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Psychiatrys Corruption of Law

Introduction: Destruction
of Justice ...................................... 2
Chapter One: The Breakdown of
Law and Order ............................. 5

Chapter Two:
The Science of Fraud .................. 11

Chapter Three:
Rehabilitation Failures ................. 15

Chapter Four: Crime

Amongst the Experts ................. 19

Chapter Five: The Return

of Justice .................................... 23

Recommendations ...................... 24

Citizens Commission on
Human Rights International ......... 26

Destruction of Justice

his report is a detailed examina- to equal and even surpass those in the United
tion of the fierce assault on the jus- States.3 Since the 1970s, crime also rose 97% in
tice system that has occurred over France, 145% in England, and 410% in Spain.4
the past seven decades and not The U.K. violent crime rate has soared 545% since
only by criminals. There is a hidden 1985. Sweden now has a crime victimization rate
influence in our courts, one which, while loudly 20% higher than the United States.5 And a study
asserting its expertise and desire to help, has of seven Russian prisons found that 43% of the
instead betrayed our most deeply held values and inmates had injected drugs. Of those, more than
brought us a burgeoning prison population at 13% started in prison.6
soaring public costs. That influence is psychiatry The rehabilitation of criminals is a long-for-
and psychology. gotten dream. We build
The eminent Thomas more prisons and pass
Szasz, professor of psy- even tougher laws in
chiatry emeritus at the In the 1940s, psychiatrys the belief that these
State University of will act as a deterrent.
New York, Syracuse, leaders proclaimed their intention Meanwhile, honest
comments that today, people are losing faith in
the phenomenon of
to infiltrate the field of the law and justice itself as they see
psychiatrists examin- bring about the re-interpretation vicious criminals avoid
ing persons to deter- conviction through
mine whether or not and eventually eradication of the the use of bizarre and
they are responsible incomprehensible
is [a] common feature concept of right and wrong. defense tactics.
of our social land- In the 1940s, psy-
scape. 1 At the same chiatrys leaders pro-
time he recognizes that psychiatry is the single claimed their intention to infiltrate the field of
most destructive force that has affected society the law and bring about the re-interpretation
within the last 60 years. and eventually eradication of the concept of
Shocking? No doubt. But also well-reasoned and right and wrong.
insightful. Dr. Szasz is an internationally acclaimed The rule of law and a functioning and
author of over 30 books. He has both the experience and fair system of legal administration sets apart
the stature to declare that the psychiatric profession enlightened democracies from totalitarian states.
has been steadily undermining the foundations of Citizens have the right to rely on the system for
our culture individual responsibility, standards their peace and safety.
of achievement, education and justice. The bottom Looking back, psychiatrist Karl Menningers
line, he says, is that psychiatrists have been jubilant declaration that a 1954 decision by the
largely responsible for creating the problems they Federal Court of Appeals in Washington, D.C.
have ostensibly tried to solve. was more revolutionary in its total effect than
Since 1965, the U.S. violent crime rate for the Supreme Court decision on ending the seg-
under 18-year-olds increased by more than 147%, regation of African-Americans from Whites now
and for drug abuse violations, by over 597%.2 has a prophetic quality. He was referring to the
Violent crime rates throughout the European ruling that held a mentally defective person is not
Union, Australia and Canada have recently begun criminally responsible for unlawful acts.
The decision triggered an immediate increase
in psychiatric courtroom testimony in the United
States and spread rapidly around the globe. The
cumulative impact of this trend on justice has
since occupied legal scholars, criminologists and
public policy experts all over the world. The
consensus is that the total revolutionary effect
has been a massive erosion of public confidence
in the justice systems ability to mete out swift
and equitable justice.
Menninger had reason to rejoice. The rul-
ing followed less than a decade after the leading
psychiatrists of the day Menninger being one of
them had set out to infiltrate the legal profession
as part of their strategic plan for a global psychia-
try. G. Brock Chisholm, who, with John Rawlings
Rees, was co-founder of the World Federation for
Mental Health (WFMH), bluntly told his peers
at the time: If the race is to be freed from the
crippling burden of good and evil it must be psy-
chiatrists who take the original responsibility.7
Reacting to Chisholms pronouncement,
Samuel Hamilton, advisor to the Public Health In this report, we hope to help you under-
Service and president-elect of the American stand how this occurred. We show how psy-
Psychiatric Association (APA), equated him with a chiatrys ideologies and actions have contributed to
prophet of old presenting the New Jerusalem todays failing criminal rehabilitation and increasing
in which we shall all live.8 crime rate.
Rees was unabashedly blunt when he stated, Finally, we propose to reverse these trends.
Public life, politics and industry should all of We trust that the information will help those of
them be within [psychiatrys] sphere of influence. goodwill and integrity correct a system that is fail-
If we are to infiltrate the professional and social ing its citizenry. The decent, the productive, the
activities of other people I think we must imitate vast majority of us, deserve no less.
the Totalitarians and organize some kind of fifth
column activity! Let us all, therefore, very Sincerely,
secretly be fifth columnists. Rees considered
that the fields of law and medicine were the two
most difficult to attack.9
And attack they did, with the consequence
that today, because of their influence, the system
is failing. Now it is up to the many conscien- Jan Eastgate
tious, hardworking and increasingly disheartened President,
people within the system to realize this and rid it Citizens Commission
of these destructive intruders. on Human Rights International

1 Psychiatrys and psychologys

influence in the courtroom has
eroded the once-firm basis of
justice: the differentiation of
right and wrong.

2 The psychiatric insanity

defense and its derivatives
have done the most damage.

3 Psychiatric expert witnesses

are widely criticized for
providing testimony to suit
their clients purposes.

4 Psychiatry is not based on

science and has failed to cure
insanity (despite taxpayer
funding in the billions of
dollars) and should no longer
be accepted as an authority
by our courts.

By negating personal responsibility and

denying the concepts of right and wrong,
psychiatry and psychology have
perverted the justice system.
The Breakdown of
Law and Order

elebrated nineteenth century If criminals are able to evade the conse-
humorist and author Mark Twain quences of their actions through this type of
noted, Insanity is certainly on perversion of the principles of justice, then
the increase in the world, and the very tool that society has to protect itself
crime is dying out. Formerly has been obliterated.
if you killed a man, it was possible that you Thomas Szasz in his book, The Myth of
were insane but now if you kill a man it Mental Illness, is uncompromising on this
is evidence that you are a lunatic. point: The introduction of psychiatric consid-
Once there was the idea that a person erations into the administration of the criminal
is responsible for his law for example,
own actions. It is an the insanity plea and
idea that has gone the Although psychiatry clothes verdict, diagnoses of
way of the dinosaur. mental incompe-
Take this case of itself in the trappings of science tence to stand trial,
pro minent Virginia and so forth cor-
attorney T. Brook
and seeks to influence the rupt the law and
Howard. His client standards by which we decide victimize the sub-
admitted to having ject on whose behalf
kidnapped a 30-year- criminal responsibility, strict they are ostensibly
old woman, holding reliability in its diagnoses is rare. employed.10
her hostage for over
nine hours, dur- Ralph Adam Fine, Insanity Defense
ing which period he Although the
Trial judge, author of Escape of the Guilty
repeatedly sexually insanity defense is
assaulted her. introduced in less
With great con- than 2% of all crimi-
viction, Howard explained to the judge and nal trials, it is one of the most controversial and
jury that what the victim had experienced the hotly debated issues in American and British
abduction, the psychological torture and the criminal law. Professor Francis Allen said of it,
repeated rapes were not his clients fault. The issue of criminal responsibility has attract-
A psychiatrists testimony said his client just ed more attention and stimulated more contro-
couldnt help himself; that it was an irresistible versy than any other question in the substantive
impulse. criminal law.11
On the basis of the psychiatrists grotesque z Dr. Margaret Hagen, Ph.D., a Boston
testimony, the rapist was acquitted. University lecturer in psychology and law, says that

The Breakdown of Law and Order
Why not just flip pennies or draw cards? Why
not put on a blindfold and choose without being
able to identify the patients? It could hardly hurt [a
diagnostic] accuracy rate that hovers at less than
one out of three times correct .
Dr. Margaret Hagen, Ph.D.,
author of Whores of the Court, The Fraud of Psychiatric
Testimony and the Rape of American Justice

there only appears to be a low percentage of insanity dependent upon the terms of another discipline
defense use, The statistics are true when we look whose members are in profound disagreement
only at straight cases of Not Guilty by Reason of about what those terms mean.14
Insanity. But what changes the picture significantly z Jeffery Harris, Executive Director of the
are defenses such as diminished mental ability, U.S. Attorney Generals Task Force on Violent
which induce prosecutors to bring a lesser charge as Crime, observed, [T]he defense psychiatrist
well as cases in which the alleged mental condition always says the accused is insane, and the pros-
reduces the amount of time served.12 ecuting psychiatrist always says hes sane
z According to trial judge Ralph Adam Fine in The insanity defense is being used as a football
Escape of the Guilty, Although psychiatry clothes ...and quite frankly, youd be better off call-
itself in the trappings of science and seeks to influ- ing Central Casting to get expert psychiatric
ence the standards by which we decide criminal testimony in a criminal trial.15
responsibility, strict reliability in its diagnoses is z Professor Szasz adds, It is unlikely that
rare.13 toxicologists would be tolerated in courts of law
z Chief Justice Warren Burger was incensed if one would observe that he found a large quan-
about the lack of a scientific basis for psychia- tity of arsenic in the body of a deceased person,
trists testimony, whose opinions were therefore and another stated that he found by the same
in conflict with each other: No rule of law operation none. Yet this sorry spectacle is com-
can possibly be sound or workable which is monplace in regard to psychiatric findings.16

The introduction of psychiatric considerations into the

administration of the criminal law for example, the
insanity plea and verdict, diagnoses of mental incompetence
to stand trial, and so forth corrupt the law and victimize
the subject on whose behalf they are ostensibly employed.
Thomas Szasz, professor of psychiatry emeritus

The Breakdown of Law and Order
z In 2006, a U.S. Supreme Court decision accuracy rate that hovers at less than one out of
upheld Arizona's right to limit the use of three times correct. There is no psychological
the insanity defense and did so because any cure for the desire to beat up women, to rape and
layperson is just as qualified to give an murder them. The very idea that [psychology]
opinion about insanity as a psychiatrist or today could even pretend to such an ability is
psychologist. ludicrous .17
z Dr. Hagen, who authored Whores of the In view of such eminent good sense, how is it
Court, The Fraud of Psychiatric Testimony and the that we face the absurd situation of psychiatrists
Rape of American Justice, says: Why not just flip testifying to excuse the wrongdoers actions?
pennies or draw cards? Why not put on a blind- Especially in view of the fact they have proven
fold and choose without being able to identify beyond doubt their inability to agree with each
the patients? It could hardly hurt [the diagnostic] other, let alone cure anyone.


Crime and Violence Soar
Teen Violent Crime up Violent Crime almost Violent Crime Nearly 512 Violent Crime An
nearly 112 times double previous rates times more over 20 years escalation of over 4 times
147% 545% 410%
increase increase increase


1965 2004 1975 2000 1985 2005 1975 2000


sychiatrys increasing influence
in criminal justice has pro-
duced only escalating crime
rates internationally. Although inca-
pable of either predicting future
dangerousness or of rehabilitating
criminals, psychiatrists still testify in
court on behalf of the highest bid-
der, asserting that offenders are not
responsible for what they have done,
but are instead victims of fictitious
mental disorders. The result is rising
crime, as lawbreakers are put back
on the streets to wreak more havoc,
unrepentant and uncorrected.
The Beginning of the End
I n 1812, the father of
American psychiatry,
Benjamin Rush, wrote
his Medical Inquiries and
Observations Upon the
of the offenders. Dr. White testified that the
young mens murderous behavior was the prod-
uct of impulses contrary to their conscious ideals
but expressive of certain strange unconscious
strivings that, for reasons not clear, overwhelmed
Diseases of the Mind, their control. Never questioning the lack of sci-
claiming crime to be a ence to this, the Court of Appeals for the District
curable disease. Viewing of Columbia adopted the defense of irresistible
murder and theft as impulse an impulse that could override the
symptoms of this dis- reason and judgment and obliterate the sense
ease, he sought to have of right and wrong.19
the perpetrators trans- Using the case as a springboard, Dr. White and
ferred from the control the American Psychiatric Association recommend-
of policemen to that ed that a psychiatrist be attached to every crimi-
of psychiatrists.18 Prior nal and juvenile court
to this, the insanity and every penal and
plea was a legal, not a correctional institution,
medical decision. that no sentence for any
felony be made without
1843: The McNaughton a psychiatric report, and
case was the first famous that a psychiatric evalu-
Benjamin Rush legal test for insan- ation be conducted on
ity. Englishman Daniel every prisoner convict-
McNaughton shot and killed the secretary of the ed of a felony before
British Prime Minister, believing that the Prime Minister he was released, or
was conspiring against him. The court acquitted before he was placed
McNaughton by reason of insanity and he was on parole or transferred
placed in a mental institution for the rest of his life. to another institution.
Consequently psychi-
1924: Nathan Leopold Judge Bazelon atric departments were
and Richard Loeb, two established in juvenile
young Americans from courts and prisons.
Judge Bazelon succeeded in
affluent families, were
charged with the sense- deforming liberty by ostensibly reforming 1954: The landmark
less killing of a younger criminology and psychiatry an Durham decision estab-
companion. Prominent enterprise whose worth he gravely lished psychiatry solidly in
psychiatrists, including misjudged, partly by thinking that it is the court systems and set
William Alanson White, good, when it is evil, and partly by the precedent for the rest
the president of the of the world. On July 13,
believing that it rests on new discoveries
American Psychiatric 1951, Monte Durham,
Association (APA), were when in fact it rests on old deceptions. a 23-year-old man with
hired by the families to Dr. Thomas Szasz, psychiatrist, a long criminal and psy-
explain the state of mind author of Psychiatric Slavery chiatric history, was tried

The Beginning of the End
Psychiatric expert
testimony was used
by attorney Clarence
Darrow (left) in
1924 to successfully
argue that confessed
killers Leopold and
Loeb (below) were
not responsible for
their acts.

and convicted of housebreaking, despite his insis- points out that it is not
tence that he was not guilty by reason of insanity. surprising that Bazelon
That presiding Judge David Bazelon of the U.S. Court became a much-deco-
of Appeals in Washington, D.C., overruled this deci- rated hero of psychiatry,
sion, turned the standard of right or wrong on its receiving both a Certificate
head and opened the door wide for psychiatric tes- of Commendation and
timony in the courts was not a coincidence. He was an award from the APA.
undergoing psychoanalysis himself.20 Bazelon was one of the
most prominent advocates
1957: Abe Fortas, a court-appointed defense of psychiatric coercion
attorney (later Associate Justice on the U.S. concealed as care and Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb
Supreme Court), assessed the impact of the cure. He succeeded in
Durham decision stating: [T]he law has recog- deforming liberty by ostensibly reforming crimi-
nized modern psychiatry. Its importance is that nology and psychiatry an enterprise whose
it is a charter, a bill of rights, for psychiatry and worth he gravely misjudged, partly by think-
an offer of limited partnership between criminal ing that it is good, when it is evil, and partly by
law and psychiatry.21 believing that it rests on new discoveries when
in fact it rests on old deceptions.24
1966: Another judgment by Bazelon estab-
lished the right of a mental patient to appropri- Today: Psychiatric experts are paid an average
ate treatment22 Psychiatrists interpreted this as of $5,000 (in the U.S.) per day to testify for whom-
their right to enforce treatment.23 Professor Szasz ever is willing to foot the bill.

The Beginning of the End

1 According to the
American Psychiatric
Associations Diagnostic &
Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders IV (DSM-IV ) when
its mental disorder descriptions
are employed for forensic
purposes, there are significant
risks that diagnostic informa-
tion will be misused and

2 Psychiatry, using the same

DSM, has warped the justice
system to protect criminals
instead of protecting society
from criminals. The APA and
psychiatric associations in
other countries stand by
and do nothing.

3 A survey conducted on
the Australian judiciary
about their views of expert
witnesses found widespread
lack of confidence in
psychiatry as a forensic tool.

4 According to a 1988 paper

written by a psychologist,
studies show that profes-
sional clinicians do not in fact
make more accurate clinical
judgments than lay persons.

Testifying for the defense, psychologists

claimed that the later-convicted Menendez brothers
suffered from learned helplessness when they
opened fire on their parents with shotguns.
The Science
of Fraud

n a 1962 article in the Northwestern Law Review, One of the jurors remarked, I dont think
psychiatrist Alfred Baur cited a case where his the general public thinks the jury is any more
hospital received a patient for a three-month than a bunch of idiots. So what did manage
observation before he was to go on trial. Baur to paralyze the two sets of twelve men and
and two colleagues concluded that he had no women? It was the fact that no two psychia-
mental disorder. The court, however, appointed trists could agree on the boys mental diagnosis
two private psychiatrists to give their expert opin- and the psychiatric notion that criminality is
ions. One announced that the patient was a para- excusable.
noid schizophrenic; the other said he was merely in After two trials, the brothers were convicted.
a paranoid state. Come the trial, the hospital psychi- But questions continued about the role of psychia-
atrists testified that the trists and psychologists
patient was not insane, in our courts. An essay
while the two court- When the DSM-IV categories, on the case by Margaret
appointed psychiatrists criteria, and textual descriptions Carlson, published in
insisted that he was. are employed for forensic purposes, TIME magazine, said:
The final irony in this Victimology has turned
ludicrous situation was, there are significant risks that to be the winning
as Baur reported, The diagnostic information will be tactic of our era. In the
jury thereupon found misused and misunderstood. Menendez case, the law
the man not guilty by has been so stretched
reason of insanity and DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association that an unreasonable
still insane and then belief that one is in
committed him to the hospital which had just danger of serious harm one no sane person
found him without mental disorder.25 would harbor can be sufficient grounds for
In 1994, an amazed world watched two self-defense. How did we go from a society
California juries become hopelessly deadlocked that distinguished right from wrong to one that
in the trials of Erik and Lyle Menendez, adult understands all and punishes nothing?26
brothers who had brutally murdered their par- The answer lies in the goal for psychiatry
ents in the familys $4 million (?3.3 million) delineated by C. Brock Chisholm, co-founder of the
home. A team of psychiatrists, psychologists and World Federation for Mental Health (WFMH) that
therapists were hired to build their defense. Utah therapy be aimed at eliminating the concept of right
psychologist Ann Tyler testified that the brothers and wrong and, bolstering this, the American
suffered from learned helplessness as a result Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical
of intense, repeated abuse. Another psychologist, Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and the mental
John Wilson, claimed the boys had post-traumat- disorders section of the International Classification
ic stress disorder. of Diseases (ICD-10).

The Science of Fraud
Unlike medical diagnoses that convey a psychiatrists who testified that he suffered from
probable cause, appropriate treatment and likely paranoid schizophrenia, dementia and Alzheimers
prognosis, the disorders listed in DSM-IV [and ICD- disease. In 2003, Gigante admitted he was a fake
10] are terms arrived at through peer consensus a and had knowingly and easily misled the high-
vote by APA committee members and designed est paid psychiatrists for three decades.31
largely for billing purposes, reports Canadian When imagined mental disorders absolve the
psychologist, Dr. Tana Dineen.27 In other words, guilty of their crimes through an insanity defense (e.g.,
there is no objective science to it. pyromania disorder for arson; pedophilia disorder
As Dr. Margaret Hagen points out: Our legal for child molestation), and wholly fictitious conditions
system has been told that clinical psychology is a are created to convict the innocent (e.g., feeding imagi-
scientific discipline, that its theories and methodology nary recollections of child molestation to patients who
are those of a mature science, and our legal system has then accuse their parents and others under the fabricated
believed it. Given the deplorable state of the science repressed memory syndrome), society is truly in trou-
of clinical psychology, that is truly unbelievable.28 ble. And when criminals are acquitted because psychia-
In a survey trists swear they are insane,
conducted on the only to be sent to psychiatric
Australian judiciary
Our legal system has been told institutions where their violent
about their views of that clinical psychology is a scientific madness will become aggra-
expert witnesses, discipline, and our legal system has vated by drugs, then the totali-
Dr. Ian Freckelton, believed it. Given the deplorable state of tarian brave new world free
one of the nations of moral restraint as envision-
the science of clinical psychology,
leading authorities ed by WFMH co-founders
on the medico-legal that is truly unbelievable. Drs. Rees and Chisholm
maze, found a wide- Dr. Margaret Hagen, Ph.D. has been realized.
spread crisis of con- As long ago as 1884, the
fidence in psychiatry as a forensic tool.29 Judges New York Court of Appeals stated that twelve
think its a soft science, he said, noting the DSM jurors of common sense and common experience
has strict caveats against its use in court. would do better on their own than with the help of
According to the DSM-IV, itself, When the the hired experts, whose opinions cannot fail to be
DSM-IV categories, criteria, and textual descrip- warped by a desire to promote the cause in which
tions are employed for forensic purposes, there are they are enlisted.32 Since then there has been the
significant risks that diagnostic information will be long and well-established tradition of psychiatrists
misused and misunderstood. And it is not suf- and psychologists selling themselves for a sizeable
ficient to establish the existence for legal purposes profit to the point where the pursuit of truth, the
of a mental disorder, mental disability, or mental whole truth and nothing but the truth has given way
defect, in relation to competency, criminal respon- to reams of meaningless data, fearful elaborate specu-
sibility or disability. lation and fantastic conjecture. Courts resound with
Studies show that psychiatrists and psycholo- elaborate, systemized, jargon-filled, serious-sounding
gists do not make more accurate clinical judgments deceptions that fully deserve the contemptuous label
than laypersons.30 Consider the case of Vincent used by trial lawyers themselves: junk science.33
the Chin Gigante, the boss of a New York crime Yet during trials, in sentencing, in proba-
family, convicted of racketeering and murder con- tion hearings, psychiatrists are still called upon
spiracy. Feigning mental illness for more than 30 for their opinions. And, sadly, these opinions
years, whenever he went to trial, the mobster hired are considered.

The Science of Fraud
Manufacturing Excuses

n her book, Manufacturing Victims, Canadian rapists believe sex has to be spontaneous and done
psychologist Dr. Tana Dineen, provides the after some resistance on the part of the woman.
following examples where psychologists and z Superjock Syndrome: This formed a part of the
psychiatrists were paid to pathologize criminal O.J. Simpson trial. Dr. Susan Forward, the thera-
behavior. Numbers in parentheses indicate the DSM- pist who treated Simpsons murdered wife, Nicole,
IV classification code. testified for the prosecution that the likelihood of
z Telephone Scatologia (302.90): A psychiatrist Simpsons guilt was based on her unproven theory
argued that Richard Berendzen, forced to resign his that athletes, especially superstars, are prone to
presidency of American University after being arrested for violence when frustrated.
making obscene phone z Accounting Anxiety:
calls, suffered from In 2003, a Norwegian
paraphilia (perverted psychologist claimed he
sexual behavior). suffered from account-
z Sleepwalking Dis- ing anxiety to explain
order (307.46): This diag- why he had violated
nosis was used successful- financial and tax laws.
ly in the 1980s defense of z Moral Insanity:
a Canadian man charged P sychiatrist William
with the murder of his Cone was sentenced
wifes parents, after he to 133 years in prison
drove 15 miles across for sexual and deviate
Toronto in the middle of sexual assault of two
the night to commit the female patients. Cone
act. claimed that he suffered
z Somatoform Dis- from moral insan-
order (300.81): A univer- ity brought on by his
sity professor was ordered obsessive preoccupa-
to pay his adult daugh- tion with work, power
ter $1,500 (!1,239) per
The prosecutor in O.J. Simpsons case used the and perfection .34
month until he retires Superjock Syndrome theory during his trial, This might explain
because she is unable to with a psychologist asserting superstar athletes why, in 1995, New
work due to a disorder Mexico state senator
that makes her focus on
are prone to violence when frustrated. Duncan Scott proposed
her physical disability. an amendment to a
Not all of psychiatrys psychiatrists and psy-
bizarre defense arguments have made it into the DSM, chologists licensing bill, which read:
yet they still hold weight in our courts. For example: Whenever a psychologist or psychiatrist testifies
z Clerambault-Kandinsky Syndrome: A psycholo- during a defendants competency hearing, the psy-
gist testified that a chief judge of New York State, chologist or psychiatrist shall wear a cone-shaped hat
charged with extortion and threatening to kidnap the that is not less than two feet tall. The surface of the
teenage daughter of his ex-lover, was manifesting hat shall be imprinted with stars and lightning bolts.
advanced symptoms of CKS, described as involving Additionally, the psychologist or psychiatrist shall be
an irresistible lovesickness or erotomania. required to don a white beard that is not less than 18
z Cultural Psychosis: A defense lawyer in inches in length and shall punctuate crucial elements
Milwaukee argued that a teenage girl charged with of his testimony by stabbing the air with a wand.35
the shooting and killing of another girl during an The amendment was approved by the Senate
argument over a leather coat suffered from cultural but was rejected by the New Mexico House of
psychosis which caused her to think that problems Representatives.
are resolved by gunfire. On a more serious note, Dr. Szasz says:
z Fan Obsession Syndrome: First invoked by psychi- Crimes are acts we commit. Diseases are biological
atrist Park Elliot Dietz in 1992 to defend Robert Bardo, processes that happen to our bodies. Mixing these
who had murdered actress Rebecca Schaeffer. two concepts by defining behaviors we disapprove
z Gone With the Wind Syndrome: Named after of as diseases is a bottomless source of confusion
the movie and used by rape experts to explain why and corruption.36

1 With each new failure to

rehabilitate the criminally insane,
psychiatry merely asks for
more money because of the
seriousness of the situation.

2 A research project by the California

Department of Corrections into
the effectiveness of one of its
ongoing counseling programs
found that at least half of the
participants wound up back in
jail within three years of parole.

3 A major part of the treatment

for prison inmates is a regimen
of powerful psychotropic drugs,
despite numerous studies
showing that aggression and
violence are tied to their use.

4 In a 1979 murder trial, Estelle vs.

Smith, the U.S. Supreme Court
held, Psychiatric testimony on the
issue of future criminal behavior
distorts the fact-finding process.

Research found that 78% of paroled

prisoners who received psychological
counseling later experienced continuing
problems with the law and more than
half of those wound up back in jail.

n a 1995 Los Angeles Times article on juvenile an ongoing counseling program in one of their
crime, Vincent Schiraldi, founder and execu- medium-security prisons found that, within three
tive director of the Center on Juvenile and years of parole, 78% of the men who had received
Criminal Justice, a San Francisco think tank, psychological counseling experienced further
wrote, We should start holding the [justice] minor and major problems with the law or had
system accountable. If two out of three Toyotas returned to prison.37
broke down within A major part of the
a year of coming out treatment for prison
of the factory, Toyota inmates is a regimen
would be out of busi- The job of rehabilitation of powerful psycho-
ness. But if two out of making productive citizens out of tropic drugs, used
three kids coming out of these criminals is a job that has less for rehabilitation
juvenile institutions re- than for managing and
offend, we build bigger been taken on at great expense by disciplining them.
juvenile institutions. psychiatry. As usual, in the face of z A Canadian study
And it is time to hold imposing failure, its response has been on the effects of psy-
the psychiatrists and psy- chiatric drugs on
chologists in our penal to ask for yet more money because prisoners discovered
system responsible. of the seriousness of the situation. that violent, aggres-
As the self-appoint- sive incidents occurred
ed experts on human significantly more fre-
behavior, rehabilitation is their job. They are paid for quently in inmates who were on psychotropic
precisely this function. In and of themselves, prisons [mind-altering, psychiatric] medication than
are simply warehouses where men and women can when these inmates were not on psychotropic
be kept so that they no longer harm society. The job drugs. 38
of rehabilitation making productive citizens out z Another study determined that 50% of all
of inmates is a job that has been taken on, at great fights in a psychiatric ward could be tied to drug-
expense to the taxpayer, by psychiatry. induced akathisia (an inability to keep still), a side
And, as usual, in the face of imposing failure, effect often causing assaultive, violent behavior.39
their response has been to ask for yet more money z A further study concluded that moderate-to-
because of the seriousness of the situation. high doses of one major tranquilizer made half of
However, a close inspection of the facts reveals the patients markedly more aggressive. Patients
their ineptitude: described being tormented by violent urges to
z A long-term research project by the California assault anyone near and wanting to kill the
Department of Corrections into the effectiveness of motherf____s.40

Rehabilitation Failures
z A Swedish study of 47 juvenile delinquents
found that 40% were acute abusers of a tranquil-
izer known as a fear reducer and date rape
drug that enabled them to commit extremely
violent crimes.41
z At least 5% of the users of Selective Serotonin
Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants suffer
"commonly recognized" side effects that include
agitation, anxiety and nervousness, aggression,
hallucinations and depersonalization.42
z Antipsychotic drugs, which are frequently
given prisoners, may temporarily dim psychosis
but, over the long run, make patients more biologi-
cally prone to it.43
z The U.S. FDA, European authorities, Japan,
Canada and Britain, have issued dozens of warn-
ings on these drugs causing suicide, homicide and
sudden death.
The authors of the book, The Effectiveness of
Correctional Treatment, report, Medical meth-
ods may be practical expedients for controlling
behavior in the institution, but this should not be
confused with curing disruptive behavior.44
Yet psychotropic drugs are now given to
incarcerated youths and
adults. Instead of reha-
Common side effects of bilitating the inmate
so that he can become
some antidepressants include a productive member
of society, these drugs
agitation, aggression, anxiety and make it even more dif-
ficult for him to escape
nervousness, hallucinations, the dwindling spiral
suicide and depersonalization. of criminality and can
induce violent behavior,
for which psychiatrists
should be held accountable.
As Professor Thomas Szasz says: Psychiatrists
and only psychiatrists have a professional
duty to protect mental patients and only mental
patients from harming themselves or others.
Hence, if a person under psychiatric care kills him-
self or someone else, his psychiatrist may be held
responsible civilly or criminally for the deceased
persons wrongful death.

Jeremy Strohmeyer, 18 years of age

and found guilty of murdering a 7-year-
old, had no history of violence before
being prescribed psychiatric drugs.
Predicting Dangerousness?
A t the sentenc-
ing of a con-
victed child
killer to life in prison,
Winnipeg Associate Chief
errors in predicting dan-
gerousness range from
54% to 94%, averaging
about 85%.47
An American Psy-
Justice Oliphant quoted chiatric Association
a report written long task force admitted
before the crime by the as much in its 1979
Director of Forensic Psy- Amicus Curiae Brief
chiatry for the Province to the U.S. Supreme
of Manitoba. In predict- Court, in which it stat-
ing the dangerousness of ed, It has been noted
the defendant, the direc- that dangerousness
tor had written: There is neither a psychiatric
is nothing to indicate nor a medical diagno-
that he is an antisocial sis, but involves issues
individual and he is not of legal judgment and
prone to expressions of definition, as well as
aggression or violence issues of social policy.
I do not feel that Psychiatric expertise
he represents a physical in the prediction of
threat to the com- dangerousness is not
munity in general he established and clini-
is not, in my opinion, a Psychiatric opinion and theories have no place in our halls of justice. cians should avoid
dangerous person.45 conclusory judgments
After reading this aloud in his court, Justice in this regard. 48
Oliphant adjudicated, My comment, having In response, the Supreme Court rendered
read this, and viewing what has transpired the opinion that, the professional literature
since, is that psychiatry can certainly not be uniformly establishes that such predictions
described as a science . [Emphasis added]. are fundamentally of very low reliability,
In the courtroom, case after case proves and that psychiatric testimony and expertise
the inability of psychiatrists to predict the are irrelevant to such predictions. In view of
acts of criminals. these findings, psychiatric testimony on the
In an article in the Rutgers Law Review , issue of future criminal behavior only distorts
authors Henry Steadman and Joseph Cocozza the fact-finding process.
concluded, There is no empirical evidence to In 2002, Kimio Moriyama, vice-president of
support the position that psychiatrists have the Japanese Psychiatric Association further
any special expertise in accurately predicting admitted, [I]t is impossible for [psychiatric]
dangerousness.46 science to tell whether someone has a high
Terrence Campbell writing in the Michigan potential to repeat an offense. 49
Bar Journal, The accuracy with which clini- Despite such admissions, the concept of
cal judgment predicts future events is dangerousness is still used in courts and dur-
often little better than random chance. The ing involuntary commitment procedures of so-
accumulated research literature indicates that called mental patients.

Predicting Dangerousness?

1 Ten percent of all psychiatrists

admit to sexually abusing
their patients.

2 According to a 2001
report, one out of every
20 clients who had been
sexually abused by their
therapist was a minor.

3 Psychiatry and psychology

have the dubious distinction
of having more than 25
statutes specifically designed
to address the increasing
number of sex crimes
committed by its members.

4 Psychiatrists and
psychologists are
over-represented in the
healthcare industry for
convictions for fraud, sexual
abuses and other crimes.

The experts: psychiatrist Colin Bouwer,

the former head of psychological medicine at the University
of Otago, New Zealand, was sentenced to life
imprisonment for murdering his wife.
Crime Amongst
the Experts

t is an old maxim that if a person wants The following statistical information throws
to break the law with impunity he must light onto the question how such an attitude is
become the law a maxim taken to heart possible among a profession that claims to deal
by psychiatrists and psychologists. in mental health.
We have shown in this report that According to a 2001 study, one out of every
psychiatrists and psychologists are willing to 20 clients who had been sexually abused by their
blatantly twist logic in an effort to invent an therapist was a minor, the average age being
apology for a peers crimes. What is left to seven for girls and 12 for boys.51 The young-
present are the facts est sexually molested
that demonstrate that child was three.
these professions Of the 650,000 Of the 650,000
have a disproportion- psychiatrists and psy-
ately high procliv- psychiatrists and psychologists chologists worldwide
ity towards crime. worldwide today, at least 10% today, at least 10%,
In many cases, those or 65,000, admit to
who have acted as of them admit to sexually sexually abusing their
apologists for fellow abusing their patients; 65,000 patients. Some studies
psychiatrists crimes, estimate that the fig-
were later exposed professionals whose ure is as high as 25%.
and arrested for therapy admittedly A formal Canadian
similar criminality. study of psychiatrists
What most offends includes sexual abuse. showed that up to 10%
peoples natural sense had sexually abused
of justice and under- their patients; 80% of
standing of right and wrong are psychiat- those were repeat offenders. Many had already
ric efforts to downplay even crimes against undergone personal analysis or psychotherapy
children. in an unsuccessful effort to rehabilitate them-
Consider the advice of clinical professor of selves.52
child psychiatry, Richard Gardner, who was Similarly, in a British study of therapist-pa-
quoted in a Washington, D.C. Insight news tient sexual contact among psychologists, 25%
magazine, saying, Societys excessively moral- reported having treated a patient who had been
istic and punitive reactions toward pedophiles sexually involved with another therapist.53
go far beyond what I consider to be the grav- Psychiatry and psychology have the
ity of the crime. Gardner claimed that pedo- dubious distinction of having more than 25
philia serves procreative purposes.50 statutes specifically designed to address the

Crime Amongst the Experts
The cumulative
jail sentences of
the psychiatrists
and psychologists
shown on these two
pages for rape and
other crimes
total more than
Donald Persson
165 years.

Alan Horowitz

William Cone Louis Tsavaris

increasing number of sex crimes committed by z Donald Persson, a Utah psychologist,

its members. described himself as a moral person when
The following is a very small sample of the he was sentenced to 10 years imprisonment for
types of convictions for sexual crimes: the rape of a 12-year-old girl.54
z Alan J. Horowitz, a New York psychiatrist z U.K. psychiatrist Christopher Allison
was sentenced 10 20 years for sodomizing three was jailed for 10 years for the rape and sexual
boys aged seven to nine, and for sexually abusing abuse of six patients.55
a 14-year-old girl. Horowitz defended himself z London psychiatrist Kolathur Unni was
saying that he was a normal pedophile. jailed for 18 months for the sexual attack on
z Missouri psychiatrist William Cone, a female patient during a hypnotherapy ses-
sentenced to 133 years in prison for sexual sion. Unni had a history of sexual assaults
assault of two women, had told his victims they on patients and had been struck off the
were weaned too early and required re-parent- medical register in New Zealand for similar
ing by having sex with him. incidents.56

Crime Amongst the Experts
z Danish psychologist, Bjarne Skovsager in front of him, which he called masturbation
(54), was sentenced to six years in prison therapy. He was convicted of overbilling insurers,
for numerous and severe sexual abuses sentenced to six months of house arrest, two years
including sodomy and indecent exposure against probation, and fined $20,000 (?16,527).60
three boys between the ages of seven and 11. z German psychiatrist Otto Benkert was sen-
Skovsager was ordered to pay compensation to tenced to 11 months in jail, suspended in lieu of
each boy. The judge who sentenced him stated, probation, fined over $176,000 (?145,443) and
You have had a relationship of trust with the ordered to pay $704,683 (?582,335) in compen-
family which you systematically and severely sation for defrauding the university where he
exploited.57 worked as the Chief of Psychiatry.61
A study of Medic- z Canadian psy-
aid and Medicare chotherapist Michael
insurance fraud in the Bogart was sentenced
United States, espe- to 18 months in pris-
cially in New York, on for defrauding
between 1977 and 1995, the government of
showed psychiatrists $924,000 (?763,573)
to have the worst track in insurance billings
record of all medical for non-existent psy-
disciplines.58 chotherapy ses-
Further examples sions he had billed
of convictions of psy- Bjarne Skovsager John Orpin for therapy sessions
chiatrists for fraud and while he was vacation-
murder follow: ing in Europe, New
z South African Zealand, Las Vegas
psychiatrist, Omar and New York.62
Sabadia, was sentenced z Psychiatrist Colin
to a 65-year jail sentence Bouwer, the former
for murdering his wife head of psychologi-
to collect her $600,000 cal medicine at the
(?495,827) life insur- University of Otago,
ance policy, after squan- Kolathur Unni Christopher Allison New Zealand, lost
dering his savings in a court appeal and
gambling. He arranged was sentenced to life
the killing through one You have had imprisonment for mur-
of his patients.59 dering his wife.63
z Virginia psy- a relationship of trust z Ivan Zagainov,
chiatrist, Robert C. with the family which you a psychiatrist in
Showalter was an the Czech Republic,
expert defense witness systematically and severely was sentenced to 13
in criminal cases until exploited. years in jail for the
he lost his license to strangulation mur-
practice for forcing male Judge sentencing Danish psychologist der of a 15-year-old
patients to masturbate Bjarne Skovsager female patient.64

Crime Amongst the Experts

1 Psychiatrys involvement
in the justice system is
a colossal failure that has
come at great cost to society.

2 Psychiatric influence
must be removed from
our courts in order to
restore effective justice.

3 The rehabilitation of
criminals into useful
members of society cannot
occur if psychiatrists and
psychologists continue to
undermine the concept
of personal responsibility.

4 Because of the complete lack

of scientific validity, legal and
medical experts recommend
eliminating psychiatric and
psychological testimony
from the courts.

Our court system

must be freed of psychiatry
and psychologys insanity and
diminished capacity defense.
The Return
of Justice

hen psychiatry entered the only if the person did not know the criminal
justice and penal systems, it act was wrong. Arizona excluded psychiatric
did so under the subterfuge testimony, specifically defenses such as
that it understood man, that it character defects, psychosexual disorders or
knew not only what made man impulse control disorders. In a 2006 decision,
act as he did, but that it knew how to improve his the U.S. Supreme Court upheld Arizonas
lot. This was a lie. sensible reasons to limit the insanity defense,
Psychiatry has had the opportunity to noting that psychiatric testimony was likely
prove itself but has instead proven to be a to confuse jurors, and No matter how the
colossal failure. The cost to society has test for insanity is phrased, a psychiatrist
been catastrophic. or psychologist is no
Psychiatry was more qualified than
posed as a solution and any other person to
became a problem.
We have to restore the idea give an opinion about
The first step is of responsibility, which is corrupted whether a particular
to remove psychiatric and confused by psychiatry, by the defendants mental
influence from the condition satisfies
courts, police depart-
idea that something happened to the legal test for
ments, prisons and you when you were a child insanity. The Court
schools. and therefore you are not empowered every
Compassion decrees state to limit the
that the criminal must
responsible 30 years later. insanity defense or
be given the opportu- Professor Thomas Szasz prohibit it entirely.
nity to face up to what Contrary to psy-
he has done and reform chiatric ideology, man
himself to become a productive member of the is not just another helpless creature, without
group. In this way justice benefits the individual will or conscience, to be manipulated according
and society. to someone elses design. Underneath whatever
Psychiatrys attempt to eradicate the concept confusions he may have, he knows he has the
of right and wrong and thereby destroy personal courage to confront and solve his problems,
responsibility by inventing excuses for the most fla- and he knows he has the ability to discern
grant misconduct, undermines the justice system. between what is right and what is wrong.
Fed up with bogus psychiatric testimony, And underneath it all, he knows it is the
the State of Arizona passed a law permitting an ultimate betrayal to try and persuade him
accused criminal to plead the insanity defense otherwise.

The Return of Justice

1 First and foremost it must be recognized that every person is responsible

for his or her own actions and must be held accountable for their actions.

2 State and federal legislators should repeal any laws permitting the insanity
defense and diminished capacity pleas.

3 Judges, attorneys or law enforcement officers need to ensure that

psychiatric evidence is removed from the courts and that psychiatrists and
psychologists are no longer afforded expert status. Let the judges and
jurors decide questions of criminal intent as they did before psychiatrists
introduced illogical ideas about what is right or wrong.

4 Remove psychiatrists and psychologists as advisors or as counselors from

police forces, prisons and criminal rehabilitation and parole services. Because
psychiatrists have no scientific foundation for their claims, do not permit
them to render opinions about or to treat drug addiction, criminal behavior
and delinquency, or to probe for alleged dangerous behavior.

5 Prosecute as a criminal offense any and all cases of physical damage caused
through psychiatrys use of electroshock, brain surgery or abusive drug

Individuals who have been abused by a psychiatrist, psychologist
or psychotherapist should file a police report about every incident of
psychiatric assault, fraud or other crime they become aware of and send
CCHR a copy of the complaint.

investigates and exposes psychiatric violations of human rights. It works
shoulder-to-shoulder with like-minded groups and individuals who share a
common purpose to clean up the field of mental health. It shall continue to
do so until psychiatrys abusive and coercive practices cease
and human rights and dignity are returned to all.

Dennis Cowan Health Care legislation. CCHR has written submissions to

Fraud Investigator, USA: government on mental health law reform, raised
I would like to congratulate the Citizens public awareness about mental health issues and
Commission on Human Rights for its consistent has encouraged and activated others in their
work in exposing fraudulent and harmful practices effective efforts to bring about a better, fairer and
in the field of mental health. The CCHR staff is a more workable system.
dedicated group. Their expertise, publications, and
reports are a tool for any investigator conducting Chris Brightmore Former Detective
investigations into mental health fraud or other Chief Superintendent, Metropolitan
criminal activity in the system. CCHRs work Police, United Kingdom:
and materials also alert consumers and the public I am acutely aware of the evil that malicious,
about the degree of mental health fraud and abuse or even misguided, psychiatrists are capable of if
and that they, too, can easily become a victim their activities are not carefully monitored. This is
of it. the crucial role that CCHR so heroically performs.
In May 2001, I had the great pleasure and privilege
Robert Butcher Barrister and of opening the Fraud section of CCHRs exhibit in
Solicitor, Western Australia: Los Angeles. After touring the exhibition, which
I have worked with CCHR since 1980 and I I must say is one of the most impressive I have
know them to be a dedicated organization. Often ever seen, and looking over the accomplishments
legislation is passed without any significant com- of CCHR, I can see why some psychiatrists regard
munity input. CCHR has certainly not allowed the organizations growing strength with consid-
that to happen with regards to mental health erable apprehension.

For further information:

CCHR International
6616 Sunset Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA, USA 90028

Citizens Commission
on Human Rights International

he Citizens Commission on Human CCHRs work aligns with the UN Universal
Rights (CCHR) was established in Declaration of Human Rights, in particular the
1969 by the Church of Scientology following precepts, which psychiatrists violate on
to investigate and expose psychiatric a daily basis:
violations of human rights, and to Article 3: Everyone has the right to life,
clean up the field of mental heal- liberty and security of person.
ing. Today, it has more than 250 chapters in over
34 countries. Its board of advisors, called Article 5: No one shall be subjected to tor-
Commissioners, includes doctors, lawyers, educa- ture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment
tors, artists, business professionals and civil and or punishment.
human rights representatives. Article 7: All are equal before the law and
While it doesnt provide medical or legal are entitled without any discrimination to equal
advice, it works closely with and supports medical protection of the law.
doctors and medical practice. A key CCHR focus Through psychiatrists false diagnoses, stig-
is psychiatrys fraudulent use of subjective diag- matizing labels, easy-seizure commitment laws,
noses that lack any scientific or medical merit, brutal, depersonalizing treatments, thousands
but which are used to reap financial benefits in the of individuals are harmed and denied their
billions, mostly from taxpayers or insurance car- inherent human rights.
riers. Based on these false diagnoses, psychiatrists CCHR has inspired and caused many hun-
justify and prescribe life-damaging treatments, dreds of reforms by testifying before legislative
including mind-altering drugs, which mask a hearings and conducting public hearings into psy-
persons underlying difficulties and prevent his or chiatric abuse, as well as working with media, law
her recovery. enforcement and public officials the world over.

on Human Rights International
CCHR National Offices
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New York, 1990), p. 239. Analyze This: Vincent Gigante, Not Crazy After All Those Years, The New
2. Table 4.18 Arrest Rates (Per 100,000 Inhabitants) for Violent Crimes, York Times, 13 Apr. 2003.
Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics 1993, Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. 32. Op. cit., Tana Dineen, p. 155.
Department of Justice, p. 447; Section One Juvenile vs. Adult, Age-Specific 33. Ibid., pp. 155156.
Arrest Rates by Sex, United States Violent Crime, Age-Specific Arrest
Rates and Race-Specific Arrest Rates for Selected Offenses 19932001, Federal 34. 133-Year Prison Sentence for Cone, Daily Quill, 11 Feb. 1998.
Bureau of Investigation, U.S. Department of Justice, Nov. 2003, p. 43; Table 35. Op. cit., Tana Dineen, p. 157.
4.33 Arrest Rates (Per 100,000 Inhabitants) for Drug Abuse Violations, 36. Thomas Szasz, Sins of the Fathers, Is Child Molestation a Sickness or
Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics 1993, Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. a Crime, Reason Online, Aug. 2002, Internet address: http: //www.reason.
Department of Justice, p. 457; Section One Juvenile vs. Adult, Age-Specific com.
Arrest Rates by Sex, United States Drug Abuse Violations, Age-Specific 37. Gene Kassebaum, David Ward and Daniel Wilner, Prison Treatment and
Arrest Rates and Race-Specific Arrest Rates for Selected Offenses 19932001, Nov.
Parole Survival: An Empirical Assessment (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York,
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Issue 22, 27 May 2002.
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5. Op. cit., Eli Lehrer.
39. Robert Whitaker, Mad in America: Bad Science, Bad Medicine, and the
6. Kasia Malinowska-Sempruch, Prisons, the Stage for Dramatic Growth of Enduring Mistreatment of the Mentally Ill (Perseus Publishing, New York,
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Responsibility of Psychiatry, William Alanson White Memorial Lectures,
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and Elderly Care, Research Division of Forensic Psychiatry, Karolinska
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of Peacetime Society, Psychiatry: Journal of Biology and Pathology of 42. Charles Medawar, Antidepressants Hooked on the Happy Drug, What
Interpersonal Relations, Vol. 9, No. 1, Feb. 1946, p. 35. Doctors Dont Tell You, Vol. 8., No. 11, Mar. 1998, p. 3.
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Health, Vol. 1, No. 4, Oct. 1940, pp. 103104. 44. The Effectiveness of Correctional Treatment A Survey of Treatment
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York, 1974), pp. 266267. 45. Transcript of Sentencing by the Honourable Associate Chief Justice
11. Edited by Jeffrey Schaler, Szasz Under Fire (Open Court, Chicago, 2004), Oliphant, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Her Majesty the Queen and Robert Bliss
p. 201. Arthurson Accused, 7 Oct. 1994.
12. Margaret Hagen, Whores of the Court, The Fraud of Psychiatric Testimony 46. Joseph J. Cocozza and Henry J. Steadman, The Failure of Psychiatric
and the Rape of American Justice, (Harper Collins, New York, 1997), p. 110. Predictions of Dangerousness: Clear and Convincing Evidence, Rutgers Law
13. Ralph Adam Fine, Escape of the Guilty, (Dodd, Mead & Company, New Review, Vol. 29, No. 5, Late Summer 1976, p. 1099.
York, 1986), pp. 224226. 47. Op. cit., Margaret Hagen, p. 165, citing Terrence W. Campbell,
14. Ibid., p. 230. Challenging Psychologists and Psychiatrists as Witnesses, Michigan Bar
15. Carol A. Gallo, The Insanity of the Insanity Defense, The Prosecutor, Journal, Jan. 1994.
Spring 1982, p. 6. 48. Op. cit., Cocozza and Steadman, pp. 10991100.
16. Thomas Szasz, M.D., Psychiatric Expert Testimony Its Covert 49. Diet Mulls Fate of Mentally Ill Criminals, The Japan Times, 8 June 2002.
Meaning and Social Function, Psychiatry, Journal for the Study of
50. Kelly Patricia OMeara, Has Psychiatry Gone Psycho? Insight,
Interpersonal Processes, Vol. 20, No. 3, Aug. 1957, p. 314.
26 Apr., 1999, p. 17.
17. Op. cit., Margaret Hagen, p. 165.
51. Kenneth S. Pope, Sex Between Therapists and Clients, Encyclopedia of
18. Benjamin Rush, M.D., Medical Inquiries and Observations Upon the
Women and Gender: Sex Similarities and Differences and the Impact of Society
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