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2.1

LINEAR MOTIONs

Physical Quantity

Definition, Quantity, Symbol and unit

Distance, s

Distance is the …… Quantity:

SI unit :

Displacement, s

(a) The distance in

(b) the distance between ….

….direction. (c) The distance of its final specified . Quantity:

.

SI unit:

Speed,v

Speed is the

Speed =

Quantity:

SI unit:

Velocity, v

Velocity is the

Velocity =

Direction of velocity is Quantity :

SI unit:

Average speed

v =

Example: A car moves at an average speed / velocity of 20 ms -1 On average, the car moves a distance/ displacement of

Average velocity

v

Displacement

TotalTime

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 Uniform speed Speed that remains the same in Uniform velocity Velocity that remains An object has a non- uniform velocity if (a) The direction of motion changes or the motion is not linear. (b) The magnitude of its velocity changes. Acceleration, a When the velocity of an object v  u Acceleration is defined as the a  t Acceleration= Change in velocity Time taken Final velocity,v - Initial velocity,u Unit: ms -2 = Time taken,t Acceleration is positive The velocity of an object increases from an initial velocity, u, to a higher final velocity, v Deceleration acceleration is negative. The rate of decrease in speed in a specified direction. Zero acceleration An object moving at a constants velocity, that is, Constant acceleration Velocity increases at a uniform rate. When a car moves at a constant or uniform acceleration of 5 ms -2 , its velocity 1. Constant = 2. increasing velocity = 3. decreasing velocity = 4. zero velocity = 5. negative velocity = object moves at opposite direction 6. zero acceleration = 7. negative acceleration = deceleration

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Comparisons between distance and displacement

Comparisons between speed and velocity

 Distance Displacement Speed Velocity Total path length travelled from one location to another The distance between two locations measured along the shortest path connecting them in specific direction The rate of change of distance The rate of change of displacement Scalar quantity Vector quantity Scalar quantity It has magnitude but no direction SI unit SI unit :

Fill in the blanks:

1. A steady speed of 10 ms -1 = A distance of

2. A steady velocity of -10 ms -1

3. A steady acceleration of 4 ms -2 = Speed

4. A steady deceleration of 4 ms -2 =

5. A steady velocity of 10 ms -1

= A displacement of

= A displacement of 10 m is travelled every 1 second to the right.

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 Example 1 Every day Rahim walks from his house to the junction which is 1.5km from his house. Then he turns back and stops at warung Pak Din which is 0.5 km from his house. Example 2 Every morning Amirul walks to Ahmad’s house which is situated 80 m to the east of Amirul’s house. They then walk towards their school which is 60 m to the south of Ahmad’s house. (a) What is the distance travelled by Amirul and his displacement from his house? (b) If the total time taken by Amirul to travel from his house to Ahmad’s house and then to school is 15 minutes, what is his speed and velocity? Speed = (a) What is Rahim’s displacement from his house, • when he reaches the junction. Velocity = • when he is at warung Pak Din. (b) After, Rahim walks back to his house. breakfast When he reaches home, (i) What is the total distance travelled by Rahim? (ii) What is Rahim’s total displacement from his house? Example 3 Salim running in a race covers 60 m in 12 s. Example 4 An aeroplane flies towards the north with a velocity 300 km hr -1 in one hour. Then, the plane moves to the east with the velocity 400 km hr -1 in one hour. (a) What is his speed in ms -1 (b) If he takes 40 s to complete the race, what is his distance covered? (a) What is the average speed of the plane? (b) What is the average velocity of the plane?

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(c) What is the difference between average speed and average velocity of the plane?

Example 5 The speedometer reading for a car travelling due north shows 80 km hr -1 . Another car travelling at 80 km hr -1 towards south. Is the speed of both cars same? Is the velocity of both cars same?

A ticker timer

Use:

1 tick = time interval

The time taken to make 50 ticks on the ticker tape is 1 second. Hence, the time interval between 2 consecutive dots is

1 tick =

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Relating displacement, velocity, acceleration and time using ticker tape.

 VELOCITY FORMULA Time, t = 10 dicks x 0.02 s = 0.2 s displacement, s = x cm velocity = ACCELERATION Initial velocity, u = final velocity, v = Elapsed time, t = (5 – 1) x 0.2 s = 0.8 s or t = (50 – 10) ticks x 0.02 s = 0.8 s acceleration, a =
TICKER TAPE AND CHARTS
TYPE OF MOTION
Distance between the dots increases uniformly

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- Distance between the dots decrease uniformly

Example 6

The diagram above shows a ticker tape chart for a moving trolley. The frequency of the ticker-timer used is 50 Hz. Each section has 10 dots-spacing.

(a) What is the time between two dots?

(b) What is the time for one strips?

(c)

What is the initial velocity?

(d)

What is the final velocity?

(e)

velocity to final velocity?

What is the time interval to change from initial

(f) What is the acceleration of the object?

a =

v u

t

2

THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION

 v u   at u= s  ut  1 at 2 v t = = 2 s= v 2  2 u  2 as a= 2-7
2.2

MOTION GRAPHS

 DISPLACEMENT – TIME GRAPH Velocity is obtained from A – B : gradient of the graph is B – C : gradient of the graph = object is – D : gradient of the graph The object C VELOCITY-TIME GRAPH Area below graph Positive gradient Negative gradient Zero gradient
GRAPH
s versus t
v versus t
a versus t
Zero
velocity
Negative
constant
velocity
Positive
Constant
velocity

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GRAPH
s versus t
v versus t
a versus t
Constant
acceleration
Constant
deceleration
 Example 1: Example 2: velocity/ m s -1 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 time/ Based on the s-t graph above: (a) Calculate the acceleration at: (a) Calculate the velocity at (ii) JK (ii) KL (iii) LM (i) AB (ii) BC (iii) CD (b) Describe the motion of the object at: (b) Describe the motion of the object at: (i) AB (ii) BC (iii) CD (ii) JK (ii) KL (iii) LM (c) Find (c) Calculate (i) total distance (iii) The total displacement (ii) total displacement (iv) The average velocity (d) Calculate (i) The average speed (ii) The average velocity of the moving particle

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2.3

INERTIA

 Inertia The inertia of an object is the tendency of the object Newton’s first law Every object Relation between inertia and mass The larger the mass, SITUATIONS INVOLVING INERTIA SITUATION EXPLANATION When the cardboard is pulled away quickly, the coin drops straight into the glass. Paste a picture Chilli sauce in the bottle can be easily poured out if the bottle is moved down fast with a sudden stop. The sauce inside the bottle moves together with the bottle. When the bottle stops suddenly, Paste a picture Body moves forward when the car stops suddenly The passengers were in a state of motion when the car was moving. When the car stopped suddenly, Paste a picture A boy runs away from a cow in a zig zag motion. The cow has a large inertia

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The head of hammer is secured tightly to its handle by knocking one end of the handle, held vertically, on a hard surface.

This causes the hammer head to continue on its downward motion when the handle has been stopped, so that the top end of the handle is slotted deeper into the hammer head.

The drop of water on a wet umbrella will fall when the boy rotates the umbrella.

This is because the drop of water on the surface of the

umbrella moves simultaneously as the umbrella is rotated.

When the umbrella stops rotating, the inertia of the drop of water will continue to maintain its

Ways to reduce the negative effects of inertia

1. Safety in a car:

(a)Safety belt secure the driver to their seats. When the car stops suddenly, the seat belt provides the external force that prevents the driver from being thrown forward. (b)Headrest to prevent injuries to the neck during rear- end collisions. The inertia of the head tends to keep in its state of rest when the body is moved suddenly. (c)An air bag is fitted inside the steering wheel. It provides a cushion to prevent the driver from hitting the steering wheel or dashboard during a collision.

2. Furniture carried by a lorry normally are tied up together by string.

When the lorry starts to move suddenly, the furniture are

more difficult to

their combined mass has increased.

fall off due to their inertia because

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Two empty buckets which are hung with rope from the ceiling.

One bucket is filled with sand while the other bucket is empty.

Then, both pails are pushed.

It is found that

Relationship between mass and inertia

Push and compared to the bucket with sand. The bucket filled with sand offers more resistance to movement.

When both buckets are oscillating and an attempt is made to stop them, the bucket filled with sand offers

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2.4

MOMENTUM

 Definition Momentum = SI unit: Principle of In the absence of an external force, Conservation of Momentum Elastic Collision Inelastic collision ƒ Both objects move ƒ The two objects ƒ Momentum ƒ Momentum ƒ Kinetic energy ƒ Kinetic energy. Total energy ƒ Total energy Total Momentum Before = Total Momentum Before = m 1 u 1 + m 2 u 2 = m 1 v 1 + m 2 v 2 m 1 u 1 + m 2 u 2 = ( m 1 + m 2 )v Explosion Paste a picture Before explosion both object Total Momentum before collision is zero Total Momentum after collision : m 1 v 1 + m 2 v 2

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From the law of conservation of momentum:

Total Momentum = Total Momentum

Before collision

after collision 0= m 1 v 1 + m 2 v 2

m 2 v 2

m 1 v 1 = -

Negative sign means

EXAMPLES OF EXPLOSION (Principle Of Conservation Of Momentum)

Paste a picture

When a rifle is fired, the bullet of mass m, moves with a high velocity, v. This creates a momentum in the forward direction. From the principle of conservation of momentum,

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Application in the jet engine:

The launching of rocket Mixture of hydrogen and oxygen fuels

These high speed hot gases produce

By conservation of momentum,

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 ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on Paste a picture In a swamp area, a fan boat is used. The fan produces a high speed movement of air backward. This produces a large momentum backward. By conservation of momentum, an equal but opposite momentum is produced and acted on the boat. So the boat will move forward. Paste a picture A squid propels by expelling water at high velocity. Water enters through a large opening and exits through a small tube. The water is forced out at a high speed backward. Total Mom. before= Total Mom. after 0 =Mom water + Mom squid 0 = m w v w + m s v s -m w v w = m s v s The magnitude of the momentum of water and squid are equal but opposite direction. This causes the quid to jet forward. Example Example Car A of mass 1000 kg moving at 20 ms -1 collides with a car B of mass 1200 kg moving at 10 m s -1 in same direction. If the car B is Before collision After collision M A = 4 kg M B = 2 kg U A = 10 ms -1 r i g h t shunted forwards at 15 m s -1 by the impact, U B = 8 ms -1 l e f t V B 4 ms -1 right what is the velocity, v, of the car A immediately after the crash? Calculate the value of V A .

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 Example Example A truck of mass 1200 kg moving at 30 ms -1 collides with a car of mass 1000 kg which is travelling in the opposite A man fires a pistol which has a mass of 1.5 kg. If the mass of the bullet is 10 g and it reaches a direction at 20 ms -1 . After the collision, the two vehicles move together. What is the velocity of both vehicles immediately after collision? velocity of 300 ms -1 after shooting, what is the recoil velocity of the pistol?

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2.5

FORCE

 Balanced Force When the forces acting on an object are balanced, Example: Effect : the object [velocity or moves [ a = ] ] Unbalanced Force/ Resultant Force When the forces acting on an object are not balanced, there must be The net force is known as Effect : Can cause a body to - Newton’s Second Law of Motion The acceleration produced by a force on an object is Force = Mass x Acceleration F = ma

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Experiment to Find The Relationship between Force, Mass & Acceleration

 Relationship a& F a& between m Situation Both men are pushing the same mass but man A puts greater effort. So he moves faster. Both men exerted the same strength. But man B moves faster than man A. Inference The acceleration produced by an object depends on the net force applied to it. Hypothesis The acceleration of the object increases when the force applied increases Variables: Manipulated : Force Responding : Acceleration Constant : Mass Apparatus and Ticker tape and elastic cords, ticker timer, trolleys, power supply and friction compensated runway and meter ruler. Material

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Procedure :
An elastic cord is hooked over the
trolley. The elastic cord is stretched
until the end of the trolley. The
trolley is pulled down the runway
with the elastic cord being kept
stretched by the same amount of
force
An elastic
cord
is
hooked
over
a
- Controlling
trolley.
manipulated
variables.
-Controlling
responding
variables.
Determine the acceleration by
analyzing the ticker tape.
Acceleration
Determine the acceleration by analyzing
the ticker tape.
v
u
v
u
a 
a 
Acceleration
t
Acceleration
t
-
Repeat the experiment by
Repeating
Repeat the experiment by using two
, three, four and five elastic cords
experiment.
2
Force, F/No of
elastic cord
Acceleration, a/ ms -
Mass, m/
Mass,
1/m,
Acceleration/
Tabulation of
-1
no of
m/g
g
ms -2
data
1
trolleys
2
1
3
2
4
3
5
4
5
Analysing
Result

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 ys cs o u e orm ap er orces o on 1. What force is required to move a 2 kg object with an acceleration of 3 m s - , if 2 2. Ali applies a force of 50 N to move a 10 kg table at a constant velocity. What is the frictional force acting on the table? (a) the object is on a smooth surface? (b) The object is on a surface where the average force of friction acting on the object is 2 N? 3. A car of mass 1200 kg travelling at 20 ms -1 4. is brought to rest over a distance of 30 m. Find (a) the average deceleration, (b) the average braking force. Which of the following systems will produce maximum acceleration?

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2.6

IMPULSE AND IMPULSIVE FORCE

 Impulse The change of Unit : m = u = v = Impulsive Force The rate of change t = change of momentum  mv  mu time t Unit = Effect of time Impulsive force Longer period of time →Impulsive force is Shorter period of time → Situations for Reducing Impulsive Force in Sports Situations Explanation Thick mattress with soft surfaces are used in events such as high jump so that Goal keepers will wear gloves to A high jumper will bend his legs upon landing. This is to so as to A baseball player must catch the ball in the direction of the motion of the ball. Moving his hand backwards when catching the ball prolongs the time for the momentum to change so as to reduce the impulsive force.

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 Situation of Increasing Impulsive Force Situations Explanation A karate expert can break a thick wooden slab with his bare hand that moves at a very fast speed. The short impact time results in A massive hammer head moving at a fast speed is brought to rest upon hitting the nail within a short time interval. A football must have enough air pressure in it so Pestle and mortar are made of stone. When a pestle is used to pound chillies the hard surfaces of both the pestle and mortar cause the pestle to be stopped in a very short time. A large impulsive force is resulted and thus causes these spices to be crushed easily. Example 1 A 60 kg resident jumps from the first floor of a burning house. His velocity just before landing on the ground is 6 ms-1. (a) Calculate the impulse when his legs hit the ground. (b) What is the impulsive force on the resident’s legs if he bends upon landing and takes 0.5s to stop? (c) What is the impulsive force on the resident’s legs if he does not bend and stops in 0.05 s? (d) What is the advantage of bending his legs upon landing? Example 2 Rooney kicks a ball with a force of 1500 N. The time of contact of his boot with the ball is 0.01 s. What is the impulse delivered to the ball? If the mass of the ball is 0.5 kg, what is the velocity of the ball?

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2.7

SAFETY VEHICLE

Safety features in vehicles

 Component Function Headrest Air bag Windscreen Crumple zone Front Absorb the shock from the accident. Made from steel, aluminium, plastic or rubber. bumper ABS Enables drivers to quickly stop the car without causing the brakes to lock. Side impact bar Seat belt

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2.8

GRAVITY

 Gravitational Force Objects fall because they are This force is known as the The earth’s gravitational force Free fall  An object is falling freely when it is falling under the force of gravity only.   An object falls freely only  In vacuum,  They fall with  Objects dropped Acceleration due to gravity, g  Gravitational field The gravitational field is the region around the earth in which an object experiences a force towards the centre of the earth. This force is the gravitational attraction between the object and the earth. The gravitational field strength is defined as the gravitational force which acts on a mass of 1 kilogram. F Its unit is N kg -1 . g = m

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 -1 Gravitational field strength, g = 10 N kg Acceleration due to gravity, g = 10 m s -2 The approximate value of g can therefore be written either as -1 10 m s -2 or as 10 N kg . Weight The gravitational force acting on the object. Weight = mass x gravitational acceleration W = mg SI unit : Newton, N and it is a vector quantity Comparison Mass Weight between weight The mass of an object is the The weight of an object is the force of gravity acting on the object. & amount of matter in the object mass Constant everywhere Varies with the magnitude of gravitational field strength, g of the location A scalar quantity A vector quantity A base quantity A derived quantity SI unit: kg SI unit : Newton, N The difference between a fall in air and a free fall in a vacuum of a coin and a feather. Both the coin and the feather are released simultaneously from the same height. At vacuum state: There is no air At normal state: Both coin and feather will fall because of gravitational force. Air resistance effected by the surface area of a fallen object. The feather that has large area will have resistance. The coin and the feather will fall freely. Only gravitational force acted on the objects. Both will fall at the same time. more air resistance. The coin will fall at first.

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(a) The two spheres are falling with an acceleration. The distance between two successive images of the sphere increases showing that the two spheres are falling with increasing velocity; falling with an acceleration.

The two spheres are falling down with the same acceleration The two spheres are at the same level at all times. Thus, a heavy object and a light object fall with the same gravitational acceleration Gravitational acceleration is independent of mass

Two steel spheres are falling under gravity. The two spheres are dropped at the same time from the same height.

Free fall object

Object thrown upward

Object thrown upward and fall

Example 1 A coconut takes 2.0 s to fall to the ground. What is

(a)

(b)

its speed when it strikes the ground ) the height of the coconut tree

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2.9

FORCES IN EQUILIBRIUM

Forces in

Equilibrium

When an object is in equilibrium,

Newtons 3 rd Law

Examples( Label the forces acted on the objects)

Paste more picture

Paste more picture

Resultant

Force

A single force that

 Resultant force, F = + Resultant force, F = +

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Two forces acting at a point at an angle [Parallelogram method]

STEP 1 : Using ruler and protractor, draw the two forces F 1 and F 2 from a point.

STEP 3 Draw the diagonal of the parallelogram. The diagonal represent the resultant force, F in magnitude and direction.

scale: 1 cm = ……

STEP 2 Complete the parallelogram

Resolution of Forces

A force F can be resolved into components which are perpendicular to each other:

(a)

(b)

horizontal component , F X

vertical component, F Y

Inclined Plane

Component of weight parallel to the plane = mg sin θ Component of weight normal to the plane = mg cos θ

F

x

= F cos θ

F y = F

sin θ

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Find the resultant force

(d)

(e)

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Lift

Stationary Lift

Resultant Force =

The reading of weighing scale =

Lift accelerate upward

Resultant Force =

The reading of weighing scale =

Lift accelerate downward

Resultant Force =

The reading of weighing scale =

Pulley

1. Find the resultant force, F

2. Find the moving mass, m

3. Find the acceleration, a

4. Find string tension, T

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2.10

WORK, ENERGY, POWER & EFFICIENCY

 Work Work done is W = Fs W = , F = s = The SI unit of work is the joule, J 1 joule of work is done when The displacement, s of the object is in the direction of the force, F The displacement , s of the object is not in the direction of the force, F W = Fs s F W= F s Example 1 A boy pushing his bicycle with a force of 25 N through a distance of 3 m. Example 2 Example 3 A girl is lifting up a 3 kg A man is pulling a crate of fish flower pot steadily to a height along the floor with a force of 40 N through a distance of 6 m. of 0.4 m. Calculate the work done by the boy. What is the work done What is the work done by the girl? in pulling the crate?

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 Concept D Formula & Unit Power The rate at which work is done,or W P = t p = power, W = work / energy t = time Energy  Energy is the capacity to do work.  Potential Energy m= Gravitational potential energy is the energy of an object due to its higher position in the gravitational field. h = g= E= Kinetic Energy Kinetic energy is the energy of an object due to its motion. m= v= E= A waiter is carrying a tray of food. The direction of motion of the object is perpendicular to that of the applied force. No force is applied on the object No work is done when: in the direction of displacement (the object moves because of its own inertia) A satellite orbiting in space. There is no friction in space. No force is acting in the direction of movement of the satellite.

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 Principle of Conservation of Energy Energy can be changed from one form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed. The energy can be transformed from Example 4 A worker is pulling a wooden block of weight, W, with a force of P along a frictionless plank at height of h. The distance travelled by the block is x. Calculate the work done by the worker to pull the block. Example 5 A student of mass m is climbing up a flight of stairs which has the height of h. He takes t seconds What is the power of the student? Example 6 A stone is thrown upward with initial velocity of 20 ms -1 . What is the maximum height which can be reached by the stone? Example 7 A ball is released from point A of height 0.8 m so that it can roll along a curve frictionless track. What is the velocity of the ball when it reaches point B?

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Example 8

A trolley is released from rest at point X along a frictionless track. What is the velocity of the trolley at point Y?

Example 9

A ball moves upwards along a frictionless track of height 1.5 m

with a velocity of 6 ms -1 . What is its velocity at point B?

Example 10

A boy of mass 20 kg sits at the top of a concrete slide of height 2.5 m. When he slides down the slope, he does work to overcome friction of 140 J. What is his velocity at the end of the slope?

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2.11

ELASTICITY

Elasticity

A property of matter that enables an object

No external force is applied. Molecules are at their equilibrium separation. Intermolecular force is equal zero.

Compressing a solid causes its molecules

Repulsive intermolecular force

Stretching a solid

Stretching a wire by an external force:

Its molecules are

When the external force is removed:

The attractive intermolecular forces

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Hooke’s Law

The extension of a spring

F =

k x

where

F=

x

k

=

=

Force extension graph

Based on the graph:

Relationship between F & x :

The gradient of the graph represent =

Area under the graph

= elastic potential energy = ½ F x = ½ k x 2

The elastic limit of a spring

The maximum force that

If a force stretches a spring beyond its elastic limit, the spring

Force constant of the spring, k

The force required to produce one unit of extension of the spring.

k is a measurement of the stiffness of the spring

The spring with a larger force constant is

A spring with a smaller force constant is

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 Factors that effect elasticity Factor Change in factor How does it affects the elasticity Length Shorter spring Longer spring Diameter of spring wire Smaller diameter Larger diameter Diameter spring Smaller diameter Larger diameter Type of material Springs made of different materials Elasticity changes according to the type of material Arrangement of the spring In series In parallel The same load is applied to each spring. Tension in each spring = W Extension of each spring = x Total extension = 2x If n springs are used: The total extension = n x The load is shared equally among the springs. W Tension in each spring = 2 x Extension of each spring = 2 If n springs are used: The total extension = x n Example 1 The original length of each spring is 10 cm. With a load of 10 g, the extension of each spring is 2 cm. What is the length of the spring system for (a), (b) and (c)?

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 Example 2 Diagram below represent a 50 cent coin and a leaf falling in a vacuum container. The coin is heavier than the leaf. Using the diagram shown and the information given about the weight of the two objects, compare the mass of the coin and the leaf, the time taken to fall, the position of the coin and the leaf and finally deduce the physical quantity which causes the objects to fall. coin leaf Mass Time taken to fall in a vacuum Position of the coin and the leaf Coin and leaf of different mass reach the bottom of the container at the same time. Coin and leaf fall down due to gravitational force. The magnitude of gravitational pull is constant. It does not depend on the mass

Example 3

Diagram 10 shows a student trying to launch a water rocket.

You are required to give suggestion on how to design a water rocket for National Competition. Based on your knowledge on forces, motion and properties of materials, explain your suggestion based on the following aspect:

 (i) material used (ii) shape of the rocket (iii) suitable angle to launch the rocket (iv) volume of water in the rocket (v) added structure for the motion of the rocket

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 Water Rocket Aspect Structure Explanation Acceration of the Rocket Make from light material Structure of the Rocket Aerodynamic Upthrust force Fill with erated water or gasy drink with water Stability of the rocket during flight Use plasticine to make the head of the rocket Add fins at the back portion of the rocket

Example 4

Diagram 4.1 shows a cradle with a baby in it is oscillating vertically. Diagram 4.2 shows another identical cradle with a heavier baby in it is oscillating vertically. It is observed that the cradle with a heavier mass baby oscillates at a higher frequency.

Design an experiment to test the hypothesis using spring, slotted weight and other suitable apparatus.

 4 (a) Inference : The extension of the spring depends 1 (b) Hypothesis : As the 1 c (i) Aim : To investigate the relationship between 1

Variables :

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c(ii)

Manipulated variable :

1

Responding variable :

 Constant variable : 1 c(iii) Apparatus : Metre rule, retort stand with clamp ,steel spring, slotted weight and 1 pin. Set-up the apparatus c(iv) 1 c (v) Method of controlling the manipulated variables : 1 1. Arrangement the apparatus as shown in the diagram. 2.Mark the initial Method of measuring the responding variables : Record 1 Extension of spring : Measure the Repeat the 1

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c ( vi)

Tabulate Results

1

Initial length , l 0 =

cm

 Mass of the Slotted weight , m / g 40 80 120 160 200 Weight of slotted mass / N 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.0 Length of the spring ,l / cm Extension of the spring x = l- l 0

(vii)

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Total

1

12