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PX7203-Special Electrical Machines-Question Bank

M.E., C&I-2nd sem

2014-2015

UNIT I PERMANENT MAGNET BRUSHLESS D.C. MOTORS


PART A
1. Why adjustable speed drives are preferred over a fixed speed motor?
The common reasons for preferring an adjustable speed drives over a fixed speed motor are:
Energy saving e.g. Fan or pump flow process, Velocity and position control e.g. Electric train,
portable tools, washing machine, Amelioration of transients: Starting and stopping of motors produce
sudden transients. It can be smoothened using adjustable speed drives.
2. What is the structure of an adjustable speed drive system?
The general structure of a motion control system or drive consists of the following elements:
The load, the motor, the power electronic converter; and the control.
3. What are the advantages of PM machine?
In general, PM machines have a higher efficiency as a result of the passive, PM-based field
excitation. PM machines have the highest power density compared with other types of electric
machines, which implies that they are lighter and occupy less space for a given power rating. The
amount of magnet material that is required for a given power rating is a key cost consideration. The
cost of magnet material is high compared with the cost of the other materials used in electric motors,
and design attributes that minimize the required amount of magnet material are important
considerations in motor selection. The stators of PM machines are generally fabricated in the same
manner as induction machine stators; however, modifications are sometimes necessary, such as the
design of a stator lamination to accommodate high flux density.
4. What are the types of PM machines?
1.Interior PM Machine and 2. Surface mounted PM machine.
5. Compare brushless DC motor with P.M. commutator motor.
Brushless DC motor
P.M. Commutator motor
1. No Brushes. Maintenance problems (RFI, 1. Commutator based DC machines need
sparking, ignition and fire accidents) eliminated.
carbon brushes, so sparking and wear and tear
is un avoidable.
2. More cross sectional available for armature 2. Armature winding is inside and the magnet
windings. Conduction of heat through the frame is is on the stator outside.
improved.
3. Increase in electric loading is possible, providing 3. Efficiency less.
a greater specific torque. Higher efficiency.
4. Space saving, higher speed possible, with reduced
inertia.
5. Maximum speed limited by retention of magnet
against centrifugal force.
6. Shaft position sensor is a must.
7. Complex electronics for controller.

4. Commutator restricts speed.


5. Magnet is on the stator. No problem.
6. Not mandatory.
7. Simple

6. What are the modes of operation of the square wave BLDC motor?
There are two modes of operation: 120 degree mode and 180 degree mode. The mode
corresponds to the conduction period of the switches in the voltage source inverter. Each switch
conducts for the period 120 or 180 degree as per the mode. Commutation from one conducting
device to another takes place at every 60 degree intervals.
7. Why the shape of the emf waveform of a BLDC is trapezoidal?
The ideal shape of the emf waveform is rectangular. The effect of slotting and
fringing causes its corner to be rounded and hence the shape is trapezoidal with flat top
portion with 120 degree.

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M.E., C&I-2nd sem

PX7203-Special Electrical Machines-Question Bank

2014-2015

8. Give the emf and torque equations of the square wave BLDC
motor.
The emf equation is given by E = k and the torque equation is given by T = kI. where
k is the armature constant depending on the number of turns in series per phase in the
armature winding, is rotor speed in rad / sec and is the flux ( mainly contributed by the
Permanent Magnet on the rotor). I is the load current.
9. Compare 120 degree and 180 degree operation of BLDC motor.
The 180 degree magnetic arc motor uses 120 degree mode of inverter operation. The motor
with 120 degree magnetic arc uses 180 degree mode of inverter
operation.
In 180 degree mode of inverter has 1.5 times copper losses but produce same torque with
only 2/3 of magnetic material. Motor operation is less efficient.
10. What are the types of sensors used with PMBLDC motors?
Hall effect sensors are most commonly used for speed, position sensing with PMBLDC
motors. Optical Disc based sensors are also used. Presently rotor position sensors are avoided by
using alternative methods called as Sensor less control methods, which uses terminal emf
measurement, third harmonic voltage measurement, flux estimation and neuro fuzzy techniques etc.
11. Why MOSFET or IGBTs are used in inverters for PMBLDC motors?
These devices operate at very high switching frequencies for PWM method of operation. The
duty cycle of the PWM decides the average voltage applied to the motor and hence the speed is
adjusted. These devices are easy to commutate by using microprocessor or microcontroller based
software. (Base drive)
12. Write the dynamic equations of the PMBLDC motor.
The dynamic model equations of PMBLDC motor is given by di /dt =( v R i e () ) / L
a
an
a
a
dib/dt =( vbn R ib eb () ) / L , dic/dt =( vcn R ic ec() ) / L , d/dt = [ T e Tl B ] / J , d/dt = P
/ 2 where the Torque developed is given by , T = (e ()i +e ()i + e () i ) / , T = Load torque
e

applied, B is the coefficient of friction and J is the moment of inertia.


13. What are the relative merits and demerits of brush less DC motor drives?
Merits: Commutator less motor , Specified electrical loading is better, Heat can be easily dissipated,
No sparking takes place due to brush, Source of EMI is avoided
Demerits: Above 10 kW, the cost of magnet is increase, Due to centrifugal force the magnet may
come out.
14. How the direction of rotation is reversed in case of PMBLDC motor
The direction of rotation can be reversed by reversing the logic sequences in PMBLDC motor
15.What are the various kinds of permanent magnets?
There are basically three different types of permanent magnets which are used in small DC motors
Alnico magnets, Ferrite or ceramic magnet, and Rare - earth magnet (samarium cobalt magnet )
16.Write the difference between square wave PMBL and sine wave PMBL motor.
Square wave PMBL
It has rectangular distribution of
magnetic flux in the air gap.
It has rectangular current
waveforms.
It has concentrated stator
winding

Sine wave PMBL motor


It has sinusoidal or quasi sinusoidal distribution of
magnetic flux in the air gap.
It has sinusoidal or quasi sinusoidal current waveforms.
It has quasi sinusoidal distribution of stator winding
(conductors) which is short pitch and distributed or
sometimes distributed in some cases.

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PX7203-Special Electrical Machines-Question Bank

M.E., C&I-2nd sem

2014-2015

17. Write the expression of torque equation of a sine wave PMBL motor.
For

an

ideal

case

3
2 2

I Bm r1 l N s sin Nm

and

for

the

practical

case

3p
E ph I sin Nm

Where Bm = Maximum flux density in the air gap Wb / m2, l = axial length of the magnetic path, m
Ns = stator poles, = torque angle , p = Number of pole pairs
18. Write the expression for induced emf / phase of the sine wave PMBL motor.
For

an

ideal

case

1
E ph
Bm r1 l N s and
2p 2

for

the

practical

case

E ph 2 m1 K w1 N ph f Where Bm = Maximum flux density in the air gap Wb / m 2, l = axial


length of the magnetic path, m, Ns = stator poles, = torque angle, p = Number of pole pairs
19. What is meant by multiphase brushless motors?
A multi-phase brushless motor including a stator having a plurality of drive coils each corresponding
to a specific phase and a rotor having a plurality of field magnet poles of successively alternating
polarity. The stator further has a plurality of Hall generators for detecting the positions of the rotor
and a speed sensor for detecting the rotational speed of the rotor.
20. Give the uses of sensors in motors.
It is used to identify the position of the rotor and to excite the coils in proper manner.
PART B
1. Derive the torque and EMF equations of the permanent magnet brushless DC motor.
2. Sketch the structure of controller for permanent magnet brushless DC motor and explain the
functions of various blocks.
3. Explain in detail the various rotor position sensors used in permanent magnet brushless DC
Motor.
4. Sketch torque speed characteristics of a permanent magnet brushless DC motor.
5. Explain in detail the magnetic circuit analysis of brushless DC motor on open circuit.
6. Discuss in detail the various driving circuits used in permanent magnet brushless DC motor.
7. Explain square wave permanent magnet brushless dc motor drives.
8. Describe the constructional aspects of mechanical and electronic commutator of PMBLDC
Motor.
9. A PMBLDC motor has torque constant 0.12 Nm/A referred to DC supply. Find the motors
no load speed when connected to 48V DC supply. Find the stall current and stall torque if
armature resistance is 0.15/phase and drop in controller transistor is 2V.
10. Illustrate in detail, the operation of PMBLDC motor with 180 magnet arcs and 120 square
wave phase currents.

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PX7203-Special Electrical Machines-Question Bank

M.E., C&I-2nd sem

2014-2015

UNIT II PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS


PART - A
1. Compare PMSM and PMBLDC motors.
PM Brushless DC motor
PMSM
1. Rectangular distribution of magnetic flux in 1. Sinusoidal or quasisinusoidal distribution of
the air gap.
magnetic flux in the air gap.
2. Rectangular current waveforms.
2. Sinusoidal or quasi-sinusoidal current
waveforms.
3. concentrated stator windings.
3. Quasi-sinusoidal distribution of stator
conductors. (short pitched and distributed or
concentric stator windings)
2. Give the expression for torque and emf of a PMSM motor.
T = (3/2) I 2 [ r 1 l B Ns sin()]/2, where is the torque angle +ve for motoring,
Eph = [2 (kw1Nph) M1 f ] / 2
3. What is meant by field oriented control of PMSM?
In general for field oriented control the stator currents are transformed into a frame of
reference moving with the rotor flux. In the PMSM the rotor flux is stationary relative to the rotor.
The rotor flux is therefore defined by the mechanical angle of rotation , this is obtained from a rotor
position sensor. Thus, the control is much easier to implement than in the case of induction motor.
4. What are the inherent advantages of variable reluctance motor?
Simple in construction due to absence of rotor windings and or magnets and the use of small
number of concentrated stator coils similar to the field coils of a DC motor, Efficient motor
cooling, Suitable for sustained high speed operations, Low motor inertia and high torque / weight
rotor
5. What are the applications of PMBLDC and PMSM motors?
PMBLDC: (Low rating application)turn table drives for record players, Hard disc drives, Low
cost instruments, Small fans for cooling electronic equipment, (High rating application)Air craft,
Satellite system, Traction system (in future)
6.What are the features of permanent magnet synchronous motor?
Robust, compact and less weight, No field current or rotor current in PMSM, unlike in
induction motor, Copper loss due to current flow which is largest loss in motors is about
half that of induction motor, High efficiency.
7. Explain the difference between synchronous motor and PMSM
Synchronous Motor
PMSM
3 phase AC or six step voltage or current source 3 phase sine wave ac or PWM ac is used as
inverter is used as supply
supply
This type of motor is used in very large Here it is used in low integral HP industries
compressor and fan drives
drives, fiber spinning mills.
8. What are the assumptions made in derivation of emf equation for PMSM?
Flux density distribution in the air gap is sinusoidal, Rotor rotates with an uniform angular velocity
of m ( rad/sec), Armature winding consists of full pitched, concentrated similarly located coils
of equal number of turns
9. Write down the expressions for power input and Torque of a PMSM?
Power input = 3EqIa + 3Ia2Ra
T = 3EIsin / m N-m
10. What are the features of closed- loop speed control of load commutated inverter fed
synchronous motor drive?
Higher efficiency, Four quadrant operation with regeneration braking is possible, Higher
power ratings and run at high speeds ( 6000 rpm)

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PX7203-Special Electrical Machines-Question Bank

M.E., C&I-2nd sem

2014-2015

11. Write down the emf expressions of PMSM?


Eph = 4.44 f m Kw1 T ph volts, This is the rms value of induced emf per phase, where f =
Frequency in Hertz, m = flux per pole, Kw1 = Winding factor, T ph = Turns per phase
12. What is load commutation?
Commutation of thyristors by induced voltages of load is known as load commutation. Here,
frequency of operation is higher and it does not require commutation circuits.
13. What is meant by slot less motor?
In slot less motor, the stator teeth are removed and resulting space is partially filled with
addition copper.
14. State the two classifications of PMSM?
Sinusoidal PMSM, Trapezoidal PMSM
15. What are advantages and disadvantages of PMSM?
Advantages: Elimination of field copper loss, High power density, Lower rotor inertia, Robust
construction of rotor, High efficiency Disadvantages: Loss of flexibilities of field flux control,
Demagnetization effect, High cost
16. Distinguish between self control and vector control of PMSM?
S.No. Self control
Vector control
1.
Dynamic performance is poor
Dynamic performance is better
2.
Control circuit is simple
Control circuit is complex
17.Brief-up the advantages of load commutation in permanent magnet synchronous motor.
Commutation of thyristors by induced voltages of load is known as load commutation. Here,
frequency of operation is higher and it does not require commutation circuits.
18.What is meant by self control of synchronous motor?
The objective of self control is to make the armature (stator) and rotor fields of brushless
synchronous motor drive to move in synchronism for all operating points.
19.What are the torque speed characteristics of PMSM?

20. Write down the expressions for the self and synchronous reactance of PMSM?
Xs = (3 0 Ns2 l r1 ) / 8 p2 g2
PART B
1. Derive the EMF and torque equation of BLPM Sine wave motor.
2. Explain the microprocessor based control of permanent magnet synchronous motors with a
neat block diagram.
3. Explain in detail the vector control of permanent magnet synchronous motor.
4. With neat sketch, discuss the torque speed characteristics of PMSM.
5. What are the differences in the constructional features of PMBLDC and PMSM?
6. Draw and explain the phasor diagram of permanent magnet synchronous motor.
7. With a neat diagram, explain the operation of power of controller for perma nent magnet
synchronous motor.
8. Explain circle diagram of permanent magnet synchronous motor.
9. Discuss the different rotor configurations of PM synchronous machines.
10.Write a detailed technical note on the following (i) vector control of PMSM (ii)
microprocessor based control

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PX7203-Special Electrical Machines- Question Bank

M.E., C&I-2nd sem

2014-2015

UNIT III SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTOR


PART - A
1. What is basic principle of operation of switched reluctance motor?
The switched reluctance motor is a doubly salient, singly excited motor. This means that it
has salient poles on both the rotor and the stator, but only one member (usually the stator) carries
windings. The rotor has no windings; magnet is or cage windings but is built up from stacks of
salient pole laminations. The basic principle operation of SRM is Variable reluctance.
2. What are the advantages of Switched Reluctance
motor?
Rotor is simple and it tends to have a low inertia, The stator is simple to wind, In
most applications the bulk of the losses appear on the stator, which is relatively easy to cool,
Due to the absence of magnet the maximum permissible rotor temperature may be higher than in
PM motors, Under fault conditions the open circuit voltage and short circuit current are zero or
varying small, Extreme by high speeds are possible
3. What is the difference between Switched Reluctance motor and variable reluctance stepper
motor?
Switched Reluctance motor
Variable reluctance stepper motor
Conduction angle for phase current is controlled Stepper motor is usually fed with a square
and synchronized with the rotor position, usually by wave of phase current without rotor position
means of a shaft position sensor
feedback.
The SRM is designed for efficient power It is usually designed as a torque motor with a
conversion at high speed
limited speed.
4. What are the disadvantages of a Switched Reluctance motor?
The absence of free PM excitation imposes the burden of excitation on the stator windings and
the controllers and increases the per unit copper losses, is limited, torque / ampere is limited,
Non uniform nature of the torque production which leads to torque ripple and may contribute to
acoustic noise.
5. Distinguish between co-energy and field energy
Co-energy
Field energy
i

Co-energy is defined as w1 di

Field energy is defined as w f id

6. What are the applications of Switched Reluctance motor?


Precision position control system for Robotics, Low power servo motor
7. Write the relations between the speed and fundamental switching frequency.
f = n Nr = (r.p.m./60) Nr Hz Nr = No. of rotor poles, If there are q phases there are q N r
steps per revolution and the step angle or stroke is given by
= 2 /(q N r) rad. The no of stator
poles usually exceeds the no of rotor poles.
8. What is co-energy?
In the i curve of a motor, the area between the curve and horizontal i axis is the co-energy
W and the other part is the stored field energy W f.
9. Give the expression for torque of a Switched Reluctance motor.(May 12)
The torque is given by T = [ W / ] i=const Or by T = [ Wf / ] =const With magnetic
saturation negligible and with i curve straight line , = L i ,W = Wf = () L i2 ,T = () i2 dL /d
Nm
10. What are the types of power controllers used for Switched Reluctance motor?
Using two power semiconductors and two diodes per phase, (n + 1) power switching devices and
(n + 1) diodes per phase, Phase windings using Bifilar wires , Dump C converter, Split power
supply converter

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M.E., C&I-2nd sem

2014-2015

11. Why rotor position sensor is essential for the operation of Switched Reluctance motor?
It is normally necessary to use a rotor position sensor for communication and speed
feedback. The turning ON and OFF operation of the various devices of power semiconductor
switching circuit are influenced by signals obtained from rotor position sensor.
12. What are the two types of current control techniques?
Hysteresis type control, PWM type control
13. What is meant by energy ratio?
Energy ratio = (Wm / Wm + R) 0.45 Wm = Mechanical energy transformed
This energy ratio cannot be called as efficiency. As the stored energy R is not wasted as a loss but it is
feedback to the source through feedback diodes.
14. What is phase winding of SRM?
Stator poles carrying field coils. The field coils of opposite poles are connected in series such
that mmfs are additive and they are called Phase winding of Switched Reluctance motor.
15. What is Hysteresis current control?
This type of current controller maintains a more or less constant throughout the conduction
period in each phase. This controller is called hysteresis type controller.
16. Define: Chopping mode of operation of Switched Reluctance motor?
In this mode, also called low speed mode, each phase winding gets excited for a period
which is sufficiently long.
17. Define: Single pulse mode of operation of Switched Reluctance motor?
In this mode, also called high speed mode, the current rise is within limits during the small time
interval of each phase excitation.
18. What are the merits of classic converter or power controller in SRM?
Control of each phase is completely independent of the other phases; the energy from the off going
phase is feedback to the source, which results in useful utilization of the energy.
19. What are the different power converters used for the control of switched reluctance motor?
Classic converter, (n+1) power semiconductor switch, phase windings using bifilar wires, split
power supply converter, dump c converter.
20. Why SR machines popular in adjustable speed drives?
Rotor is simple and it tends to have a low inertia, The stator is simple to wind, In most
applications the bulk of the losses appear on the stator, which is relatively easy to cool, Due to the
absence of magnet the maximum permissible rotor temperature may be higher than in PM motors,
Under fault conditions the open circuit voltage and short circuit current are zero or varying small,
Extreme by high speeds are possible
PART B
1. Explain the construction and working of Switched Reluctance motor?
2. With a block diagram explain the importance of closed loop control of Switched Reluctance
motor.
3. Describe the Hysteresis type and PWM type current regulator for one phase of Switched
Reluctance motor.
4. (i)Explain in detail about microprocessor based control of Switched Reluctance motor.
(ii) Explain how the effect of saturation improves the efficiency in SRM.
5. Describe the various power controller circuits to Switched Reluctance motor and explain the
operation of any one scheme with suitable circuit diagram.
6. Describe the various operating modes of Switched Reluctance motor.
7. Derive the voltage and torque equation of Switched Reluctance motor.
8. Draw and explain torque speed characteristics of Switched Reluctance motor.
9. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of Switched Reluctance motor.
10. Discuss in detail the frequency of variation of the inductance of each phase winding
of Switched Reluctance Motor.

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PX7203-Special Electrical Machines- Question Bank

M.E., C&I-2nd sem

2014-2015

UNIT IV STEPPING MOTORS


PART - A
1. Define: Stepper motor?
Stepper motor is a motor which rotates step by step and not continuous rotation. When the
stator is excited using a DC supply the rotor poles align with the stator poles in opposition such
that reluctance is less.
2. What are the advantages of Stepper motor?
No feedback is normally required for either position control or speed control, Positional control is
non cumulative, Stepping motor are compatible with modern digital equipment
3. Mention the different types of stepper motor?
Variable Reluctance stepper motor (Single stack, Multi stack), Permanent magnet stepper motor,
Hybrid stepper motor, Outer rotor stepper motor
4. Define: Step Angle of stepper motor and Resolution of stepper motor?
A stepping motor rotates through a fixed angle for every pulse. The rated value of this angle
is called the step angle and expressed in degrees.
Resolution is defined as the accuracy of positioning of the rotor pole at a particular step
angle with respect to stator pole.
5. Define: Holding torque and Detent torque of stepper motor.
Holding torque is defined as the maximum static torque that can be applied to the shaft of an
excited motor without causing continuous rotation.
Detent torque is defined as the maximum static torque that can be applied to the shaft of an
unexcited motor without causing continuous rotation.
6. Define: Pull in and pull out torque of stepper motor.
Pull in torque is called the starting characteristics and refer to the range of frictional
load torque at which the motor can start and stop without loosing steps for various frequencies in a
pulse strain.
Pull out torque is called the slewing characteristics. After the test, motor is started by a
specified driver in the specified excitation mode in the self starting range; the pulse frequency is
gradually increased; the motor will eventually run out of synchronism. The relation between the
frictional load torque and the minimum pulse frequency with which the motor can synchronize is
called pull out characteristics.
7. Define: Slewing frequency and stepping frequency of stepper motor. (May 13)
Slewing frequency is defined as the maximum frequency (stepping rate) at which the loaded
motor can run without losing steps is alternatively called the maximum slewing frequency.
The speed of rotation of a stepping motor is given in terms of the number of steps per second
and the term stepping rate is often used to indicate speed.
8. Define: Maximum starting torque and maximum starting frequency of stepper motor.
Maximum starting torque is alternatively called as maximum pull in torque and is
defined as the maximum frictional load with which the motor can start and synchronize with the pulse
train of frequency as low as 10 Hz.
Maximum starting frequency is the maximum control frequency at which the unloaded motor
can start and stop without losing steps.
9. What is rest position or equilibrium position of stepper motor?
It is defined as the position at which as excited motor comes to rest at no load.
10. What is micro stepping and how is it achieved?
It is possible to subdivide on natural step into many small steps by means of electronics. This
method is known as mini step or micro step.
11. What is the effect of magnetic saturation in stepper motor?
The efficiency is improved, and the losses are reduced.

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PX7203-Special Electrical Machines- Question Bank

M.E., C&I-2nd sem

2014-2015

12. What are the classifications of drive system of stepping motor?


Open loop system, closed loop system
13. What is the relationship between the step number and the step angle in a stepper motor?
Step number (S) = 360 / s
s = step angle
14. What is Cyclonome?
A stepping motor manufactured by Sigma instruments Inc., are called Cyclonome.
15. What are the various bipolar drives used for stepper motor?
Basic Bipolar drives, Bipolar L/R drives, bipolar chopper drives
16. What are the different modes of excitation used in variable reluctance stepping motors?
1 phase on or full step operation, 2 phase on mode, alternate 1 phase on and 2 phase on mode half
step operation, micro stepping operation.
17. Mention the limitations of open loop operation of stepper motors.
The open loop drive is attractive and widely accepted in applications of speed and position
controls. However the performance of stepper motor driven in open loop mode may fail to follow a
pulse command when the frequency of the pulse train is too high or the inertial load is too heavy.
18. What are the different modes of excitation?
Single phase excitation, two phase excitation, Half step mode, Mini-step drive.
19. Compare closed loop control and open loop control in stepper motor.
Closed loop control is more accurate, oscillatory motions are avoided for certain speed ranges, Speed
remains constant for high inertial load, follows the input pulses at stepping frequency are some of the
advantages over open loop control. But it is costly and complex.
20. Define torque constant of a stepper motor.
The torque constant of the stepper motor is defined as the initial slope of the torque current curve of
the stepper motor.

PART B
1. Explain the construction and principle of operation of 1-phase and 2-phase of
Variable Reluctance Stepping Motor.
2. Explain the construction and operation of permanent magnet Stepping motor?
3. Explain the construction and operation of hybrid Stepping motor?
4. Discuss the static and dynamic characteristics of stepper motor with neat sketch?
5. What are the drawbacks of open loop system? What is the need of closed loop control
of stepper motor?
6. Explain in detail the linear and non linear analysis of stepper motor?
7. Explain in detail the drive system of a stepping motor?
8. Explain in detail the multi stack Variable Reluctance Stepping motor?
9. Explain the concept of torque production in variable reluctance stepping motor.
10. Problem on torque and stepping angle of stepper motor.

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PX7203-Special Electrical Machines- Question Bank

M.E., C&I-2nd sem

2014-2015

UNIT - V OTHER SPECIAL MACHINES


PART A
1. What type of single-phase induction motors is employed in high-speed fractional KW
applications?
Single phase A.C series motor.
2. Give the main difference in construction of an A.C series motor and a D.C series motor.
i. The entire iron structure of the field cores and yoke are laminated to reduce the eddy
current loss.
ii. Number of turns in the field winding is reduced to have large reactance and higher power
factor.
iii. A.C series motors are provided with commutating poles.
3. What is the specialty of hysteresis motor?
The rotor has no winding
4. What are the various methods available for making a single-phase motor self-starting?
(i) By splitting the single phase (ii) By providing shading coil in the poles (iii)
Repulsion
5. What type of single-phase induction motors is employed in high-speed fractional KW
applications?
Single phase A.C series motor
6. Classification of single phase motor?
(i) Split-phase motor (ii) Shaded pole motor (iii) Single phase series motor (iv) Repulsion motor
(v)Reluctance motor
7.What is the principle of working of a hysteresis motor?
This is the synchronous motor ( magnetic locking) which does not require any dc excitation
to the rotor and it uses non projected poles.
8.List the applications of Linear Induction motor.
Magnetic Levitation, linear propulsion, and linear actuators. They have also been used for
pumping liquid metals
9.What is the necessity of having laminated yoke in an ac series motor?
Yoke and the pole and armature cores of ac series motors are laminated so that eddy current
losses are reduced and so efficiency is improved and heating is reduced.
10.How can the speed of a linear induction motor be controlled?
The speed of a linear induction motor can be controlled by varying both frequency
and voltage simultaneously
11.Does the starting torque of a hysteresis motor have the hysteresis torque as
the only component?
No, eddy current torque in addition to hysteresis torque.
12. What is the principle of working of a Linear induction motor?
Whenever there occurs a relative motion between the field and the short circuit conductors, currents
are induced in them which results in electromagnetic forces and under the influence of these forces,
according to Lenzs law, the conductors try to move in such a way as to eliminate the induced
currents.
13. What are parameters does the LIM speed depends upon?
LIM synchronous speed does not depend upon number of poles but on pole pitch and supply
frequency.

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PX7203-Special Electrical Machines- Question Bank

M.E., C&I-2nd sem

2014-2015

14.Write the expression of Thrust force of LIM.


F= P/Ns
15.Mention the advantages and disadvantages of LIM.
Advantages: Low initial cost, simplicity, No overheating of rotor.Disadvantages: High magnetizing
current results in poor efficiency and low pf., poor utilization of motor.
16.Draw the phasor diagram of a.c. series motor.

17. How commutation effect is reduced in ac series motor.


Commutation effect is reduced by compensating winding (Conductively and inductively) and
interpoles.
18.What are the modifications done while designing ac series motor?
The magnetic circuit is laminated to reduce eddy current loss, the field no. of turns is reduced
to reduce reactance effect, the number of conductors are increased to increase the flux.
19.Mention some reasons why dc series motor cannot be operated satisfactorily in ac
supply.
Ripple in torque, increase in eddy current, poor starting torque, develops rotational emf which
decreases efficiency of the motor.
20.Mention the characteristics and application of Hysteresis motor.

Because of noiseless operation and ability to drive high inertia loads, hysteresis motors are
particularly well suited to drive timing devices, electric clocks, tape-decks, turn tables and other
precision audio equipment.
PART B
1. What is the principle and working of hysteresis motor? Explain.
2. What is the principle and working of AC series motor? Explain
3. Explain the principle of operation and applications of repulsion motor and hysteresis motor.
4.Explain Hysteresis motor with neat sketches the principle of operation and the application.
5. A 100W , 2pole ,50Hz, 230V single phase series motor with salient poles has a total resistance
of 15 leakage resistance of 40, mutule resistance of 80 (in d-axis) and 50 (in q-axis). If
the stray power losses are 20watts, calculate the current , speed and power factor of the motor
at full-load.
6. What is the constructional difference between dc series and 1phase series motor? Why should
a series motor never be operated on no load? List the common application of 1 phase series
motor
7. Mention the problems usually encountered when a dc series motor is operated on ac.
What design modification are to be incorporated for its satisfactory operation on ac? Compare
the speed for dc and ac.
8. Explain commutation in ac series motor and Derive the torque equation of ac series motor.
9. Draw the phasor diagram of a single phase series motor and show that its
performance characteristics can be predicted from a circle diagram. Sketch the typical
performance characteristics against current. What are the special design features when
compared to a series motor?
10. Describe the construction of a synchronous hysteresis motor and show that it develops a
running torque both at synchronous and asynchronous speed of rotor.

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