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ZXMW NR8250

Digital Microwave Transmission System

System Description
Version: V2.00.03

ZTE CORPORATION
NO. 55, Hi-tech Road South, ShenZhen, P.R.China
Postcode: 518057
Tel: +86-755-26771900
Fax: +86-755-26770801
URL: http://ensupport.zte.com.cn
E-mail: support@zte.com.cn

LEGAL INFORMATION
Copyright 2012 ZTE CORPORATION.
The contents of this document are protected by copyright laws and international treaties. Any reproduction or
distribution of this document or any portion of this document, in any form by any means, without the prior written
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Additionally, the contents of this document are protected by

contractual confidentiality obligations.


All company, brand and product names are trade or service marks, or registered trade or service marks, of ZTE
CORPORATION or of their respective owners.
This document is provided as is, and all express, implied, or statutory warranties, representations or conditions
are disclaimed, including without limitation any implied warranty of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose,
title or non-infringement. ZTE CORPORATION and its licensors shall not be liable for damages resulting from the
use of or reliance on the information contained herein.
ZTE CORPORATION or its licensors may have current or pending intellectual property rights or applications
covering the subject matter of this document. Except as expressly provided in any written license between ZTE
CORPORATION and its licensee, the user of this document shall not acquire any license to the subject matter
herein.
ZTE CORPORATION reserves the right to upgrade or make technical change to this product without further notice.
Users may visit ZTE technical support website http://ensupport.zte.com.cn to inquire related information.
The ultimate right to interpret this product resides in ZTE CORPORATION.

Revision History
Revision No.

Revision Date

Revision Reason

R1.0

20120730

First edition

Serial Number: SJ-20120611092528-002


Publishing Date: 20120730 (R1.0)

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Contents
About This Manual ......................................................................................... I
Chapter 1 Overview .................................................................................... 1-1
1.1 Product Composition .......................................................................................... 1-1
1.2 Product External View ........................................................................................ 1-2
1.3 Product Functions .............................................................................................. 1-3

Chapter 2 System Architecture ................................................................. 2-1


2.1 Logical Architecture ............................................................................................ 2-1
2.2 Hardware Architecture ........................................................................................ 2-3
2.2.1 IDU ......................................................................................................... 2-3
2.2.2 ODU........................................................................................................ 2-4
2.3 Software Architecture ......................................................................................... 2-5

Chapter 3 Signal Flows .............................................................................. 3-1


3.1 Service Flows .................................................................................................... 3-1
3.1.1 TDM Service Flow .................................................................................... 3-1
3.1.2 Ethernet Service Flow............................................................................... 3-3
3.2 Management Plane Signal Flow .......................................................................... 3-5

Chapter 4 System Principles ..................................................................... 4-1


4.1 System Clock Principle ....................................................................................... 4-1
4.1.1 Clock Synchronization Types .................................................................... 4-1
4.1.2 Clock Synchronization Principles............................................................... 4-2
4.2 Power Supply Principle ....................................................................................... 4-3
4.2.1 Power Supply Connection......................................................................... 4-3
4.2.2 Power Distribution .................................................................................... 4-3
4.3 Operation and Maintenance Principle .................................................................. 4-4
4.3.1 Configuration Modes ................................................................................ 4-4
4.3.2 Data Management.................................................................................... 4-5
4.3.3 Security Management............................................................................... 4-5
4.3.4 Alarm Management .................................................................................. 4-6
4.3.5 Monitoring and Maintenance ..................................................................... 4-7
4.3.6 Diagnosis and Debugging ......................................................................... 4-8
4.3.7 Software Upgrading.................................................................................. 4-8
4.4 Reliability Principle ............................................................................................. 4-8
4.4.1 Hardware Reliability ................................................................................. 4-8
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4.4.2 Software Reliability................................................................................... 4-8


4.4.3 Data Reliability ......................................................................................... 4-9

Chapter 5 Radio Protection Configurations............................................. 5-1


5.1 1+0 No-Protection Configuration ......................................................................... 5-1
5.2 1+1 HSB Configuration ....................................................................................... 5-2
5.3 1+1 SD Configuration ......................................................................................... 5-4
5.4 1+1 FD Configuration ......................................................................................... 5-6
5.5 2+0 XPIC No-Protection Configuration................................................................. 5-7
5.6 2+2 XPIC HSB Configuration .............................................................................. 5-8
5.7 2+2 XPIC SD Configuration ...............................................................................5-11

Chapter 6 Networking Modes .................................................................... 6-1


6.1 Overview ........................................................................................................... 6-1
6.2 Point-to-Point Networking Mode .......................................................................... 6-2
6.3 Chain Networking Mode...................................................................................... 6-3
6.4 Tree Networking Mode........................................................................................ 6-3
6.5 Ring Networking Mode ....................................................................................... 6-4

Chapter 7 Operation and Maintenance..................................................... 7-1


7.1 Operation & Maintenance Solution ...................................................................... 7-1
7.2 LMT .................................................................................................................. 7-1
7.2.1 Functions................................................................................................. 7-1
7.2.2 Networking .............................................................................................. 7-1
7.3 NetNumen U31 System ...................................................................................... 7-2
7.3.1 Functions................................................................................................. 7-2
7.3.2 Networking .............................................................................................. 7-2

Chapter 8 Technical Indexes ..................................................................... 8-1


8.1 System Indexes ................................................................................................. 8-1
8.2 Radio Frequency................................................................................................ 8-2
8.2.1 Channel Spacing...................................................................................... 8-2
8.2.2 ODU Transceiving Spacing ....................................................................... 8-2
8.3 System Capacity ................................................................................................ 8-2
8.4 Power................................................................................................................ 8-4
8.4.1 Transmit Power ........................................................................................ 8-4
8.4.2 Threshold Power ...................................................................................... 8-6
8.5 Physical Indexes ................................................................................................ 8-8
8.5.1 Dimensions.............................................................................................. 8-8
8.5.2 Weight..................................................................................................... 8-8
8.5.3 Power Supply........................................................................................... 8-8
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8.5.4 Power Consumption ................................................................................. 8-8


8.6 Reliability ........................................................................................................... 8-9
8.6.1 Security ................................................................................................... 8-9
8.6.2 Fault Tolerance ........................................................................................ 8-9
8.6.3 EMC........................................................................................................ 8-9
8.6.4 Operations............................................................................................... 8-9
8.6.5 Storage ................................................................................................... 8-9
8.6.6 Protection Class ..................................................................................... 8-10

Figures............................................................................................................. I
Tables ............................................................................................................ III
Glossary .........................................................................................................V

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About This Manual


Purpose
This manual provides information about the system structure, signal flows, system
principles, configurations, networking modes, operation and maintenance, and technical
indexes of the ZXMW NR8250 digital microwave transmission system.

Intended Audience
This manual is intended for technical personnel who perform operations on the ZXMW
N8250 digital microwave transmission system.

What Is in This Manual


This manual contains the following chapters:
Chapter

Summary

1, Overview

Describes the system composition, external view, and


functions of the ZXMW NR8250.

2, System Architecture

Describes the logical architecture, hardware architecture,


and software architecture of the ZXMW NR8250.

3, Signal Flows

Describes the service signal flow and management plane


signal flow of the ZXMW NR8250.

4, System Principles

Describes the clock principle, power supply principle,


operation and maintenance principle, and reliability
principle of the ZXMW NR8250.

5, Radio Protection Configurations

Describes various hardware compositions and operating


modes of the ZXMW NR8250.

6, Networking Modes

Describes various networking modes of the ZXMW


NR8250.

7, Operation and Maintenance

Describes two operation and maintenance modes of the


ZXMW NR8250: Local Maintenance Terminal (LMT) and
NetNumen centralized network management system.

8, Technical Indexes

Describes technical indexes of the ZXMW NR8250.

Conventions
This manual uses the following typographical conventions:
Typeface

Meaning

Italics

Variables in commands. It may also refer to other related manuals and documents.
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Typeface

Meaning

Bold

Menus, menu options, function names, input fields, option button names, check
boxes, drop-down lists, dialog box names, window names, parameters, and
commands.

Constant width

Text that you type, program codes, filenames, directory names, and function
names.

[]

Optional parameters.

{}

Mandatory parameters.

Separates individual parameters in a series of parameters.

Danger: indicates an imminently hazardous situation. Failure to comply can result


in death or serious injury, equipment damage, or site breakdown.
Warning: indicates a potentially hazardous situation. Failure to comply can result
in serious injury, equipment damage, or interruption of major services.

Caution: indicates a potentially hazardous situation. Failure to comply can result


in moderate injury, equipment damage, or interruption of minor services.
Note: provides additional information about a certain topic.

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Chapter 1

Overview
Table of Contents
Product Composition ..................................................................................................1-1
Product External View ................................................................................................1-2
Product Functions ......................................................................................................1-3

1.1 Product Composition


Figure 1-1 shows the product composition.
Figure 1-1 Product Composition

Indoor Unit (IDU)


The IDU accesses service data through the service interface board. The main control
unit implements service switching and processing, and provides system management
functions. The Intermediate Frequency (IF) board modulates/demodulates baseband
data and provides interfaces connected to other IDUs.

Outdoor Unit (ODU)


An ODU is connected to the IDU through IF cables. It implements functions including
service data up/down conversion and Radio Frequency (RF) transceiving.
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ZXMW NR8250 System Description

Antenna
Antennas directionally transmit, converge, and receive electromagnetic wave signals
through parabolic reflectors.

In the transmitting direction, the electromagnetic waves sent from waveguides


are polarized and radiated.

In the receiving direction, the received electromagnetic waves are polarized and
converted into electromagnetic energy and transmitted by waveguides.

Local Maintenance Terminal (LMT)


The LMT software is embedded into the IDU. Users can access the IDU through the
Internet Explorer installed on a Personal Computer (PC) and manage the IDU.

Element Management System (EMS)


The NetNumen U31 system, known as the EMS, communicates with the IDU through
the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), and manages multiple Network
Elements (NEs) in the network.

1.2 Product External View


The NR8250, which uses modular design, consists of an IDU and one or multiple ODUs.

IDU
Figure 1-2 shows the external view of the IDU.
Figure 1-2 IDU

ODU
Figure 1-3 and Figure 1-4 show the external view of a 6-11 GHz ODU and a 13-38 GHz
ODU respectively.

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Chapter 1 Overview

Figure 1-3 6-11 GHz ODU

Figure 1-4 13-38 GHz ODU

1.3 Product Functions


For detailed information of the NR8250 functions, refer to Table 1-1.

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Table 1-1 Functions of the NR8250


Service Type

Function

Description
Native represents the advanced native transmission
technology while Hybrid means hybrid transmission of
non-mapping native services. The Hybrid & Native function
enables the native Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) service
and the native Ethernet service to dynamically share the

Hybrid & Native

air interface bandwidth, and mapping between them is not

microwave

required. The functions has the following advantages:

transmission

Reduces the transmission delay and increases the


system transmission efficiency.

Reduces unnecessary cost of frame encapsulation and


increases the radio bandwidth utilization.

Increases the microwave frequency spectrum


utilization.

The NR8250 can function as a convergence node and


Six-direction
aggregation node

supports at most six transmission directions. The Ethernet


service switching function and the Synchronous Digital
Hierarchy (SDH) Multiplexer (MUX) function are embedded
in the NR8250, facilitating service switching.
ACM is a technology that can automatically adjust the

WLAN

coding and modulation mode in accordance with channel


Adaptive Coding and
Modulation (ACM)

quality. When channel quality is good, the ACM function


improves the system transmission efficiency and frequency
spectrum utilization. When channel quality is deteriorated,
the ACM function ensures the link reliability of high-priority
services.

Automatic

This function reduces the transmitter's interference on

transmission power

neighbor systems and the transmitter's residual error rate.

control
The NR8250 can transmit two channels of different signals
on the same carrier frequency through a dual-polarized
antenna, and such signals are called cross-polarized
Cross Polarization

signals. In practical applications, however, interference is

Interference

generated between cross-polarized signals due to limited

Canceller (XPIC)

antenna isolation, multi-path effect, or signal attenuation


caused by rain. The XPIC function is applied at the
receiving end to eliminate the interference and improve the
system immunity.

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Chapter 1 Overview

Service Type

Function

Description
With this function, the contents that are unchanged but

Ethernet frame

repeatedly transmitted in Ethernet data frames, such as

header compression

MAC address and IP header, are replaced by short bytes at

on air interface

the transmitting end. This function increases the Ethernet


service transmission throughput for a fixed bandwidth.
l

The NR8250 supports Ethernet load balance and XPIC


to implement large-capacity transmission.

The Ethernet load balance function is implemented


by Link Aggregation Group (LAG) or Physical Link
Aggregation (PLA). LAG uses the HASH algorithm to

Load balance

calculate source/destination addresses of data flows to


determine the transmission channel for each service
flow. Load balance can also be implemented based
on IP addresses. PLA slices each service flow in
accordance with a fixed length, and averagely allocates
such data slices to each transmission channel.
The NR8250 supports TDM service cross connections,

Service cross

that is, cross connections from E1 to STM-1 and from

connections

STM-1 to E1. The maximum cross-connection capacity is


3200E13200E1.
l

The NR8250 supports SNCP switchover when the


work mode of air interface is set to E1 or STM-1. It
improves the microwave link transmission reliability.

SNCP uses 1+1 protection mode. In other words, each


transmission direction has two different routes: working
route and protection route. Service data is transferred

TDM

between two NEs through SNCP, that is, the NE at the

Sub-Network

transmitting end transmits service data to the NE at

Connection

the receiving end through the working subnetwork and

Protection (SNCP)

protection subnetwork in bridge mode. The NE at the

for TDM service

receiving end selects the service data from one of the


two routes based on the switchover principle.
l

The SNCP function can be flexibly applied in protection


configuration for various networks, including trunk
network, relay network, and access network. It can
also be applied in various network topologies, including
tree network, ring network, and mesh network.

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Service Type

Function

Description
This function has the following advantages:
l

Supports the Ethernet switching function with a


maximum switching capacity of 22 Gbit/s.

Provides 10/100/1000 Mbps adaptive ports, and


supports the auto-negotiation function and automatic
transmission rate adjustment.

Supports statistics of Ethernet bandwidth utilization


and remote monitoring.

Supports 16 K Medium Access Control (MAC) address


spaces.

Supports 4 K VLANs that comply with the IEEE 802.1q


standard.

Supports 9600-byte Jumbo frames.

Supports the STP/RSTP/MSTP function. It prevents


packets from being multiplied and circulated in a
ring network, and ensures that the system packet
processing capability will not degrade due to repeatedly
receiving the same packets.

Supports the Connectivity Fault Management (CFM)


function, which includes continuity check, loopback

Ethernet

check, link tracing, remote defect indication, frame loss

Ethernet switching

rate measurement, alarm indication, administrative


locking, and signal testing.
l

Supports the Ethernet in the First Mile (EFM) function,


which includes link frame-level detection and statistics
management, and reports the alarm status of relevant
links to users in a timely manner.

Supports the Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP)


function, which enables devices of different vendors
to recognize each other in the network and exchange
system configuration information with each other.

Supports the Link Aggregation Control Protocol


(LACP) function, through which multiple member links
are bound to form an aggregation group, increasing
point-to-point bandwidth and redundancy between two
devices.

Supports the Ethernet Ring Protection Switching


(ERPS) function, which is operating on all NEs in a ring
network. The Connectivity Fault Management (CFM)
module checks link connectivity in the ring network and
reports link faults to ERPS to ensure that each NE can
operate properly.

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Chapter 1 Overview

Service Type

Function

Description
l

Supports the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)


function, which dynamically checks the microwave
network topology and calculates the route table for the
IP layer to forward data.

QoS is a network security mechanism, which helps solve


network delay and congestion problems.
The NR8250 determines the scheduling priority of a packet
in accordance with the information such as 802.1q priority,
Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) priority, and
mpls label in the packet. It ensures that important packets
are not delayed or discarded and the network can operate
properly.
This functions has the following advantages:
l

Supports various scheduling types, including Strict


Priority (SP), Weighted Round Robin (WRR), Weighted
Deficit Round Robin (WDRR), SP+WRR, and
SP+WDRR.

l
Quality of Service
(QoS)

Supports two packet discarding functions: end


discarding and simple early random discarding.

Supports the storm suppression function for unknown


unicast, unknown multicast, known multicast, and
broadcast.

Supports the packet aging time setting function that is


embedded in the NR8250.

Supports the traffic shaping function for outgoing


services.

Supports the control list access function. In other


words, the input data packets are categorized in
accordance with filtering conditions such as source
address, destination address, and port number of
the packets. This function implements a series of
operations for specific service flows, including flow
control, black/white list, priority mapping, and flow
statistics.

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Chapter 2

System Architecture
Table of Contents
Logical Architecture....................................................................................................2-1
Hardware Architecture................................................................................................2-3
Software Architecture .................................................................................................2-5

2.1 Logical Architecture


Figure 2-1 shows the logical architecture of the NR8250 system.

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Figure 2-1 System Logical Architecture

IDU
l

Radio Core Cross-connect Unit (RCU)


It implements functions including system control, system clock synchronization,
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) service cross connections, and Ethernet service
switching.

Radio Traffic Unit (RTU)


It accesses GE/FE, E1, and STM-1/4 services.

Radio Modulation Unit (RMU)


It encodes baseband signals sent from the RCU, modulates them into Intermediate
Frequency (IF) signals, and sends them to ODU(s) via the IF interface.
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Chapter 2 System Architecture

It also receives IF signals sent from ODU(s), demodulates and decodes them, and
sends them to the RCU.
l
l
l

Power Module (PM): It is the power supply module of the IDU.


Radio Power Unit (RPU): It is the power supply module of ODU.
Radio Fan Asset (RFA): It is the fan board of the IDU.

ODU
It is placed outdoors, together with an antenna, implementing RF signal transmitting and
receiving.

2.2 Hardware Architecture


2.2.1 IDU
Figure 2-2 shows the hardware architecture of the IDU.
Figure 2-2 IDU Hardware Architecture

For the relationship between the boards and corresponding slots, refer to Table 2-1.
Table 2-1 Relationship Between Boards and Corresponding Slots
Slot No.

Board Type

Board

1-2

RCU

RCUB

2-8

RTU

RTUA, RTUB, RTUC, RTUNO, RTUNE,


RTUHO, RTUHE

3-8

RMU

RMUC, RMUD

14, 15

PM

PM3

13

RPU

RPUA

16

RFA

RFAB

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2.2.2 ODU
Figure 2-3 and Figure 2-4 show the hardware architecture of a 6-11 GHz ODU and a 13-38
GHz ODU respectively.
Figure 2-3 ODU (6-11 GHz)

1. Receive level indication


interface
2. IF interface

3. Grounding interface
4. RF interface (coaxial-cable
type)

5. RF interface (waveguide
type)

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Chapter 2 System Architecture

Figure 2-4 ODU (13-38 GHz)

1. Grounding interface
2. IF interface

3. Receive level indication


interface

4. RF interface (waveguide
type)

2.3 Software Architecture


The NR8250 software system is based on the Software Defined Radio (SDR) platform. It
consists of the following subsystems:
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

Product application subsystem


Configuration management subsystem
Resource management subsystem
Protocol stack subsystem
Driver adaptive layer subsystem
Radio RF link management subsystem
SDR/L2 and SDR/L3 subsystems
Board Support Package (BSP) subsystem

Figure 2-5 shows the software architecture of the NR8250 system.

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ZXMW NR8250 System Description

Figure 2-5 Software Architecture

Product Application Subsystem (Product Application)


This subsystem implements the following functions:
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l
l
l
l
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l

Network Management System (NMS) access control


Database System (DBS) data table and trigger definitions
Alarm definition
Performance counter definition
Web server
Time management
Environment management

Configuration Management Subsystem (CFG)


This subsystem implements the following functions:
l
l
l
l
l
l

Equipment (rack) configuration


Ethernet service configuration
TDM service configuration
Radio parameter configuration
Clock configuration
Protocol stack configuration
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It ensures that the back-end configuration data can be correctly written into the front-end
DBS.

Resource Management Subsystem (RM)


This subsystem manages and updates resource status in a centralized manner, and
provides resource-related operating interfaces for other subsystems.

Protocol Stack Subsystem (Protocol)


This subsystem implements Ethernet-related protocols, and processes Ethernet
protocol packets entering the CPU in accordance with the configuration data. It
processes clock-related services, including clock source management, clock protocol
implementation, and clock source selection.

Driver Adaptive Layer Subsystem (MUX)


This subsystem transceives incoming/outgoing packets of the CPU, and provides the
unified hardware operating interface for upper-layer service processing entities.

Radio RF Link Management Subsystem (RPM)


This subsystem manages Intermediate Frequency (IF) and Radio Frequency (RF) devices,
implements the Automatic Transmitter Power Control (ATPC) function, and protects RF
links.

SDR/L2 and SDR/L3 Subsystems


The two subsystems provide bottom-layer supports for the software operating
environment, including Operating System (OS) encapsulation and standard Operation &
Maintenance (O&M) for devices.

BSP Subsystem
This subsystem drives bottom-layer hardware and provides the hardware Application
Programming Interface (API) for upper-layer subsystems.

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Chapter 3

Signal Flows
Table of Contents
Service Flows.............................................................................................................3-1
Management Plane Signal Flow .................................................................................3-5

3.1 Service Flows


3.1.1 TDM Service Flow
The Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) service of the NR8250 involves E1, STM-1, and
STM-4. Figure 3-1 shows the TDM service flow.
Figure 3-1 TDM Service Flow

Transmitting Direction

1. RTU
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ZXMW NR8250 System Description

RTUA/RTUC/RTUH
a. Receives E1 signals, and performs HDB3 coding.
b. Encapsulates PDH signals, and transmits them to the switching plane through
the backplane.

RTUB
a. Receives E1/STM-1/STM-4 signals.

Note:
For E1 signals, the system should perform the following mapping and
multiplexing process: E1 signal -> VC-12 signal -> VC-4 signal.

b. Transmits VC-4 signals to the timeslot cross unit of RTUB.


c.

Encapsulates SDH signals, and transmits them to the switching plane through
the backplane.

2. RCU
Receives the encapsulated signals sent from RTU, selects the port in accordance with
the switching policy, and transmits data frames to RMU through the backplane.
3. RMU
a. Maps TDM service signals to the payload area of microwave frames and adds
overhead of microwave frames to form complete microwave frames.
b. Combines the formed analog IF signals and ODU O&M signals through FEC
coding, digital modulation, D/A conversion, and modulation/demodulation.
c.

Transmits the combined signals and -48 V power supply signals to ODUs through
IF cables.

4. ODU
a. Separates analog IF signals, ODU O&M signals, and -48 V power supply signals.
b. Converts the analog IF signals to RF signals of the transmitting frequency through
up conversion and signal amplification.
c.

Transmits RF signals to the antenna through waveguide.

Receiving Direction

1. ODU
a. Separates and filters RF signals.
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b. Performs down conversion and signal amplification to convert RF signals to analog


IF signals.
c.

Transmits the combined signals that consist of analog IF signals and ODU O&M
signals to RMU through IF cables.

2. RMU
a. Separates the received combined signals into analog IF signals and ODU O&M
signals.
b. Performs A/D conversion, digital demodulation, FEC demodulation, frame
synchronization, and descrambling.
c.

Extracts TDM service signal frames from microwave frames, and transmits them
to RCU through the backplane.

3. RCU
Processes received data frames, and outputs SDH/PDH signals to the port selected
in accordance with the switching policy.
4. RTU
l RTUA/RTUC/RTUH
a. Receives PDH signals, and performs HDB3 decoding.
b. Outputs E1 signals.
l

RTUB
a. Receives SDH signals.
b. Transmits VC-4 signals to the timeslot cross unit of RTUB.
c.

Performs the following processing in accordance with the signal type


outputted by RTUB.
If...

Then...

RTUB outputs E1 signals

i.

Demultiplex VC-4 signals to VC-12 signals.

ii.

Transmit VC-12 signals to the timeslot cross unit of


RTUB.

iii. De-map VC-12 signals to E1 signals.


iv. Perform HDB3 decoding to output E1 signals.
RTUB outputs

Output STM-1/STM-4 signals.

STM-1/STM-4 signals

3.1.2 Ethernet Service Flow


This section supposes that Ethernet service is accessed from the RTUN board. Figure 3-2
shows the Ethernet service flow of the NR8250.
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Figure 3-2 Ethernet Service Flow

Transmitting Direction

1. RTUH/RTUN
Receives Ethernet signals, selects the port through which data is switched to the
backplane in accordance with the switching policy, and sends data frames to RCU
through the backplane.
2. RCU
Transmits data frames to RMU through the backplane in accordance with the switching
policy.
3. RMU
a. Maps Ethernet frames to the payload area of microwave frames and adds
overhead of microwave frames to form complete microwave frames.
b. Combines the formed analog IF signals and ODU O&M signals through FEC
coding, digital modulation, D/A conversion, and modulation/demodulation.
c.

Transmits the combined signals and -48 V power supply signals to ODUs through
IF cables.

4. ODU
a. Separates analog IF signals, ODU O&M signals, and -48 V power supply signals.
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b. Converts the analog IF signals to RF signals of the transmitting frequency through


up conversion and signal amplification.
c.

Transmits RF signals to the antenna through waveguide.

Receiving Direction

1. ODU
a. Separates and filters RF signals.
b. Performs down conversion and signal amplification to convert RF signals to analog
IF signals.
c.

Transmits the combined signals that consist of analog IF signals and ODU O&M
signals to RMU through IF cables.

2. RMU
a. Separates the received combined signals into analog IF signals and ODU O&M
signals.
b. Performs A/D conversion, digital demodulation, FEC demodulation, frame
synchronization, and descrambling.
c.

Extracts Ethernet frames from microwave frames, and sends them to RCU through
the backplane.

3. RCU
Transmits data frames to RTUN through the backplane in accordance with the
switching policy.
4. RTUH/RTUN
Processes received data frames, and selects the port to output Ethernet service
signals in accordance with the switching policy.

3.2 Management Plane Signal Flow


Control signals of the NR8250 are transmitted in the in-band mode. Control signals and
user data are separated by Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN).
l The control signal flow is input from the Ethernet board or the IF board (RMU), and
forwarded to the main control board (RCU) for switching.
l In accordance with MAC addresses or IP addresses contained in the control signal
flow, the main control board determines whether the control signals should be
processed by the software of the main control board. The control plane data to be
processed is switched to the CPU of the main control board for processing.
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After being processed, the control plane signal flow, which is marked with the VLAN
ID by the main control board for distinction, is sent to the data switching plane from
the CPU, switched to the ports of different boards, and sent outwards.
Figure 3-3 shows the control signal flow of the NR8250.
Figure 3-3 Control Signal Flow of NR8250

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Chapter 4

System Principles
Table of Contents
System Clock Principle...............................................................................................4-1
Power Supply Principle...............................................................................................4-3
Operation and Maintenance Principle .........................................................................4-4
Reliability Principle .....................................................................................................4-8

4.1 System Clock Principle


4.1.1 Clock Synchronization Types
For the input/output clock sources supported by the NR8250, refer to Table 4-1.
Table 4-1 Input/Output Clock Sources Supported by NR8250
Clock Source Type

Description

Standard Followed

BITS clock

The BITS clock signal is inputted from the CLK

ITU-T G.813 standard

IN/OUT port on the RCU panel. The BITS clock


has two modes: 2 Mbps and 2 MHz. Users can
configure the clock mode through software.
SyncE synchronization

The NR8250 supports the Master-output/Slave-

ITU-T G.8262

gigabit/megabit

input mode. The synchronization Ethernet clock

standard

Ethernet clock

signal is inputted/outputted from the gigabit or


megabit Ethernet interface of RCU/RTUH/RTUN.

Synchronous Digital

The NR8250 extracts the clock signal from STM-N

Hierarchy (SDH) clock

physical fiber (namely, the clock signal is extracted

ITU-T G.813 standard

from the STM1/STM4 optical service inputted


from the electrical interface of RTUB), and it has
nothing to do with the service that the optical fiber
bears. The clock signal outputted from STM-1/4 is
forwarded to the lower-level NEs.
Microwave air-interface

The NR8250 restores the clock signal from the

clock

air interface, and uses it as the system reference

ITU-T G.813 standard

clock source.
1PPS+TOD clock

The 1PPS+TOD clock signal is inputted/outputted

ITU-T G.813 standard

from the CLK IN/OUT port on the RCUA panel.

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Clock Source Type

Description

Standard Followed

1588v2 clock

The NR8250 supports the 1588v2 protocol. It

ITU-T G.8263

extracts the clock signal from the 1588v2 Slave

standard

interface, inputs/outputs it through the gigabit


Ethernet interface of RCU/RTUH/RTUN, and uses
the signal as the system reference clock source.
The supported clock types include common clock,
edge clock, and transparent clock.
l

If an NR8250 is used as a secondary common


clock, it synchronizes with upper-level NEs
through the 1588v2 protocol. If an NR8250 is
used as a primary common clock, it outputs
the clock signal to the lower-level NEs through
the 1588v2 protocol.

If an NR8250 is used as a transparent


clock, it satisfies the clock synchronization
requirement of terminal devices through the
point-to-point existence delay modification
for 1588v2 packets that are transparently
transferred in the microwave network.

If an NR8250 is used as an edge clock, it


forwards the clock synchronization signal in
the microwave network to satisfy the clock
synchronization requirement of terminal
devices.

Plesiochronous Digital

The NR8250 extracts the clock signal from the E1

Hierarchy (PDH) clock

interface of RTUB/RTUC/RTUH, and uses it as

ITU-T G.823 standard

the system reference clock source.

4.1.2 Clock Synchronization Principles


A microwave network that consists of NR8250s bears SDH services and radio services. It
is a synchronization network, synchronizing time in the primary/secondary synchronization
mode.
An NE node in the microwave network is taken as the primary clock, and synchronizes
with the upper-level high-precision clock. It is configured with a high-precision local crystal
oscillator, which is used for keeping the clock or as the primary clock when no external
high-precision clock is available. Other NE nodes in the network trace the primary clock,
and control corresponding lower-level NE nodes in accordance with the primary clock.
Figure 4-1 shows the clock signal transferring diagram of the NR8250.

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Figure 4-1 Clock Signal Transferring Diagram

1. After the system clock of IDU1 locks a reference clock source, it transfers the clock
signal to IDU2 through microwave air interface, synchronization Ethernet, or optical
fiber, and works as the reference clock source of IDU2.
2. IDU2 can lock its system clock to the reference clock source and outputs the system
clock signal to implement the clock transferring function.

4.2 Power Supply Principle


4.2.1 Power Supply Connection
The NR8250 uses the standard -48 V communication power supply. The IDU and relevant
ODUs use different power supplies.
l The IDU gets the -48 V power supply from the PM module, which supports the 1+1
backup function and has a maximum power of 300 W.
l An ODU gets power supply from the IF interface of the RMU board, which gets
power supply from the RPUA board. The maximum power of an RPUA is 210 W,
and an RPUA can provide power supply to six ODUs at most. The RPUA board
performs functions including Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) protection for
circuits, reverse-connection prevention, and O-Ring.

4.2.2 Power Distribution


The PM module provides the 12 V power supply for boards in all slots. The RPUA board
provides the -48 V power supply for boards in slots 3 to 6. Figure 4-2 shows the power
distribution of the NR8250.

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Figure 4-2 NR8250 Power Distribution

4.3 Operation and Maintenance Principle


4.3.1 Configuration Modes
The NR8250 provides various login methods and configuration management methods to
facilitate equipment maintenance. Users can select appropriate connection configuration
modes in accordance with actual conditions.
l WEB configuration mode
Users manage equipment through the HTTP protocol. After entering the IP address of
an NR8250 in the Internet Explorer, users can log in to the WEB-formed LMT system
and manage the equipment.
l

EMS configuration mode


The back-end network management server operates as the Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP) server, and the front-end NR8250 operates as
the SNMP client. The front-end and the back-end share the same Management
Information Base (MIB) database, and equipment management is implemented
through the network management system. This connection configuration mode
helps users effectively manage and configure the equipment through the network
management system.
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4.3.2 Data Management


The data management module helps users manage the NR8250 configuration data. It
ensures that the configuration data can be issued to each service board reliably and
accurately.

Data Storage
In the NR8250 system, the main control board uses a 256 MB flash to save data. The
flash stores various files, including version files, configuration files, exception log files, and
performance files.

4.3.3 Security Management


The security management module helps LMT users maintain the operation rights, including
querying rights, adding rights, deleting rights, and setting rights and passwords for users.
The user rights hierarchy function is used to manage the equipment operation commands.
The configuration right and browsing right are available to users. Those who only have
the browsing right can only access the configuration window but cannot modify the
configuration data.
At most 10 users can be added through the security management module. There are three
roles: administrator, operator, and browsing user.
l
l
l

The administrator can perform all query operations and configuration operations, and
add or delete users.
An operator can perform query operations and configuration operations.
A browsing user can only perform query operations.

All users can modify their own passwords.


The security management module also provides the IP rule filtering function and the Trap
IP control-table enabling function for the NetNumen U31 system.
Figure 4-3 shows the security management signal flow.
Figure 4-3 Security Management Signal Flow

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4.3.4 Alarm Management


Alarm Management Functions
The alarm management module is one of the application modules of the Operation,
Administration and Maintenance (OAM) subsystem. It provides the following functions:
l Monitors the operating status of each module/unit in the system, and collects status
messages, alarm messages, and alarm recovery messages of each monitored unit.
l Analyzes these messages and sends them to the back-end after appropriate processing, It enables the back-end network management system to monitor the entire
system operations in real time.
l Notifies relevant application systems to troubleshoot faults in accordance with the
alarm influence range.
l Reflects the real-time operating status of the equipment, software, and environment,
and locates faulty units accurately in real time.
l Provides detailed information of fault descriptions and fault occurring time.
l Provides possible fault causes, troubleshooting solutions, and suggestions.

Alarm Management Mechanism


Figure 4-4 shows the alarm management mechanism.
Figure 4-4 Alarm Management Mechanism

The main control board stores all the alarm bitmap information of the equipment, and
collects alarm information of each board through the alarm collection management
function. Each board can also automatically reports alarm information to the alarm
agent module.
The agent management function reconstructs alarm information. The alarm agent
module extracts useful alarm information and sends it to the main control board. The
main control board manages alarm information in a unified manner.
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4.3.5 Monitoring and Maintenance


The monitoring and maintenance module helps users not only find all faults of the
equipment but also troubleshoot the faults in a timely manner. It ensures proper
operations of the equipment.

Equipment Monitoring
l

The maintenance terminal provides all alarm information of the equipment and
monitors the status and operations of the equipment in real time. It handles all
abnormal alarms that affect the equipment operations in a timely manner to ensure
that the equipment can operate properly.
Alarm information is divided into four levels:

critical

major

minor

warning

Alarm levels enable users to handle critical alarms as soon as possible.


l

Indicators are designed on the power board, main control board, and each controlled
board. The color and flashing frequency of each indicator reflects the operating status
of the corresponding board, whether the board has an alarm, and the alarm level.
When the equipment is being started, the system gives a sound prompt, indicating
whether the equipment is powered on properly. The system also provides sound alarm
and rotating speed alarm for the fans if they are faulty.
The system uses the active/standby configuration. When the active equipment
becomes faulty, the system automatically perform active/standby equipment
switchover to ensure that the system can operate properly.

Equipment Maintenance
l
l

l
l
l

The multi-user operation mode is implemented through the user rights hierarchy.
During the equipment operating process, all alarm information is recorded. When
a fault occurs, users can find the fault causes through the log information and
troubleshoot the fault in a timely manner.
When the equipment is powered down or restarts, the system provides a special alarm
handling policy to ensure that the original alarm information will not be lost after the
equipment is powered on or restarted.
Association or filtering shielding processing is performed for redundant alarms of the
equipment, ensuring that important alarms are provided.
In the LMT system, users check the operating status of the equipment.
In the LMT system, users can check the service performance data of the equipment,
including 15-minute performance data of one day and 24-hour performance data of
10 days.

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4.3.6 Diagnosis and Debugging


The NR8250 provides various diagnosis and debugging methods, helping users get
sufficient debugging information during the equipment debugging process.
The NR8250 provides a dedicated diagnosis and debugging command mode and
comparatively complete diagnosis and debugging functions. Users can check the
equipment at any time, and remotely find and locate faults.

4.3.7 Software Upgrading


The NR8250 supports software upgrading through Local Maintenance Terminal (LMT) or
Element Management System (EMS).

4.4 Reliability Principle


4.4.1 Hardware Reliability
The NR8250 system uses the redundancy design to improve the hardware reliability.
l

Power supply protection


The IDU and ODUs use different power supplies, and all the power supplies support
1+1 backup protection.

Control-switching-plane active/standby protection


The system supports active/standby protection for the main control board and clock.
When the active board becomes faulty, the standby board is automatically switched
over to operate as the active board. During the active/standby switchover, an
instantaneous service interruption is allowed.

Air interface protection


The system supports three protection modes: 1+1 hot backup protection, 1+1 space
diversity protection, and 1+1 frequency diversity protection.

4.4.2 Software Reliability


l
l

The software development of the NR8250 complies with the Capability Maturity Model
(CMM) specification.
Unified and portable system platform
The NR8250 uses a modularized software system platform, which completely shields
the hardware features and makes the application layer independent of the hardware.
It provides a unified and portable system platform for various applications.

Hierarchical modularized structure

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The NR8250 uses a hierarchical modularized software structure to implement a high


cohesion and low coupling. It reduces the influence of an errored software module on
other software modules to the minimum extent.
l

Uninterrupted upgrading
The NR8250 supports upgrading software by installing the software patch. The
software of a controlled board can be upgraded online without affecting the main
control board. It improves the service transmission capability as well as the system
availability and service quality.

4.4.3 Data Reliability


The NR8250 provides a strict data protection mechanism.
l

It supports real-time synchronous data backup between the active board and the
standby board. When the active board is faulty, the standby board is automatically
switched over to operate as the active board, and its program and data take effect
immediately. Because the standby board's data is consistent with that of the active
board, the upper-layer service transmission will not be affected.
It supports automatically backing up the database of the active board to the Flash
storage area. In this way, the active board can acquire the data directly from the
Flash storage area.
It provides the active/standby 1+1 protection mode of the radio link to ensure the
service transmission data reliability. The active/standby 1+1 protection mode has the
following three types:

1+1 space diversity protection

1+1 frequency diversity protection

1+1 hot backup protection

The version management function enables the system to initiate the version
consistency check periodically. If data inconsistency is found, an alarm is reported,
and the incorrect software version is prohibited to be activated and loaded. The
system also notifies users to re-download the software version package to recover
the data.

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Chapter 5

Radio Protection
Configurations
Table of Contents
1+0 No-Protection Configuration ................................................................................5-1
1+1 HSB Configuration...............................................................................................5-2
1+1 SD Configuration .................................................................................................5-4
1+1 FD Configuration .................................................................................................5-6
2+0 XPIC No-Protection Configuration .......................................................................5-7
2+2 XPIC HSB Configuration .....................................................................................5-8
2+2 XPIC SD Configuration......................................................................................5-11

5.1 1+0 No-Protection Configuration


Configuration Requirements

Note:
The configuration requirements described in this chapter are only suitable for one-hop
links.

Component

Quantity and Available Slots

Indoor Unit (IDU)

Two

Radio Modulation Unit

Two (each IDU is configured with one RMU), inserted in any of slots 3

(RMU)

to 8

Outdoor Unit (ODU)

Two

Antenna

Two

Intermediate Frequency

Two

(IF) cable

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1+0 No-Protection Configuration Illustration


Figure 5-1 1+0 No-Protection Configuration Illustration

1+0 No-Protection System Block Diagram


Figure 5-2 1+0 No-Protection System Block Diagram

In the 1+0 no-protection configuration, a microwave link has only one operating channel
and does not have any standby channel.

5.2 1+1 HSB Configuration


Configuration Requirements
HSB is short for Hot Standby. In this configuration mode, 1+1 hot backup protection is
implemented for RMUs and ODUs.
Component

Quantity and Available Slots

IDU

Two

RMU

Four (each IDU is configured with two RMUs), inserted in slots 3 and
4, slots 5 and 6, or slots 7 and 8

ODU

Four

Antenna

Two

IF cable

Four

Combiner

Two

Figure 5-3 shows the slot allocation for RMUs in the 1+1 HSB configuration mode.

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Chapter 5 Radio Protection Configurations

Figure 5-3 Slot Allocation for RMUs in 1+1 HSB Configuration Mode

The following slots are mutually protected:


l
l
l

slots 3 and 4
slots 5 and 6
slots 7 and 8

Note:
The slot allocation for 1+1 Space Diversity (SD) configuration and 1+1 Frequency Diversity
(FD) configuration are the same as that for 1+1 HSB configuration.

1+1 HSB Configuration Illustration


Figure 5-4 1+1 HSB Configuration Illustration

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1+0 HSB System Block Diagram


Figure 5-5 1+0 HSB System Block Diagram

In the transmitting direction: Service signals are transmitted to the active RMU and
the standby RMU. Normally, the active ODU transmits RF signals to the antennas
while the standby ODU does not transmit signal. When the active RMU or ODU
becomes faulty, the active ODU stops transmitting signals and the standby ODU starts
transmitting signals.
In the receiving direction: The system selects one channel of service signals
with better signal quality from the two that are transmitted by the opposite-end
active/standby ODUs.

5.3 1+1 SD Configuration


Configuration Requirements
SD is short for Space Diversity. In this configuration mode, 1+1 backup protection is
implemented for channels. Two spatially-separated antennas are used to receive the same
signal. The system selects the optimal one from the two received signals, which minimizes
the impact of attenuation on signal transmission.
Component

Quantity and Available Slots

IDU

Two

RMU

Four (each IDU is configured with two RMUs), inserted in slots 3 and
4, slots 5 and 6, or slots 7 and 8

ODU

Four

Antenna

Four
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Chapter 5 Radio Protection Configurations

Component

Quantity and Available Slots

IF cable

Four

1+1 SD Configuration Illustration


Figure 5-6 1+1 SD Configuration Illustration

1+1 SD System Block Diagram


Figure 5-7 1+1 SD System Block Diagram

In the transmitting direction: Service signals are transmitted to the active RMU and the
standby RMU. Normally, the active ODU transmits RF signals to the antenna while the
standby ODU does not transmit signal. When the active RMU or ODU becomes faulty,
the active ODU stops transmitting signals and the standby ODU starts transmitting
signals.
In the receiving direction: The system selects one channel of service signals
with better signal quality from the two that are transmitted by the opposite-end
active/standby ODUs.

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5.4 1+1 FD Configuration


Configuration Requirements
FD is short for Frequency Diversity. In this configuration mode, 1+1 backup protection
is implemented for channels. Two channels with a certain frequency spacing are used
to transmit and receive the same signals. The system selects the optimal one from the
received two signals, which minimizes the impact of attenuation on signal transmission.
Component

Quantity and Available Slots

IDU

Two

RMU

Four (each IDU is configured with two RMUs), inserted in slots 3 and
4, slots 5 and 6, or slots 7 and 8

ODU

Four

Antenna

Two

IF cable

Four

Combiner

Two

1+1 FD Configuration Illustration


Figure 5-8 1+1 FD Configuration Illustration

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1+1 FD System Block Diagram


Figure 5-9 1+1 FD System Block Diagram

In the transmitting direction: Service signals are transmitted to the active RMU and
the standby RMU. The active ODU transmits RF signals with the F1 frequency to the
antenna, and the standby ODU transmits RF signals with the F2 frequency to the
antenna. F1 and F2 are scarcely correlated.
In the receiving direction: The active ODU and the standby ODU respectively
extract RF signals of F1 frequency and F2 frequency from the signals received
from the antenna. The system selects the service signal with better quality from the
corresponding RMU.

5.5 2+0 XPIC No-Protection Configuration


Configuration Requirements
Component

Quantity and Available Slots

IDU

Two

RMUC

Four (each IDU is configured with two RMUs), inserted in


slots 3 and 4, slots 5 and 6, or slots 7 and 8

ODU

Four

Antenna

Two

IF cable

Four

XPIC cross-connect cable

Four

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2+0 XPIC No-Protection Configuration Illustration


Figure 5-10 2+0 XPIC No-Protection Configuration Illustration

2+0 XPIC No-Protection System Block Diagram


Figure 5-11 2+0 XPIC No-Protection System Block Diagram

5.6 2+2 XPIC HSB Configuration


Configuration Requirements
Component

Quantity and Available Slots

IDU

Two

RMUC

Eight (each IDU is configured with four RMUCs),


inserted in slots 5 to 8

ODU

Eight

Antenna

Two

IF cable

Eight

Combiner

Four
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Chapter 5 Radio Protection Configurations

Component

Quantity and Available Slots

XPIC cross-connect cable

Eight

2+2 XPIC HSB Configuration Illustration


Figure 5-12 2+2 XPIC HSB Configuration Illustration

In the 2+2 XPIC HSB configuration mode, an active ODU and its standby ODU are
connected to the same antenna through a combiner, providing HSB protection.

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2+2 XPIC HSB System Block Diagram


Figure 5-13 2+2 XPIC HSB System Block Diagram

In the transmitting direction: Normally, the active ODUs transmit RF signals to the
antennas while the standby ODUs do not transmit signal.

When an active ODU is faulty, the corresponding standby ODU transmits RF


signals to the antenna, and the active ODU does not transmit signal.

When an active RMUC is faulty, the corresponding standby RMUC modulates


signals, and the corresponding standby ODU transmits RF signals to the antenna.
The active ODU does not transmit signal.

In the receiving direction: The system selects one channel of service signals
with better signal quality from the two that are transmitted by the opposite-end
active/standby ODUs.

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5.7 2+2 XPIC SD Configuration


Configuration Requirements
Component

Quantity and Available Slots

IDU

Two

RMUC

Eight (each IDU is configured with four RMUCs), inserted


in slots 5 to 8

ODU

Eight

Antenna

Four

IF cable

Eight

XPIC cross-connect cable

Eight

2+2 XPIC SD Configuration Illustration


Figure 5-14 2+2 XPIC SD Configuration Illustration

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2+2 XPIC SD System Block Diagram


Figure 5-15 2+2 XPIC SD System Block Diagram

In the transmitting direction: Normally, the active ODUs transmit RF signals to the
antennas while the standby ODUs do not transmit signal.

When an active ODU is faulty, the corresponding standby ODU transmits RF


signals to the antenna, and the active ODU does not transmit signal.

When an active RMU is faulty, the corresponding standby RMU modulates


signals, and the corresponding standby ODU transmits RF signals to the
antenna. The active ODU does not transmit signals.

In the receiving direction: The system receives the service signal with better signal
quality from the two that are transmitted by the opposite-end active/standby ODUs.

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Chapter 6

Networking Modes
Table of Contents
Overview ....................................................................................................................6-1
Point-to-Point Networking Mode .................................................................................6-2
Chain Networking Mode .............................................................................................6-3
Tree Networking Mode ...............................................................................................6-3
Ring Networking Mode ...............................................................................................6-4

6.1 Overview
The NR8250 supports multiple networking modes to meet various application
requirements. It is mainly applied as a Backhaul aggregation node and in a ring network.
Figure 6-1 NR8250 Networking Diagram

Application
l

Mobile Backhaul aggregation node

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Figure 6-2 Mobile Backhaul Aggregation Node

Mobile Backhaul ring network


Figure 6-3 Mobile Backhaul Ring Network

6.2 Point-to-Point Networking Mode


The NR8250 supports the Point-To-Point (PTP) networking mode. In a PTP network,
services between two nodes are directly transmitted through microwave, see Figure 6-4.

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Chapter 6 Networking Modes

Figure 6-4 Point-to-Point Network

6.3 Chain Networking Mode


The NR8250 supports the chain networking mode. In a chain network, all microwave
transmission nodes are linked one by one as a chain, and the first node and the last node
of the chain are open, see Figure 6-5.
Figure 6-5 Chain Network

6.4 Tree Networking Mode


The NR8250 supports the tree networking mode. In a tree network, several chain
topologies are connected through some NE nodes, and there is no loop in the network,
see Figure 6-6.
Figure 6-6 Tree Network

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6.5 Ring Networking Mode


NR8250s can form a ring network through microwave, see Figure 6-7.
Figure 6-7 Ring Network

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Chapter 7

Operation and Maintenance


Table of Contents
Operation & Maintenance Solution .............................................................................7-1
LMT............................................................................................................................7-1
NetNumen U31 System..............................................................................................7-2

7.1 Operation & Maintenance Solution


The NR8250 system supports the following two operation & maintenance solutions:
l
l

Local Maintenance Terminal (LMT)


NetNumen U31 centralized network management system

7.2 LMT
7.2.1 Functions
LMT is a Web-based local maintenance terminal, which is embedded in IDUs. User can
use the Internet Explorer on a Personal Computer (PC) to log in to and manage a single
Network Element (NE) without installing additional client software.
LMT provides the following NE-level management functions:
l
l
l
l
l

Alarm management
Configuration management
Performance management
Maintenance management
Security management

7.2.2 Networking
After connecting a PC to the IDU through an Ethernet cable, users can access the
equipment through the Internet Explorer on the PC. Figure 7-1 shows the networking
diagram.

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Figure 7-1 Local Networking Diagram

Users can access IDU1 to IDU6 through the LMT software embedded in each IDU.
Users can log in to an IDU through the PC and perform management functions such as
alarm management and configuration management.

7.3 NetNumen U31 System


7.3.1 Functions
The NetNumen U31 system is an Element Management System (EMS). Users can
access the NetNumen U31 server through a NetNumen U31 client to accomplish the
unified management of all Network Elements (NEs) in the network.
The NetNumen U31 system provides NE-level management functions. It also supports
the function of connecting upper-layer network management systems.
The NetNumen U31 system provides the following NE-level management functions:
l
l
l
l
l

Alarm management
Configuration management
Performance management
Security management
Topology Management

7.3.2 Networking
l

Local networking mode


In the local networking mode, the NetNumen U31 server, clients, and IDUs are all
located in the same LAN, and are connected with each other through Ethernet. Figure
7-2 shows the networking mode.
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Chapter 7 Operation and Maintenance

Figure 7-2 Local Networking Diagram

Remote networking mode


In the remote networking mode, clients, NEs, or both clients and NEs are located
remotely. Figure 7-3 shows an example of the remote networking mode when clients
are located remotely.

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Figure 7-3 Remote Networking Diagram

Hybrid networking mode


The hybrid networking mode is a combination of the local networking mode and the
remote networking mode, see Figure 7-4.

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Figure 7-4 Hybrid Network Diagram

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Chapter 8

Technical Indexes
Table of Contents
System Indexes..........................................................................................................8-1
Radio Frequency ........................................................................................................8-2
System Capacity ........................................................................................................8-2
Power.........................................................................................................................8-4
Physical Indexes ........................................................................................................8-8
Reliability....................................................................................................................8-9

8.1 System Indexes


Index

Specification

Frequency stability

10 ppm (guaranteed value)

Protection switchover time

Ethernet ring network (ERPS G.8032): 50 ms


E1 SNCP: 50 ms
SDH SNCP: 50 ms
1+1: 300 ms
RSTP: 1-2 s
STP: 50 s

Upper limit of receive level

-20 dBm (no error bit)

RSSI

-20 dBm to -90 dBm

Modulation Mode

QPSK/16QAM/32QAM/64QAM/128QAM/256QAM

Operating environment

IDU: -20 to +55

temperature

ODU: -33 to +55


IDU: < 95% (35 )

Operating environment humidity


ODU: < 100%
Transportation and storage

ODU and IDU: -40 to +70

environment temperature

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8.2 Radio Frequency


8.2.1 Channel Spacing
Frequency

Modulation Mode

Channel Spacing (MHz)

All frequency bands

QPSK/16QAM/32QAM/64QAM/128

7/14/28/40/50/56

QAM/256QAM

8.2.2 ODU Transceiving Spacing


Frequency

Frequency Range (GHz)

Transceiving Spacing (MHz)

6 GHz

5.8-7.1

252.04, 266, 340

7 GHz

7.11-7.9

154, 161, 168, 196, 245

8 GHz

7.725-8.5

119, 126, 151.614, 154, 208, 266, 294.44, 305.56,

Band

310, 311.32
10 GHz

10.15-10.68

91, 350

11 GHz

10.7-11.7

490, 530

13 GHz

12.75-13.25

266

15 GHz

14.5-15.35

315, 420, 490, 728

18 GHz

17.7-19.7

1010, 1008, 1560

23 GHz

21.2-23.6

1008, 1200, 1232

26 GHz

24.5-26.5

1008

28 GHz

27.5-29.5

1008

32 GHz

31.8-33.4

812

38 GHz

37.0-39.5

1260

8.3 System Capacity


Bandwidth

Capacity

Modulation
Mode

Air Interface

TDM(Max)

Ethernet(Max)

QPSK

10 Mbps

4 E1

9-11 Mbps

16QAM

19 Mbps

8 E1

18-23 Mbps

32QAM

24 Mbps

10 E1

23-29 Mbps

64QAM

29 Mbps

12 E1

28-36 Mbps

7 MHz

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Chapter 8 Technical Indexes

Bandwidth

Capacity

Modulation
Mode

Air Interface

TDM(Max)

Ethernet(Max)

128QAM

34 Mbps

15 E1

33-43 Mbps

256QAM

40 Mbps

17 E1

39-50 Mbps

QPSK

19 Mbps

8 E1

19-22 Mbps

16QAM

40 Mbps

18 E1

40-46 Mbps

32QAM

49 Mbps

22 E1

49-57 Mbps

64QAM

63 Mbps

28 E1

63-73 Mbps

128QAM

74 Mbps

34 E1

74-86 Mbps

256QAM

86 Mbps

39 E1

86-100 Mbps

QPSK

40 Mbps

18 E1

38-50 Mbps

16QAM

85 Mbps

39 E1

84-107 Mbps

32QAM

105 Mbps

48 E1

104-132 Mbps

64QAM

132 Mbps

61 E1

131-167 Mbps

128QAM

159 Mbps

74 E1/1 STM-1

158-201 Mbps

256QAM

180 Mbps

75 E1/1 STM-1+19

179-229 Mbps

14 MHz

28 MHz

E1
QPSK

60 Mbps

27 E1

59-75 Mbps

16QAM

121 Mbps

56 E1

120-153 Mbps

32QAM

154 Mbps

71 E1

153-195 Mbps

64QAM

189 Mbps

75 E1

188-240 Mbps

128QAM

225 Mbps

75 E1

224-286 Mbps

256QAM

259 Mbps

75 E1

258-329 Mbps

QPSK

82 Mbps

37 E1

81-104 Mbps

16QAM

164 Mbps

75 E1

163-208 Mbps

32QAM

188 Mbps

75 E1

188-240 Mbps

64QAM

245 Mbps

75 E1

244-312 Mbps

128QAM

283 Mbps

75 E1

283-361 Mbps

256QAM

337 Mbps

75 E1

337-430 Mbps

40 MHz

50 MHz

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Bandwidth

Capacity

Modulation
Mode

Air Interface

TDM(Max)

Ethernet(Max)

QPSK

86 Mbps

39 E1

85-98 Mbps

16QAM

175 Mbps

75 E1/1 STM-1+7

174-201 Mbps

E1
32QAM

219 Mbps

75 E1/1 STM-1+27

212-246 Mbps

E1
56 MHz

64QAM

272 Mbps

75 E1/1 STM-1+51

271-313 Mbps

E1
128QAM

317 Mbps

75 E1/1 STM-1+71

319-368 Mbps

E1/2 STM-1
256QAM

365 Mbps

75 E1/1 STM-1+75

367-424 Mbps

E1/2 STM-1+21 E1

Note:
The Ethernet service throughput is related to the actual modulation/demodulation mode
and channel bandwidth.

8.4 Power
8.4.1 Transmit Power
Frequency

Modulation Mode

Transmit Power (dBm)

6/7/8 GHz

QPSK

29

16QAM

26

32QAM

23

64QAM/128QAM

21

256QAM

20

QPSK

25

16QAM

21

32QAM

19

64QAM/128QAM

17

256QAM

16

10/11/13 GHz

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Chapter 8 Technical Indexes

Frequency

Modulation Mode

Transmit Power (dBm)

15 GHz

QPSK

23

16QAM

20

32QAM

19

64QAM/128QAM

17

256QAM

16

QPSK

24

16QAM

20

32QAM

18

64QAM/128QAM

15

256QAM

14

QPSK

22

16QAM

18

32QAM

17

64QAM/128QAM

14

256QAM

13

QPSK

22

16QAM

17

32QAM

16

64QAM/128QAM

13

256QAM

12

QPSK

18

16QAM

14

32QAM

13

64QAM/128QAM

10

256QAM

18/23 GHz

26/28 GHz

32 GHz

38 GHz

Note:
The guaranteed value of transmit power is within the range from -2.0 dB to +2.0 dB.

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8.4.2 Threshold Power


Threshold Power (dBm)
Frequency

6/7/8
GHz

Modulation
Mode

7 MHz

14 MHz

28 MHz

40 MHz

50 MHz

56 MHz

Band-

Band-

Band-

Band-

Band-

Band-

width

width

width

width

width

width

QPSK

-93

-91

-88

-86

-86

-85

16

-88

-85.5

-82

-79

-78

-79

-85

-82

-78.5

-76

-76

-75.5

-82

-79

-76

-74

-72

-73

-79

-76

-72

-70

-69

-70

-76

-73

-69

-65

-64

-67

-92.5

-90

-88

-87

-86

-85

-86

-82

-80

QAM
32
QAM
64
QAM
128
QAM
256
QAM
10/11/13
/15GHz

QPSK
16
QAM

-87

32
QAM

QAM

-83

GHz

-91

16

-69

-70

-68

-67
-67

-88.5

-85

-82

-82.5

-79

-76

-82

-82.5
-76.5

-75
-76

-73

-73
-74

-76.5

-74

-71

-80

-70
-70

-73.5

-70.5

-67

-76.5

256
QAM

-71

-82

128

-73

-70

-79.5

64

QAM

-72

-85.5

32

QAM

-74
-73

-73.5

QPSK

QAM

-75.5

-78

-75.5

-76
-75

-77

QAM

QAM

-77

-81

256

18/23

-78.5

-80

128
QAM

-79

-84

64

-79

-67
-66

-70.5

-67.5

-73.5

-62

-64
-62

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Chapter 8 Technical Indexes

Threshold Power (dBm)


Frequency

26/28
GHz

Modulation
Mode
QPSK

7 MHz

14 MHz

28 MHz

40 MHz

50 MHz

56 MHz

Band-

Band-

Band-

Band-

Band-

Band-

width

width

width

width

width

width

-91

QAM

32/38
GHz

16

-67
-88

-86

-79

l
l

-73

-70

-70

-67

-67

-64

-64

-82

-82

-76

-76

-74

-73

-72

-69

-69

-66.5

-66

-64

-73

-81.5

-75.5
-77

-71

-79.5

-72.5
-70

-76.5

-73

-70.5

-73.5

-70

-66.5

256
QAM

-84

-79.5

128
QAM

-74

-76

-84.5

64

-76

-64

-81.5

32

QAM

-70
-70

-90.5

-77

-68

-76

QPSK

QAM

-74
-73

-73

-82

-70

-80

QAM

QAM

-76
-76

256

-82

-73

-82

128
QAM

-79
-79

64

-82
-77

-85

32
QAM

-85

-82

16
QAM

-88

-65

Note:
The guaranteed value of threshold power is within the range from -2.0 dB to +2.0 dB.
The Bit Error Rate (BER) is 10-6.

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8.5 Physical Indexes


8.5.1 Dimensions
Index

IDU (mm)

ODU (mm)

Dimensions

482.6 90 199 (W H

6-11 GHz

D)

13-38 GHz

360 360 129 (W H

239 247 75 (W H

D)

D)

8.5.2 Weight
Index

IDU (kg)

ODU (kg)

Weight

7.0 kg (six directions)

6-11 GHz

13-38 GHz

3.5 kg

3 kg

8.5.3 Power Supply


Index

Input Voltage

Voltage Range

Power supply

-48 V DC

-40 V DC to -60 V DC

8.5.4 Power Consumption


Note:
The power consumption indexes are specified for cases when the operating temperature
is 25 .

Item

Power Consumption

RCUB

21.5 W

RMUC

23 W

RMUD

21 W

Description

The power consumption values of these boards


are given in the case of the throughputs of such

RTUA

8.2 W

RTUB

11.7 W

RTUC

11.3 W

boards reaching the maximum.

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Chapter 8 Technical Indexes

Item

Power Consumption

Description

RTUNO

13.2 W

RTUNE

15 W

RTUHO

12 W

RTUHE

14 W

PM

0.075(RCU+RMU+RTU+RFA)

The power is 20 W in the case of full load.

RPUA

6.0 W

RFAB

Slow speed: 6.8 W

Middle speed: 10.1 W


Fast speed: 17.7 W
Full speed: 31.3 W
ODU

29 W (6-8 GHz)

The ODU power consumption value is given

19 W (10-38 GHz)

in the case of the ODU transmission power


reaching the maximum.

8.6 Reliability
8.6.1 Security
l
l

IDUs comply with the IEC 60950 standard.


ODUs comply with the IEC 60950 standard.

8.6.2 Fault Tolerance


l
l

Residual BER: < 10-12 (RSL = -30 dBm)


Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF): > 200,000 hours

8.6.3 EMC
l
l

IDUs comply with the EN 301 489-4 standard.


ODUs comply with the EN 301 489-4 standard.

8.6.4 Operations
l
l

The operations on IDUs comply with the ETSI 300 019-1-3 standard.
The operations on ODUs comply with the ETSI 300 019-2-2 standard.

8.6.5 Storage
l

The storage of IDUs complies with the ETSI 300 019-1-3 standard.

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The storage of ODUs complies with the ETSI 300 019-2-2 standard.

8.6.6 Protection Class


l
l

The protection class of IDUs is IP20.


The protection class of ODUs is IP65.

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Figures
Figure 1-1 Product Composition................................................................................ 1-1
Figure 1-2 IDU .......................................................................................................... 1-2
Figure 1-3 6-11 GHz ODU......................................................................................... 1-3
Figure 1-4 13-38 GHz ODU ...................................................................................... 1-3
Figure 2-1 System Logical Architecture..................................................................... 2-2
Figure 2-2 IDU Hardware Architecture ...................................................................... 2-3
Figure 2-3 ODU (6-11 GHz) ...................................................................................... 2-4
Figure 2-4 ODU (13-38 GHz) .................................................................................... 2-5
Figure 2-5 Software Architecture............................................................................... 2-6
Figure 3-1 TDM Service Flow ................................................................................... 3-1
Figure 3-2 Ethernet Service Flow.............................................................................. 3-4
Figure 3-3 Control Signal Flow of NR8250 ................................................................ 3-6
Figure 4-1 Clock Signal Transferring Diagram........................................................... 4-3
Figure 4-2 NR8250 Power Distribution...................................................................... 4-4
Figure 4-3 Security Management Signal Flow ........................................................... 4-5
Figure 4-4 Alarm Management Mechanism............................................................... 4-6
Figure 5-1 1+0 No-Protection Configuration Illustration ............................................. 5-2
Figure 5-2 1+0 No-Protection System Block Diagram ............................................... 5-2
Figure 5-3 Slot Allocation for RMUs in 1+1 HSB Configuration Mode........................ 5-3
Figure 5-4 1+1 HSB Configuration Illustration ........................................................... 5-3
Figure 5-5 1+0 HSB System Block Diagram.............................................................. 5-4
Figure 5-6 1+1 SD Configuration Illustration.............................................................. 5-5
Figure 5-7 1+1 SD System Block Diagram ................................................................ 5-5
Figure 5-8 1+1 FD Configuration Illustration.............................................................. 5-6
Figure 5-9 1+1 FD System Block Diagram ................................................................ 5-7
Figure 5-10 2+0 XPIC No-Protection Configuration Illustration .................................. 5-8
Figure 5-11 2+0 XPIC No-Protection System Block Diagram..................................... 5-8
Figure 5-12 2+2 XPIC HSB Configuration Illustration ................................................ 5-9
Figure 5-13 2+2 XPIC HSB System Block Diagram ................................................ 5-10
Figure 5-14 2+2 XPIC SD Configuration Illustration ................................................ 5-11
Figure 5-15 2+2 XPIC SD System Block Diagram................................................... 5-12
Figure 6-1 NR8250 Networking Diagram................................................................... 6-1
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Figure 6-2 Mobile Backhaul Aggregation Node ......................................................... 6-2


Figure 6-3 Mobile Backhaul Ring Network ................................................................ 6-2
Figure 6-4 Point-to-Point Network ............................................................................. 6-3
Figure 6-5 Chain Network ......................................................................................... 6-3
Figure 6-6 Tree Network ........................................................................................... 6-3
Figure 6-7 Ring Network ........................................................................................... 6-4
Figure 7-1 Local Networking Diagram ....................................................................... 7-2
Figure 7-2 Local Networking Diagram ....................................................................... 7-3
Figure 7-3 Remote Networking Diagram ................................................................... 7-4
Figure 7-4 Hybrid Network Diagram .......................................................................... 7-5

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Tables
Table 1-1 Functions of the NR8250 ........................................................................... 1-4
Table 2-1 Relationship Between Boards and Corresponding Slots ............................ 2-3
Table 4-1 Input/Output Clock Sources Supported by NR8250 ................................... 4-1

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Tables

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Glossary
ACM
- Adaptive Coding and Modulation
API
- Application Programming Interface
ATPC
- Automatic Transmitter Power Control
BER
- Bit Error Rate
BSP
- Board Support Package
CFM
- Connectivity Fault Management
CMM
- Capability Maturity Model
DBS
- DataBase System
DSCP
- Differentiated Services Code Point
EFM
- Ethernet in the First Mile
EMC
- Electro Magnetic Compatibility
EMS
- Element Management System
ERPS
- Ethernet Ring Protection Switching
FD
- Full Duplex
HSB
- Hot Standby
IDU
- Indoor Unit
IF
- intermediate Frequency
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ZXMW NR8250 System Description

LACP
- Link Aggregation Control Protocol
LAG
- Link Aggregation Group
LLDP
- Link Layer Discovery Protocol
LMT
- Local Maintenance Terminal
MAC
- Medium Access Control
MIB
- Management Information Base
MTBF
- Mean Time Between Failures
MUX
- Multiplexer
NE
- Network Element
NMS
- Network Management System
O&M
- Operation & Maintenance
OAM
- Operation, Administration and Maintenance
ODU
- Outdoor Unit
OS
- Operating System
OSPF
- Open Shortest Path First
PC
- Personal Computer
PDH
- Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
PM
- Power Module
PTP
- Point-To-Point
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Glossary

QoS
- Quality of Service
RCU
- Radio Core Cross-connect Unit
RF
- Radio Frequency
RFA
- Radio Fan Asset
RMU
- Radio Modulation Unit
RTU
- Radio Traffic Unit
SD
- Space Diversity
SDH
- Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
SDR
- Software Defined Radio
SNCP
- Sub-Network Connection Protection
SNMP
- Simple Network Management Protocol
SP
- Strict Priority
TDM
- Time Division Multiplexing
VLAN
- Virtual Local Area Network
WDRR
- Weighted Deficit Round Robin
WRR
- Weighted Round Robin
XPIC
- Cross Polarization Interference Canceller

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