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# MATRIX

MATRIX:
A set of mn elements (real or complex) arranged in a rectangular form of m
rows and n columns is called a matrix of order m by n , written as mxn .
Eg:

A =
ROW MATRIX:
A Matrix having only one row and any number of columns is called a Row
Matrix.
Eg:

COLUMN MATRIX:
A Matrix having only one column and any number of rows is called a
column matrix.

Eg:
ZERO MATRIX:
A Matrix with all the elements are zero is called a zero or null matrix and is
denoted by 0
E.g:

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SQUARE MATRIX:
A Matrix is said to be a Square Matrix, if the number of rows & columns are
equal.
Eg:
DIAGONAL MATRIX:
In a squre matrix all the entries except the main diagonal are zero known
as a Diagonal Matrix.
A square matrix A =

## is said to be a Diagonal Matrix, if aij=0 when ij

Eg:

TRIANGULAR MATRIX:
A Square Matrix in which all the entries above the main diagonal are
zero is called a lower triangular Matrix.
Eg:

A=

If all the entries below the main diagonal of a square matrix are zero,it is
called an upper triangular Matrix.
Eg:

B=

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SCALAR MATRIX:
A Scalar Matrix is a diagonal Matrix in which all the entries along the
main diagonal are equal.

Eg:

A=

IDENTITY MATRIX:
It is a diagonal Matrix in which all the entries along the main diagonal are
equal to 1

Eg:

Trace of a Matrix:
The sum of all the principal diagonal elements of a square matrix is called the
trace of a matrix

E.g A =

Trace of A=2+6+3=11

TRANSPOSE OF A MATRIX:
The Matrix obtained from the given Matrix A by interchanging its rows into
columns and its columns into rows is called the transpose of A and it is denoted by
.

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Eg:

A=

Then

SYMMETRIC MATRIX:
A Square matrix A = [aij] is said to be symmetric when aij = aji for all i&j
(ie) A Matrix A is symmetric if A=

Eg: A =

Hence A =
SINGULAR MATRIX:
A Square Matrix A is said to be Singular, if the determinant of A is zero.
Non Singular Matrix:
If

If

## 0, then A is nonsingular matrix

INVERSE OF A MATRIX:
If A is a non singular Matrix,
A. Then

## adjA is defined to be the inverse of the Matrix

= adjA

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ORTHOGONAL MATRIX :
A square Matrix is called on Orthogonal Matrix, if the product of the
Matrix and its transpose is an identity Matrix. (ie) A

=I (i.e)

A AT

DETERMINANTS:
To every square Matrix A of order n with entries as real or complex numbers.
We can associates a number called Determinant of Matrix A and it is denoted by

If A=

MINORS:
Let

## be a determinant of order n .The minors of an arbitrary

element aij is the determinant obtained by deleting the ith row and jthcolumn in
which the elements aij stands
COFACTOR:
The cofactor is a signal minor.
The cofactor of aij is denoted by Aij and is defined as Aij=(-1)i+jMij

SUBMATRIX:
The Matrix obtained on deleting any number of rows &columns of the
given matrix A is called the sub matrix of a.

EIGEN VALUE:

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## Let A= aij be the square matrix of order n. If there exists a nonzero

column vector X and a scalar , such that AX=X, then this is called eigen value
of A & X is called eigen vector corresponding to

CHARACTERISTIC EQUATION:
The system of equation will have a non trivial solution if

(ie)

=0

=0

The equation

Case1:
For 2x2 Matrix

If A=

Where

-(

## =Sum of the leading diagonal elements,

) +(

)=0

Case2:
For 3x3 Matrix
If A is a square Matrix of order 3.
Then its characteristic equation is
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Where

## Sum of principal diagonal elements

Sum of minors of principal diagonal elements

Matrices

Determinants

## Def: If mn numbers (real or complex) or

functions are arranged in the form of a
rectangular array A having m rows
(horizontal lines ) and n columns
(vertical lines ) then A is called an
mxn matrix.
Each of mn numbers is called an
element of the matrix.

## Def: To every square matrix A=[ aij ] of order

n, we can associate a number (real or
complex) called determinant of the square
matrix A.

e.g:

e.g

=4-3=1.

A=

=1(4-3)-2(6-4)+3(9-8)
=1(1)-2(2)+3(1)
=1-4+3
=0
Symbols: [ ], ( ), | |
Matrix has no numerical value

Symbol: | |, det A or
A determinant has a numerical value.

The number of rows may or may not be The number of rows is equal to the number
equal to the number of columns in a
of columns
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matrix
A=

A=

## Interchanging the rows and columns, a

different matrix is formed

## Inter change of rows and a column does not

change the value of the determinant.

A=
Change rows in to columns we get

A=

=4-6=-2,

B=

=4-6=-2

B=

Problems:
1)

If A =

1
5

and B =

0
1

## find AB and BA.

Solution:
A is of order 2 3 and B is of order 3 1. So AB is of order 2 1.
AB =

2 0 0 2

4 0 3 1

2)

If A =

Solution:
AT =

3
4

3
5

4
6

## |A| is possible only for square matrices.

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3)

If A =

and B =

Solution:
|A| = 8 3 = 5

1
4

3
2
5

1
6

4)

## Find the minor and cofactor of entry 4 of matrix B =

.
Solution:
Minor of 4 =

2
8

Cofactor of 4 =

3
=18
9
2
3
- 8 9

1
4

2
5
8

3
6

24 = -6
=6

Exercise problems:
1. Find

## 2. Find the transpose of

3. Verify whether

## 4. Find the Minors of

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## 5. Find the characteristic equation and characteristic roots for the

following matrices

1.

2.

3.

4.
Representation of two variable linear and non-linear equation
Linear equations in two variables
A common form of a linear equation in the two variables x and y
is
where m and b designate constants (parameters). In this
particular equation, the constant m determines the slope or
gradient of that line and the constant term b determines the point
at which the line crosses the y-axis, otherwise known as the yintercept.
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Note :

## In the general (or standard)form the linear equation is written as:

---------------where A and B are not both equal to zero
The general form is sometimes written as:
---------------

(1)

(2)

Example:
(1) y= -x + 5

(2)

Exercise:
2x+3y+5 =0,

## Non Linear equation:

The terms of linear equations cannot contain products of distinct
or equal variables, nor any power (other than 1) or other function
of a variable, equations involving terms such as xy, x2, y1/3, and
sin(x) are nonlinear.
Example:
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(1) Y X 2

S.No

Different
Forms
Slope
Intercept form
Pointslope
form
Two-point form

Intercept form

1
2

Representation
y mx b

## form where a and b must be nonzero

Using the order of the standard form
one can rewrite the equation in
matrix form:
6

Matrix form

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## System of linear equations.

becomes

Exercise:
1) Determine the equation of the straight line whose slope is 2
and y intercept
is 7
2) Determine the equation of the straight line passing through (1,2) and
having slope
3) Determine the equation of the straight line passing through
(1,2) and (3,-4)
4) Determine the equation of the straight line passing through
(1,2) and
making intercepts on the coordinate axes which are in the
ratio 2:3
5) Put the following system into matrix form
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
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Vector
An ordered set of a numbers ( x1 , x 2 , x3 ......x n ) is called a vector of order n.
i.e., The coefficients in a linear equation or the elements in a row (or columns) of a
matrix form a vector. We shall denote a vector formed by the numbers
x1 , x 2 , x3 ...... x n by a single letter X.
The elements x1 , x 2 , x3 ......x n .. are called a n dimensional vector. X=(
x1 , x 2 , x3 ...... x n ) and X= [ x1 , x 2 , x3 ...... x n ]T
The vector, all of whose n components are zero, is called the zero vector or the null
vector and is denoted by O.
Addition of Vectors:
The sum of two vectors is obtained by adding the corresponding components.
X=( x1 , x 2 , x3 ......x n ), Y=( y1 , y 2 , y 3 ...... y n ) then X+Y=(
x1 y1 , x 2 y 2 , x3 y 3 ......x n y n )
Scalar multiplication of vectors:
If is a scalar and X=( x1 , x 2 , x3 ......x n ) is a vector , the the product of x x or
x is defined as x = ( x1 , x 2 , x3 ......x n )
Linear dependence of vectors :
The vectors

## are said to be linearly dependent if scalars

1 , 2 ,...... m (not all zero simultaneously ) can be found such that
x1 , x 2 , x 3 ......x m

1 x1 2 x 2 3 x3 ...... m x m 0

(1)

Where O denotes the null vector. Otherwise the m vectors are said to be linearly
Independent.

Examples
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1. Show that the following vectors are linearly dependent. Express each vector as a
linear combination of the other.
X 1 =(1,2,-1,3) , X 2 =(2,-1,3,2), X 3 =(-1,8,-9,5)
X 2 2X1
X 3 X1

= (0,-5,5,-4) ------------------------------

=(0,10,-10,8)

----------------------------

(1)
(2)

## 2(X2-2X1)+( X3+X1)= (0,0,0,0)

i.e., -3X1+2X2+X3=0

---------------------------

(3)

(or) 3X1-2X2-X3=0
Hence X1, X2, X3 are linearly dependent and equation is the linear relation between
them. From (3) we get
Ans: X1=(2/3)X2+X3/3,

X2=(3/2)X1-(1/2)X3, X3=3X1-2X2

2) Show that the vectors (1,2,2), (2,1,-2) (2,-2,1) are linearly independent.
Let X1, X2, X3 be the three respective vectors we have
X2-2X1=[0,-3,6,]

--------------------------

(1)

X3-2X1=[0,-6,-3]

--------------------------- -

(2)

## Now combine (1) & (2)

(X3-2X1)-2(X2-2X1) = (0,0,9)
i.e., X3-2X2+2X1 = (0,0,9)
X1, X2, X3 are linearly independent.
Exercise: Show that the vectors (3,2,7) (2,4,1) and (1,-2,6) are lineally dependent.

VECTOR ALGEBRA
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Scalar:
The quantities which have only magnitude and no direction are
called scalars.
Vector:
The quantities which have both magnitude and direction are
called vectors.
A vector is represented by a directed line segment, i.e., by a
straight line of definite length having an arrow on it.The length of
line denotes the magnitude and direction of line, the direction of
the vector. A vector is denoted by
Characteristics of a vector
Length: The length of

will be denoted by |

## |and also known as Magnitude of

the vector.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF VECTORS:
1.Unit Vector:
A unit vector is one whose modulus is unity
;

## 2. Zero or Null vector

* Modulus of a vector is zero.
Here initial and terminal points coincide and direction is indeterminate or
direction is arbitrary

(or)

## It is denoted by the bold face type

O.

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3. Equal vectors:
Two vectors are said to be equal if they have equal magnitude and are parallel
and have the same sense of direction.
They need not have the same origin
If

&

## are equal vectors

We write (ie)

|=

POSITION VECTOR:
If O is the origin of reference and P be any point, then the
vector

## PROPERTIES OF VECTOR ADDITION:

1.
2.

(Commutative)

+(

3.

+0=0+

4.

+ (- ) =

) (Associative)

(Identity Element)
+

= 0 ( Additive Inverse)

## MORE PROPERTIES OF ADDITION OF VECTORS:

5.
6.

<

+
-

Multiplication of Vectors:
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## RELATION BETWEEN DOT PRODUCT AND CROSS PRODUCT:

Scalar (or) Dot Product
.

## Vector (or) Cross Product

cos = a b

sin n^

cos
.

.(

) =

.(

) =

.
+

=-(

)=(

)+(

.
(

= cos-1
Work done by force
i.e., Force . displacement

) +(

= sin-1
Vector Product in the
determinant form

## Scalar Triple Product

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( ).

vectors

&

is written as [

].

## Vector Triple Product

(

) =(

-(

) .

Remember:
(

( )

ur r r
r ur r r
r
ur ur
ur ur
Ex1: If A 2i 3 j 4k , B 3i 7 j 9k , find A B and A B
Solution:
ur ur
r r
r
r r
r
A B (2i 3 j 4k ) (3i 7 j 9k )
6 21 36 51
r r
r
i
j
k
ur ur
r
r
r
A B 2 3 4 i 30 j 23k
3 7 9
ur
r r
r ur r r
r
ur ur
ur ur
2. If A 3i 7 j 9k , B 5i j 8k , find A B and A B
Solution:
ur ur
r r
r
r r
r
A B ( 3i 7 j 9k ) (5i j 8k ) 50
r
r r
i
j k
ur ur
r
r
r
A B 3 7 9 65i 69 j 32k
5 1 8

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## 3. (i)Normalize the vector

Solution:
The magnitude of this vector =
Hence the normalized vector is
Exercise: (ii) Normalize the vector

## Direction cosine of co-ordinate axes:

The line x-axis makes with x-axis, y-axis and z-axis the angle 0 0,900and 900
respectively.
Therefore DCs are cos00, cos900, cos900
(i.e) DCs of x-axis is (1,0,0), y-axis is (0,1,0), Z-axis is (0,0,1).
Note2: If the direction cosine of a line P,Q are l,m,n then dcs of QP are l,-m,-n.

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Examples:
To find the direction cosines of a line whose direction ratios are given?
Let (a, b, c) be the drs of a line and let (l, m, n) be the dcs of the line. Then

## l=ak, m=bk, n=ck. Since l2+m2+n2=1 k 2 (a 2 b 2 c 2 ) 1(or )

k

1
a b2 c2
2

a
a b c
2

, m

b
a b c
2

,n

c
a b2 c2
2

Rules to find dcs of a line whose direction ratios are given. Divide drs (a, b, c)
by a 2 b 2 c 2 to get the dcs.
Ex: 1,-2,-2 are Drs of a line. What is its direction cosine?
Drs of the line are 1,-2,-2. Dividing by
Therefore the DCs of the line are

( 1) 2 ( 2) 2 ( 2) 2

1
2
2
, ,
3
3
3

1 4 4

9 3.

## Direction ratios of the line joining two points.

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Ex: Find the dcs of the line joining the points P(4,3,-5) and Q(-2,1,-8).
Soln: The dcs of PQ are proportional to -2-4,1-3,-8-(-5) (or) -6,-2,-3 (or) 6,2,3.
Therefore the drs by

6 2 2 2 3 2 36 4 9 7.

## Therefore The DCs are

6
2
3
, , .
7
7
7

Partial fractions
The expression a 0 x n a1 x n1 a 2 x n 2 .... a n1 x a n where a o , a1 , a 2 ,......a n are
constants and n are positive integers is called a polynomial.
Fraction (Proper and improper)
An expression of the form f ( x) g ( x) is called a fraction where f(x) and g(x)
denote polynomials.
Proper fraction (degree of Nr<degree of Dr)
e.g.,

is a proper fraction

Degree:

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## Highest power involved in the equation. Improper fraction (degree of Nr

degree of Dr)
Ex:

Quotient theorem:

Note:
1. Partial fraction is applicable only for proper fraction.
2. For, Improper fraction use quotient theorem and change into proper
fraction then use partial fraction.
Partial fraction:
To express two or more simple fractions connected with plus or minus sign in
to a single fraction by taking the LCM of their denominators. The process is
known as resolving or splitting in to partial fractions.
x5
2
1

( x 5)( x 3) x 1 x 3

## Types of Partial Fraction

Type 1 (linear non repeated factors on Q(x))
1
A
B
C

x( x 1)( x 2) x x 1 x 2
1
A( x 1)( x 2) Bx( x 2) Cx( x 1)

x ( x 1)( x 2)
x( x 1)( x 2)

## 1 A( x 1)( x 2) Bx( x 2) Cx( x 1)

Put x = 0
1 = A(1)(2)

Put x = -1
1 = B(-1)(1)

Put x = -2
1 = C(-2)(-1)

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1
2

B 1

1
2

1
1
1
1

x ( x 1)( x 2) 2 x x 1 2( x 2)

## Type 2 (repeated factors in Q(x))

5 x 2 15 x 11
( x 1)( x 2)

A
B
C
D

2
x 1 x 2 ( x 2)
( x 2) 3

5 x 2 15 x 11 A( x 2) 3 B ( x 1)( x 2) 2 C ( x 1)( x 2) D ( x 1)

Put x = 2
-21 = D(3)

Put x = -1
9 = - 27 A

D 7

Put x = 0
- 11 = - 8A + 4B 2C + D

1
3
8
10
2 B C .........(1)
-11= 4 B 2C 7
3
3

Put x = 1
- 21 = - A + 2B 2C +2D

1
11
2 B 2C 14
B C.........( 2)
3
3
1
Solving (1) and (2) we get B
and C = 4
3
5 x 2 15 x 11
1
1
4
7

3
2

3
x

1
3
x

2
( x 1)( x 2)
( x 2)
( x 2) 3

- 21 =

## Type 3 (quadratic terms in Q(x))

1 x
2

( x 1)( x 4 x 13)

A
Bx C

x 1 x 2 4 x 13

1 x A( x 2 4 x 13) ( Bx C )( x 1)

Put x = -1
2 = 10A
2(B+C)
A=

1
5

Put x = 0
1 = 13A + C

Put x = 1
0
=

18A

13
8
CC
5
5

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18
16
1
2B
B
5
5
5
1 x
1
x8

2
2
( x 1)( x 4 x 13) 5 x 1 5 x 4 x 13

x3

Solve:

( x 1) 2

## In this case first divide the numerator by denominator.

remaining fraction is converted into partial fraction.
x3
3x 2
x2
2
( x 1)
( x 1) 2
3x 2
( x 1)

Then the

Consider,

A
B

x 1 ( x 1) 2

3 x 2 A( x 1) B

Put x = -1
-1 = B
3x 2

x2

x3
( x 1)

3
1

x 1 ( x 1) 2

( x 1)

Put x = 0
2 = A + B A3

3
1

.
x 1 ( x 1) 2

1.

, 2.

6.

,7.

,3.

,4.

,8.

,5.

,9.

,10.

## Apply Partial Fraction rule to solve:

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1.

SEQUENCE
A Sequence is a function whose domain is the set N of all natural numbers
where as the range may be any set S
Real Sequence

is a real sequence .

Note
(1) The sequence X

## is denoted b {xn} (or) <xn>.

(2) The set of all distinct terms of a sequence is called its range.
(3) The number of terms of a sequence is always infinite.
(4) The range of a sequence may be a finite set (ie) Xn=(-1)n then {-1,1,1,1.}
Range {xn} ={-1,1} which is a finite set.
Constant Sequence:
A Sequence {xn} defined by xn =C R for all n

N is called a constant

sequence.
Ex : {xn}= {c,c,c} is a constant seq with range ={c}.
SERIES
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ARITHMETIC SERIES:
A series in which the difference of any term from its
preceding term is constant throughout is called an Arithmetic progression.
ARITHMETIC SERIES FORMULAS:
2a (n 1)d
a ai 1
a an
a n a1 (n 1)d ; ai i 1
n ; Sn 1
n
; Sn 1
2
2
2
NOTATION:
First term: a1 , Nth term : a n , Number of terms in the series: S n
Difference between successive terms: d, Common ratio: q, Sum of infinity: S

GEOMETRIC SERIES

1 r r 2 ...... r n ......
(a)

If

r 1,

(b)

(c)

(d)

## GEOMETRIC SERIES FORMULAS:

a n a1 .q
S

a1
1 q

n 1

; a1

ai 1 .ai 1

n
; S n an q a1 ; S n a1 ( q 1) ;
q 1
q 1

for 1 q 1

## SPECIAL POWER SERIES

POWER OF NATURAL NUMBERS

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n(n 1)
2
n(n 1)(2n 1)
12 2 2 ..... n 2
6
2
n ( n 1) 2
13 2 3 ...... n 3
4
Special power series:
1 2 3 ......n

1
(1 x ) 1 1 x x 2 ....
(for 1 x 1)
1 x
1
(1 x ) 1 1 x x 2 x 3 .......(for 1 x 1)
1 x
x2 x3
x 2 x3
ex 1 x

.... e x 1 x

....
2! 3!
2! 3!
x2 x3 x4
ln(1 x ) x

.... (for 1 x 1)
2
3
4
x3 x5 x7
sin x x

....
3! 5! 7!
x2 x4 x6
cos x 1

....
2! 4! 6!
x3 2 x5

tan x x

.....
(for x )
3
15
2
2

## SERIES FOR EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION

x2 x3

....
2! 3!
( x ln a ) 2 ( x ln a ) 3
a x 1 x ln a

....
2!
3!

ex 1 x

INFINITE SERIES
If {un} is a sequence of real numbers, then the expression u1+u2+u3+.
+un+..
(ie, the sum of the terms of the sequence which are infinite in number}is
called an infinite series . It is denoted by un
Ex:Discuss the convergence or otherwise of the series
1
1
1

...........
.....
1 2 2 3
n ( n 1)

Solution:
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1
1
1

n (n 1) n n 1
1 1
1 1
1
1
1 1
a1 , a2 , a3 , an
2 3
3 4
n n 1
1 2
1 1 1 1 1 1
1
1
S n a1 a2 a3 ....an ........
1 2 2 3 3 4
n n 1
1
Sn 1
n 1
1
1

lim S n lim 1
1 1 finite
n
n
n 1

an

## 2. Discuss the convergence or otherwise of the series 12 2 2 32..... n 2 ...

Solution:
S n a1 a2 a3 ....an 12 2 2 32..... n 2

n(n 1)(2n 1)
6

n(n 1)(2n 1)

n
n
6

lim S n lim

## BASIC CONCEPTS OF POINTS

HORIZONTAL LINE :
A line parallel to the

## axis is called a horizontal line.

VERTICAL LINE :
A line parallel to the

## axis is called a Vertical line.

OBLIQUE LINE:
A line, which is neither parallel to

axis nor to

axis, is called

an oblique line.
QUADRANTS:
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The co-ordinate axes divides the plane into four parts called quadrants.
DISTANCE FORMULA:
The distance between the two points

and

is

SECTION FORMULA :
(i)

MID POINT FORMULA :The co ordinate of the mid point of the line
joining the points

and

are

STRAIGHT LINE
SLOPE OR GRADIENT OF A LINE:
The tangent of the angle made by the straight line with the

axis in the

Hence m

## Two lines are perpendicular if their slopes

satisfy

SLOPE OF A LINE :
Slope of a line of the form

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slope
and

## Let the given points A

and B

Slope of

GENERAL FORM :
The general form of the equation of the straight line is
This equation can be written in the intercept form is

c.

NORMAL FORM :
The equation of the straight line in the normal form is
with usual notations.
PERPENDICULAR FORM :
The length of the perpendicular form

to the line

is

.
CONCURRENT LINES :
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Three or more straight lines are said to be concurrent if they pass through a
common point.

concurrent condition
DEPENDENT EQUATIONS :
A system of two equations is said to be a system of dependent
equations if one equation is obtained from the order by multiplying by a non
zero real number.
CONSISTANT EQUATIONS:
A system of linear equations is said to be a system of consistent equations if
the system has at least one common solution.

INCONSISTENT EQUATIONS:
A system of linear equations is said to be a system of inconsistent
equations if the system has no common solution.
ANGLE BETWEEN TWO STRAIGHT LINES :

## Angle between two straight lines

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Note:
(i)

If the lines are parallel then their slops are equal that is

(ii)

If the lines are perpendicular then the product of their slopes is -1, that is
.

(iii)If the slope of the line is m , then the slope of its parallel line is m and the
slope of its perpendicular line is

## (iv)Equations of parallel straight line differ by the constant term

(v)The equations of the parallel straight line in the standard form ax+by+c1=0
and ax+by +c2=0
(vi) The equation of the straight line perpendicular to the straight line
ax+by+c=0 is of the form bx-ay +k=0

CIRCLE
CIRCLE:
A circle is the set of all points in a plane which are at a constant distance from a
fixed point in the plane.
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## CENTRE : The fixed point is called the centre of the circle .

RADIUS : The constant distance is called the radius of the circle.
STANDARD EQUATION OF A CIRCLE :
The equation of a circle with centre

and radius r is

.
The equation of a circle with centre at the origin and radius r is
.
GENERAL EQUATION OF A CIRCLE :
If a circle has centre

PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS OF
The equation of the circle
for all values of

## and radius r its equation is of the form

.
is satisfied by

and

from 0 to 2 .

Ex1: Find the equation of line passing through the points (1, -3)
and (-4, 2)
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Solution:

y y1

x x1

## Equation of straight line is y y x x

2
1
2
1
Here x1 = 1, y1 = - 3, x2 = - 4, y2 = 2
y3
x 1

2 3 4 1
y 3 x 1

5
5
y 3 x 1

1
1

y 3 x 1
y x 2

## 2. Find the equation of line in each of the following cases

(i)

P(4, 1) and m =

1
.
2

(ii)
x intercept a = 3 and y intercept b = 4.
(iii) m = 4 and c = - 2
Solution:
(i)
Point slope form
y y1 m( x x1 )

1
( x 4)
2
x 4
y
1
2
2
x
y
3
2
y 1

(ii)

x y
1
a b
x y
1
3 4

4 x 3 y 12

(iii)

## Slope intercept form

y mx c

y 4x 2

Exercises:
1)Show that the line 2x+y-9=0 and 2x+y-10 =0 are parallel
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2)Show that the two lines x+2y+5=0 and 2x+4y-5 =0 are parallel
3) Find the equation of the straight line parallel to 3x+2y =9 and which passes
through the points (3,-3)
4) Find the equation of the straight line perpendicular to the straight line
3x+4y+28 = 0 and passing through the point (-1,4)
5) If the two straight lines 2x-3y+9 =0 , 6x+ky+5=0 are parallel, find k

TRIGONOMETRY
TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS
Y
h

A
p

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X
X
O

Y
In a right angled

AOB,

## Length AB= p; Length OB= b; Lengh OA= h and AOB = ,

then
1. Sin = p/h

2. Cos

4.

5.

= h/b

= b/h
= h/b

3. Tan
6. cot

= p/h
= b/h

TRIGONOMETRIC RELATIONS:
Sin=

or

Cos

or

Tan

or

Tan

or cot

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## BASIC FORMULAE/ IDENTITIES:

1. sin2+ cos2=1 or cos2=1- sin2 or 1- cos2= sin2
2. sec2- tan2 =1 or sec2 =1+ tan2 or sec2 - tan2 =1
3. cos2 =

4. sin2

QUADRANTS:
The two axis XOX and YOY divide the plane in four quadrants.

II Quadrant Y

I Quadrant

III Quadrant

IV Quadrant

Y
In first Quadrant : All T-Ratios are +ve
In second Quadrant: Only sin and Cosec are +ve
In third Quadrant: Only Tan and Cot are +ve
In fourth Quadrant: Only Cos and Sec are +ve

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Sin(-)=-sin

Cos(-)=cos

Tan(-)=-tan

Sin(90-)=cos

Tan (90-)=cot

Sin(90+)=cos

Tan (90+)=-cot

Sin(180-)=sin

Cos (180-)=-cos

Tan (180-)=-tan

Sin(180+)=- sin

Cos (180+)=-cos

Tan (180+)=tan

Sin(270-)=-cos

Tan (270-)=cot

Sin(270+)=-cos

Cos (270+)=sin

Tan (270+)=-cot

Sin(360-)=-sin

Cos (360-)=cos

Tan (360-)=-tan

90=

/2 180= 270=3 /2

360=2

Measure of

Sin

Cos

Tan

Cosec

Sec

Cot

30

/6

1/2

3/2

1/3

2/3

45

/4

1/2

1/2

60

/3

3/2

2/3

1/3

90

/2

180

-1

-1

270

3 /2

-1

-1

## SUM AND DIFFERENCE FORMULAE:

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1. sin(A+B)=sinAcosB+cosAsinB
2. sin(A-B)=sinAcosB-cosAsinB
3. cos(A+B)=cosAcosB-sinAsinB
4. cos(A-B)=cosAcosB+sinAsinB
5. tan(A+B)=tanA+tanB/1-tanAtanB
6. tan(A-B)=tanA-tanB/1+tanAtanB
Converting product into Sum
7. sin(A+B) + sin(A-B) =2 sinAcosB
8. sin(A+B) - sin(A-B) =2 cosAsinB
9. cos(A+B)+ cos(A-B) = 2 cosAcosB
10.cos(A+B)- cos(A-B) = -2 sinAsinB
DOUBLE ANGLE FORMULAE:
1. sin 2A=2 sinA cosA
2. cos 2A=1-2sin2A or 2cos2A-1 or cos2A-sin2A
3. tan2A = 2 tanA/1- tan2A
4. sin2A = 2tanA/1+tan2A
5. cos2A = 1- tan2A/ 1+tan2A
TRIPLE ANGLE FORMULAE:
1. sin 3A =3 sinA-4 sin3A
2. cos 3A=4 cos3A-3 cosA
3. tan3A=(3tanA-tan3A)/(1-3 tan2A)
SUM OR DIFFERENCE INTO PRODUCT:
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4. sinC+sinD=2sin(

)cos(

5. sinC-sinD=2cos(

)sin(

6. cosC+cosD=2cos(

)cos(

7. cosC-cosD=-2sin(

)sin(

HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS:

1. sinhx=

2. coshx=

3. tanhx=sinhx/coshx=
4. cosh2x-sinh2x=1.
5. sin( ix) i sinh x
6. cos( ix) cosh x
7.

cos

e i e i
2

8.

sin

e i e i
2i

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DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
THEORY OF EQUATION:
Problems:
1)

Solve

3 x 2 11x 4 0 .

Solution:
Here a 3, b 11,
x

2)

3)

## b 2 4ac 11 121 4(3)(4) 11 169 11 13

1
.

4,
2a
6
6
6
3

Solve

2 x 2 3x 5 0

a 2, b 3, c 5

Here
x

c 4

b b 2 4ac 3 9 4(2)(5) 3 9 40 3 31 3 i 31 3 i 31
.

,
2a
4
4
4
4
4

Solve x3 5 x 2 7 x 3 0
Solution:
1 5
7 3
1
0 1 4
3
1

1 4
3
0 1 3

1 3
0
x 1 , x 1& x 3 0
x 1, x 1, x 3
4)

Solve x3 x 2 21x 45 0
Solution:

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1 1 21 45
0 5 30 45

1 6
9
0 3 9

1 3
0
x 5 , x 3 & m
x 1, x 1, x 3
5.Find the roots of the following equations:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

(x + 1)(x 3) = 0.
x2 3x 4 = 0.
x2 4 = 0.
6x2 + 11x 35 = 0.
x2 48 = 0.
x2 7x = 0.

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

## FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

FUNCTIONS:
A function of x is denoted by

or as

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ordered pairs

of function.

given by

## and the subset of B whose elements are

is called range of

ordered pairs

of function.

A function

## from A to B where A and B are sets of real numbers is called a real

valued function .
CONSTANT FUNCTION :
The function of the form

## are called the constant function.

Example:
IDENTITY FUNCTION:
The function

## is called an Identity function.

LINEAR FUNCTION :
The function

function.
EVEN FUNCTION:
A function

## is said to be an even function if

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Example:
ODD FUNCTION:
A function

## is said to be an even function if

Example:
PERIODIC FUNCTION:
A function

## is said to be an periodic function, if for all x for which

is defined.
Theorem :
The derivative of the product of two functions . if
=

## DERIVATIVE OF EXPLICIT FUNCTIONS :

A variable is said to be an explicit function of another variable x when the value of
y is directly expressed in terms of x .
If

## then y is an explicit function of x.

IMPLICIT FUNCTION :
When the variables x and y are expressed in a functional relation. then either
variable is an implicit function of the other .
If

## then x is an Implicit function of y and

vice verse.
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INCREASING FUNCTION :
A function
if

## is said to be an increasing function of x

increases as x increases or if

decreases as x decrease.

DECREASING FUNCTION :
A function
if

## is said to be an decreasing function of x

increases as x decreases or if

decreases as x increase.

MONOTONE FUNCTION:
A function

## is said to be monotone if it is either increasing or

decreasing.
ROLLES THEOREM
Statement:
If a function
=

is continuous in the

and

Such that

## LAGRANGES MEAN VALUE THEOREM :

Statement:
If a function

is continuous in the

## and derivable in the

such that

LIMIT OF A FUNCTION :
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## The limit of a function is that value to which the function approaches as

x approaches to a given value. If

## then is called the limit of the

function as x approaches a .
PROPERTIES OF LIMITS:
Let

and

## be two functions of x then

1.
2.
where

3.
4.
5.
1)

(3 x 2) 7 .
Show that xlim
3
Solution.

lim (3 x 2) 3(3) 2 9 2 7

x 3

2)

x2 4 .
Show that xlim
2
Solution.
lim x 2 2 2 4

x2

3)

Prove that

x 1
1.
x x
lim

Solution.
lim

4)

x 1

lim 1
x
x

Prove that
Solution.

1
1
1 1 0 1
x

2x 3
lim
2.
x x 1

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Put

1
y

. As

x , y 0 .

2
2 3y
3
2x 3
2 3y 2 0
y
y
lim
lim
lim
lim

2.
1
1

y
x x 1
y 0
y 0
y 0 1 y
1 0
1
y
y

Concept of continuity:
(1). Every constant function is continuous.
(2). Every polynomial function of degree n is continuous.
(3). Every rational function of the form

is continuous.

## (4).The exponential function is continuous at all points of R ( Ie )

(5).The function f(x) = log x, x>0 is continuous at all points of R+ , where R+ is
the set of positive real numbers
(6).The sine function f(x) =sinx is continuous at all points of R
(7).The cosine function f(x) = cosx is continuous at all points of R
Relation between differentiability and continuity:
Theorem: Every differentiable function is continuous.
The converse need not be true. (ie) A function which is continuous at a point need
not be differentiable at that point
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DIFFERENTIATION
DIFFERENTIABILITY:
A function

is said to be differentiable at

if
a function
differentiable at a point

is

## and have equal value.

DERIVATIVE AT A POINT :
A function is said to be differentiable at a
point c if the derivative of

constant
= (c)=0
Power
= (

)=n

## Constant Times A Function

= [c.f(x)]=c.

f(x)

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## Sums and Differences

= (u
(u

)=

)=du dv

Product
= (u. )=
(u. ) =u.dv+v.du

QUOTIENT

Parametric Function
Given:y=f(t) and x=g(t)

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Chain Rule
Given: y=f(t) and t=g(t)
= .

Given: x=f(y)

## General power rule

= (

)=n

d(

)=

d(

)=

d(

d(

.du

)=M.

,M=

d(sinu)=cosu.du
d(cosu)=-sinu.du
d(tanu)=sec2u.du
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d(cotu)=-csc2u.du
d(secu)=secu.tanu.du
d(cscu)=-cscu.cotu.du
(sin-1u)=

(cos-1u)=

(tan-1u)=

(cot-1u)=

(sec-1u)=

(csc-1u)=

d(sinhu)=coshu.du

d(coshu)=sinhu.du

d(tanhu)= sech2u.du

d(cothu)=-csch 2u.du

d(sechu)=sechu.tanhu.du

d(cschu)=-cschu.cothu.du

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Differentiation:
(1)

Find

(2) If f(x) =

(3) If for

find a and b

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

## Quotient rule for differentiation

(1)Differentiate

(2)

(3)

with respect to x

(4)

(5)

(6)

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Chain rule
If y= F(u) , u = f(t) , t= g(x)
Then

Problems :
Differentiate the following
(1)

(4)

(5)

(1) Obtain
(2) y= xsiny
(3)
(4)

(5) if

show that

## Higher order derivatives

Y=f(x) be a differentiable function then

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Example:
(1) Let y = A cos 4x+ B sin 4x, A and B are constants Show that

## (2) Find the second derivative of the function log (logx)

(3) If y = log(cosx) , find

(4) If

(5)If

I. Find
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
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6.

II. Find

## for parametric equations of the following curve

1. Parabola
2. Parabola
3. Ellipse

4. Hyperbola
5. Rectangular hyperbola
6. Asteroid
7. Cycloid
III .Differentiate the following:
1. Differentiate
2. Differentiate

with respect to m
with respect to

3. Differentiate
4)Find the derivatives in each of the following cases
y ( 2 x 2 4) 3
(i)
Ans: y ' 48 x( x 2 2) 2
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(ii)

y sin 2 2 x

Ans:

(iii)

y log(log x)

Ans:

y '

1
x log x

(iv)

y log(tan e x )

Ans:

y'

ex
sin e x cos e x

Exercise:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

## 1) Find the total derivative of u x 2 y 2 where x at 2 , y 2at .

Solution
du u dx u dy
. .
dt x dt y dt
du
(2x)(2at) (2y)(2a) 4xat 4ay
dt
du
4a 2 t 3 8a 2 t
dt

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du
4a 2 t(t 2 2)
dt
2)

Find

du
when u x 2 y 2 if xy 7 .
dy

Solution
Given xy 7 x

dx 7 xy x
7

2
. Differentiating,
.
dy y 2
y
y
y

## Differentiating u x 2 y 2 w.r.t. x & y partially we get,

u
2x ,
x
u
du u dx u
2y . Now,

y
dy x dy y

3)

x
du
2x 2
2x
2y y y
dy
y

du 2x 2 2y 2 2(x 2 y 2 )

dy
y
y

Find

dy
when x 3 3axy y3 0 .
dx

Solution

f
f
3ax 3y 2 .
3x 2 3ay and
y
x
dy
f x
(3x 2 3ay)
3(x 2 ay)
(x 2 ay)

dx
f y
3ax 3y 2
3(ax y 2 )
(ax y 2 )

4)

## Find the first and second order partial derivatives of

z x 2 4 xy y 2
Solution
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z
2x 4 y
x
z
4x 2 y
y
2 z z

2x 4 y 2
2
x
x x
x
2 z z

4x 2 y 2
y 2 y y
y

2 z
z

4x 2 y 4
xy x y
x
2 z
z

2x 4 y 4
yx y x
y
APPLICATION OF DIFFERENTIATION :
1.VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION
1.1Velocity

1.2 Acceleration
2.TANGENTS AND NORMALS :
2.1 Equation of tangent :
2.2 Equation of normal ;
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Where m =

3.1 For maximum

and

and

## 3.3 For the point of inflexion ,

.
.
and

INTEGRAL CALCULUS
Indefinite Integrals
F(x)+c is called the indefinite integral of f(x) with respect to x
and is denoted by

## The function f is called the integrand and the constant c is called

the constant of integration.

1. COMMON INTEGRALS
2. INTEGRATION FORMULAS

## INTEGRALS OF RATIONAL AND IRRATIONAL FUNCTION

1.

dx = cx +C

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3.

dx =

4.

dx =

5.

+C

dx =

6.

+C

+C

dx = log (x) +C x

7.

dx =

8.

+C

dx =

9.

+C

dx = tan-1 x +C

10.

dx =sin-1x + C

## INTEGRALS OF EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC

FUNCTIONS
1. log xdx = x logx x + C
2.

dx = ex + C

## INTEGRALS OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

dx = - cos x +C

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dx = sin x +C

## dx = log (sin x)+ C

x dx = tan x + C
x dx = - cot x +C
dx = sec x +C

dx = - cosec x +C

= sin

-1

= cos

x +C
-1

x +C

dx = tan-1 x +C

dx = sec-1 x +C

dx = cosec-1 x +C

dx = cot-1 x +C

## INTEGRALS OF HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS

1.

dx = cos hx +C

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2.

dx = sin hx +C

3.

dx = log coshx+C

4.

log sinhx +C

5.

dx = tan hx + C

6.

7.

8.

dx = - cothx +C
tanh x dx = - sech x +C
dx =- cosech x +C

9.

dx = sinh-1 x +C

10.

dx = cosh-1 x +C

11.

12.

13.

dx = tanh-1 x +C

dx = sech-1 x +C

dx = cosech-1 x +C

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14.

dx = coth-1 x +C

## 2.INTEGRALS OF RATIONAL FUNCTIONS

INTEGRALS INVOLVING AX+B
1.

2.

3.

dx =

dx =

(for n

log (ax+b)

dx = - log
s INTEGRALS INVOLVING AX2+BX+C

4.

dx =

5.

dx =

arctg

## INTEGRALS OF EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS

1.

dx =

dx

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2.

3.

dx =

(cx-1)

dx =

4.

dx =

( a sin bx b cos bx )

5.

dx =

( a cos bx +b sin bx )
Problems

(1)

(2)

(3)

(6)

(7)

(11)

(12)

(4)

(8)

(5)

(9)

(10)

(1)

(2)

## (6) sin (lx+m)

(3)

(7)

(4)

(8) (

(5)

(9)

(10)
Properties of integrals
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## (1) If k is any constant then

(2) If f(x) and g(x) are any two functions in x then

Problems :
(1)

(2)

Methods of Integration:
(1) Integration by decomposition in to sum or difference:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Method of substitution or change of variable
(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

## Some standard results of integrals

(i)
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(ii)

(iii)

## Integrate the following

(1)

(2)

(5)

(3)

(6)

(4)
(7)

(8)

Integration by parts:
Formula :
N
o
1

Given integrals

dv

Logx

dx
dx

Reason for u
Logx and

are

from the formula

Logx

3
4

## Both are integrable

and power of x will be
reduced by successive
differentiation

(n is a positive
integer)
5

Sinx dx or
cosxdx

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Examples
Integrate

( 1)

(2) x sinx

(3) x logx

(4) logx

(5)

## Definite integrals and their properties

For any choice of the position P and c in the interval [x i-1, xi] then
this limit I denoted by

is called the definite integral of f(x) over [a, b] and we say that f
is integral over [a, b]. Geometrically

## gives the area

bounded by the curve y=f(x), the axis of x and the two ordinates
x=a, x=b.
Properties of Definite integrals
1.

Invariance property
then

## : If f(x) is integrable over [0,a],

2.

3.
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4. Shifting property:
If f(x) is integrable and defined for the necessary values of x, then

Reduction Formulae
Some integrals involving certain parameters are solved by the
successive applications of integration by parts, which results in
reduction formulae.
For example
=
Or
----------(1)
The index n has been reduced to n-1 and thus the integral

can

## be solved by using the recurrence relation (1)

Evaluate
x
(i)
xe dx
(ii)

x sin 2 xdx

(iii)

x2 a2

(iv)
(v)

dx

Ans:

e x x 1

x
sin 2 x
2
4
1
xa
log
2a
xa

Ans: cos 2 x
Ans:

cos 7 xdx

Ans:

16
35

sin 4 xdx

Ans:

3
16

0
2
0

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(vi)

sin 7 x cos5 dx

Ans:

1
40

Basic integrals:
Simplifying substitution:
1. Evaluate
Hint:
Ans:

+C

2.

Integral by parts
*
1.
Bernoullis Formula:
1.
Integration by using partial fraction rule:

1.
2.
3.
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4.

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
The mathematical formulation of problems in engineering and
science usually leads to equations involving derivatives such
equations are called differential equations.
A few typical examples are
(a) The motion of a body of mass m subjected to a force F(t)
along a straight line according to Newtons second law of
motion is

## Where x(t) is the displacement of the mass m at time t

measured from the origin .
(b). The decay of a radioactive substance is described by an
equation of the orm

## Where y(t) is the amount of the substance at time t and k> 0, is

a constant
( c) The angular motion (t) of a pendulum of length l under the
action of gravity, where g is acceleration of gravity and t is time is
given by

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(e)

The equation

## governs the shape of gravity , where y(x) is the deflections

and c is a constant that depends upon the mass density of
the cable and the tension at the midpoint x = 0.
(f) The one dimensional wave equation

## governs the small transverse vibrations of an elastic string ,

such as a violin string , here u(x,t) is the deflection of the
string at a distance x from the one end at time t .
ODE:
Differential equations which involve only one independent
variable ara called ordinary differential equations.
PDE:
Differential equations which involve two or more independent
variables and partial differential coefficient with respect to them is
called partial differential equations .
ORDER AND DEGREE:
The order of a differential equation is the order of the highest
derivative it contains , where as the degree of a differential
equation is the degree of the highest order differential
coefficient .
For (Eq. 1) order 2 , degree 1, (Eq.2) order 1 and degree 1, (Eq.4)
is of order 2 and degree 2
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----------------(6)
Linear:
An n th order ODE in the dependent variable y is said to be linear
in y if
(i)
(ii)

## Y and all its derivatives are of degree one.

No product terms of y and / or any of it derivatives are
present.
(iii) No transcendental functions of y and /or its derivatives
occur.
Otherwise is called non-linear.
The general form of an nth order linear ODE in y with variables
coefficient is

Where RHS b(x) and all coefficient s a0(x) ,a1(x) , an(x) are
given functions of x and a0(x) 0
If all the coefficients
a0 ,a1 , an
are constants then the
above equation is known as nth order linear ODE with constant
coefficients .
Note : A Linear DE is of first degree but a first degree DE need
not be linear since it may contain nonlinear terms such as y 2,
y1/2,ey, siny, etc
S.N Differential
o
Equation

Ans:

ordinary

Order

degree

Linearity

Yes

Kind
1

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Ordinary

No(yes
for
n=0,1)

Ordinary

Non
linear (in
x and y)

Ordinary

No

Ordinary

no

Partial

yes

X2 dy+ y2 dy=
0

## Formation of Ordinary Differential Equation:

Example
Form the differential equation by eliminating the arbitrary
constants from
(1) x3-3x2y=c
(2) ysinx xy2=c

## Non-Homogeneous and Homogeneous Equation

Consider the non homogeneous linear differential equation of n
th order with constant coefficients
-------------------(1)
then corresponding homogeneous equation is
------------------------(2)
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Application of Matrices
Physics makes use of matrices in various domains, for example in
geometrical optics and matrix mechanics; the latter led to studying in more
detail matrices with an infinite number of rows and columns.

## Graph theory uses matrices to keep track of distances between pairs of

vertices in a graph.

Computer graphics uses matrices to project 3-dimensional space onto a 2dimensional screen.
Matrix calculus generalizes classical analytical notions such as derivatives
of functions or exponentials to matrices.
A major branch of numerical analysis is devoted to the development of
efficient algorithms for matrix computations..

## Matrix decomposition methods simplify computations, both theoretically

and practically. The field of use of matrices is wide.

## Matrices are very useful in solving linear systems, whose number of

equations and variables is large. The elements located on the rows of the
matrices represent the coefficients of the variables involved in the equations
of the system. The number of rows of a matrix is equal to the number of
equations and the number of columns of a matrix tells us how many
variables are involved in the equations of the system. We usually start to
solve a system that involves two equations and two variables. If the
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equations of the system are more than two and if the number of variables is
larger than two, we'll need to use matrices to solve the system, if it's
possible.
We can also use matrices to represent complex numbers.
The matrices are useful in engineering (finite element method, mesh
analysis), architecture, geology and statistics.
The bidimensional image we can see on the computer screen is the
projection of a tri-dimensional image and this projection is possible due to
matrices.

## Why do Engineering students study so much calculus?

Engineering students should study calculus because , firstly, it provides them
with a powerful tool to analyse the physical world and , secondly, because is a
beautiful topic in itself, a triumph of imagination and analysis. Differential
calculus, which I would describe as the mathematics of change, is incredibly useful
for analysing the movement of fluids, the flow of heat, the rates of chemical
reactions, the effect of changing electrical/magnestic fields, the movements of
machines and numerous other engineering examples. Integral calculus, which I
would describe as the mathematics of accumulation, allows to calculate area and
volumes of complex shapes, centroids and moments of structures, accumulated
energy and heat, and generally the overall effect of any varying process.
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## Calculus is a stepping stone to other mathematics. Not an end in itself.

Mathematicians often transform their problem domains into other domains that can
more easily besolved. Here is an
example....Logarithms..
We all know that using a logarithm table or the logarithm function on a calculator
can allow us to add instead of multiplying or we can subtract instead of dividing.
This is an example of a transform.
1. we transform the original problem by taking the logarithms of the numbers
2.we add or subtract because we find that easier
3. we lookup the inverse transform in our tables to see what the answer is in
theoriginal domain. Calculus is good training for your mind and an absolute
necessity for further studies in math or physics or engineering.
Application of integral calculus
Integral calculus allows you to determine area under a curve, something that in
probability, statistics, and physics finds very important.

## Calculus is important because of some of the key concepts of integration and

differentiation and the countless applications they have, but also the new
ideas, and new ways of looking at things.

First me have to say that "Calculus" is that branch which deals with the
integral calculus e.g. calculation area under the curve and the deferential
calculus that deals with the motion calculation, and that all are the part of
our practical life. Calculus is deeply integrated with the physical science and

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such as physics and Bio science, so now we can say that it is more important
in every aspects of life some of them we'll here discuss.

## It is found in computer science, statistics, and engineering; in economics,

business, and medicine. Modern developments such as architecture, aviation,
and other technologies all make use of what calculus can offer. Graph
visualization are also based on that, we can easily graph the function with
the help of it. Finding average of function one example is the path of an
airplane. Using calculus you can calculate its average cruising altitude,
velocity and acceleration.

## Calculus is a very versatile and valuable tool. It is a form of mathematics

which was developed from algebra and geometry. It is made up of two
interconnected topics, differential calculus and integral calculus

## Example of Real life application of Integration

Volume of Solid of Revolution by M. Bourne

A lathe
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## Many solid objects, especially those made on a lathe, have a circular

cross-section and curved sides. In this section, we see how to find the volume
of such objects using integration.
Applications of Geometry
Consider the area bounded by the straight line y=3x, the x-axis, and x=1:

When the shaded area is rotated 360 about the x-axis, we observe that a
volume is generated in this LiveMath animation:
Application of Trignometry
Trigonometry is used in architecture, surveying, building, bricklaying, landscape
design in fact every occupation that deals with the real world. Trigonometry is used
throughout mathematics, and, since mathematics is applied throughout the natural
and social sciences, trigonometry has many applications. Calculus, linear algebra,
and statistics, in particular, use trigonometry and have many applications in the all
the sciences.

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## There is an enormous number of applications of trigonometry and trigonometric

functions. For instance, the technique of triangulation is used in astronomy to
measure the distance to nearby stars, in geography to measure distances between
landmarks, and in satellite navigation systems. The sine and cosine functions are
fundamental to the theory of periodic functions such as those that describe sound
and

light

waves.

## Fields which make use of trigonometry or trigonometric functions include

astronomy (especially, for locating the apparent positions of celestial objects, in
which spherical trigonometry is essential) and hence navigation (on the oceans, in
aircraft, and in space), music theory, acoustics, optics, analysis of financial
markets, electronics, probability theory, statistics, biology, medical imaging (CAT
scans and ultrasound), pharmacy, chemistry, number theory (and hence
cryptology), seismology, meteorology, oceanography, many physical sciences,

## land surveying and geodesy, architecture, phonetics, economics, electrical

engineering, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, computer graphics,
cartography, crystallography and game development.
Volume by Rotating the Area Enclosed between 2 curves
In the following general graph, y2 is in blue and y1 is black. The
lower and upper limits for the region to be rotated are indicated in
dark red:x=a to x=b.

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Volume of a watermelon

## A watermelon has an ellipsoidal shape with major axis 28cm and

minor axis 25cm. Find its volume.
Exponential Functions and Logarithmic Functions are Inverses

NOTE: The two functions f(x)=10x and f(x)=log x are on the same button on
your calculator because they are inverses of each other (like ex and ln x also.)
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If we plot them on the same axes, we see that they are just reflections of each
other in the line y = x.
In this graph, f(x)=10x is in green and f(x)=log x is in blue, and we can see that they
are reflections of each other in y = x (plotted in red).

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