Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 87

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)


Submitted by: Shyamkumar.p.v

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)


The stadium management system is designed to help the employees

working in a stadium to manage better. A stadium Management system is a
solution that helps to streamline the administrative work in an Indore
It keeps a record of clients and activities. All the records can be
maintained through this solution and make the works almost paperless.
The system will enable the admin to get any information regarding his
office work and clients on finger tips.
The project will help the stadium admins office to keep track of the
operations. This solution is a network enabled one that can work in a
corporate atmosphere. This enables all the employees of the stadium to
work simultaneously.
The project will be developed in C#.Net and MS SQL Server

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

An Overview
Account Auditing in India is known as an examination of financial
statements i.e. balance sheet and profit & loss a/c, books of account and
related vouchers so as to help the auditor to form an option as to whether
the financial statements show true and fair view of the business affairs or
not, and if not, then in what respect it is not showing the true picture of
the business activities.
Auditing is done by the auditor to find out whether the financial
statements are prepared by business concerns to know the result of the
business activity undertaken by them throughout the year.
The financial statements would show true and fair view regarding the
business activities when all the following features are present:
1. All the transactions in the course of business are recorded in the
books of account and accurately.
2. Transactions are recorded according of the accepted accounting
3. The financial statements are drawn in conformity with the books of
4. Financial statements are prepared as per accepted rules and
regulation of the companies act, 1956 and other legal provisions.
5. When there are no errors and frauds presents in the books of

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

The financial statements will be said to present the true and fair view,
when both the aspects of recording and presentation of the business
transactions are satisfied.
When auditor is not satisfied fully due to any particular discrepancy, he
will have to ascertain the depth of mistake in the books of account. If the
mistake is major and it affects the total view of the financial statements,
then auditor will issue a negative report. If discrepancy is not major but
affects only a particular aspect of the business, then the auditor will issue a
qualified report.
An auditing firm would be an independent party, not associated with the
company, so that they can give an objective opinion on whether the
external financial report is a fair representation of where the money comes
and goes in a company. The public wants to know this because some lend
funds to company so that the co can expand the business, but they lend it
only because they can get a return either through selling their stock shares
or getting dividends. So if the company doesn't do well, they want to see
that in the financial reports. Otherwise, they'll lose a lot of money.

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

System Specification


Pentium IV or above


Above 500 MHz

RAM capacity

512 MB Min / 2GB Recommended

Hard disk drive

20 GB Min/ 40GB Recommended

Key Board

Samsung 108 keys


Logitech Optical Mouse


17 Samsung

Operating System

Windows XP with SP2 or higher


MS SQL Server 2005




MS Visual Studio.Net 2008

.Net Frame work



Microsoft Reporting Control


Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Software Features
Introduction to the .NET framework
.NET is Microsofts development model in which software becomes
platform and device-independent, and data becomes available over the
internet. The .NET Framework is the infrastructure of .NET.
.NET is built from the ground up on open architecture. .NET is a
platform that can be used for building and running the next generation of
Microsoft Windows and Web applications. The goal of the Microsoft .NET
platform is to simplify Web development. The .NET platform consists of the
following core technologies:

The .NET Framework

The .NET Enterprise Servers

Building block services

Visual Studio .NET

The .NET platform spans clients, servers, and services, and it

consists of:

A programming model that enables developers to build Extensible

Markup Language (XML) Web services and applications.

A set of building block services that are a user centric set of XML Web
services that move control of user data from applications to users. For
example, Microsoft passport is a core component of the .NET initiative
that makes it easier integrates various applications.

A set of .NET Enterprise Servers, including Windows 2000, Microsoft

SQL Server, Microsoft BizTalk Server, that integrate, run, operate, and
manage XML Web services and applications.

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Client software, such as Windows XP and Windows CE, which helps

developers deliver a comprehensive user experience across a family of

Tools, such as Visual Studio .NET, which can be used to develop XML
Web services and Windows and Web applications for an enriched user
The .NET Framework provides the foundation upon which applications

and XML Web services are built and executed. The Unified nature of the
.NET Framework means that all applications, Web applications, or XML Web
services, are developed by using a common set of tools and code, and are
easily integrated with one another.

The .NET Framework consists of:

The common language runtime (known hereafter as runtime).

Class libraries.

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

What Problems Does .Net Solve
The .NET Framework was developed to overcome several limitations
and developers have had to deal with when developing Web applications
and it makes strong use of the Internet as a means for developing these
Even with the advent of a global, easily accessible network for
sharing information (the Internet), few applications work on more than one
type of client or have the ability to seamlessly interact with other
applications. This limitation leads to two major problems that developers
must confront:

Developers typically have to limit their scope.

Developers spend the majority of their time rewriting applications to

work on each type of platform and client, rather than spending their
time designing new applications.
The .NET Framework solves the preceding two problems by providing

the runtime, which is language and platform-independent, and by making

use of the industry-standard XML. Language independence in .NET allows
developers to build an application in any .NET-based language and know
that the Web application will work on any client that supports


The runtime also controls much of the application infrastructure so

that developers can concentrate on the application-specific logic.
XML Web services use to send data, thereby ensuring that any XML
capable client can receive that data. Since XML is an open standard, most
modern clients, such as computer operating systems, cellular telephones,

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

personal digital assistants (PDAs), and game consoles, can accept XML
The .NET Framework Components

The .NET Framework provides the necessary compile-time and runtime foundation to build and run .NET based applications.
The .Net Framework
The .NET Framework consists of different components that help to
build and run .NET-based applications:
Platform Substrate
The .NET Framework must run on an operating system. Currently,
the .NET Framework is built to run on the Microsoft Win32 operating
systems, such as Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows 98. In the
future, the .NET framework will be extended to run on other platforms,
such as Windows CE.

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Application Services
When running on Windows 2000, application services, such as
Component Services, Message Queuing, Internet Information Services
(IIS), and Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI), are available to
the developer. The .NET framework exposes application services through
classes in the .NET framework class library.
.NET framework Class Library
The .NET framework class library exposes features of the runtime
and simplifies the development of .NET based applications. In addition,
developers can extend classes by creating their own libraries of classes.
The .NET framework class library implements the .NET framework. All
applications (Web, Windows, and XML Web Services) access the same .NET
framework class libraries, which are held in namespaces. All .NET based
languages also access same libraries.
Common Language Runtime
The common language runtime simplifies application development,
provides a robust and secure execution environment.
The common language runtime environment is also referred to as a
managed environment, in which common services, such as garbage
collection and security, are automatically provided.
Microsoft ADO.NET
ADO.NET is the next generation of Microsoft ActiveX Data Objects








Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

disconnected programming model. ADO.NET also provides extensive XML
ASP.NET is a programming framework that is built on the common
language runtime.ASP.NET Web Forms prove an easy and powerful way to
build dynamic Web user interfaces (UIs).
XML Web Services
XML Web services are programmable Web components that can be
shared among applications on the Internet or the Intranet. The .NET
Framework provides tools and classes for building, testing, and distributing
XML Web services.
User Interfaces
The .NET Framework supports three types of UIs:

Web Forms, which work through ASP.NET and the Hypertext Transfer
Protocol (HTTP).

Windows Forms, which run on Win32 client computers

The command Console

Any Language that conforms to the Common Language Specification

(CLS) can run with the common language runtime. In the .NET Framework,
Microsoft provides support for Microsoft Visual Basic .NET, Microsoft
Visual C++ .NET, C#, and Microsoft J Script .NET. Third Parties
can provide additional languages.

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Features Of .Net
Now that one knows some basics of .NET, see what makes .NET a
wonderful platform for developing modern applications.

Rich Functionality out of the box

Easy development of web applications

OOPs Support

Multi-Language Support

Multi-Device Support

Automatic memory management

Compatibility with COM and COM+

No more DLL Hell

Strong XML support

Ease of deployment and configuration


Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

ASP.NET is a server-side technology for developing Web applications
based on the Microsoft .NET Framework. ASP.NET is server-side; that is,
it runs on the Web server. Server-side technologies, like ASP.NET, are
not interpreted by the client; instead it can be interpreted by the Web

The server receives a request for a desired ASPX page.

The server locates the page in the disk Submitting Data in the
Augmented URL: Get Method

The server gives the page to the ASP.NET Engine.

The ASP.NET Engine compiles the page and generates the page
class. If the class had already been loaded, it simply provides a
thread to the running class instead of regenerating the class.
During compilation, it may require other code classes, such as
code-behind classes and component classes. These are assembled
during this step.

The ASP.NET instantiates the class performs necessary processing,

and it generates the Response object.

The Web server then sends the Response object to the client.

ASP. Net has many advantages - both for the programmers and for the
end users.

Powerful database-driven functionality

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

ASP.Net allows programmers to develop web applications that
interface with a database. The advantage of ASP.Net is that it is
object-oriented and has many programming tools that allow for
faster development and more functionality.

Faster web applications

Two aspects of ASP.Net make it fast -- compiled code and caching. In
the past, the code was interpreted into "machine language" when
your website visitor viewed your page. Now, with ASP. Net the code is
compiled into "machine language" before your visitor ever comes to
your site.

Memory leak and crash protection

ASP. Net automatically recovers from memory leaks and errors to
make sure that your website is always available to your visitors.

Multiple Language support

Programmers can actually write their code in more than 25 .Net
languages (including VB.Net, C#, and JScript.Net). This allows
programmers to develop your site in the language they know best
and it means that you can more easily find programmers to support
the work on your site.

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)


Internet Information Server (IIS) is a powerful Web server that
provides a highly reliable, manageable, and scalable Web application
infrastructure for all versions of Windows Server.
IIS helps organizations increase Web site and application availability
while lowering system administration costs. IIS is required to run ASP.
Net web applications.

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

A collection of data designed to be used by different people is called
a database. It is collection interrelated data stored together with controlled
redundancy to serve one or more applications in an optional fashion.
The data is stored in such a fashion that it is independent of the
programs of people using the data. A common and controlled approach is
used in adding new data and modifying and retrieving existing data with in
the database.

Microsoft sql server

SQL SERVER 2005 is a Relational Database Management System. The
abbreviation is Structure Query Language. SQL is the language used to
query the database.

SQL is a declarative language where you just say

store this or modify this without saying how to do.

It is the product of

Microsoft. The version of SQL used by SQL SERVER 2005 is called Transact

It supports the client/server architecture.

It receives requests

from the clients for data and returns the result of the processed query. All
the SQL statements are submitted to the Transact-SQL, which on receiving
them passes the result and displays it for the user.
SQL solved the ad hoc needs of users; the need for data access by
computer programs did not go away. In fact, most database access still
was (and is) programmatic, in the form of regularly scheduled reports and
statistical analyses, data entry programs such as those used for order

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

entry, and data manipulation programs, such as those used to reconcile
accounts and generate work orders.
The following is a list of relational database that support SQL:


MS Access





Features of SQL

SQL is used to query the database to get results

Used to inserts new data

Used to modify the data

Extremely flexible query language

Over the years its functional capabilities can be extended

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Existing System
At present the stadium is not using any software for automation. The
entire process of record maintenance is done manually. Manual system
does not mean that they are working with pen and paper alone. It also
includes working on Tally and other simple software's. This method has
many limitations. The manual system is relatively slow compared to
automated systems. Updating information becomes a tedious task since
various ledgers will have to be updated. Moreover there is no traceability.
In case a need arises to find the details of a particular client, one has to
search through all the records. This is time consuming and ineffective.
Frequent handling of registers and files tend to damage them. Stocking of
these reports is another aspect that has to be looked into. As years go by,
these registers will take up a major portion of office space. Also there is
almost no method to generate report. Above all, there is no security for the
data. The registers are handled by various personals and informations are
open to all.

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Proposed System

The development of the new system is done as a solution to all the

aforesaid problems. The following activities try to automate the entire
process keeping in view of the database integration approach.
1. The administrators have greater accessibility in collecting the
consistent information that is very much necessary for the system to
exist and coordinate.
2. The system at any point of time can provide the details of all the
clients that exist within the system along with their details.
3. The system can provide the general details of all the events and its
details, with a click of the mouse.
4. The system can provide instantaneous information related to the
registered users and their details.
5. The system with respect to the necessities can identify all the
recharge details of the
6. With proper storage of the data in a relational environment the
system can aggregate itself to cater to the standards of providing a
clear and easy path for future works.

Merits of proposed system

Manpower utilization is reduced.

Elimination of Paper work.

High reliability.

Fast and economical.

Tight security, the person who has authority can only enter into the


Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Accurate Calculation

More secure.

The details stored can be easily updated.

Maintains large Terabytes of data.

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

The system after careful analysis has been identified to be presented with
the following modules.

Administrator Module

Client Information Module

users Module

store management Module

recharge account Module

Payments Module



Administrator Module
This module maintains the services related to system administrator
who is authenticated upon the system. This module fairly maintains the
integration between the modules related to backend database and the








provides/denies reg: for the users. The administrator also verifies the
Queries, if any, from the users and sends response to them

Client Information Module

This module is about all the local users who check the details of the
club. The details of the company like name, location, contact details and
persons, organization heads etc are maintained in this module. This
module will act like a client database summary. This will help the firm to
keep a track of the clients.

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Employees Information Module
The module manages the information of all the employees who
practically exist for this organization. Each employee is exclusively
associated through a specific department and authorized designation. The
module manages all the transactional relations that generically arise as and
when the system has been executed, upon the requirements. The details of
employees like name, qualification, Specialization, Salary details, Accounts
knowledge exposure etc are maintained in this module.
Audit Module
This module keeps track of all the audit activities done by the
auditing office for various companies. The services offered by the auditing
office are maintained here. The companies can take up the specified
services and the status of the services is also maintained for each
Payments Module
The payment made by the companies for taking the auditors service
is maintained in this module. The pending payments from the companies
can also be retrieved from this module.
Audit Scheduler Module
A strategic plan helps guide the development of the audit function.
This module will help the auditor to create their audit planning. Auditor can
easily sort the audit based on the information shown. The auditing
schedules to be planned for all the companies for various auditing types
can be maintained here. The auditing will be done on these periodic

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Security Module
This module maintains and manages the security standards that may
be necessary in accessing the system as per the required authorization.
Only authorized persons will be able to access the system. Users of the
system and their passwords are managed in this module. The module
involves authenticating the user by encrypting the password provided by
user and checking whether the user is valid user or not. A login screen is
provided to the user which authenticates the user.

Reports Module
This module can generate various reports based on the requirements.
Various reports that can be generated are:

Clients list

Employee Details

Audit Schedules

Audit Reports

Payment Receivables etc.

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)


Although the degree of interest in each concept has varied over the
years, each has stood the test of time. Each provides the software designer
with a foundation from which more sophisticated design methods can be
applied. Fundamental design concepts provide the necessary framework for
getting it right.
Software design is both a process and a model. The design is a
sequence of steps that enable the designer to describe all aspects of the
software to be built. It is important to note, however, that the design
process is not simply a cookbook. Creative skill, past experience, a sense
of what makes good software, and an overall commitment to quality are
critical success factors for a component design.
Design is the technical kernel of software engineering.


design, progressive refinements of data structure, architecture, interfaces,

and procedural detail of software components are development, reviewed,
and documented. Design results in representations of software that can be
assessed for quality.
A number of fundamental software design principles and concepts
have been proposed over the past four decades. Design principles guide
the software engineer as the design process proceeds. Design concepts
guide the software engineer as the design process proceeds. Design
concepts provide basic criteria for design quality.
Modularity (in both program and data) and the concept of abstraction
enable the designer to simply and reuse software components. Refinement

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

provides a mechanism for representing successive layers of functional
detail. Program and data structure contribute to an overall view of software
architecture, while procedure provides the detail necessary for algorithm
implementation. Information hiding and functional independence provide
heuristics for achieving effective modularity.
Software designer develops their project based on their fundamental
concept. With several foundation the sophisticated design methods can be
applied .it is inconceivable that the design of a new machine, new
computer chip or a new offline building would be conducted without
defining design measures, determining metrics for various aspects of
design quality, and using them to guide the manner for various aspects of
design quality, and using them to guide the manner in which the design
involves. Design metrics for computer software, like all other software
metrics, are not perfect. The design process is a set of iterative steps that
enable the designer to describe all aspect of the software to be built.

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)




Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Data Flow Diagram
The data flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical tool used for expressing
system requirements in a graphical form. The DFD also known as the
bubble chart has the purpose of clarifying system requirements and
identifying major transformations that will become programs in system
design. Thus DFD can be stated as the starting point of the design phase
that functionally decomposes the requirements specifications down to the
lowest level of detail. The DFD consists of series of bubbles joined by lines.
The bubbles represent data transformations and the lines represent data
flows in the system
The first step is to draw a data flow diagram (DFD). The DFD was
first developed by Larry Constantine as a way of expressing system
requirements in graphical form. A DFD also known as a bubble chart has
the purpose of clarifying system requirements and identifying major
transformations that will become programs in system design. So, it is the
starting point of the design phase that functionally decomposes the
requirements specifications down to the lowest level of detail. A DFD
consists of series of bubbles join by the data flows in the system.
The purpose of data flow diagrams is to provide a semantic bridge
between users and systems developers. The diagrams are:

Graphical, eliminating thousands of words.

Logical representations, modeling what a system does, rather than

physical models showing how it does it.

Hierarchical, showing systems at any level of detail.

Jargon less, allowing user understanding and reviewing.

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

The goal of data flow diagramming is to have a commonly
understood model of a system. The diagrams are the basis of structured
systems analysis. Data flow diagrams are supported by other techniques of
structured systems analysis such as data structure diagrams, data
dictionaries, and procedure-representing techniques such as decision
tables, decision trees, and structured English.

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

DFD Level 0

Local visitors

allocate tasks
View task


Enter Task
View Tasks

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

DFD Level 1 Admin User




Admin User



Create new




Create audit









Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

DFD LEVEL 1 Employee





Update Task


View Audit




Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

ER Diagram
Entity relationship diagram
The Entity-Relationship (ER) model is a conceptual data model that
views the real world as entities and relationships. A basic component of the
model is the Entity-Relationship diagram, which is used to visually
represent data objects. The model has been extended and today it is
commonly used for database design.
The entity relationship diagram is based on a perception of real world
that consists of a collection of basic objects, called entities and of
relationship among the objects. Entities are described in a database by a
set of attributes. The set of all entities of the same type, and the set of all
relationships of the same type, are termed as an entity set, and
relationship set respectively.

The overall logical structure of a database

can be expressed graphically by an entity relationship diagram, which is

built up using the notations
Features of ER Model are:

It maps well to relational model.

It is simple and easy to understand with minimum of training.

Therefore, database designer to communicate with the end user can
use the model.

In addition, the model can be used as a design plan by the database

to implement a data model in specific database management

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

ER Diagram











Service Activity

Audit services

Audit Schedule



Services booked




Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Database Design
Database design is required to manage large bodies of information. The
management of data involves both the definition of structure for the
manipulation of information. In addition the data base system must provide
for the safety of the information handled despite. System crashes or due to
attempt at unauthorized access. For developing an efficient data base we
have to fulfill certain condition such as ;

Control redundancy

Easy to use

Data independence

Accuracy and integrity


For achieving the above criteria, we have to make use of various

features available with DBMS such forcing integrity constrains.

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)


Table Name: Account

Table Name: Employee

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Table Name: Events

Table Name: Login

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Table Name: Payment

Table Name: Plan

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Table Name : Plan


Table Name: Products

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Table Name: Recharge

Table Name : Sales

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Table Name: Ticket

Table Name :User

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Input Design









description of the computer based business information into programoriented specification. The goal of designing input data is to make the
automation as easy and free from errors as possible.
It includes identification of software components, decoupling and
decomposing them into processing modules, conceptual data structures
and specifying relationship among the components. It is concerned with














interconnection among modules and data structure.

The input design is the link that ties the information system into the
world of its users. It is a process of converting user-originated inputs to a
computer-based format.

Input data are collected and organized into a

group of similar data.

Once identified, appropriate input media are

selected for processing.

The goal of designing input data is to make entry easy, logical and
free form errors.

In input data design, we design source document that

capture the data and then select the media used to enter them into the
computer. The input forms are developed in a user-friendly way so that a
layman also can easily understand everything. Menus are provided to users
and different icons are designed so the proposed system design looks
decorative. Input design is the part of the overall system design.

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Source documents initiate a processing cycle as soon as they are entered
into the system through the keyboard. A source should be logical and easy
to understand.
Objectives of Input Design:
1. To achieve the highest possible level of accuracy.
2. To ensure that the input is acceptable and understood by the user.
The various forms generated are as follows,

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Output Design
Output design is very important concept in the computerized system,
without reliable output the user may feel the entire system is unnecessary
and avoids using it. The proper output design is important in any system
and facilitates effective decision-making. The output design of this system
includes various reports.
Computer output is the most important and direct source of
information the user. Efficient, intelligible output design should improve the
systems relationships with the user and help in decision making. A major
form of output is the hardcopy from the printer.
Output requirements are designed during system analysis. A good
starting point for the output design is the data flow diagram. Human
factors reduce issues for design involved addressing internal controls to
ensure readability.
An application is successful only when it can provide efficient and
effective reports. Reports are actually presentable form of the data. The
report generation should be useful to the management for future reference.
The report is the main source of information for users operators and
management. Report generated are a permanent record of the transaction
occurred. After any valid transactions; have commenced the report of the
same are generations and: filed for future reference. Great care has been
taken when designation the report as it plays an important role in decisionmarking.

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Output forms are also designed in a specific manner as per the user
requirement. Results are formatted to enhance clarity. Depending on the
user the system would generate appropriate output. The output forms are
designed in such a way that the entire user required data is presented.
While designing an output, the system analyst must accomplish the

Determine what information to present

Decide whether to display, print or speak information and select the

output medium.

Arrange the presentation of information in an acceptable form.

Decide how to distribute the output to intended users.

Output from computer system is required primarily to communicate the

results of processing to users (sometimes to other systems including
machine based systems).

There are various types of output required by

most systems, like

External output whose destination is outside the organization and

which require special attention because the project shows the image
of the organization.

Internal output whose destination is within the organization and

which requires careful design because they are the users main
interface with the computer.

Operational output whose uses purely within the department.

Interactive output, which involves the user in communicating

directly with the computer.

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Turn around output i.e., re-entered documents to which data will

be added before they are returned to the computer for further

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)


System testing
Testing Methodologies









completeness and quality of developed computer software. There are many

approaches to software testing, but effective testing of complex products is
essentially a process of investigation, not merely a matter of creating and
following rote procedure. One definition of testing is "the process of
questioning a product in order to evaluate it", where the "questions" are
things the tester tries to do with the product, and the product answers with
its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester.
The quality of the application can and normally does vary widely from
system to system but some of the common quality attributes include
reliability, stability, portability, maintainability and usability.
Testing objectives include
1. Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of finding an
2. A good test case is one that has a high probability of finding an as yet
undiscovered error.
3. A successful test is one that uncovers an as yet undiscovered error.
Testing should systematically uncover different classes of errors in a
minimum amount of time and with a minimum amount of effort. A
secondary benefit of testing is that it demonstrates that the software

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

appears to be working as stated in the specifications. The data collected
through testing can also provide an indication of the software's reliability
and quality. But, testing cannot show the absence of defect -- it can only
show that software defects are present.
Black box testing
Black box testing attempts to derive sets of inputs that will fully exercise all
the functional requirements of a system. It is not an alternative to white
box testing. This type of testing attempts to find errors in the following
1. incorrect or missing functions,
2. interface errors,
3. errors in data structures or external database access,
4. performance errors, and
5. initialization and termination errors.
White box testing
This testing is based on knowledge of the internal logic of an
applications code. Also known as Glass box Testing. Internal software and
code working should be known for this type of testing. Tests are based on
coverage of code statements, branches, paths, conditions.White box testing
is a test case design method that uses the control structure of the
procedural design to derive test cases. Test cases can be derived that
1. Guarantee that all independent paths within a module have been
exercised at least once.










3. Execute all loops at their boundaries and within their operational

4. Exercise internal data structures to ensure their validity.


Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Quality Assurance
Generic risks
Security Technologies & Policies
A computer-base system is a combination of many assets or resources
designed to perform some function or to provide some services. Each of
these assets is threatened by one or more of the following unacceptable





Security Issues

The term security can be divided into four related issues






In the system brief log on procedure for the customer was provided in
order to enter and access the system. This process is done in order to
identify the valid user.
These attributes are stored in a table that cannot be easily trapped by
unauthorized persons.

File protection

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

The various files and database tables are also highly secured in this
system. The necessity for securing the files and the table evolves because
some persons who were not given authorization for access may hacker files
and corrupt the tables with wrong data which will response tremendous
hazards to the operations of the system. So in order to avoid these things,
the data encryption standards engine is attached to all files and database
tables associated with the system, which will facilitate encryption and
decryption of files. Backup of the system are also taken as a preventive

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Implementation is the stage of the project where the theoretical
design is turned into a working system. At this stage the main work load
and the major impact on the existing system shifts to the user department.
If the implementation is not carefully planned and controlled, it can cause
chaos and confusion.
Implementation includes all those activities that take place to convert
from the old system to the new one. The new system may be totally new,
replacing an existing manual or automated system or it may be a major
modification to an existing system. Proper implementation is essential to
provide a reliable system to meet the organization requirements.
The process of putting the developed system in actual use is called
system implementation. The system can be implemented only after
thorough testing is done and it is found to be working according to the
specifications. The system personnel check the feasibility of the system.
The most crucial stage is achieving a new successful system and giving
confidence on the new system for the user that it will work efficiently and
effectively. It involves careful planning, investigation of the current system
and its constraints on implementation. The system implementation has
three main aspects. They are education and training, system testing and
The implementation stage involves following tasks.

Careful planning

Investigation of system and constraints

Design of methods to achieve the changeover.

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Training of the staff in the changeover phase

Evaluation of the changeover method

Implementation Procedure
Implementation of software refers to the final installation of the
package in its real environment, to the satisfaction of the intended users
and the operation of the system. The people are not sure that the software
is meant to make their job easier. In the initial stage they doubt about the
software but we have to ensure that the resistance does not build up as
one has to make sure that.
The active user must be aware of the benefits of using the system

Their confidence in the software built up

Proper guidance is impaired to the user so that he is comfortable in

using the application

Before going ahead and viewing the system, the user must know that
for viewing the result, the server program should be running in the server.
If the server object is not running on the server, the actual processes will
not take place.
User Training
To achieve the objectives and benefits expected from the proposed
system it is essential for the people who will be involved to be confident of
their role in the new system. As system becomes more complex, the need
for education and training is more and more important.
Education is complementary to training. It brings life to formal
training by explaining the background to the resources for them. Education

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

involves creating the right atmosphere and motivating user staff. Education
information can make training more interesting and more understandable.
Operational Documentation
Once the implementation plan is decided, it is essential that the user
of the system is made familiar and comfortable with the environment. A
documentation providing the whole operations of the system is being
developed. Useful tips and guidance is given inside the application itself to
the user. The system is developed user friendly so that the user can work
the system from the tips given in the application itself.

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

The growth of any organization leads to enhancements, in future the
system can be enhanced according to requirements. In order to become an




improvement and enhancement.






Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

This software provides a user friendly approach towards the
system. This system has been well developed and when implemented, is
bound to satisfy all of the requirements. Painstaking efforts have been
taken to make the software impeccable and upgradeable. There is a hope
that this software will be utilized to its maximum and will do a good job in
long run.
The ubiquitous nature of change underlies all software work.
Therefore, we must develop mechanism for evaluating, controlling and
making modification. This project has been created using the best design
and coding technique known. It can be migrated to new platforms,
adjusted for changes in machines and operating system technology and
enhanced to meet now user needs, all without regard to overall
The efficiency of the application lies in the hands of the end users.
Care has been taken to provide this user friendly system so that not only
the experienced and professional agents use the system but will prove
useful for the new agents also.
The system is much flexible and extensible and hence further
enhancements, if needed, can be developed and it can be integrated With
the existing one very easily. It is expected to leave up to the objective for
which it is designed. In the proposed system, it is sure that it must reduce
the man power and the time duration.

Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)


Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)

Comdex .NET Programming Course Kit ,
Vikas Gupta & Cogent Solutions Inc,
Publisher: DreamTech Press, Edition: Aug 2007
ASP.NET Bible,
Mridula parihar et al,
WILEY-Dreamtech India Pvt. Ltd,

Edition: 2003

ASP.NET: A Beginners Guide,

Dave Mercer,
TATA McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, Edition: 2002
Software Engineering A practitioners approach,
TATA McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, Fourth Edition: 1997
System Analysis and Design,
Ellis M. Awad,
Galgotia Publication, Edition 1997
Web Sites





samples.gotdotnet.com/quick start/asp plus