MATRIX:
A set of mn elements (real or complex) arranged in a rectangular form of m
rows and n columns is called a matrix of order m by n , written as mxn .
Eg:
A =
ROW MATRIX:
A Matrix having only one row and any number of columns is called a Row
Matrix.
Eg:
COLUMN MATRIX:
A Matrix having only one column and any number of rows is called a
column matrix.
Eg:
ZERO MATRIX:
A Matrix with all the elements are zero is called a zero or null matrix and is
denoted by 0
E.g:
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SQUARE MATRIX:
A Matrix is said to be a Square Matrix, if the number of rows & columns are
equal.
Eg:
DIAGONAL MATRIX:
In a squre matrix all the entries except the main diagonal are zero known
as a Diagonal Matrix.
A square matrix A =
Eg:
TRIANGULAR MATRIX:
A Square Matrix in which all the entries above the main diagonal are
zero is called a lower triangular Matrix.
Eg:
A=
If all the entries below the main diagonal of a square matrix are zero,it is
called an upper triangular Matrix.
Eg:
B=
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SCALAR MATRIX:
A Scalar Matrix is a diagonal Matrix in which all the entries along the
main diagonal are equal.
Eg:
A=
IDENTITY MATRIX:
It is a diagonal Matrix in which all the entries along the main diagonal are
equal to 1
Eg:
Trace of a Matrix:
The sum of all the principal diagonal elements of a square matrix is called the
trace of a matrix
E.g A =
Trace of A=2+6+3=11
TRANSPOSE OF A MATRIX:
The Matrix obtained from the given Matrix A by interchanging its rows into
columns and its columns into rows is called the transpose of A and it is denoted by
.
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Eg:
A=
Then
SYMMETRIC MATRIX:
A Square matrix A = [aij] is said to be symmetric when aij = aji for all i&j
(ie) A Matrix A is symmetric if A=
Eg: A =
Hence A =
SINGULAR MATRIX:
A Square Matrix A is said to be Singular, if the determinant of A is zero.
Non Singular Matrix:
If
If
INVERSE OF A MATRIX:
If A is a non singular Matrix,
A. Then
= adjA
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ORTHOGONAL MATRIX :
A square Matrix is called on Orthogonal Matrix, if the product of the
Matrix and its transpose is an identity Matrix. (ie) A
=I (i.e)
A AT
DETERMINANTS:
To every square Matrix A of order n with entries as real or complex numbers.
We can associates a number called Determinant of Matrix A and it is denoted by
If A=
MINORS:
Let
element aij is the determinant obtained by deleting the ith row and jthcolumn in
which the elements aij stands
COFACTOR:
The cofactor is a signal minor.
The cofactor of aij is denoted by Aij and is defined as Aij=(1)i+jMij
SUBMATRIX:
The Matrix obtained on deleting any number of rows &columns of the
given matrix A is called the sub matrix of a.
EIGEN VALUE:
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CHARACTERISTIC EQUATION:
The system of equation will have a non trivial solution if
(ie)
=0
=0
The equation
If A=
Where
(
) +(
)=0
Case2:
For 3x3 Matrix
If A is a square Matrix of order 3.
Then its characteristic equation is
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Where
Determinants
e.g:
e.g
=43=1.
A=
=1(43)2(64)+3(98)
=1(1)2(2)+3(1)
=14+3
=0
Symbols: [ ], ( ),  
Matrix has no numerical value
Symbol:  , det A or
A determinant has a numerical value.
The number of rows may or may not be The number of rows is equal to the number
equal to the number of columns in a
of columns
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matrix
A=
A=
A=
Change rows in to columns we get
A=
=46=2,
B=
=46=2
B=
Problems:
1)
If A =
1
5
and B =
0
1
Solution:
A is of order 2 3 and B is of order 3 1. So AB is of order 2 1.
AB =
2 0 0 2
4 0 3 1
If A =
Solution:
AT =
3
4
3
5
4
6
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3)
If A =
and B =
Solution:
A = 8 3 = 5
1
4
3
2
5
1
6
.
Solution:
Minor of 4 =
2
8
Cofactor of 4 =
3
=18
9
2
3
 8 9
1
4
2
5
8
3
6
24 = 6
=6
Exercise problems:
1. Find
3. Verify whether
1.
2.
3.
4.
Representation of two variable linear and nonlinear equation
Linear equations in two variables
A common form of a linear equation in the two variables x and y
is
where m and b designate constants (parameters). In this
particular equation, the constant m determines the slope or
gradient of that line and the constant term b determines the point
at which the line crosses the yaxis, otherwise known as the yintercept.
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Note :
(1)
(2)
Example:
(1) y= x + 5
(2)
Exercise:
2x+3y+5 =0,
(1) Y X 2
Different
Forms
Slope
Intercept form
Pointslope
form
Twopoint form
Intercept form
1
2
Representation
y mx b
Matrix form
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becomes
Exercise:
1) Determine the equation of the straight line whose slope is 2
and y intercept
is 7
2) Determine the equation of the straight line passing through (1,2) and
having slope
3) Determine the equation of the straight line passing through
(1,2) and (3,4)
4) Determine the equation of the straight line passing through
(1,2) and
making intercepts on the coordinate axes which are in the
ratio 2:3
5) Put the following system into matrix form
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
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Vector
An ordered set of a numbers ( x1 , x 2 , x3 ......x n ) is called a vector of order n.
i.e., The coefficients in a linear equation or the elements in a row (or columns) of a
matrix form a vector. We shall denote a vector formed by the numbers
x1 , x 2 , x3 ...... x n by a single letter X.
The elements x1 , x 2 , x3 ......x n .. are called a n dimensional vector. X=(
x1 , x 2 , x3 ...... x n ) and X= [ x1 , x 2 , x3 ...... x n ]T
The vector, all of whose n components are zero, is called the zero vector or the null
vector and is denoted by O.
Addition of Vectors:
The sum of two vectors is obtained by adding the corresponding components.
X=( x1 , x 2 , x3 ......x n ), Y=( y1 , y 2 , y 3 ...... y n ) then X+Y=(
x1 y1 , x 2 y 2 , x3 y 3 ......x n y n )
Scalar multiplication of vectors:
If is a scalar and X=( x1 , x 2 , x3 ......x n ) is a vector , the the product of x x or
x is defined as x = ( x1 , x 2 , x3 ......x n )
Linear dependence of vectors :
The vectors
1 x1 2 x 2 3 x3 ...... m x m 0
(1)
Where O denotes the null vector. Otherwise the m vectors are said to be linearly
Independent.
Examples
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1. Show that the following vectors are linearly dependent. Express each vector as a
linear combination of the other.
X 1 =(1,2,1,3) , X 2 =(2,1,3,2), X 3 =(1,8,9,5)
X 2 2X1
X 3 X1
= (0,5,5,4) 
=(0,10,10,8)

(1)
(2)

(3)
(or) 3X12X2X3=0
Hence X1, X2, X3 are linearly dependent and equation is the linear relation between
them. From (3) we get
Ans: X1=(2/3)X2+X3/3,
X2=(3/2)X1(1/2)X3, X3=3X12X2
2) Show that the vectors (1,2,2), (2,1,2) (2,2,1) are linearly independent.
Let X1, X2, X3 be the three respective vectors we have
X22X1=[0,3,6,]

(1)
X32X1=[0,6,3]
 
(2)
VECTOR ALGEBRA
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Scalar:
The quantities which have only magnitude and no direction are
called scalars.
Vector:
The quantities which have both magnitude and direction are
called vectors.
A vector is represented by a directed line segment, i.e., by a
straight line of definite length having an arrow on it.The length of
line denotes the magnitude and direction of line, the direction of
the vector. A vector is denoted by
Characteristics of a vector
Length: The length of
will be denoted by 
the vector.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF VECTORS:
1.Unit Vector:
A unit vector is one whose modulus is unity
;
(or)
O.
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3. Equal vectors:
Two vectors are said to be equal if they have equal magnitude and are parallel
and have the same sense of direction.
They need not have the same origin
If
&
We write (ie)
=
POSITION VECTOR:
If O is the origin of reference and P be any point, then the
vector
(Commutative)
+(
3.
+0=0+
4.
+ ( ) =
) (Associative)
(Identity Element)
+
= 0 ( Additive Inverse)
<
+

Multiplication of Vectors:
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cos = a b
sin n^
cos
.
.(
) =
.(
) =
.
+
=(
)=(
)+(
.
(
= cos1
Work done by force
i.e., Force . displacement
) +(
= sin1
Vector Product in the
determinant form
( ).
vectors
is written as [
].
) =(
(
) .
Remember:
(
( )
ur r r
r ur r r
r
ur ur
ur ur
Ex1: If A 2i 3 j 4k , B 3i 7 j 9k , find A B and A B
Solution:
ur ur
r r
r
r r
r
A B (2i 3 j 4k ) (3i 7 j 9k )
6 21 36 51
r r
r
i
j
k
ur ur
r
r
r
A B 2 3 4 i 30 j 23k
3 7 9
ur
r r
r ur r r
r
ur ur
ur ur
2. If A 3i 7 j 9k , B 5i j 8k , find A B and A B
Solution:
ur ur
r r
r
r r
r
A B ( 3i 7 j 9k ) (5i j 8k ) 50
r
r r
i
j k
ur ur
r
r
r
A B 3 7 9 65i 69 j 32k
5 1 8
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Examples:
To find the direction cosines of a line whose direction ratios are given?
Let (a, b, c) be the drs of a line and let (l, m, n) be the dcs of the line. Then
1
a b2 c2
2
a
a b c
2
, m
b
a b c
2
,n
c
a b2 c2
2
Rules to find dcs of a line whose direction ratios are given. Divide drs (a, b, c)
by a 2 b 2 c 2 to get the dcs.
Ex: 1,2,2 are Drs of a line. What is its direction cosine?
Drs of the line are 1,2,2. Dividing by
Therefore the DCs of the line are
( 1) 2 ( 2) 2 ( 2) 2
1
2
2
, ,
3
3
3
1 4 4
9 3.
Ex: Find the dcs of the line joining the points P(4,3,5) and Q(2,1,8).
Soln: The dcs of PQ are proportional to 24,13,8(5) (or) 6,2,3 (or) 6,2,3.
Therefore the drs by
6 2 2 2 3 2 36 4 9 7.
6
2
3
, , .
7
7
7
Partial fractions
The expression a 0 x n a1 x n1 a 2 x n 2 .... a n1 x a n where a o , a1 , a 2 ,......a n are
constants and n are positive integers is called a polynomial.
Fraction (Proper and improper)
An expression of the form f ( x) g ( x) is called a fraction where f(x) and g(x)
denote polynomials.
Proper fraction (degree of Nr<degree of Dr)
e.g.,
is a proper fraction
Degree:
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Quotient theorem:
Note:
1. Partial fraction is applicable only for proper fraction.
2. For, Improper fraction use quotient theorem and change into proper
fraction then use partial fraction.
Partial fraction:
To express two or more simple fractions connected with plus or minus sign in
to a single fraction by taking the LCM of their denominators. The process is
known as resolving or splitting in to partial fractions.
x5
2
1
( x 5)( x 3) x 1 x 3
x( x 1)( x 2) x x 1 x 2
1
A( x 1)( x 2) Bx( x 2) Cx( x 1)
x ( x 1)( x 2)
x( x 1)( x 2)
Put x = 0
1 = A(1)(2)
Put x = 1
1 = B(1)(1)
Put x = 2
1 = C(2)(1)
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1
2
B 1
1
2
1
1
1
1
x ( x 1)( x 2) 2 x x 1 2( x 2)
A
B
C
D
2
x 1 x 2 ( x 2)
( x 2) 3
5 x 2 15 x 11 A( x 2) 3 B ( x 1)( x 2) 2 C ( x 1)( x 2) D ( x 1)
Put x = 2
21 = D(3)
Put x = 1
9 =  27 A
D 7
Put x = 0
 11 =  8A + 4B 2C + D
1
3
8
10
2 B C .........(1)
11= 4 B 2C 7
3
3
Put x = 1
 21 =  A + 2B 2C +2D
1
11
2 B 2C 14
B C.........( 2)
3
3
1
Solving (1) and (2) we get B
and C = 4
3
5 x 2 15 x 11
1
1
4
7
3
2
3
x
1
3
x
2
( x 1)( x 2)
( x 2)
( x 2) 3
 21 =
( x 1)( x 4 x 13)
A
Bx C
x 1 x 2 4 x 13
1 x A( x 2 4 x 13) ( Bx C )( x 1)
Put x = 1
2 = 10A
2(B+C)
A=
1
5
Put x = 0
1 = 13A + C
Put x = 1
0
=
18A
13
8
CC
5
5
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18
16
1
2B
B
5
5
5
1 x
1
x8
2
2
( x 1)( x 4 x 13) 5 x 1 5 x 4 x 13
Solve:
( x 1) 2
Then the
Consider,
A
B
x 1 ( x 1) 2
3 x 2 A( x 1) B
Put x = 1
1 = B
3x 2
x2
x3
( x 1)
3
1
x 1 ( x 1) 2
( x 1)
Put x = 0
2 = A + B A3
3
1
.
x 1 ( x 1) 2
1.
, 2.
6.
,7.
,3.
,4.
,8.
,5.
,9.
,10.
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1.
SEQUENCE
A Sequence is a function whose domain is the set N of all natural numbers
where as the range may be any set S
Real Sequence
is a real sequence .
Note
(1) The sequence X
(2) The set of all distinct terms of a sequence is called its range.
(3) The number of terms of a sequence is always infinite.
(4) The range of a sequence may be a finite set (ie) Xn=(1)n then {1,1,1,1.}
Range {xn} ={1,1} which is a finite set.
Constant Sequence:
A Sequence {xn} defined by xn =C R for all n
N is called a constant
sequence.
Ex : {xn}= {c,c,c} is a constant seq with range ={c}.
SERIES
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ARITHMETIC SERIES:
A series in which the difference of any term from its
preceding term is constant throughout is called an Arithmetic progression.
ARITHMETIC SERIES FORMULAS:
2a (n 1)d
a ai 1
a an
a n a1 (n 1)d ; ai i 1
n ; Sn 1
n
; Sn 1
2
2
2
NOTATION:
First term: a1 , Nth term : a n , Number of terms in the series: S n
Difference between successive terms: d, Common ratio: q, Sum of infinity: S
GEOMETRIC SERIES
1 r r 2 ...... r n ......
(a)
If
r 1,
(b)
(c)
(d)
a n a1 .q
S
a1
1 q
n 1
; a1
ai 1 .ai 1
n
; S n an q a1 ; S n a1 ( q 1) ;
q 1
q 1
for 1 q 1
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n(n 1)
2
n(n 1)(2n 1)
12 2 2 ..... n 2
6
2
n ( n 1) 2
13 2 3 ...... n 3
4
Special power series:
1 2 3 ......n
1
(1 x ) 1 1 x x 2 ....
(for 1 x 1)
1 x
1
(1 x ) 1 1 x x 2 x 3 .......(for 1 x 1)
1 x
x2 x3
x 2 x3
ex 1 x
.... e x 1 x
....
2! 3!
2! 3!
x2 x3 x4
ln(1 x ) x
.... (for 1 x 1)
2
3
4
x3 x5 x7
sin x x
....
3! 5! 7!
x2 x4 x6
cos x 1
....
2! 4! 6!
x3 2 x5
tan x x
.....
(for x )
3
15
2
2
....
2! 3!
( x ln a ) 2 ( x ln a ) 3
a x 1 x ln a
....
2!
3!
ex 1 x
INFINITE SERIES
If {un} is a sequence of real numbers, then the expression u1+u2+u3+.
+un+..
(ie, the sum of the terms of the sequence which are infinite in number}is
called an infinite series . It is denoted by un
Ex:Discuss the convergence or otherwise of the series
1
1
1
...........
.....
1 2 2 3
n ( n 1)
Solution:
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1
1
1
n (n 1) n n 1
1 1
1 1
1
1
1 1
a1 , a2 , a3 , an
2 3
3 4
n n 1
1 2
1 1 1 1 1 1
1
1
S n a1 a2 a3 ....an ........
1 2 2 3 3 4
n n 1
1
Sn 1
n 1
1
1
lim S n lim 1
1 1 finite
n
n
n 1
an
n(n 1)(2n 1)
6
n(n 1)(2n 1)
n
n
6
VERTICAL LINE :
A line parallel to the
OBLIQUE LINE:
A line, which is neither parallel to
axis nor to
axis, is called
an oblique line.
QUADRANTS:
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The coordinate axes divides the plane into four parts called quadrants.
DISTANCE FORMULA:
The distance between the two points
and
is
SECTION FORMULA :
(i)
MID POINT FORMULA :The co ordinate of the mid point of the line
joining the points
and
are
STRAIGHT LINE
SLOPE OR GRADIENT OF A LINE:
The tangent of the angle made by the straight line with the
axis in the
satisfy
SLOPE OF A LINE :
Slope of a line of the form
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slope
and
and B
Slope of
GENERAL FORM :
The general form of the equation of the straight line is
This equation can be written in the intercept form is
c.
NORMAL FORM :
The equation of the straight line in the normal form is
with usual notations.
PERPENDICULAR FORM :
The length of the perpendicular form
to the line
is
.
CONCURRENT LINES :
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Three or more straight lines are said to be concurrent if they pass through a
common point.
concurrent condition
DEPENDENT EQUATIONS :
A system of two equations is said to be a system of dependent
equations if one equation is obtained from the order by multiplying by a non
zero real number.
CONSISTANT EQUATIONS:
A system of linear equations is said to be a system of consistent equations if
the system has at least one common solution.
INCONSISTENT EQUATIONS:
A system of linear equations is said to be a system of inconsistent
equations if the system has no common solution.
ANGLE BETWEEN TWO STRAIGHT LINES :
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Note:
(i)
If the lines are parallel then their slops are equal that is
(ii)
If the lines are perpendicular then the product of their slopes is 1, that is
.
(iii)If the slope of the line is m , then the slope of its parallel line is m and the
slope of its perpendicular line is
CIRCLE
CIRCLE:
A circle is the set of all points in a plane which are at a constant distance from a
fixed point in the plane.
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and radius r is
.
The equation of a circle with centre at the origin and radius r is
.
GENERAL EQUATION OF A CIRCLE :
If a circle has centre
PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS OF
The equation of the circle
for all values of
.
is satisfied by
and
from 0 to 2 .
Ex1: Find the equation of line passing through the points (1, 3)
and (4, 2)
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Solution:
y y1
x x1
2 3 4 1
y 3 x 1
5
5
y 3 x 1
1
1
y 3 x 1
y x 2
P(4, 1) and m =
1
.
2
(ii)
x intercept a = 3 and y intercept b = 4.
(iii) m = 4 and c =  2
Solution:
(i)
Point slope form
y y1 m( x x1 )
1
( x 4)
2
x 4
y
1
2
2
x
y
3
2
y 1
(ii)
x y
1
a b
x y
1
3 4
4 x 3 y 12
(iii)
y mx c
y 4x 2
Exercises:
1)Show that the line 2x+y9=0 and 2x+y10 =0 are parallel
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2)Show that the two lines x+2y+5=0 and 2x+4y5 =0 are parallel
3) Find the equation of the straight line parallel to 3x+2y =9 and which passes
through the points (3,3)
4) Find the equation of the straight line perpendicular to the straight line
3x+4y+28 = 0 and passing through the point (1,4)
5) If the two straight lines 2x3y+9 =0 , 6x+ky+5=0 are parallel, find k
TRIGONOMETRY
TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS
Y
h
A
p
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X
X
O
Y
In a right angled
AOB,
2. Cos
4.
5.
= h/b
= b/h
= h/b
3. Tan
6. cot
= p/h
= b/h
TRIGONOMETRIC RELATIONS:
Sin=
or
Cos
or
Tan
or
Tan
or cot
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4. sin2
QUADRANTS:
The two axis XOX and YOY divide the plane in four quadrants.
II Quadrant Y
I Quadrant
III Quadrant
IV Quadrant
Y
In first Quadrant : All TRatios are +ve
In second Quadrant: Only sin and Cosec are +ve
In third Quadrant: Only Tan and Cot are +ve
In fourth Quadrant: Only Cos and Sec are +ve
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Cos()=cos
Tan()=tan
Sin(90)=cos
Tan (90)=cot
Sin(90+)=cos
Tan (90+)=cot
Sin(180)=sin
Cos (180)=cos
Tan (180)=tan
Sin(180+)= sin
Cos (180+)=cos
Tan (180+)=tan
Sin(270)=cos
Tan (270)=cot
Sin(270+)=cos
Cos (270+)=sin
Tan (270+)=cot
Sin(360)=sin
Cos (360)=cos
Tan (360)=tan
90=
/2 180= 270=3 /2
360=2
Sin
Cos
Tan
Cosec
Sec
Cot
30
/6
1/2
3/2
1/3
2/3
45
/4
1/2
1/2
60
/3
3/2
2/3
1/3
90
/2
180
1
1
270
3 /2
1
1
1. sin(A+B)=sinAcosB+cosAsinB
2. sin(AB)=sinAcosBcosAsinB
3. cos(A+B)=cosAcosBsinAsinB
4. cos(AB)=cosAcosB+sinAsinB
5. tan(A+B)=tanA+tanB/1tanAtanB
6. tan(AB)=tanAtanB/1+tanAtanB
Converting product into Sum
7. sin(A+B) + sin(AB) =2 sinAcosB
8. sin(A+B)  sin(AB) =2 cosAsinB
9. cos(A+B)+ cos(AB) = 2 cosAcosB
10.cos(A+B) cos(AB) = 2 sinAsinB
DOUBLE ANGLE FORMULAE:
1. sin 2A=2 sinA cosA
2. cos 2A=12sin2A or 2cos2A1 or cos2Asin2A
3. tan2A = 2 tanA/1 tan2A
4. sin2A = 2tanA/1+tan2A
5. cos2A = 1 tan2A/ 1+tan2A
TRIPLE ANGLE FORMULAE:
1. sin 3A =3 sinA4 sin3A
2. cos 3A=4 cos3A3 cosA
3. tan3A=(3tanAtan3A)/(13 tan2A)
SUM OR DIFFERENCE INTO PRODUCT:
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4. sinC+sinD=2sin(
)cos(
5. sinCsinD=2cos(
)sin(
6. cosC+cosD=2cos(
)cos(
7. cosCcosD=2sin(
)sin(
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS:
1. sinhx=
2. coshx=
3. tanhx=sinhx/coshx=
4. cosh2xsinh2x=1.
5. sin( ix) i sinh x
6. cos( ix) cosh x
7.
cos
e i e i
2
8.
sin
e i e i
2i
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DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
THEORY OF EQUATION:
Problems:
1)
Solve
3 x 2 11x 4 0 .
Solution:
Here a 3, b 11,
x
2)
3)
4,
2a
6
6
6
3
Solve
2 x 2 3x 5 0
a 2, b 3, c 5
Here
x
c 4
b b 2 4ac 3 9 4(2)(5) 3 9 40 3 31 3 i 31 3 i 31
.
,
2a
4
4
4
4
4
Solve x3 5 x 2 7 x 3 0
Solution:
1 5
7 3
1
0 1 4
3
1
1 4
3
0 1 3
1 3
0
x 1 , x 1& x 3 0
x 1, x 1, x 3
4)
Solve x3 x 2 21x 45 0
Solution:
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1 1 21 45
0 5 30 45
1 6
9
0 3 9
1 3
0
x 5 , x 3 & m
x 1, x 1, x 3
5.Find the roots of the following equations:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
(x + 1)(x 3) = 0.
x2 3x 4 = 0.
x2 4 = 0.
6x2 + 11x 35 = 0.
x2 48 = 0.
x2 7x = 0.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
or as
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of function.
is called range of
ordered pairs
of function.
valued function .
CONSTANT FUNCTION :
The function of the form
Example:
IDENTITY FUNCTION:
The function
LINEAR FUNCTION :
The function
function.
EVEN FUNCTION:
A function
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Example:
ODD FUNCTION:
A function
Example:
PERIODIC FUNCTION:
A function
is defined.
Theorem :
The derivative of the product of two functions . if
=
IMPLICIT FUNCTION :
When the variables x and y are expressed in a functional relation. then either
variable is an implicit function of the other .
If
vice verse.
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INCREASING FUNCTION :
A function
if
increases as x increases or if
decreases as x decrease.
DECREASING FUNCTION :
A function
if
increases as x decreases or if
decreases as x increase.
MONOTONE FUNCTION:
A function
decreasing.
ROLLES THEOREM
Statement:
If a function
=
is continuous in the
and
Such that
is continuous in the
LIMIT OF A FUNCTION :
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function as x approaches a .
PROPERTIES OF LIMITS:
Let
and
1.
2.
where
3.
4.
5.
1)
(3 x 2) 7 .
Show that xlim
3
Solution.
lim (3 x 2) 3(3) 2 9 2 7
x 3
2)
x2 4 .
Show that xlim
2
Solution.
lim x 2 2 2 4
x2
3)
Prove that
x 1
1.
x x
lim
Solution.
lim
4)
x 1
lim 1
x
x
Prove that
Solution.
1
1
1 1 0 1
x
2x 3
lim
2.
x x 1
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Put
1
y
. As
x , y 0 .
2
2 3y
3
2x 3
2 3y 2 0
y
y
lim
lim
lim
lim
2.
1
1
y
x x 1
y 0
y 0
y 0 1 y
1 0
1
y
y
Concept of continuity:
(1). Every constant function is continuous.
(2). Every polynomial function of degree n is continuous.
(3). Every rational function of the form
is continuous.
DIFFERENTIATION
DIFFERENTIABILITY:
A function
is said to be differentiable at
if
a function
differentiable at a point
is
DERIVATIVE AT A POINT :
A function is said to be differentiable at a
point c if the derivative of
)=n
f(x)
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)=
)=du dv
Product
= (u. )=
(u. ) =u.dv+v.du
QUOTIENT
Parametric Function
Given:y=f(t) and x=g(t)
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Chain Rule
Given: y=f(t) and t=g(t)
= .
Given: x=f(y)
)=n
d(
)=
d(
)=
d(
d(
.du
)=M.
,M=
d(sinu)=cosu.du
d(cosu)=sinu.du
d(tanu)=sec2u.du
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d(cotu)=csc2u.du
d(secu)=secu.tanu.du
d(cscu)=cscu.cotu.du
(sin1u)=
(cos1u)=
(tan1u)=
(cot1u)=
(sec1u)=
(csc1u)=
d(sinhu)=coshu.du
d(coshu)=sinhu.du
d(tanhu)= sech2u.du
d(cothu)=csch 2u.du
d(sechu)=sechu.tanhu.du
d(cschu)=cschu.cothu.du
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Differentiation:
(1)
Find
(2) If f(x) =
(3) If for
find a and b
(ii)
(iii)
(2)
(3)
with respect to x
(4)
(5)
(6)
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Chain rule
If y= F(u) , u = f(t) , t= g(x)
Then
Problems :
Differentiate the following
(1)
(4)
(5)
(5) if
show that
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Example:
(1) Let y = A cos 4x+ B sin 4x, A and B are constants Show that
(4) If
(5)If
I. Find
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
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6.
II. Find
1. Parabola
2. Parabola
3. Ellipse
4. Hyperbola
5. Rectangular hyperbola
6. Asteroid
7. Cycloid
III .Differentiate the following:
1. Differentiate
2. Differentiate
with respect to m
with respect to
3. Differentiate
4)Find the derivatives in each of the following cases
y ( 2 x 2 4) 3
(i)
Ans: y ' 48 x( x 2 2) 2
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(ii)
y sin 2 2 x
Ans:
(iii)
y log(log x)
Ans:
y '
1
x log x
(iv)
y log(tan e x )
Ans:
y'
ex
sin e x cos e x
Exercise:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
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du
4a 2 t(t 2 2)
dt
2)
Find
du
when u x 2 y 2 if xy 7 .
dy
Solution
Given xy 7 x
dx 7 xy x
7
2
. Differentiating,
.
dy y 2
y
y
y
y
dy x dy y
3)
x
du
2x 2
2x
2y y y
dy
y
du 2x 2 2y 2 2(x 2 y 2 )
dy
y
y
Find
dy
when x 3 3axy y3 0 .
dx
Solution
f
f
3ax 3y 2 .
3x 2 3ay and
y
x
dy
f x
(3x 2 3ay)
3(x 2 ay)
(x 2 ay)
dx
f y
3ax 3y 2
3(ax y 2 )
(ax y 2 )
4)
z x 2 4 xy y 2
Solution
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z
2x 4 y
x
z
4x 2 y
y
2 z z
2x 4 y 2
2
x
x x
x
2 z z
4x 2 y 2
y 2 y y
y
2 z
z
4x 2 y 4
xy x y
x
2 z
z
2x 4 y 4
yx y x
y
APPLICATION OF DIFFERENTIATION :
1.VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION
1.1Velocity
1.2 Acceleration
2.TANGENTS AND NORMALS :
2.1 Equation of tangent :
2.2 Equation of normal ;
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Where m =
and
and
.
.
and
INTEGRAL CALCULUS
Indefinite Integrals
F(x)+c is called the indefinite integral of f(x) with respect to x
and is denoted by
1. COMMON INTEGRALS
2. INTEGRATION FORMULAS
dx = cx +C
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3.
dx =
4.
dx =
5.
+C
dx =
6.
+C
+C
dx = log (x) +C x
7.
dx =
8.
+C
dx =
9.
+C
dx = tan1 x +C
10.
dx =sin1x + C
dx = ex + C
dx =  cos x +C
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dx = sin x +C
dx =  cosec x +C
= sin
1
= cos
x +C
1
x +C
dx = tan1 x +C
dx = sec1 x +C
dx = cosec1 x +C
dx = cot1 x +C
dx = cos hx +C
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2.
dx = sin hx +C
3.
dx = log coshx+C
4.
log sinhx +C
5.
dx = tan hx + C
6.
7.
8.
dx =  cothx +C
tanh x dx =  sech x +C
dx = cosech x +C
9.
dx = sinh1 x +C
10.
dx = cosh1 x +C
11.
12.
13.
dx = tanh1 x +C
dx = sech1 x +C
dx = cosech1 x +C
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14.
dx = coth1 x +C
2.
3.
dx =
dx =
(for n
log (ax+b)
dx =  log
s INTEGRALS INVOLVING AX2+BX+C
4.
dx =
5.
dx =
arctg
dx =
dx
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2.
3.
dx =
(cx1)
dx =
4.
dx =
( a sin bx b cos bx )
5.
dx =
( a cos bx +b sin bx )
Problems
(2)
(3)
(6)
(7)
(11)
(12)
(4)
(8)
(5)
(9)
(10)
(2)
(3)
(7)
(4)
(8) (
(5)
(9)
(10)
Properties of integrals
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Problems :
(1)
(2)
Methods of Integration:
(1) Integration by decomposition in to sum or difference:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Method of substitution or change of variable
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(ii)
(iii)
(2)
(5)
(3)
(6)
(4)
(7)
(8)
Integration by parts:
Formula :
N
o
1
Given integrals
dv
Logx
dx
dx
Reason for u
Logx and
are
Logx
3
4
(n is a positive
integer)
5
Sinx dx or
cosxdx
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Examples
Integrate
( 1)
(2) x sinx
(3) x logx
(4) logx
(5)
is called the definite integral of f(x) over [a, b] and we say that f
is integral over [a, b]. Geometrically
bounded by the curve y=f(x), the axis of x and the two ordinates
x=a, x=b.
Properties of Definite integrals
1.
Invariance property
then
2.
3.
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4. Shifting property:
If f(x) is integrable and defined for the necessary values of x, then
Reduction Formulae
Some integrals involving certain parameters are solved by the
successive applications of integration by parts, which results in
reduction formulae.
For example
=
Or
(1)
The index n has been reduced to n1 and thus the integral
can
x sin 2 xdx
(iii)
x2 a2
(iv)
(v)
dx
Ans:
e x x 1
x
sin 2 x
2
4
1
xa
log
2a
xa
Ans: cos 2 x
Ans:
cos 7 xdx
Ans:
16
35
sin 4 xdx
Ans:
3
16
0
2
0
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(vi)
sin 7 x cos5 dx
Ans:
1
40
Basic integrals:
Simplifying substitution:
1. Evaluate
Hint:
Ans:
+C
2.
Integral by parts
*
1.
Bernoullis Formula:
1.
Integration by using partial fraction rule:
1.
2.
3.
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4.
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
The mathematical formulation of problems in engineering and
science usually leads to equations involving derivatives such
equations are called differential equations.
A few typical examples are
(a) The motion of a body of mass m subjected to a force F(t)
along a straight line according to Newtons second law of
motion is
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(e)
The equation
(6)
Linear:
An n th order ODE in the dependent variable y is said to be linear
in y if
(i)
(ii)
Where RHS b(x) and all coefficient s a0(x) ,a1(x) , an(x) are
given functions of x and a0(x) 0
If all the coefficients
a0 ,a1 , an
are constants then the
above equation is known as nth order linear ODE with constant
coefficients .
Note : A Linear DE is of first degree but a first degree DE need
not be linear since it may contain nonlinear terms such as y 2,
y1/2,ey, siny, etc
S.N Differential
o
Equation
Ans:
ordinary
Order
degree
Linearity
Yes
Kind
1
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Ordinary
No(yes
for
n=0,1)
Ordinary
Non
linear (in
x and y)
Ordinary
No
Ordinary
no
Partial
yes
X2 dy+ y2 dy=
0
Application of Matrices
Physics makes use of matrices in various domains, for example in
geometrical optics and matrix mechanics; the latter led to studying in more
detail matrices with an infinite number of rows and columns.
Computer graphics uses matrices to project 3dimensional space onto a 2dimensional screen.
Matrix calculus generalizes classical analytical notions such as derivatives
of functions or exponentials to matrices.
A major branch of numerical analysis is devoted to the development of
efficient algorithms for matrix computations..
equations of the system are more than two and if the number of variables is
larger than two, we'll need to use matrices to solve the system, if it's
possible.
We can also use matrices to represent complex numbers.
The matrices are useful in engineering (finite element method, mesh
analysis), architecture, geology and statistics.
The bidimensional image we can see on the computer screen is the
projection of a tridimensional image and this projection is possible due to
matrices.
First me have to say that "Calculus" is that branch which deals with the
integral calculus e.g. calculation area under the curve and the deferential
calculus that deals with the motion calculation, and that all are the part of
our practical life. Calculus is deeply integrated with the physical science and
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such as physics and Bio science, so now we can say that it is more important
in every aspects of life some of them we'll here discuss.
A lathe
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When the shaded area is rotated 360 about the xaxis, we observe that a
volume is generated in this LiveMath animation:
Application of Trignometry
Trigonometry is used in architecture, surveying, building, bricklaying, landscape
design in fact every occupation that deals with the real world. Trigonometry is used
throughout mathematics, and, since mathematics is applied throughout the natural
and social sciences, trigonometry has many applications. Calculus, linear algebra,
and statistics, in particular, use trigonometry and have many applications in the all
the sciences.
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light
waves.
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Volume of a watermelon
NOTE: The two functions f(x)=10x and f(x)=log x are on the same button on
your calculator because they are inverses of each other (like ex and ln x also.)
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If we plot them on the same axes, we see that they are just reflections of each
other in the line y = x.
In this graph, f(x)=10x is in green and f(x)=log x is in blue, and we can see that they
are reflections of each other in y = x (plotted in red).
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SRI RAMAKRISHNA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, COIMBATORE641010
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