of rest when the body is moved suddenly. (c)An air bag is fitted inside the steering wheel. It provides a cushion to prevent the driver from hitting the steering wheel or dashboard during a collision.

hitting the steering wheel or dashboard during a collision. 2. Furniture carried by a lorry normally

2. Furniture carried by a lorry normally are tied up together by string.

When the lorry starts to move suddenly, the furniture are

more difficult to

their combined mass has increased.

fall off due to their inertia because

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ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on • • • • Two

Two empty buckets which are hung with rope from the ceiling.

One bucket is filled with sand while the other bucket is empty.

Then, both pails are pushed.

It is found that

Relationship between mass and inertia

It is found that Relationship between mass and inertia Push and compared to the bucket with

Push and compared to the bucket with sand. The bucket filled with sand offers more resistance to movement.

When both buckets are oscillating and an attempt is made to stop them, the bucket filled with sand offers

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ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on 2.4 MOMENTUM Definition Momentum =
2.4
2.4

MOMENTUM

Definition

Momentum =

SI unit:

Principle of

In the absence of an external force,

Conservation of

 

Momentum

 

Elastic Collision

Inelastic collision

Momentum   Elastic Collision Inelastic collision ƒ Both objects move ƒ The two objects ƒ Momentum
Momentum   Elastic Collision Inelastic collision ƒ Both objects move ƒ The two objects ƒ Momentum

ƒ Both objects move

ƒ The two objects

ƒ Momentum

 

ƒ Momentum

ƒ Kinetic energy

ƒ Kinetic energy.

Total energy

ƒ Total energy

 
 

Total Momentum Before =

 

Total Momentum Before =

m 1 u 1

+ m 2 u 2

= m 1 v 1 + m 2 v 2

m 1 u 1 + m 2 u 2 = ( m 1 + m 2 )v

Explosion

 

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Before explosion both object

 

Total Momentum before collision is zero

Total Momentum after collision :

m 1 v 1 + m 2 v 2

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ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on From the law of conservation

From the law of conservation of momentum:

Total Momentum = Total Momentum

Before collision

after collision 0= m 1 v 1 + m 2 v 2

m 2 v 2

m 1 v 1 = -

Negative sign means

EXAMPLES OF EXPLOSION (Principle Of Conservation Of Momentum)

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When a rifle is fired, the bullet of mass m, moves with a high velocity, v. This creates a momentum in the forward direction. From the principle of conservation of momentum,

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Application in the jet engine:

The launching of rocket Mixture of hydrogen and oxygen fuels These high speed hot gases
The launching of rocket Mixture of hydrogen and oxygen fuels These high speed hot gases
The launching of rocket Mixture of hydrogen and oxygen fuels These high speed hot gases

The launching of rocket Mixture of hydrogen and oxygen fuels

These high speed hot gases produce

By conservation of momentum,

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In

a swamp area, a fan boat is used.

 
 

The fan produces a high speed movement of air backward. This produces a large momentum backward. By conservation of momentum, an equal but opposite momentum is produced and acted on the boat. So the boat will move forward.

 

Paste a picture

A

squid propels by expelling water at high velocity.

 

Water enters through a large opening and exits through a small tube. The water is forced out at a

 

high speed backward. Total Mom. before= Total Mom. after 0 =Mom water + Mom squid 0 = m w v w + m s v s -m w v w = m s v s The magnitude of the momentum of water and squid are equal but opposite direction. This causes the quid to jet forward.

Example

Example
 
 
 

Example

Car A of mass 1000 kg moving at 20 ms -1

collides with a car B of mass 1200 kg moving at 10 m s -1 in same direction. If the car B is

 

Before collision

 

After collision

M

A

= 4 kg

 

M

B = 2 kg

 

U

A

= 10 ms -1

r i g h t

shunted forwards at 15 m s -1

by the impact,

U B = 8 ms

-1

l e f t

V B 4 ms -1 right

what is the velocity, v, of the car A immediately

   

after the crash?

 

Calculate the value of V A .

 

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ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on Example Example A truck of

Example

Example

Example

Example Example A truck of mass 1200 kg moving at 30 ms - 1 collides with

A truck of mass 1200 kg moving at 30 ms -1 collides with a car of mass 1000 kg which is travelling in the opposite

A

man fires a pistol which has a mass of 1.5 kg.

If

the mass of the bullet is 10 g and it reaches a

direction at 20 ms -1 . After the collision, the two vehicles move together. What is the velocity of both vehicles immediately after collision?

velocity of 300 ms -1 after shooting, what is the recoil velocity of the pistol?

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ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on 2.5 FORCE Balanced Force When
2.5
2.5

FORCE

Balanced Force When the forces acting on an object are balanced,

Example:

Example:

Effect : the object

[velocity or moves [ a =

]

]

Effect : the object [velocity or moves [ a = ] ] Unbalanced Force/ Resultant Force

Unbalanced Force/ Resultant Force

Unbalanced Force/ Resultant Force

When the forces acting on an object are not balanced, there must be The net force is known as

Effect : Can cause a body to

 

-

Newton’s Second Law of Motion

The acceleration produced by a force on an object is

Force = Mass x Acceleration

Force = Mass x Acceleration

F = ma

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ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on Experiment to Find The Relationship

Experiment to Find The Relationship between Force, Mass & Acceleration

Relationship

a& F

a&

between

m

Situation

Situation
Situation

Both men are pushing the same mass but man A puts greater effort. So he moves faster.

Both men exerted the same strength. But man B moves faster than man A.

Inference

The acceleration produced by an object depends on the net force applied to it.

 

Hypothesis

The acceleration of the object increases when the force applied increases

 

Variables:

   

Manipulated :

Force

Responding :

Acceleration

Constant :

Mass

Apparatus and

Ticker tape and elastic cords, ticker timer, trolleys, power supply and friction compensated runway and meter ruler.

Material

 
 

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ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on Procedure : An elastic cord
Procedure : An elastic cord is hooked over the trolley. The elastic cord is stretched
Procedure :
An elastic cord is hooked over the
trolley. The elastic cord is stretched
until the end of the trolley. The
trolley is pulled down the runway
with the elastic cord being kept
stretched by the same amount of
force
An elastic
cord
is
hooked
over
a
- Controlling
trolley.
manipulated
variables.
-Controlling
responding
variables.
Determine the acceleration by
analyzing the ticker tape.
Acceleration
Determine the acceleration by analyzing
the ticker tape.
v
u
v
u
a 
a 
Acceleration
t
Acceleration
t
-
Repeat the experiment by
Repeating
Repeat the experiment by using two
, three, four and five elastic cords
experiment.
2
Force, F/No of
elastic cord
Acceleration, a/ ms -
Mass, m/
Mass,
1/m,
Acceleration/
Tabulation of
-1
no of
m/g
g
ms -2
data
1
trolleys
2
1
3
2
4
3
5
4
5
Analysing
Result

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1. What force is required to move a 2 kg object with an acceleration of 3 m s - , if

2

   

2.

Ali applies a force of 50 N to move a 10 kg table at a constant velocity. What is the frictional force acting on the table?

(a)

the object is on a smooth surface?

(b)

The object is on a surface where the average force of friction acting on the object is 2 N?

 

3. A car of mass 1200 kg travelling at 20 ms -1

 

4.

is brought to rest over a distance of 30 m. Find (a) the average deceleration, (b) the average braking force.

 

Which of the following systems will produce maximum acceleration?

Which of the following systems will produce maximum acceleration?

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ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on 2.6 IMPULSE AND IMPULSIVE FORCE
2.6
2.6

IMPULSE AND IMPULSIVE FORCE

Impulse

The change of Unit :

 

m

=

u

=

 

v

=

Impulsive Force

The rate of change

t =

change of momentum

mv

mu

time

t

Unit =

Effect of time

Impulsive force

Longer period of time Impulsive force

is

Shorter period of time

 

Situations for Reducing Impulsive Force in Sports

 

Situations

 

Explanation

 
Thick mattress with soft surfaces are used in events such as high jump so that

Thick mattress with soft surfaces are used in events such as high jump so that

Goal keepers will wear gloves to  

Goal keepers will wear gloves to

 
A high jumper will bend his legs upon landing. This is to

A high jumper will bend his legs upon landing. This is to

so as to

A baseball player must catch the ball in the direction of the motion of the

A baseball player must catch the ball in the direction of the motion of the ball. Moving his hand backwards when catching the ball prolongs the time for the momentum to change so as to reduce the impulsive force.

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ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on Situation of Increasing Impulsive Force

Situation of Increasing Impulsive Force

 

Situations

 

Explanation

A karate expert can break a thick wooden slab with his bare hand

A

karate expert can break a thick wooden slab with his bare hand

that moves at a very fast speed. The short impact time results in

A massive hammer head moving at a fast speed is brought to rest

A

massive hammer head moving at a fast speed is brought to rest

upon hitting the nail within a short time interval.

A football must have enough air pressure in it so

A

football must have enough air pressure in it so

Pestle and mortar are made of stone. When a pestle is used to pound

Pestle and mortar are made of stone. When a pestle is used to pound

chillies the hard surfaces of both the pestle and mortar cause the pestle

to

be stopped in a very short time. A large impulsive force is resulted

and thus causes these spices to be crushed easily.

Example 1

 

A 60 kg resident jumps from the first floor of a burning house. His velocity just before landing on the ground is 6 ms-1.

(a)

Calculate the impulse when his legs hit the ground.

(b) What is the impulsive force on the resident’s legs if he

bends upon landing and takes 0.5s to stop? (c) What is the impulsive force on the resident’s legs if he does not bend and stops in 0.05 s? (d) What is the advantage of bending his legs upon landing?

Example 2 Rooney kicks a ball with a force of 1500 N. The time of contact of his boot with the ball is 0.01 s. What is the impulse delivered to the ball? If the mass of the ball is 0.5 kg, what is the velocity of the ball?

 

2-22

2.7
2.7

SAFETY VEHICLE

Safety features in vehicles

2.7 SAFETY VEHICLE Safety features in vehicles Component Function Headrest   Air bag   Windscreen
2.7 SAFETY VEHICLE Safety features in vehicles Component Function Headrest   Air bag   Windscreen
2.7 SAFETY VEHICLE Safety features in vehicles Component Function Headrest   Air bag   Windscreen
2.7 SAFETY VEHICLE Safety features in vehicles Component Function Headrest   Air bag   Windscreen
2.7 SAFETY VEHICLE Safety features in vehicles Component Function Headrest   Air bag   Windscreen
2.7 SAFETY VEHICLE Safety features in vehicles Component Function Headrest   Air bag   Windscreen
2.7 SAFETY VEHICLE Safety features in vehicles Component Function Headrest   Air bag   Windscreen
2.7 SAFETY VEHICLE Safety features in vehicles Component Function Headrest   Air bag   Windscreen
2.7 SAFETY VEHICLE Safety features in vehicles Component Function Headrest   Air bag   Windscreen

Component

Function

Headrest

 

Air bag

 

Windscreen

 

Crumple zone

 

Front

Absorb the shock from the accident. Made from steel, aluminium, plastic or rubber.

bumper

ABS

Enables drivers to quickly stop the car without causing the brakes to lock.

Side impact bar

 

Seat belt

 

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ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on 2.8 GRAVITY Gravitational   Force
2.8
2.8

GRAVITY

Gravitational

 

Force

Objects fall because they are

 
This force is known as the

This force is known as the

The earth’s gravitational force

Free fall

An object is falling freely when it is falling under the force of gravity only.

 

An object falls freely only

 

In vacuum,

 

They fall with

   

Objects dropped

 

Acceleration due to gravity, g

Gravitational field

The gravitational field is the region around the earth in which an object

experiences a

force

towards the

centre of

the

earth.

This

force

is

the

gravitational attraction between the object and the earth.

 

The gravitational field strength is defined as the gravitational force which acts on a mass of 1 kilogram.

 
 

F

Its unit is N kg -1 .

 

g =

m

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ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on     -1 Gravitational field
   

-1

Gravitational field strength, g = 10 N kg

Acceleration due to gravity, g = 10 m s

-2

The approximate value of g can therefore be written either as

-1

10 m s -2

or

as 10 N kg

.

Weight

 

The gravitational force acting on the object. Weight = mass x gravitational acceleration

 
 

W

= mg

SI unit : Newton, N and it is a vector quantity

Comparison

   

Mass

 

Weight

between weight

The mass of an object is the

The weight of an object is the force of gravity acting on the object.

&

amount of matter in the object

mass

   
 

Constant everywhere

Varies with the magnitude of gravitational field strength, g of the location

A scalar quantity

 

A

vector quantity

A base quantity

 

A

derived quantity

SI

unit: kg

SI

unit : Newton, N

The difference between a fall in air and

   
The difference between a fall in air and      
 

a free fall in a vacuum

of

a

coin

and

a

feather.

 

Both the coin and the feather are released simultaneously from the same height.

 
 

At

vacuum state: There is no air

At normal state: Both coin and feather will fall because of gravitational force. Air resistance effected by the surface area of a fallen object. The feather that has large area will have

resistance. The coin and the feather will fall freely. Only gravitational force

acted on the objects. Both will fall

 

at

the same time.

 

more air resistance. The coin will fall at first.

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ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on (a) The two spheres are
ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on (a) The two spheres are

(a) The two spheres are falling with an acceleration. The distance between two successive images of the sphere increases showing that the two spheres are falling with increasing velocity; falling with an acceleration.

The two spheres are falling down with the same acceleration The two spheres are at the same level at all times. Thus, a heavy object and a light object fall with the same gravitational acceleration Gravitational acceleration is independent of mass

Two steel spheres are falling under gravity. The two spheres are dropped at the same time from the same height.

Motion graph for free fall object

Free fall object

Free fall object Object thrown upward Object thrown upward and fall

Object thrown upward

Free fall object Object thrown upward Object thrown upward and fall

Object thrown upward and fall

Free fall object Object thrown upward Object thrown upward and fall

Example 1 A coconut takes 2.0 s to fall to the ground. What is

(a)

(b)

its speed when it strikes the ground ) the height of the coconut tree

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ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on 2.9 FORCES IN EQUILIBRIUM Forces
2.9
2.9

FORCES IN EQUILIBRIUM

Forces in

Equilibrium

When an object is in equilibrium,

Newtons 3 rd Law

Examples( Label the forces acted on the objects)

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Label the forces acted on the objects) Paste more picture Paste more picture Resultant Force A
Label the forces acted on the objects) Paste more picture Paste more picture Resultant Force A
Label the forces acted on the objects) Paste more picture Paste more picture Resultant Force A
Label the forces acted on the objects) Paste more picture Paste more picture Resultant Force A

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Resultant

Force

A single force that

Addition of Forces

Resultant force, F = +

Resultant force, F =

+

Resultant force, F = +

Resultant force, F =

+

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Two forces acting at a point at an angle [Parallelogram method]

forces acting at a point at an angle [Parallelogram method] STEP 1 : Using ruler and

STEP 1 : Using ruler and protractor, draw the two forces F 1 and F 2 from a point.

draw the two forces F 1 and F 2 from a point. STEP 3 Draw the

STEP 3 Draw the diagonal of the parallelogram. The diagonal represent the resultant force, F in magnitude and direction.

represent the resultant force, F in magnitude and direction. scale: 1 cm = …… STEP 2

scale: 1 cm = ……

STEP 2 Complete the parallelogram

scale: 1 cm = …… STEP 2 Complete the parallelogram Resolution of F o r c

Resolution of Forces

A force F can be resolved into components which are perpendicular to each other:

(a)

(b)

horizontal component , F X

vertical component, F Y

Inclined Plane

component , F X vertical component, F Y Inclined Plane Component of weight parallel to the

Component of weight parallel to the plane = mg sin θ Component of weight normal to the plane = mg cos θ

to the plane = mg sin θ Component of weight normal to the plane = mg

F

x

= F cos θ

F y = F

sin θ

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ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on Find the resultant force (d)

Find the resultant force

ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on Find the resultant force (d)
ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on Find the resultant force (d)

(d)

ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on Find the resultant force (d)

(e)

ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on Find the resultant force (d)
ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on Find the resultant force (d)

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ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on Lift Stationary Lift Resultant Force

Lift

Stationary Lift

ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on Lift Stationary Lift Resultant Force

Resultant Force =

The reading of weighing scale =

Lift accelerate upward

= The reading of weighing scale = Lift accelerate upward Resultant Force = The reading of

Resultant Force =

The reading of weighing scale =

Lift accelerate downward

t a c c e l e r a t e d o w n w

Resultant Force =

The reading of weighing scale =

w a r d Resultant Force = The reading of weighing scale = Pulley 1. Find
w a r d Resultant Force = The reading of weighing scale = Pulley 1. Find

Pulley

1. Find the resultant force, F

2. Find the moving mass, m

3. Find the acceleration, a

4. Find string tension, T

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ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on 2.10 WORK, ENERGY, POWER &
2.10
2.10

WORK, ENERGY, POWER & EFFICIENCY

Work

Work done is

 
W = Fs W = , F =   s =

W = Fs

W =

, F =

 

s =

The SI unit of work is the joule, J

 
1 joule of work is done when  

1 joule of work is done when

 

The displacement, s of the object is in the direction of the force, F

The displacement , s of the object is not in the direction of the force, F

W = Fs

   
W = Fs    
W = Fs    
W = Fs    
  s F
 

s

F

 
 
 

W= F s

 
  W= F s  

Example 1 A boy pushing his bicycle with a force of 25 N through a distance of 3 m.

Example 2

 

Example 3

A

girl is lifting up a 3 kg

A

man is pulling a crate of fish

flower pot steadily to a height

along the floor with a force of 40 N through a distance of 6 m.

of

0.4 m.

 
 
 
 
 

Calculate the work done by the boy.

 

What is the work done

What is the work done by the girl?

in

pulling the crate?

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Concept

D

 

Formula & Unit

Power

The rate at which work is done,or

 

W

P =

t

 

p = power, W = work / energy t = time

Energy

Energy is the capacity to do work.

 

Potential Energy

   

m=

Gravitational potential energy is the energy of an object due to its higher position in

Gravitational potential energy is the energy of an object due to its higher position in the gravitational field.

h

=

g=

 

E=

Kinetic Energy

Kinetic energy is the energy of an object due to its motion.

 

m=

v=

v=

   

E=

 
A waiter is carrying a tray of food. The direction of motion of the object

A waiter is carrying a tray of food. The direction of motion of the object is perpendicular to that of the applied force.

No force is applied on the object

No work is done when:

No work is done when:

in

the direction of displacement

(the object moves because of its own inertia) A satellite orbiting in space. There is no friction in space. No force is acting in the direction of movement of the satellite.

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ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on Principle of Conservation of Energy

Principle of Conservation of Energy

Energy can be changed from one form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed. The energy can be transformed from

Example 4

Example 4

A

worker is pulling a wooden block of weight, W, with a force

of

P along a frictionless plank at height of h. The distance

travelled by the block is x. Calculate the work done by the worker to pull the block.

Example 5 A student of mass m is climbing up a flight of stairs which has the height of h. He takes t seconds What is the power of the student?

 
m is climbing up a flight of stairs which has the height of h. He takes

Example 6 A stone is thrown upward with initial velocity of

20 ms -1 . What is the maximum height which can be reached by the stone?

Example 7

 
 
 

A ball is released from point A of height 0.8 m so that it can roll along a curve frictionless track. What is the velocity of the ball when it reaches point B?

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Example 8

A trolley is released from rest at point X along a frictionless track. What is the velocity of the trolley at point Y?

track. What is the velocity of the trolley at point Y? Example 9 A ball moves

Example 9

A ball moves upwards along a frictionless track of height 1.5 m

with a velocity of 6 ms -1 . What is its velocity at point B?

- 1 . W h a t i s its velocity at point B? Example 10

Example 10

W h a t i s its velocity at point B? Example 10 A boy of

A boy of mass 20 kg sits at the top of a concrete slide of height 2.5 m. When he slides down the slope, he does work to overcome friction of 140 J. What is his velocity at the end of the slope?

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2.11
2.11

ELASTICITY

Elasticity

A property of matter that enables an object

Elasticity A property of matter that enables an object No external force is applied. Molecules are

No external force is applied. Molecules are at their equilibrium separation. Intermolecular force is equal zero.

Compressing a solid causes its molecules

Repulsive intermolecular force

a solid causes its molecules Repulsive intermolecular force Stretching a solid Stretching a wire by an

Stretching a solid

Stretching a wire by an external force:

Stretching a solid Stretching a wire by an external force: Its molecules are When the external

Its molecules are

When the external force is removed:

The attractive intermolecular forces

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Hooke’s Law

Hooke’s Law The extension of a spring F = k x where F= x k =

The extension of a spring

F =

k x

where

F=

x

k

=

=

Force extension graph

of a spring F = k x where F= x k = = Force extension graph

Based on the graph:

Relationship between F & x :

The gradient of the graph represent =

Area under the graph

= elastic potential energy = ½ F x = ½ k x 2

The elastic limit of a spring

energy = ½ F x = ½ k x 2 The elastic limit of a spring

The maximum force that

If a force stretches a spring beyond its elastic limit, the spring

Force constant of the spring, k

elastic limit, the spring Force constant of the spring, k The force required to produce one

The force required to produce one unit of extension of the spring.

k is a measurement of the stiffness of the spring

The spring with a larger force constant is

A spring with a smaller force constant is

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Factors that effect elasticity

 
 

Factor

Change in factor

How does it affects the elasticity

Length

Shorter spring

 

Longer spring

 

Diameter of spring wire

Smaller diameter

 

Larger diameter

 

Diameter spring

Smaller diameter

 

Larger diameter

 

Type of material

Springs made of different materials Elasticity changes according to the type of material

 

Arrangement of the spring

 
 

In series

 

In parallel

the spring     In series   In parallel The same load is applied to each
the spring     In series   In parallel The same load is applied to each

The same load is applied to each spring. Tension in each spring = W Extension of each spring = x Total extension = 2x If n springs are used: The total extension = n x

 

The load is shared equally among the springs. W

Tension in each spring =

2

 

x

Extension of each spring =

2

If n springs are used:

 
 

The total extension =

x

n

Example 1 The original length of each spring is 10 cm. With a load of 10 g, the extension of each spring is 2 cm. What is the length of the spring system for (a), (b) and (c)?

 
of 10 g, the extension of each spring is 2 cm. What is the length of
 
of 10 g, the extension of each spring is 2 cm. What is the length of

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Example 2

Example 2  
 

Diagram below represent a 50 cent coin and a leaf falling in a vacuum container. The coin is heavier than the leaf.

Using the diagram shown and the information given about the weight of the two objects,

compare the mass of the coin and the leaf, the time taken to fall, the position of the coin and the leaf and finally deduce the physical quantity which causes the objects to fall.

 

coin

leaf

Mass

   

Time taken to fall in a vacuum

   

Position of the coin and the leaf

   

Coin and leaf of different mass reach the bottom of the container at the same time. Coin and leaf fall down due to gravitational force. The magnitude of gravitational pull is constant. It does not depend on the mass

Example 3

Diagram 10 shows a student trying to launch a water rocket.

You are required to give suggestion on how to design a water rocket for National Competition. Based on your knowledge on forces, motion and properties of materials, explain your suggestion based on the following aspect:

(i)

material used

(ii)

shape of the rocket

(iii)

suitable angle to launch the rocket

(iv)

volume of water in the rocket

(v)

added structure for the motion of the rocket

launch the rocket (iv) volume of water in the rocket (v) added structure for the motion

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Water Rocket

 

Aspect

Structure

Explanation

Acceration of the Rocket

Make from light material

 

Structure of the Rocket

Aerodynamic

 

Upthrust force

Fill with erated water or gasy drink with water

 

Stability of the rocket during flight

Use plasticine to make the head of the rocket

 

Add fins at the back portion of the rocket

Example 4

  Add fins at the back portion of the rocket Example 4 Diagram 4.1 shows a

Diagram 4.1 shows a cradle with a baby in it is oscillating vertically. Diagram 4.2 shows another identical cradle with a heavier baby in it is oscillating vertically. It is observed that the cradle with a heavier mass baby oscillates at a higher frequency.

Design an experiment to test the hypothesis using spring, slotted weight and other suitable apparatus.

4 (a)

Inference : The extension of the spring depends

 

1

(b)

Hypothesis : As the

1

c (i)

Aim : To investigate the relationship between

1

Variables :

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c(ii)

Manipulated variable :

1

Responding variable :

 

Constant variable :

1

c(iii)

Apparatus :

Metre rule, retort stand with clamp ,steel spring, slotted weight and

1

pin.

Set-up the apparatus

 

c(iv)

c(iv) 1

1

c (v)

Method of controlling the manipulated variables :

1

1. Arrangement the apparatus as shown in the diagram.

2.Mark the initial

Method of measuring the responding variables :

 

Record

1

Extension of spring :

Measure the

Repeat the

1

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c ( vi)

Tabulate Results

1

Initial length , l 0 =

cm

Mass of the Slotted weight , m / g

40

80

120

160

200

Weight of slotted mass / N

0.4

0.8

1.2

1.6

2.0

Length of the spring ,l / cm

         

Extension of the spring x = l- l 0

         

(vii)

      Extension of the spring x = l- l 0        

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Total

1

12