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SensoryReadingsinArchitecture

BySherylBoyle

Thispaperwillreviewselectedreadingsinthefieldofarchitecturebyarchitects
thatdealdirectlywiththetopicofsensoryperceptionincludingJuhanniPallasma,
JoyMoniceMalnarandFrankVodvarka,StephenHoll,AlbertoPrezGmez,Peter
Zumthor,AnnaBarbaraandAnthonyPerliss.Thelistisnotexhaustive,butrather
focusesontextsthat,withinthefield,arefrequentlyreferredtoindiscussionson
thesenses.Manyofthetextslamentthelossofamultisensorydesignofthebuilt
environmentinavisiondominatedworld.

Anearlypublicationthatbroughtthetopicofthesensesindesigntotheforefrontin
contemporaryacademicarchitecturaldiscussionswasthe1994SpecialIssueof
ArchitectureandUrbanismjournalentitledQuestionsofPerception
PhenomenologyofArchitecturefeaturingarticlesbyStevenHoll,JuhaniPallasmaa
andAlbertoPrezGmez.Theircumulativearticlesandexamplesinthetextwork
toremindthereaderoftheimportanceofagenerativeimagination,anethical
worldviewandencourageaphenomenologicalapproachtoarchitecturethat
celebratesexperience.PrezGmezsetsthestageforthephenomenological
approachbygivinganhistoricalaccountofarchitecturesarrivalatanempty
formalism,searchingformeaningandfindingitinapoeticresistance.Pallasmaas
articleentitledAnArchitectureoftheSevenSenseslamentsthecurrentfull
engagementinarchitecturalexperienceatfavouroftheartoftheeye.Heembraces
amultisensoryapproachtothematter,spaceandscaleofarchitecturebeing
measuredequallybytheeye,ear,nose,skin,tongue,skeletonandmuscle1and
presentsthesensesasageneratorforsensorythinkingaswellascontributingto
reason.Throughaseriesofevocativeexamplesthatdescribeeachsenseandtheir
intimacyasitrelatestospace,Pallasmaarevealsthewayinwhichthenonvisual
sensesfoldusintospaceandbecomeapartofitversusvisionthatsetsusapart
fromwhatwesee.Hefinishesthearticlebysettingthetaskofarchitectureasoneof
allowingustoplaceourselvesinthecontinuumofculturethroughembodied
experienceandmemory.

StevenHollbeginshisarticlecritiquinghisownmediumforthediscussionnamely
thattextcanperhapsnotdojusticetoquestionsofperception.Heappealstoa

1Pallasma,QuestionsofPerception,p.30

heightenedsensitizedconsciousnesstoeverydayexperienceandheseeswordless
architectureastheperfectmediumtoawakenallthesensesbyfreelyallowingthe
inhabitanttoblendthesensorymenuofferedupbythespace.Wherearchitecture
movesbeyondsimpleperceptionofphenomena,suchasinnature,isinits
intentionalityorthemotivationtounderstandthementalphenomenabehindits
creation.

Hollpresentsaseriesofprojectsthatdealwithavarietyofphenomenathatexplore
elementsofperceptionanddesign.Theideaoftheseprojectsisnottopresenta
totalityorsummationonperception,buttoilluminatediscretefragmentsthateach
contributetotheprocessofdesignandenhancethesensoryexperienceofthat
place.AfinalarticleentitledArchetypalExperiencesofArchtiecturealsobyHoll,
seekstoconfirmthefragmentarynatureofexperienceandtracesHollsfirstand
subsequentvisitstoseveralkeyarchitecturalspacessuchasthePantheoninRome,
Rochamp,RyoanjiTempleinJapanandtheJohnsonWaxbuildingbyFrankLloyd
Wright.Eachexperience,sometimesseparatedbytwentyyearspresentedanew
seriesofsensationtoHoll,someduetoweatherortheseasons,someduetothe
timeofday,andsomeduetothechangesthathadoccurredinHollhimself.The
overlappingofthefragmentscreateachangingnewperceptionofthespace,and
leadHolltobelievethatarchitectureisalwaysperceivedaspartialviews,inturn
creatinganwayoflookingattheworld,inaway,linkingbacktothefirstarticleby
PrezGmez,andenticingthereadertoreaditagain.

AfterworkingontheA+Ujournal,JuhaniPallasmaaproducedaseriesofbooks,
beginningwithTheEyesoftheSkinArchitectureandtheSenses(1995/2005)
followedbyTheThinkingHand(2009)andTheEmbodiedImage(2011).Steven
HollwritesthePrefaceforthebook,andnotesthatitbuildsupontheworkon
phenomenologyfirstdelineatedinQuestionsofPerceptionin1994.TheEyesofthe
Skinfocusesontheprimacyoftouchandinthesecondeditionofthebook,hestates
thatthetitlewasmeanttocreateashortcircuitbetweenourperceptionofvisionas
superiorandoursenseoftouch.Healsoopensthediscussiononperipheralvision
asanewandenticingpartofvisionthatisoverlookedindiscussionsonperception
inarchitecture.

Thenineshortessaysthatmakeupthefirstpartofthebookoutlinethehegemony
ofvisioninWesternculture,heldinesteemsincetheancientGreeks.Hereviews
theoristswhohaveopposedocularcentrismandtheirsupportingtextsincluding
Neitzsche,SartreandMerleauPontyandpresentstheconceptsofthenarcissistic
andnihilisticeyeinthebarrageofnonparticipatoryimagesofcontemporary
culture.Beforethedominationofvision,manycultureswereorallycentered,based
onatraditionofstorytellingandproximityratherthanonseparationfromthe
objectviewed.Earlyconstructiontypescanalsobetracedbacktoamorehaptic
andcorporealtype(mudhutsetc.)andyetsinceAlbertiandearlyRenaissance
perspectivethroughtothedetachedeyeofmoderncityplanning,Pallasmaafollows

thedominanceofvisioninarchitecture.Inparallelwiththisfloodofimagesand
focusingonspace,comesalossofthetemporalinarchitecture.Heseestheshiftin
theuseofnaturalmaterials,craftsmanshipanddetailsdesignedforthehumanbody
whichagewithtimetomodernmaterialssuchassteelandglasswhichdonotgain
patinaandwhichhidetheirprocessesofconstructionasfurthermoving
architecturalexperiencefromafullysensualencountertoapurelyvisualone.He
endsthefirstpartbypresentinghopeforanewbalancingofvisionintherealmof
thesensesbythedistractedview,orperipheralvisionadistractedlookingenabled
bytheflowofimagesandtechnologyratherthanthedominanceofasingleimage.

Thesecondpartofthebooktracesthesuppressionoftheothersenseswhichhas
happenedintandemwiththedominanceofvision.BeginningwithMerleauPontys
conceptofthebodyatthecenterofperceptionandexperience,andBachelards
conceptofthepolyphonyofthesenses,Pallasmaareinforcestheimportanceofthe
collaborationofthesensesinperceptiontocreateafullyembodiedmaterialand
spiritualconstruct.Hetracestheimportanceofthespacesofshadowaspresenting
amomentwherevisionissubduedandlessclear,allowingspacefortheimagination
toengage.Spacessuchasthemagicofthechiaroscuroinpainting,intheshadowsof
JapanesearchitectureasdescribedinTanisakisInPraiseofShadowsandinthe
twilightspacesofthecity.Pallasmaathensetsoutsevensectionseachdedicatedto
asensebasicallyrepeatingthetextwritteninQuestionsofPerceptionwithonly
slightalteration.BorrowingontheAristotelianmodel,Palassmaaaddstheengaged
rolesofperception,memoryandimaginationtohisearliertext,stressingthe
importanceoftheserealmstoevokesensoryexperienceandhenceenhancefuture
perceptions.

Thetextconcludeswithtwoshortsectionsoutliningahostofarchitectsfrom
modernismonwardsthathavefocusedonvariousindividualsensesaswellasafew
whoseworkhaveengagedthefullsensoryrealm,includingFrankLloydWrightand
AlvarAalto,GlennMurcutt,StevenHollandPeterZumthor,openingthediscussion
onthesensestomovefromoneoftext,toonesitedinthebuiltworkofthearchitect.

FouryearsafterrepublishingTheEyesoftheSkin,PallasmaapublishedThe
ThinkingHandExistentialandEmbodiedWisdominArchitecturewhich
elaboratesonthecontemporaryperceivedseparationofthebodyandthemind,of
sensingandreasoning,ofpracticeandtheory.Hefocusesonthehandtoilluminate
thisseparation,inparticularasitrelatestotheacquisitionofknowledgeinthe
realmofcraftsmanship.Henotesthatthelossofthiscorporealknowingthrough
directexperienceisslowlyleavingoursystemsofeducation,andbeingtreated
solelyastechnique,ratherthanknowing.Whilethefocusofthetextisthehand
itselfandthecreativeprocess,itnonethelessreinforceshispositionofthe
collaborationoftheeye(vision),hand(haptic)2andmindalongwiththeother

2Pallasmaa,TheThinkingHand,p.82.

senses.Furtherinthetext,Pallasmaarevisitshisearlierassertionsoftheprimacyof
touch3andthatthinkingshouldbeunderstoodasembodiedthinkingandnot
separatedfromthesenses.4Hestatesthatarchitectsmustthinkwiththeirbodiesin
ordertodesign,whichincludesengagingembodiedmemoryandthoughtsto
imagineandcommunicateadesignthatisbothdesignedwithandforasensual
body.

Pallasmaasmostrecentbook,TheEmbodiedImageImaginationandImageryin
Architecture(2011)focusesprimarilyontheproliferationoftheimagein
contemporarycultureandthespecificdemiseofthepoeticandembodiedimageand
imaginationatthehandofemptyimagesandvisionseveredfromtheothersenses.
Hecallsforaresurgenceofthemultisensoryimage5toallowvisiontoreintegrate
andminglewiththeothersensestoreinvigoratethedesignprocess,ourmeansof
representationandfinallyourbuiltarchitecture.

Thetitleofthebook,SensoryDesign(publishedin2004)byJoyMoniceMalnarand
FrankVodvarkagivesthereaderhopethatanewmultisensoryscopefor
architecturaldesignisbeingexploredinthe335pagetextastheopeninglineofthe
bookposesthequestionWhatifwedesignedforalloursenses?6.Borrowing
muchfromtheworkofPallasmaa,thetextunfortunatelyleavesthereaderwanting
aclearerexplorationdespitemanytopicsbeingcoveredandmanyreferences
included.MalnarisanassociateprofessorofarchitectureattheUniversityof
IllisnoisatUrbanaChampaignandandVodvarkaisanartistwhohaswrittenonthe
historyofarchitecture.

Overthecourseoftwelvechapters,thebookproposestoexplorethenatureofour
sensoryresponsetothespatialconstructsthatpeopleinvestwithmeaningand
fromthatunderstanding,createadesigntypologyforsignificantspaces.7Thebook
attemptstocoveraverywiderangeoftopics,andeachindividualchapterreaches
sobroadlythattosummarizethebook,itisnecessarytocoverchapters
individually.

Theopeningchapterdealswithsensoryresponseandculturalmemoryandthrough
afewexamplesconcludesthataplaceperceivedinbothcognitiveandsensory
termsisuniqueandofinteresttothecollectivememoryanddistinguishableasa
typeaplacesensed(orasenseofplace).

3Pallasmaaseesallthesensesasextensionsofthesenseoftouch,withthebodymembranesoftheother
sensoryorgansallinsomewaybeingtouchedbystimuli.Ibid.p100.
4Ibid,p107.
5Pallasmaa,TheEmbodiedImage,p.50.
6MalnarandVodvarka,p.ix
7ibid.

ThesecondchapteroverviewsaselectionofartmovementsincludingDeStijl,the
Bauhaus,poetryandphenomenology,theEnlightenment,CIAMandtheworkof
FrankLloydWrightandattemptstodiscerntheirpositionwithrespecttothesenses
andtheconceptofculturalmemory.Theauthorsputforwardaconceptofsensory
experience;namelya)involuntarysensing:immediatephysicalresponseto
stimulus,b)conditionedresponse:basedonpriorknowledgeofthestimulus,andc)
rememberedsensation:responseconditionedbymemoryassociatedwitha
particularplaceandtimewhichhavecreatedasensoryimprintonthebeholder.8
Unfortunately,theexamplesusedrarelyseemtoengagetheenticingsensory
conceptspresentedattheoutsetofthechapter,perhapsduetoamisalignmentof
theideasoftheoriginaltheorieswiththeconceptsoftheauthors.

Inchapterthree,theauthorsproposethattofullyunderstandspatialconstructs,
bothperception,whichtheydefineasorganizedsensation,andamediating
intelligence9arerequired.Theybeginwithabriefreviewofclassicaltheoryofthe
senses,andthenreviewthetheoryofhistorianGeoffreyScottandpsychologist,J.J.
Gibson.Scottincludestheconceptsofweight,pressureandresistanceintoour
sensoryperceptionofobjectsviabigness:actualbigness(measurement),visual
bigness(appearanceofbigness)andthefeelingofbigness(bodilymeasurement).
TheyleanonGibsons1966theoryoftheperceptualsystemstoexpandtheclassic
fivesensesintoalargersystemofsensingincludingorienting,auditory,haptic,
taste/smellandvisual.Followingonthissummary,theauthorsincludeashort
reviewofGestalttheorythatseesperceptionasaresponsetoafieldofsensation
whichthenweactivelystructure.Theyfurtherquestionhowculturemight
influenceperception,especiallyifweareactiveinthestructuringofourperceptions
andtouchonthetheoryofDavidHoweswhichdescribestheimportancethateach
individualcultureaccordstoeachmodalityofperception.Theauthorspullfrom
varioussourceswithaimtocreateanoperationaldevice(formula)thatmightallow
ustodesignwiththesensesinmind.

Thefourthchapterlookstopinpointwheremeaningresidesinarchitecturalspace
andtheypresentacollectionofvarioustheorieswhichpresentanswerstothis
questionsuchas;centerpointsofinterest,collections(ofpersonalobjects),social
constructs,patterns,andbondsunderstoodviadwelling.Theycritiquetheprojects
ofmodernismassterileandformbasedbeingconceivedwithoutattentiontothe
nonvisualsenses.Withmodernismasthelegacyforcontemporarydesign,the
authorsseeourlackoffocusonfullsensorydesignbeingrootedinthetheoretical
issuesofmodernismsuniversalaims,andopposeittothevernacularthattheysee
asarchitecturewithouttheoryoflocaltradition.Theauthorsseemtosearchforthe
conceptofthesensesingeneralizations,andinsecondarysourceswithoutreally
investigatingaspecificexampleapartfromitsism.

8MalnarandVodvarka.p21
9ibid,p41.

Thefifthchapterquestionswhatqualitiesmakeaplacesacred,withhopesthatit
willrevealanessencethatcanthenbeharnessedincontemporarydesign.Theaim
seemstosupposethatqualitiesorasenseofplacearetransmittableoverboth
spaceandtime(cultures).TheircasestudiesrangefromancientRome,Greeceand
ChinatoeighteenthcenturyFranceandgardendesignbutfocusesprimarilyonthe
formandspatialarrangementsofthesebuildings,withquotesfromvarioustexts
thatincludereferencetoothersenses.Intheend,theiranalysisisprimarilya
generalizedvisualaccountofaselectionoflandscapesthatdelaysdiscussionofthe
sensesuntilfurtherchapters.

Thesixthchaptersetsouttoengagehapticknowingincludingbothdirecttouch
andbodilyperceptionofmotion,weightandsubstanceaswemovethroughspace.
Theauthorsdrawdescriptivefragmentsofhapticexperiencefromwideranging
sourcesincludingJapanesegardensandteahouses,theSpanishstepsinRomeand
theVietnamveteransmemorialinWashinton,D.C.andpresentsummarized
descriptionsoftheexperienceofthesespaces.Thesedescriptionsleadtothe
discussionoftypesofhapticexperienceandpresentpointsandconnectionsas
keysinhapticdesign.Thechapterthenexpandstofurtherunrelatedfragmentsthat
dealwiththeconceptofhapticperceptionbutconcludethechapterwithouta
summaryonhapticity.

TheseventhchapterinspiresthereaderwithitstitleSensoryCueswithhopesthat
thesenseswillnowbeintroducedasthecatalystthatwillbringtogetherthe
disparatepiecespresentedthusfarinthebook.TheyusethetheoryofYiFuTuan
tosettheconceptofabstractspaceagainsttheconceptofvalueladenplaceandhis
focusonthenonvisualaspectsofplace,inparticularsmellandsound.Theauthors
provideageneralreviewofaselectionofauthorswhohavewrittenontheconcept
ofsmell,revealingitsconnectiontoolderbrainstructuresthatregulateemotions
andmotivation,andseemtowanttoprovidethereaderwithaconceptofolfactory
perceptionthatappliesacrossallcultures,contrarytoanargumentpresented
earlierinthebookthatseemedtoimplyaculturespecificsensoryschemata.
Severalinterestingideasbyotherauthorsarepresentedinthetext,suchas
Schafersdistinctionbetweenvisualspacewhichwelookinto,andsonicspace
whichwestandinthemiddleofbegintobuildaphenomenologyofspaces,butthe
ideasareleftasfragmentswhichareperhapsthecuesreferredtointhechapters
title.Lastly,theauthorsdiscussthesenseoftouchsuchasFrankLloydWrights
matchingoftexturalscaletobuildingscale,andtheexpansionoftheconceptofthe
hapticsuchasactivetouch,kinesthesia(informationderivedfrommuscle
movement)andspatialextension(extensionoftouchbeyondonesphysicallimits).
Thechapterconcludeswiththestatementanentirespatialstructurecanbe
constructedoutoftheenvelopecreatedbyoursensesbutdoesnotproposehow
thismightbedone.

Chapter8beginswithanexplorationofornamentandthesensualityofdoorways
andgates,andabroadsurveyofdesignconcernswiththeseelements.Theauthors
distinguishbetweentheinherentqualitiesofmaterials(localized,sensual)versus
theintentionofadesign(external,formal)astwoopposinggenerativenotionsfor
architecture.Theygivesomeattentiontothedetail,asthejoiningoftwobuilding
elements,andpresentitasasensoryandsymbolicevent.Theyusestudiesonvisual
fixationthatrevealthatobserversspendmoretimelookingatcontrastanddetailor
morespecifically,thejoint,ratherthantheindividualparts,bringingdetailtothe
forefrontinvisualdesign.

Chapters9and10dealwithobjectsandlight.Theauthorspresenttheobjectsof
ourperceptionormorespecificallyourpossessionsassensoryrepositoriesof
experiencebeingatoncemnemonic,instrumental,symbolicandconcernedwith
identity.Severalconceptsofluminosity,colorandform,aswellasseveralshort
casestudiesinartandarchitecturearereviewedwhichmainlypresenttheform
basedaspectsofarchitecture.Bothchaptersendwithanoteaboutthesensesbut
dedicatelittletimeinthetexttodiscussingthem.

Asweworktowardstheconclusionofthebook,theauthorstakeasurprisingturn
inChapter11bybothreviewingahostofsensoryschematics,andthenconstructing
theirownsensoryslider,atoolbywhichtheymeasurethesensorynatureofa
structurethattheyproposeasthestructureforasensorytypologybasedona
phenomenologicalpointofview.ItscategoriesareVisual,Sound,Odor,Basic
Orienting,andfourtypesofHaptic:Gradient/Context,Tension/Resistance,
Compression/ExpansionandDegree/Range.TheensuingSensorySliderchartsare
usedtoreviewexistingbuildingsandareposedasadesigntooltoassistinthepre
designphaseofplanning.Theeffectivenessofthistoolhowever,isdependantonthe
designersknowledgeofmaterialsandmethodstomakesensualspaces,andsois
ratherleftasatooltocritiquetheauthorsviewofthesensory.

ThebookconcludeswiththechapterGettingSomewherethatrevealstheauthors
notionthatsensorydatawillproducerelevantdesigninformationthatwillrevive
sensoryarchitecture.Whendiscussingsoundandodor,theauthorsnotethe
problemofhumaninterpretationandsubjectiveresponsesinthecollectionofdata,
andthetypicalattitudetowardscorrectingsensoryproblemsratherthanexploring
sensoryrichnessintheanalysisofdata.Theyturntodigitalimmersive
environmentsasapotentialsolutiontoenabledesignerstoemployamoresensual
designmethodology(forexamplefeelingthetextureofamaterialwhilesketching
inthreedimensions).Theirproposalimpliesthatourdesigntoolsarepartofthe
problemregardingattritionofthenonvisualsensesindesign,butthistopicwasnot
exploredintheirbook.Theirconclusionfocusesontheimportanceofthe
calculationandhencepredictionofsensoryresponse,thetoolsthatcanassistus
withmeasuringsensoryresponseandtheimportanceofchangingthedesign
processtobemoreinclusiveofthefullsensoryandmnemonicpotentialofspace.


InreturningtothetitleofthebookSensoryDesign,itseemthatalthoughthe
authorsreachbroadlytoreinforcetheirbeliefthatsensoryresponseandmemory
arecriticalfunctionsofabuilding,thecontentofthechaptersleavethereader
wishingformorefocuseddevelopmentoftheideaandmorefocusedandevocative
examples.Theystrugglewithengaginginsensorydescriptionsperhapsbecause
theyappeartorelyonsecondarysourcesratherthanfirsthandexperience,leaving
thereaderfeelingunengagedinwhatshouldbeaphenomenologicaljourney.Their
shortengagementwithanyoneparticulartheoryalsomakesitdifficulttoengage
theideasofeithertheauthororthereferencedtext,andremainsmorelikea
catalogueofreferencesthanadevelopingidea.Whiletheideasimpliedbythetitles
andchapterscertainlyareareasthatneeddevelopinginthefieldofarchitecture,
thisbookunfortunatelyfallsshortoffillingthatgap.

In2006,AnnaBarbaraandAnthonyPerlisspublishedInvisibleArchitecture
ExperiencingPlacesThroughtheSenseofSmell,PeterZumthorpublished
AtmospheresArchitecturalEnvironmentsSurroundingObjectsandtheCanadian
CenterforArchitectureinMontrealpublishedSenseoftheCity:anAlternate
ApproachtoUrbanism.Thissurgeininterestinthenonvisualsensesinthefield
ofarchitecturebuildsuponthepriortextsdescribedindetailinthreedistinctways.
ItisthetechniqueoftheselastthreetextsthatIwishtofocuson,ratherthana
detailedsummaryoftheircontents.Whilethefirstfivebooksreviewedinthis
paperdetailthefullspectrumofsensoryperceptionwiththeircontextbeingan
overtlyandoverlyvisualworld,theselastthreebookseachtakeauniqueapproach
towritingaboutthesensesinarchitecture.

InvisibleArchitecturelooksatonespecificsense,thatofsmell,inadetailedand
playfulway,throughworkbyartists,interviews,andessaysthatturnourattention
totheevocativeandinvisiblesenseintheseeminglyvisualpracticeofarchitecture.
Theauthorspresentaseriesofquestionsonodorandhowtoengageitinthedesign
process.Thebookisacollectionofveryshortsegmentsonaolfactorytheme
interjectedbyothershortessays,projects,interviews,imagesanddiagramsthat
serveasextendedfootnotes.Whileatfirstthistapasapproachtowritingseemedto
scattertheargument,thebookservesmoreasareferencebookofolfactoryideasin
architecture,allowingthereadertoenterthetextatanypointandbeengagedinthe
topicaldiscussionsonodorinarchitecture.Thebookpresentsasmoreofaproject
thanatextinitsformat,andassuchissuccessfulinbeingevocativeandstirringthe
imaginationontheinvisibleaspectsofarchitecture.

SenseoftheCityisacollectionofessaysbyWolfgangSchivelbusch,Norman
Pressman,EmilyThompson,MirkoZardini,ConstanceClassenandDavidHowes
thatpresentsanevocativerethinkingofthecitybasedonthesenses.Italsoengages
thesameprojectapproachtoabook,presentingimages,data,archivalworkanda
collectionofessaysthatserveasanchorsinaflowofspeculativeandimaginative

worksthataskforarethinkingofthecityintermsofafullysensorymode.The
bookcanbeenteredatanypointaseachessayandprojectcanserveasanentry
pointtothisimaginativerethinking.

ZumthorsAtmospheresreprintsalecturethatwasgivenbytheSwissarchitectin
2003thatilluminateshisconceptofatmosphere,whichisultimatelyasensorial
perceptionofplace.Hislanguageisfirstpersonandintimateashedescribes
projectsandmultisensoryinspirationsthathaveallowedhimtocreatebuildingsof
immensesensorialdelight.Hisobservationsaredistinctlyfullysensory,his
memoriesprofoundlymaterialandhisbuildingsengageallthesensesatonce.The
bookservesasaworkingexampleofthetextsexploredthusfarinthisreviewby
combiningagenerativeapproachtoarchitecturethatisclearlyledbyanenmeshed
sensoryapproachtothemakingofarchitecture.

Thetextsreviewedherepresentaselectionofseminaltextsonthetopicofthe
sensesinarchitecturethatreviveddiscussionandinterestinthefieldandwhich
serveaskeytextsforothersthatfollowed.Theirstrategiesareallunique,withlater
textsbuildingupontheearlierwork,andyetwhichrevealthatcarefulobservation
andattentiontoexamplesthatareexperiencediscriticaltoaphenomenological
approachtoarchitecture.Ifwearegoingtowriteabuttheimportanceofenmeshed
experience,thenweshouldatleastpracticewhatwewriteastheory.Architecture
isalivedandfullysensorialexperienceandshouldbeinvestigatedassuch.


Bibliography

Barbara,AnnaandAnthonyPerliss.InvisibleArchitecture:ExperiencingPlaces
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Malnar,JayMoniceandFrankVodvarka.SensoryDesign.Minneapolis:University
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Pallasmaa,Juhani.TheEmbodiedImageImaginationandImageryinArchitecture.
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Pallasmaa,Juhani.TheThinkingHandExistentialandEmbodiedWisdomin
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Zardini,Mirko(ed).SenseoftheCityAnAlternateApproachtoUrbanism.
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