LINEAR MOTIONs
Physical Quantity
Definition, Quantity, Symbol and unit
Distance, s
Distance is the …… Quantity: …
SI unit :
Displacement, s
(a) The distance in
(b) the distance between ….
….direction. (c) The distance of its final … specified …. Quantity:
….
SI unit:
Speed,v
Speed is the
Speed =
Quantity:
SI unit:
Velocity, v
Velocity is the
Velocity =
Direction of velocity is Quantity :
SI unit:
Average speed
v =
Example: A car moves at an average speed / velocity of 20 ms ^{}^{1} On average, the car moves a distance/ displacement of
Average velocity
v
_{D}_{i}_{s}_{p}_{l}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t}
TotalTime
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Uniform speed 
Speed that remains the same in 

Uniform velocity 
Velocity that remains 

An object has a non uniform velocity if 
(a) 
The direction of motion changes or the motion is not linear. 

(b) 
The magnitude of its velocity changes. 

Acceleration, a 
When the velocity of an object 

v 

u 
Acceleration is defined as the 

a 

t 
Acceleration= 
Change in velocity 

Time taken 

Final velocity,v  Initial velocity,u 

Unit: ms ^{}^{2} 
^{=} 
Time taken,t 

Acceleration is positive 
The velocity of an object increases from an initial velocity, u, to a higher final velocity, v 



Deceleration 


acceleration is negative. 
The rate of decrease in speed in a specified direction. 

Zero acceleration 
An object moving at a constants velocity, that is, 

Constant acceleration 
Velocity increases at a uniform rate. When a car moves at a constant or uniform acceleration of 5 ms ^{}^{2} , its velocity 

1. Constant = 

2. increasing velocity = 

3. decreasing velocity = 

4. zero velocity = 

5. negative velocity = object moves at opposite direction 

6. zero acceleration = 

7. negative acceleration = deceleration 
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Comparisons between distance and displacement
Comparisons between speed and velocity
Distance 
Displacement 
Speed 
Velocity 
Total path length travelled from one location to another 
The distance between two locations measured along the shortest path connecting them in specific direction 
The rate of change of distance 
The rate of change of displacement 
Scalar quantity 
Vector quantity 

Scalar quantity 

It has magnitude but no direction 

SI unit 
SI unit : 
Fill in the blanks:
1. A steady speed of 10 ms ^{}^{1} = A distance of
2. A steady velocity of 10 ms ^{}^{1}
3. A steady acceleration of 4 ms ^{}^{2} = Speed
4. A steady deceleration of 4 ms ^{}^{2} =
5. A steady velocity of 10 ms ^{}^{1}
= A displacement of
= A displacement of 10 m is travelled every _{1} _{s}_{e}_{c}_{o}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t}_{.}
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Example 1 Every day Rahim walks from his house to the junction which is 1.5km from his house. Then he turns back and stops at warung Pak Din which is 0.5 km from his house. 
Example 2 Every morning Amirul walks to Ahmad’s house which is situated 80 m to the east of Amirul’s house. They then walk towards their school which is 60 m to the south of Ahmad’s house. 


(a) 
What is the distance travelled by Amirul and his displacement from his house? 

(b) 
If the total time taken by Amirul to travel from his house to Ahmad’s house and then to school is 15 minutes, what is his speed and velocity? 

Speed = 

(a) 
What is Rahim’s displacement from his house, 

• when he reaches the junction. 

Velocity = 

• when he is at warung Pak _{D}_{i}_{n}_{.} 

(b) 
After, Rahim walks back to his house. breakfast When he reaches home, 

(i) 
What is the total distance travelled by Rahim? 

(ii) 
What is Rahim’s total displacement from his house? 

Example 3 Salim running in a race covers 60 m in 12 s. 
Example 4 An aeroplane flies towards the north with a velocity 300 km hr ^{}^{1} in one hour. Then, the plane moves to the east with the velocity 400 km hr ^{}^{1} in one hour. 

(a) 
What is his speed in ms ^{}^{1} 

(b) 
If he takes 40 s to complete the race, what is his distance covered? 
(a) 
What is the average speed of the plane? 

(b) 
What is the average velocity of the plane? 
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(c) What is the difference between average speed and average velocity of the plane?
Example 5 The speedometer reading for a car travelling due north shows 80 km hr ^{}^{1} . Another car travelling at 80 km hr ^{}^{1} towards south. Is the speed of both cars same? Is the velocity of both cars same?
A ticker timer
Use:
1 tick = time interval
The time taken to make 50 ticks on the ticker tape is 1 second. Hence, the time interval between 2 consecutive dots is
1 tick =
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Relating displacement, velocity, acceleration and time using ticker tape.
VELOCITY 
FORMULA 


Time, t = 10 dicks x 0.02 s = 0.2 s displacement, s = x cm 

velocity = 


ACCELERATION 


Initial velocity, u = 


final velocity, v = 

Elapsed time, t = (5 – 1) x 0.2 s = 0.8 s or t = (50 – 10) ticks x 0.02 s = 0.8 s 
acceleration, a = 
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 Distance between the dots decrease uniformly
Example 6
The diagram above shows a ticker tape chart for a moving trolley. The frequency of the tickertimer used is 50 Hz. Each section has 10 dotsspacing.
(a) What is the time between two dots?
(b) What is the time for one strips?
(c)
What is the initial velocity?
(d)
What is the final velocity?
(e)
velocity to final velocity?
What is the time interval to change from initial
(f) What is the acceleration of the object?
a =
v u
t
2
THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION
v 
u 
at 
u= 

s 

ut 
1 
at 2 
v t 
= = 
2 
s= 

v 
2 
2 u 
2 
as 
a= 

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MOTION GRAPHS
DISPLACEMENT – TIME GRAPH 
Velocity is obtained from 

A – B : gradient of the graph is 
B – C : gradient of the graph = 

object is 

– D : gradient of the graph The object C 

VELOCITYTIME GRAPH 
Area below graph 

Positive gradient 
Negative gradient 

Zero gradient 
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Example 1: 
Example 2: 


velocity/ m s ^{}^{1}
20
10
0
10
20
30
40
^{t}^{i}^{m}^{e}^{/} 

Based on the st graph above: 
(a) Calculate the acceleration at: 

(a) 
Calculate the velocity at 
(ii) JK (ii) KL 
(iii) LM 

(i) 
AB 
(ii) BC 
(iii) CD 

(b) 
Describe the motion of the object at: 
(b) Describe the motion of the object at: 

(i) 
AB 
(ii) BC 
(iii) CD 
(ii) JK (ii) KL 
(iii) LM 

(c) 
Find 
(c) Calculate 

(i) 
total distance 
(iii) The total displacement 

(ii) 
total displacement 
(iv) The average velocity 

(d) 
Calculate 

(i) 
The average speed 

(ii) 
The average velocity of the moving particle 
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INERTIA
Inertia 
The inertia of an object is the tendency of the object 

Newton’s first law 
Every object 

Relation between inertia and mass 
The larger the mass, 

SITUATIONS INVOLVING INERTIA 

SITUATION 
EXPLANATION 


When the cardboard is pulled away quickly, the coin drops straight into the glass. 

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Chilli sauce in the bottle can be easily poured out if the bottle is moved down fast with a sudden stop. The sauce inside the bottle moves together with the bottle. 

When the bottle stops suddenly, 

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Body moves forward when the car stops suddenly The passengers were in a state of motion when the car was moving. 

When the car stopped suddenly, 

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A boy runs away from a cow in a zig zag motion. The cow has a large inertia 
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The head of hammer is secured tightly to its handle by knocking one end of the handle, held vertically, on a hard surface.
This causes the hammer head to continue on its downward motion when the handle has been stopped, so that the top end of the handle is slotted deeper into the hammer head.
• The drop of water on a wet umbrella will fall when the boy rotates the umbrella.
• This is because the drop of water on the surface of the
umbrella moves simultaneously as the umbrella is rotated.
• When the umbrella stops rotating, the inertia of the drop of water will continue to maintain its
Ways to reduce the negative effects of inertia
1. Safety in a car:
(a)Safety belt secure the driver to their seats. When the car stops suddenly, the seat belt provides the external force that prevents the driver from being thrown forward. (b)Headrest to prevent injuries to the neck during rear end collisions. The inertia of the head tends to keep in its state of rest when the body is moved suddenly. (c)An air bag is fitted inside the steering wheel. It provides a cushion to prevent the driver from hitting the steering wheel or dashboard during a collision.
2. Furniture carried by a lorry normally are tied up together by string.
When the lorry starts to move suddenly, the furniture are
more difficult to
their combined mass has increased.
fall off due to their inertia because
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•
•
•
•
Two empty buckets which are hung with rope from the ceiling.
One bucket is filled with sand while the other bucket is empty.
Then, both pails are pushed.
It is found that
Relationship between mass and inertia
Push and compared to the bucket with sand. • The bucket filled with sand offers more resistance to movement.
• When both buckets are oscillating and an attempt is made to stop them, the bucket filled with sand offers
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MOMENTUM
Definition 
Momentum = 

SI unit: 

Principle of 
In the absence of an external force, 

Conservation of 

Momentum 

Elastic Collision 
Inelastic collision 




ƒ Both objects move 
ƒ The two objects 

ƒ Momentum 
ƒ Momentum 

ƒ Kinetic energy 
ƒ Kinetic energy. 

Total energy 
ƒ Total energy 



Total Momentum Before = 
Total Momentum Before = 

m _{1} u _{1} 
+ m _{2} u _{2} 
= m _{1} v _{1} + m _{2} v _{2} 
m _{1} u _{1} + m _{2} u _{2} = ( m _{1} + m _{2} )v 

Explosion 

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Before explosion both object 

Total Momentum before collision is zero 
Total Momentum after collision : 

m _{1} v _{1} + m _{2} v _{2} 
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From the law of conservation of momentum:
Total Momentum = Total Momentum
Before collision
after collision 0= m _{1} v _{1} + m _{2} v _{2}
m _{2} v _{2}
m _{1} v _{1} = 
Negative sign means
EXAMPLES OF EXPLOSION (Principle Of Conservation Of Momentum)
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When a rifle is fired, the bullet of mass m, moves with a high velocity, v. This creates a momentum in the forward direction. From the principle of conservation of momentum,
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Application in the jet engine:
The launching of rocket Mixture of hydrogen and oxygen fuels
These high speed hot gases produce
By conservation of momentum,
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In 
a swamp area, a fan boat is used. 

The fan produces a high speed movement of air backward. This produces a large momentum backward. By conservation of momentum, an equal but opposite momentum is produced and acted on the boat. So the boat will move forward. 

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A 
squid propels by expelling water at high velocity. 

Water enters through a large opening and exits through a small tube. The water is forced out at a 

high speed backward. Total Mom. before= Total Mom. after 0 =Mom water + Mom squid 0 = m _{w} v _{w} + m _{s} v _{s} m _{w} v _{w} = m _{s} v _{s} The magnitude of the momentum of water and squid are equal but opposite direction. This causes the quid to jet forward. 

Example 




Example 

Car A of mass 1000 kg moving at 20 ms ^{}^{1} collides with a car B of mass 1200 kg moving at 10 m s ^{}^{1} in same direction. If the car B is 
Before collision 
After collision 

M 
_{A} = 4 kg 

M 
_{B} = 2 kg 

U 
_{A} = 10 ms ^{}^{1} 
r i g h t 

shunted forwards at 15 m s ^{}^{1} 
by the impact, 
U _{B} = 8 ms 
^{}^{1} l e f t 
V _{B} _{4} ms ^{}^{1} right 

what is the velocity, v, of the car A _{i}_{m}_{m}_{e}_{d}_{i}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{l}_{y} 

after the crash? 
Calculate the value of V _{A} . 
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Example 
Example 



A truck of mass 1200 kg moving at 30 ms ^{}^{1} collides with a car of mass 1000 kg which is travelling in the opposite 
A 
man fires a pistol which has a mass of 1.5 kg. 
If 
the mass of the bullet is 10 g and it reaches a 

direction at 20 ms ^{}^{1} . After the collision, the two vehicles move together. What is the velocity of both vehicles immediately after collision? 
velocity of 300 ms ^{}^{1} after shooting, what is the recoil velocity of the pistol? 
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FORCE
Balanced Force When the forces acting on an object are balanced, 
Example: 

Effect : the object 

[velocity or moves [ a = ] 
] 



Unbalanced Force/ Resultant Force 
When the forces acting on an object are not balanced, there must be The net force is known as 

Effect : Can cause a body to 

 

Newton’s Second Law of Motion 
The acceleration produced by a force on an object is 


Force = Mass x Acceleration 

F = ma 
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Experiment to Find The Relationship between Force, Mass & Acceleration
Relationship 
a& F 
a& 
between 
m 

Situation 


Both men are pushing the same mass but man A puts greater effort. So he moves faster. 
Both men exerted the same strength. But man B moves faster than man A. 

Inference 
The acceleration produced by an object depends on the net force applied to it. 

Hypothesis 
The acceleration of the object increases when the force applied increases 

Variables: 

Manipulated : 
Force 

Responding : 
Acceleration 

Constant : 
Mass 

Apparatus and 
Ticker tape and elastic cords, ticker timer, trolleys, power supply and friction compensated runway and meter ruler. 

Material 


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1. What force is required to move a 2 kg object with an acceleration of 3 m s ^{} , if 2 
2. Ali applies a force of 50 N to move a 10 kg table at a constant velocity. What is the frictional force acting on the table? 

(a) 
the object is on a smooth surface? 

(b) 
The object is on a surface where the average force of friction acting on the object is 2 N? 

3. A car of mass 1200 kg travelling at 20 ms ^{}^{1} 
4. 

is brought to rest over a distance of 30 m. Find (a) the average deceleration, (b) the average braking force. 
Which of the following systems will produce maximum acceleration? 
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IMPULSE AND IMPULSIVE FORCE
Impulse 
The change of Unit : 
m 
= 

u 
= 

v 
= 

Impulsive Force 
The rate of change 
t = 

change of momentum 

mv 

mu 

time 
t 

Unit = 

Effect of time 
Impulsive force 
Longer period of time →Impulsive force 

is 

Shorter period of time → 

Situations for Reducing Impulsive Force in Sports 

Situations 
Explanation 


Thick mattress with soft surfaces are used in events such as high jump so that 


Goal keepers will wear gloves to 


A high jumper will bend his legs upon landing. This is to 

so as to 


A baseball player must catch the ball in the direction of the motion of the ball. Moving his hand backwards when catching the ball prolongs the time for the momentum to change so as to reduce the impulsive force. 
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Situation of Increasing Impulsive Force 

Situations 
Explanation 


A 
karate expert can break a thick wooden slab with his bare hand 

that moves at a very fast speed. The short impact time results in 


A 
massive hammer head moving at a fast speed is brought to rest 

upon hitting the nail within a short time interval. 


A 
football must have enough air pressure in it so 


Pestle and mortar are made of stone. When a pestle is used to pound 

chillies the hard surfaces of both the pestle and mortar cause the pestle 

to 
be stopped in a very short time. A large impulsive force is resulted 

and thus causes these spices to be crushed easily. 

Example 1 

A 60 kg resident jumps from the first floor of a burning house. His velocity just before landing on the ground is 6 ms1. 

(a) Calculate the impulse when his legs hit the ground. 

(b) What is the impulsive force on the resident’s legs if he 

bends upon landing and takes 0.5s to stop? (c) What is the impulsive force on the resident’s legs if he does not bend and stops in 0.05 s? (d) What is the advantage of bending his legs upon landing? 

Example 2 Rooney kicks a ball with a force of 1500 N. The time of contact of his boot with the ball is 0.01 s. What is the impulse delivered to the ball? If the mass of the ball is 0.5 kg, what is the velocity of the ball? 
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SAFETY VEHICLE
Safety features in vehicles
Component 
Function 
Headrest 

Air bag 

Windscreen 

Crumple zone 

Front 
Absorb the shock from the accident. Made from steel, aluminium, plastic or rubber. 
bumper 

ABS 
Enables drivers to quickly stop the car without causing the brakes to lock. 
Side impact bar 

Seat belt 
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GRAVITY
Gravitational 

Force 
Objects fall because they are 


This force is known as the 

The earth’s gravitational force 

Free fall 

An object is falling freely when it is falling under the force of gravity only. 




An object falls freely only 


In vacuum, 


They fall with 


Objects dropped 

Acceleration due to gravity, g 


Gravitational field 
The gravitational field is the region around the earth in which an object 

experiences a force 
towards the 
centre of 
the 
earth. 
This 
force 
is 
the 

gravitational attraction between the object and the earth. 

The gravitational field strength is defined as the gravitational force which acts on a mass of 1 kilogram. 

F 
Its unit is N kg ^{}^{1} . 

g = 
_{m} 
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1 

Gravitational field strength, g = 10 N kg Acceleration due to gravity, g = 10 m s 
2 

The approximate value of g can therefore be written either as 1 
10 m s ^{}^{2} 

or 
as 10 N kg 
. 

Weight 
The gravitational force acting on the object. Weight = mass x gravitational acceleration 

W 
= mg 
SI unit : Newton, N and it is a vector quantity 

Comparison 
Mass 
Weight 

between weight 
The mass of an object is the 
The weight of an object is the force of gravity acting on the object. 

& 
amount of matter in the object 

mass 

Constant everywhere 
Varies with the magnitude of gravitational field strength, g of the location 

A scalar quantity 
A vector quantity 

A base quantity 
A derived quantity 

SI 
unit: kg 
SI unit : Newton, N 

The difference between a fall in air and 


a free fall in a vacuum 

of 
a 
coin 
and 
a 

feather. 

Both the coin and the feather are released simultaneously from the same height. 

At 
vacuum state: There is no air 
At normal state: Both coin and feather will fall because of gravitational force. Air resistance effected by the surface area of a fallen object. The feather that has large area will have 

resistance. The coin and the feather will fall freely. Only gravitational force 

acted on the objects. Both will fall 

at 
the same time. 
more air resistance. The coin will fall at first. 
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(a) The two spheres are falling with an acceleration. The distance between two successive images of the sphere increases showing that the two spheres are falling with increasing velocity; falling with an acceleration.
The two spheres are falling down with the same acceleration The two spheres are at the same level at all times. Thus, a heavy object and a light object fall with the same gravitational acceleration Gravitational acceleration is independent of mass
Two steel spheres are falling under gravity. The two spheres are dropped at the same time from the same height.
Motion graph for free fall object
Free fall object
Object thrown upward
Object thrown upward and fall
Example 1 A coconut takes 2.0 s to fall to the ground. What is
(a)
(b)
its speed when it strikes the ground ) the height of the coconut tree
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FORCES IN EQUILIBRIUM
Forces in
Equilibrium
When an object is in equilibrium,
Newton’s 3 ^{r}^{d} Law
Examples( Label the forces acted on the objects)
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Resultant
Force
A single force that
Addition of Forces

Resultant force, F = 
+ 

Resultant force, F = 
+ 
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Two forces acting at a point at an angle [Parallelogram method]
STEP 1 : Using ruler and protractor, draw the two forces F _{1} and F _{2} from a point.
STEP 3 Draw the diagonal of the parallelogram. The diagonal represent the resultant force, F in magnitude and direction.
scale: 1 cm = ……
STEP 2 Complete the parallelogram
Resolution of _{F}_{o}_{r}_{c}_{e}_{s}
A force F can be resolved into components which are perpendicular to each other:
(a)
(b)
horizontal component , F _{X}
vertical component, F _{Y}
Inclined Plane
Component of weight parallel to the plane = mg sin θ Component of weight normal to the plane = mg cos θ
F
_{x}
= F cos θ
F _{y} = F
sin θ
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Find the resultant force
(d)
(e)
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Lift
Stationary Lift
Resultant Force =
The reading of weighing scale =
Lift accelerate upward
Resultant Force =
The reading of weighing scale =
_{L}_{i}_{f}_{t} _{a}_{c}_{c}_{e}_{l}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{e} _{d}_{o}_{w}_{n}_{w}_{a}_{r}_{d}
Resultant Force =
The reading of weighing scale =
Pulley
1. Find the resultant force, F
2. Find the moving mass, m
3. Find the acceleration, a
4. Find string tension, T
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WORK, ENERGY, POWER & EFFICIENCY
Work 
Work done is 


W = Fs 
W = , F = 
s = 

The SI unit of work is the joule, J 


1 joule of work is done when 

The displacement, s of the object is in the direction of the force, F 
The displacement , s of the object is not in the direction of the force, F 

W = Fs 





s 
F 



W= F s 


Example 1 A boy pushing his bicycle with a force of 25 N through a distance of 3 m. 
Example 2 
Example 3 

A 
girl is lifting up a 3 kg 
A 
man is pulling a crate of fish 

flower pot steadily to a height 
along the floor with a force of 40 N through a distance of 6 m. 

of 
0.4 m. 





Calculate the work done by the boy. 
What is the work done 

What is the work done by the girl? 
in 
pulling the crate? 
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Concept 
D 
Formula & Unit 

Power 
The rate at which work is done,or 
W 

P = 

t 

p = power, W = work / energy t = time 

Energy 
Energy is the capacity to do work. 



Potential Energy 
m= 


Gravitational potential energy is the energy of an object due to its higher position in the gravitational field. 
h 
= 
g= 

E= 

Kinetic _{E}_{n}_{e}_{r}_{g}_{y} 
Kinetic energy is the energy of an object due to its motion. 
m= 


v= 

E= 

A waiter is carrying a tray of food. The direction of motion of the object is perpendicular to that of the applied force. 
No force is applied on the object 

No work is done when: 
in 
the direction of displacement 

(the object moves because of its own inertia) A satellite orbiting in space. There is no friction in space. No force is acting in the direction of movement of the satellite. 
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Principle of Conservation of Energy 
Energy can be changed from one form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed. The energy can be transformed from 


Example 4 

A 
worker is pulling a wooden block of weight, W, with a force 

of 
P along a frictionless plank at height of h. The distance 

travelled by the block is x. Calculate the work done by the worker to pull the block. 

Example 5 A student of mass m is climbing up a flight of stairs which has the height of h. He takes t seconds What is the power of the student? 


Example 6 A stone is thrown upward with initial velocity of 20 ms ^{}^{1} . What is the maximum height which can be reached by the stone? 
Example 7 



A ball is released from point A of height 0.8 m so that it can roll along a curve frictionless track. What is the velocity of the ball when it reaches point B? 
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Example 8
A trolley is released from rest at point X along a frictionless track. What is the velocity of the trolley at point Y?
Example 9
A ball moves upwards along a frictionless track of height 1.5 m
with a velocity of _{6} _{m}_{s} ^{}^{1} _{.} _{W}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{i}_{s} its velocity at point B?
Example 10
A boy of mass 20 kg sits at the top of a concrete slide of height 2.5 m. When he slides down the slope, he does work to overcome friction of 140 J. What is his velocity at the end of the slope?
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ELASTICITY
Elasticity
A property of matter that enables an object
No external force is applied. Molecules are at their equilibrium separation. Intermolecular force is equal zero.
Compressing a solid causes its molecules
Repulsive intermolecular force
Stretching a solid
Stretching a wire by an external force:
Its molecules are
When the external force is removed:
The attractive intermolecular forces
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Hooke’s Law
The extension of a spring
F =
k x
where
F=
x
k
=
=
Force extension graph
Based on the graph:
Relationship between F & x :
The gradient of the graph represent =
Area under the graph
= elastic potential energy = ½ F x = ½ k x ^{2}
The elastic limit of a spring
The maximum force that
If a force stretches a spring beyond its elastic limit, the spring
Force constant of the spring, k
The force required to produce one unit of extension of the spring.
k is a measurement of the stiffness of the spring
The spring with a larger force constant is
A spring with a smaller force constant is
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Factors that effect elasticity 

Factor 
Change in factor 
How does it affects the elasticity 

Length 
Shorter spring 

Longer spring 

Diameter of spring wire 
Smaller diameter 

Larger diameter 

Diameter spring 
Smaller diameter 

Larger diameter 

Type of material 
Springs made of different materials Elasticity changes according to the type of material 

Arrangement of the spring 

In series 
In parallel 




The same load is applied to each spring. Tension in each spring = W Extension of each spring = x Total extension = 2x If n springs are used: The total extension = n x 
The load is shared equally among the springs. ^{W} 

Tension in each spring = 2 

^{x} 

Extension of each spring = 
2 

If n springs are used: 

The total extension = 
x 

n 

Example 1 The original length of each spring is 10 cm. With a load of 10 g, the extension of each spring is 2 cm. What is the length of the spring system for (a), (b) and (c)? 


257
Example 2 


Diagram below represent a 50 cent coin and a leaf falling in a vacuum container. The coin is heavier than the leaf. 
Using the diagram shown and the information given about the weight of the two objects, compare the mass of the coin and the leaf, the time taken to fall, the position of the coin and the leaf and finally deduce the physical quantity which causes the objects to fall. 

coin 
leaf 

Mass 

Time taken to fall in a vacuum 

Position of the coin and the leaf 

Coin and leaf of different mass reach the bottom of the container at the same time. Coin and leaf fall down due to gravitational force. The magnitude of gravitational pull is constant. It does not depend on the mass 
Example 3
Diagram 10 shows a student trying to launch a water rocket.
You are required to give suggestion on how to design a water rocket for National Competition. Based on your knowledge on forces, motion and properties of materials, explain your suggestion based on the following aspect:
(i) 
material used 
(ii) 
shape of the rocket 
(iii) 
suitable angle to launch the rocket 
(iv) 
volume of water in the rocket 
(v) 
added structure for the motion of the rocket 
258
Water Rocket 

Aspect 
Structure 
Explanation 

Acceration of the Rocket 
Make from light material 

Structure of the Rocket 
Aerodynamic 

Upthrust force 
Fill with erated water or gasy drink with water 

Stability of the rocket during flight 
Use plasticine to make the head of the rocket 

Add fins at the back portion of the rocket 
Example 4
Diagram 4.1 shows a cradle with a baby in it is oscillating vertically. Diagram 4.2 shows another identical cradle with a heavier baby in it is oscillating vertically. It is observed that the cradle with a heavier mass baby oscillates at a higher frequency.
Design an experiment to test the hypothesis using spring, slotted weight and other suitable apparatus.
4 (a) 
Inference : The extension of the spring depends 

1 

(b) 
Hypothesis : As the 
1 
c (i) 
Aim : To investigate the relationship between 
1 
Variables :
259
c(ii)
Manipulated variable :
1
Responding variable :
Constant variable : 
1 

c(iii) 
Apparatus : 
Metre rule, retort stand with clamp ,steel spring, slotted weight and 
1 
pin. 

Setup the apparatus 

c(iv) 

1 

c (v) 
Method of controlling the manipulated variables : 
1 

1. Arrangement the apparatus as shown in the diagram. 

2.Mark the initial 

Method of measuring the responding variables : 

Record 
1 

Extension of spring : 

Measure the 

Repeat the 
1 
260
c ( vi)
Tabulate Results
1
Initial length , l _{0} =
cm
Mass of the Slotted weight , m / g 
40 
80 
120 
160 
200 
Weight of slotted mass / N 
0.4 
0.8 
1.2 
1.6 
2.0 
Length of the spring ,l / cm 

Extension of the spring x = l l _{0} 
(vii)
261
Total
1
12
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