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Pipeline parameters

Length
33 in
0.8382 m
Diameter, OD
15mm
0.015m
ID
13mm
0.013m
Assuming the heat transfer resistance through the 2mm copper wall is negligible, hence let T inside co
Area for heat transfer, A

0.0342326785 m2

Water properties for filmwise


Temperature = 31 C
Assuming density of liquid water is independent of the pressure difference in the pipeline
Taking pressure at 1atm
Density
995.41 kg/m3
Viscosity
0.000781 kg/m.s
Cp (kJ/kg.K)
4.178
Pressure (psig)

Pressure (psia) Pressure (kPa)


5
19.70
135.80
10
24.70
170.27
15
29.70
204.75
20
34.70
239.22
25
39.70
273.69

Tsat (oC)
108.29
115.15
120.92
125.93
130.41

Water flowrate properties


Flowrate (cm)

L/min
2
4
6
8
10

m3/s
kg/s
Internal surface
Fluid area,A
veloci (m2)
0.0000535 0.053254 0.000133 0.403067
7.26667E-005 0.072333 0.000133 0.547468
9.33333E-005 0.092905 0.000133 0.70317
0.0001143333 0.113809 0.000133 0.861383
0.0001381667 0.137532 0.000133 1.040942

3.21
4.36
5.6
6.86
8.29

Ti (oC)= Inlet water tempearture


To (oC)= Outlet water tempearture
Steam temperature = Tsat @ given pressure

Flimwise
For P = 5 psig

Ts = 108.29 oC

o
Flowrate, m (kg/sTi ( C)
0.053254435
0.0723331267
0.0929049333
0.1138085433
0.1375324817

To (oC)
31
31
31
31
31

T0 - Ti (oC) Ts - Ti (oC) Ts - To (oC)


67
63
60
57
55

36
32
29
26
24

77.29
77.29
77.29
77.29
77.29

41.29
45.29
48.29
51.29
53.29

For P =10 psig

Ts = 115.15 oC

o
Flowrate, m (kg/sTi ( C)
0.05325
0.07233
0.09290
0.11381
0.13753

For P =15 psig

71
67
64
61
57

40
36
33
30
26

84.15
84.15
84.15
84.15
84.15

44.15
48.15
51.15
54.15
58.15

To (oC)
31
31
31
31
31

T0 - Ti (oC) Ts - Ti (oC) Ts - To (oC)


75
70
66
64
61

44
39
35
33
30

89.92
89.92
89.92
89.92
89.92

45.92
50.92
54.92
56.92
59.92

Ts = 125.93 oC

o
Flowrate, m (kg/sTi ( C)
0.05325
0.07233
0.09290
0.11381
0.13753

For P =25 psig

31
31
31
31
31

T0 - Ti (oC) Ts - Ti (oC) Ts - To (oC)

Ts = 120.92 oC

o
Flowrate, m (kg/sTi ( C)
0.05325
0.07233
0.09290
0.11381
0.13753

For P =20 psig

To (oC)

To (oC)
31
31
31
31
31

T0 - Ti (oC) Ts - Ti (oC) Ts - To (oC)


78
72
68
65
63

47
41
37
34
32

94.93
94.93
94.93
94.93
94.93

47.93
53.93
57.93
60.93
62.93

Ts = 130.41 oC

o
Flowrate, m (kg/sTi ( C)
0.05325
0.07233
0.09290
0.11381
0.13753

To (oC)
31
31
31
31
31

T0 - Ti (oC) Ts - Ti (oC) Ts - To (oC)


82
76
71
68
65

51
45
40
37
34

94.93
94.93
94.93
94.93
94.93

43.93
49.93
54.93
57.93
60.93

Water properties for dropwise


Temperature = 33 C
Assuming density of liquid water is independent of the pressure difference in the pipeline
Taking pressure at 1atm
Density
994.76 kg/m3
Viscosity
0.000749 kg/m.s
Cp (kJ/kg.K)
4.178
Due to the slight change in viscosity, we recalculte our Re to make sure that the it is still turbulent in n
Water flowrate properties

Flowrate (cm)

L/min
2
4
6
8
10

m3/s
kg/s
Internal surface
Fluid area,A
veloci (m2)
0.0000535 0.053254 0.000133 0.403067
7.26667E-005 0.072333 0.000133 0.547468
9.33333E-005 0.092905 0.000133 0.70317
0.0001143333 0.113809 0.000133 0.861383
0.0001381667 0.137532 0.000133 1.040942

3.21
4.36
5.6
6.86
8.29

Dropwise
For P = 5 psig

Ts = 108.29 oC

o
Flowrate, m (kg/sTi ( C)
0.05325
0.07233
0.09290
0.11381
0.13753

For P =10 psig

44
40
37
36
34

75.29
75.29
75.29
75.29
75.29

31.29
35.29
38.29
39.29
41.29

To (oC)
33
33
33
33
33

T0 - Ti (oC) Ts - Ti (oC) Ts - To (oC)


83
78
75
74
71

50
45
42
41
38

82.15
82.15
82.15
82.15
82.15

32.15
37.15
40.15
41.15
44.15

To (oC)
33
33
33
33
33

T0 - Ti (oC) Ts - Ti (oC) Ts - To (oC)


89
82
80
78
75

56
49
47
45
42

87.92
87.92
87.92
87.92
87.92

31.92
38.92
40.92
42.92
45.92

Ts = 125.93 oC

o
Flowrate, m (kg/sTi ( C)
0.05325
0.07233
0.09290
0.11381
0.13753

For P =25 psig

77
73
70
69
67

Ts = 120.92 oC

o
Flowrate, m (kg/sTi ( C)
0.05325
0.07233
0.09290
0.11381
0.13753

For P =20 psig

33
33
33
33
33

T0 - Ti (oC) Ts - Ti (oC) Ts - To (oC)

Ts = 115.15 oC

o
Flowrate, m (kg/sTi ( C)
0.05325
0.07233
0.09290
0.11381
0.13753

For P =15 psig

To (oC)

To (oC)
33
33
33
33
33

T0 - Ti (oC) Ts - Ti (oC) Ts - To (oC)


95
92
89
84
79

62
59
56
51
46

92.93
92.93
92.93
92.93
92.93

30.93
33.93
36.93
41.93
46.93

Ts = 130.41 oC

o
Flowrate, m (kg/sTi ( C)

To (oC)

T0 - Ti (oC) Ts - Ti (oC) Ts - To (oC)

0.05325
0.07233
0.09290
0.11381
0.13753

33
33
33
33
33

100
97
92
86
83

67
64
59
53
50

92.93
92.93
92.93
92.93
92.93

25.93
28.93
33.93
39.93
42.93

egligible, hence let T inside copper wall = T steam

ce in the pipeline

1/v0.8
Re
2.068703 6678.386
1.619247 9070.954
1.325415 11650.77
1.12679 14272.19
0.968409 17247.3

>3000

0.260

TLM (oC)

q (kJ/s) = U (kJ/m2.s.K)
1/u
57.42137
8.01
4.075
59.87146
9.67
4.718
61.65751
11.26
5.333
63.404
12.36
5.696
64.54808
13.79
6.241

(implying that the flow is turbulent in nature

0.245
0.212
0.188
0.176
0.160

0.240

0.220

0.200

0.180

5
psig
Line
ar (5
psig)
10
psig

f(x) = 0.0766093
R = 0.99830125
f(x) = 0.0738966
f(x)
0.0754382
R ==
f(x)
=0.98275411
0.0717225
R
=
0.99265943
R = 0.98414594

f(x) = 0.0587265
R = 0.99144891

0.240

0.220

ar (5
psig)
10
psig

0.200

TLM ( C)
o

q (kJ/s) = U (kJ/m .s.K)


1/u
62.01474
8.90
4.192
64.4838
10.88
4.929
66.28657
12.81
5.645
68.05145
14.26
6.123
70.35107
14.94
6.203

f(x) = 0.0587265
R = 0.99144891

0.239
0.203
0.177
0.163
0.161

1/U

R = 0.99830125
f(x) = 0.0738966
f(x)
0.0754382
R
f(x)==
=0.98275411
0.0717225
R
R =
= 0.99265943
0.98414594

0.180

0.160

0.140

TLM (oC)

q (kJ/s) = U (kJ/m2.s.K)
1/u
65.47
9.79
4.368
68.58
11.79
5.020
70.99
13.59
5.591
72.17
15.69
6.352
73.91
17.24
6.813

0.229
0.199
0.179
0.157
0.147

TLM (oC)

q (kJ/s) = U (kJ/m2.s.K)
1/u
68.77
10.46
4.442
72.51
12.39
4.992
74.91
14.36
5.600
76.68
16.17
6.159
77.84
18.39
6.901

0.225
0.200
0.179
0.162
0.145

TLM (oC)

q (kJ/s) = U (kJ/m2.s.K)
1/u
66.19
11.35
5.008
70.04
13.60
5.672
73.12
15.53
6.203
74.91
17.59
6.860
76.68
19.54
7.443

0.200
0.176
0.161
0.146
0.134

ce in the pipeline

that the it is still turbulent in nature for comparison purposes.

0.120

0.100
0.7

0.9

1.1

1/v0.8
Re
2.068703 6963.711
1.619247 9458.498
1.325415 12148.53
1.12679 14881.95
0.968409 17984.16

TLM (oC)

q (kJ/s) = U (kJ/m2.s.K)
1/u
50.11
9.79
5.707
52.79
12.09
6.689
54.72
14.36
7.667
55.35
17.12
9.034
56.60
19.54
10.083

0.175
0.149
0.130
0.111
0.099

0.200
0.180
0.160

TLM (oC)

q (kJ/s) = U (kJ/m .s.K)


1/u
53.30
11.12
6.097
56.70
13.60
7.006
58.67
16.30
8.118
59.31
19.50
9.602
61.20
21.84
10.423
2

0.164
0.143
0.123
0.104
0.096

0.140

5
psig
Line
ar (5
psig)
10
psig

R
f(x)==0.9841230681
0.057171582
R = 0.9616492286

f(x) = 0.049095927
R = 0.9699802197

0.120

1/U

f(x) = 0.069449026
R
f(x)==0.988981376
0.063524398

f(x) = 0.037696944
R = 0.9675929225

0.100
0.080

TLM (oC)

q (kJ/s) = U (kJ/m2.s.K)
1/u
55.27
12.46
6.585
60.13
14.81
7.194
61.45
18.24
8.672
62.75
21.40
9.960
64.66
24.13
10.903

0.152
0.139
0.115
0.100
0.092

0.060
0.040
0.020
0.000
0.7

TLM ( C)
o

q (kJ/s) = U (kJ/m2.s.K)
1/u
56.36
13.79
7.150
58.56
17.83
8.895
60.68
21.74
10.464
64.08
24.25
11.054
67.33
26.43
11.468

TLM (oC)

q (kJ/s) = U (kJ/m2.s.K)
1/u

0.140
0.112
0.096
0.090
0.087

0.9

1.1

52.49
54.84
58.56
62.74
64.74

14.91
19.34
22.90
25.20
28.73

8.296
10.302
11.424
11.733
12.963

0.121
0.097
0.088
0.085
0.077

t in nature

Filmwise
5
psig
Line
ar (5
psig)
10
psig

f(x) = 0.0766093778x + 0.0872128597


R = 0.9983012563
f(x) = 0.0738966302x + 0.0835596433
f(x)
0.0754382069x
R ==
f(x)
=0.9827541195
0.0717225786x +
+ 0.074994383
0.0802908755
R
=
0.9926594385
R = 0.9841459455

f(x) = 0.058726593x + 0.079967796


R = 0.9914489117

ar (5
psig)
10
psig

R = 0.9983012563
f(x) = 0.0738966302x + 0.0835596433
f(x)
0.0754382069x
R
f(x)==
=0.9827541195
0.0717225786x +
+ 0.074994383
0.0802908755
R
R =
= 0.9926594385
0.9841459455

f(x) = 0.058726593x + 0.079967796


R = 0.9914489117

0.9

1.1

1.3

1.5
1/v^0.8

1.7

1.9

Dropwise
5
psig
Line
ar (5
psig)
10
psig

f(x) = 0.0694490268x + 0.0342666014


R
f(x)==0.988981376
0.0635243983x + 0.0356887543
R
f(x)==0.9841230681
0.0571715827x + 0.0383760173
R = 0.9616492286
f(x) = 0.0490959277x + 0.0353026122
R = 0.9699802197
f(x) = 0.0376969447x + 0.0399071796
R = 0.9675929225

1.1

1.3

1.5
1/v^0.8

1.7

1.9

1/Rc = y-intercept
Filmwise
P

Y-intercept
5
0.0872
10
0.0836
15
0.075
20
0.0803

25

0.08
Average

Condensation hgeat transfer coefficie

1.9

2.1

2.3

1.9

2.1

2.3

Dropwise
hc (film) P
Y-intercept hc (drop)
11.46789
5
0.0343 29.15452
11.96172
10
0.0357 28.0112
13.33333
15
0.0384 26.04167
12.4533
20
0.0353 28.32861

hc (drop)/hc (film)
2.542274
2.341737
1.953125
2.274788

12.5

25

12.34325

0.0399 25.06266
Average

27.31973

2.005013
2.213334

35
30
25
20

n hgeat transfer coefficient, hc

Filmwise

15

Linear (Filmwise)

10

Dropwise
Linear (Dropwise)

5
0
0 20 40
Steam pressure (psig)