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Digital Communication

Training System Scientech 2137

Product Tutorial
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94, Electronic Complex, Pardesipura, Indore - 452 010 India,
+ 91-731 4211100, : info@scientech.bz , : www.ScientechWorld.com

Scientech 2137

Digital Communication
Scientech 2137
Table of Contents
1.
2.
3.
4.

Safety Instructions
Introduction
Chapter A: Binary Digital Modulation
Experiments

Experiment 1
ASK Modulation and Demodulation

5
6
13
13

1. To know the concept of amplitude modulation and demodulation.


2. To grasp Binary ASK modulation principles and its realization
methods.
3. To grasp Binary ASK demodulation principles and its realization
methods.

Experiment 2
FSK Modulation and Demodulation

17

1. To know the concept of frequency modulation and demodulation.


2. To grasp Binary FSK modulation principles and its realization
methods.
3. To grasp Binary FSK demodulation principles and its realization
methods.

Experiment 3
BPSK Modulation and Demodulation

21

1. To know the concept of phase modulation and demodulation.


2. To grasp Binary Phase Shift modulation principles and its realization
methods.
3. To grasp Binary Phase Shift demodulation principles and its realization
methods

Experiment 4
DBPSK Modulation and Demodulation

25

1. To know the concept of phase modulation and demodulation.


2. To grasp Differential Binary Phase Shift modulation principles and its
realization methods.
3. To grasp Differential Binary Phase Shift demodulation principles and
its realization methods.
Chapter B: Multi-ary Digital Modulation

Experiment 5
QPSK Modulation and Demodulation

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1. To know the concept of Mutli-ary phase modulation and demodulation.


2. To grasp Quadrature Phase Shift modulation principles and its
realization methods.
3. To grasp Quadrature Phase Shift demodulation principles and its
realization methods.

Experiment 6
DQPSK Modulation and Demodulation

35

1. To know the concept of Mutli-ary Phase modulation and


demodulation.
2. Differential encoding and decoding of serial data.
3. To grasp Differential Quadrature Phase Shift modulation principles
and its realization methods.
4. To grasp Differential Quadrature Phase Shift demodulation principles
and its realization methods.
Experiment 7
39
OQPSK Modulation and Demodulation
1. To grasp Offset Quadrature Phase Shift modulation principles and its
realization methods.
2. To grasp Offset Quadrature Phase Shift demodulation principles and
its realization methods.
Experiment 8
43
/4 QPSK Modulation and Demodulation
1. To grasp /4 Quadrature Phase Shift modulation principles and its
realization methods.
2. To grasp /4 Quadrature Phase Shift demodulation principles and its
realization methods.
Experiment 9
49
M-ary ASK Modulation and Demodulation
1. To understand the concept of M-ary encoding.
2. To grasp M-ary Amplitude Phase Shift modulation principles and its
realization methods.
3. To grasp M-ary Amplitude Phase Shift demodulation principles and its
realization methods.
Experiment 10
53
M-ary FSK Modulation and Demodulation
1. To understand the concept of M-ary encoding.
2. To grasp M-ary Frequency Shift Keying modulation principles and its
realization methods.
3. To grasp M-ary Frequency Shift Keying demodulation principles and
its realization methods.

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5.
6.

Experiment 11
57
MSK Modulation and Demodulation
1. To grasp Minimum Shift Keying modulation principles and its
realization methods.
2. To grasp Minimum Shift Keying demodulation principles and its
realization methods.
Experiment 12
62
8-PSK Modulation and Demodulation
1. To understand 3 bit encoding techniques.
2. To grasp 8-Phase Shift Keying modulation principles and its
realization methods.
3. To grasp 8-Phase Shift Keying demodulation principles and its
realization methods.
Experiment 13
68
8-QAM Modulation and Demodulation
1. To understand 3 bit encoding techniques.
2. To grasp 8-Quadrature Amplitude modulation principles and its
realization methods.
3. To grasp 8-Quadrature Amplitude demodulation principles and its
realization methods.
Experiment 14
73
16-QAM Modulation and Demodulation
1. To understand 4 bit encoding techniques.
2. To grasp 16-Quadrature Amplitude modulation principles and its
realization methods.
3. To grasp 16-Quadrature Amplitude demodulation principles and its
realization methods.
Experiment 15
77
16-PSK Modulation and Demodulation
1. To understand 4 bit encoding techniques.
2. To grasp 16-Phase Shift Keying modulation principles and its
realization methods.
3. To grasp 16- Phase Shift Keying demodulation principles and its
realization methods.
Warranty
86
List of Accessories
86

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Safety Instructions
Read the following safety instructions carefully before operating the product.
To avoid any personal injury, or damage to the product, or any products connected to
it;
Do not operate the instrument if you suspect any damage within.
The instrument should be serviced by qualified personnel only.
For your Safety:
Use proper Mains cord

: Use only the mains cord designed for this product.


Ensure that the mains cord is suitable for your
country.

Ground the Instrument

: This product is grounded through the protective earth


conductor of the mains cord. To avoid electric shock
the grounding conductor must be connected to the
earth ground. Before making connections to the input
terminals, ensure that the instrument is properly
grounded.

Observe Terminal Ratings : To avoid fire or shock hazards, observe all ratings and
marks on the instrument.
Use only the proper Fuse

: Use the fuse type and rating specified for this product.

Use in proper Atmosphere : Please refer to operating conditions given in the


manual.

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1.

Do not operate in wet / damp conditions.

2.

Do not operate in an explosive atmosphere.

3.

Keep the product dust free, clean and dry.

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Introduction
Communication is a process of transferring information from one entity to another.
Communication processes are sign-mediated interactions between at least two agents
which share a repertoire of signs and semiotic rules. Communication is commonly
defined as "the imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by
speech, writing, or signs". Communication can be perceived as a two-way process in
which there is an exchange and progression of thoughts, feelings towards a mutually
accepted goal or direction. Communication is a process whereby information is
enclosed in a package and is discrete and imparted by sender to a receiver via a
channel/medium. The receiver then decodes the message and gives the sender a
feedback. Communication requires that all parties have an area of communicative
commonality. There are auditory means, such as speaking, singing and sometimes
tone of voice, and nonverbal, physical means, such as body language, sign language,
paralanguage, touch, eye contact, by using writing. Communication is thus a process
by which we assign and convey meaning in an attempt to create shared understanding.
This process requires a vast repertoire of skills in intra personal and interpersonal
processing, listening, observing, speaking, questioning, analyzing, and evaluating
Block Diagram

Digital Communication
Data transmission, digital transmission or digital communications is the physical
transfer of data (a digital bit stream) over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint
transmission medium. Examples of such media are copper wires, optical fibers,
wireless communication media, and storage media. The data is often represented as an
electro-magnetic signal, such as an electrical voltage signal, a radiowave or
microwave signal or an infra-red signal. While analog communications represents a
continuously varying signal by a continuously varying signal, a digital transmission
can be broken down into discrete messages. The messages are either represented by a
sequence of pulses by means of a line code (baseband transmission), or by a limited
set of analogue wave forms (passband transmission), using a digital modulation
method. According to the most common definition of digital signal, both baseband
and passband signals representing bit-streams are considered as digital transmission,
while an alternative definition only considers the baseband signal as digital, and the
passband transmission as a form of digital-to-analog conversion.
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Data transmitted may be digital messages originating from a data source, for example
a computer or a keyboard. It may also be an analog signal such as a phone call or a
video signal, digitized into a bit-stream for example using pulse-code modulation
(PCM) or more advanced source coding (data compression) schemes. This source
coding and decoding is carried out by codec equipment.
Asynchronous and Synchronous Data Transmission
Asynchronous transmission uses start and stop bits to signify the beginning bit ASCII
character would actually be transmitted using 10 bits e.g.: A "0100 0001" would
become "1 0100 0001 0". The extra one (or zero depending on parity bit) at the start
and end of the transmission tells the receiver first that a character is coming and
secondly that the character has ended. This method of transmission is used when data
are sent intermittently as opposed to in a solid stream. In the previous example the
start and stop bits are in bold. The start and stop bits must be of opposite polarity.
This allows the receiver to recognize when the second packet of information is being
sent.
Synchronous transmission uses no start and stop bits but instead synchronizes
transmission speeds at both the receiving and sending end of the transmission using
clock signals built into each component. A continual stream of data is then sent
between the two nodes. Due to there being no start and stop bits the data transfer rate
is quicker although more errors will occur, as the clocks will eventually get out of
sync, and the receiving device would have the wrong time that had been agreed in
protocol (computing) for sending/receiving data, so some bytes could become
corrupted (by losing bits). Ways to get around this problem include resynchronization of the clocks and use of check digits to ensure the byte is correctly
interpreted and received.
Digital Modulation:
Modulation is the process of varying one waveform in relation to another waveform.
In telecommunications, modulation is used to convey a message, or a musician may
modulate the tone from a musical instrument by varying its volume, timing and pitch.
Often a high-frequency sinusoid waveform is used as carrier signal to convey a lower
frequency signal. The three key parameters of a sine wave are its amplitude
("volume"), its phase ("timing") and its frequency ("pitch"), all of which can be
modified in accordance with a low frequency information signal to obtain the
modulated signal.
A device that performs modulation is known as a modulator and a device that
performs the inverse operation of modulation is known as a demodulator (sometimes
detector or demod). A device that can do both operations is a modem(short form
"Modulator-Demodulator").

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Fundamental Digital Modulation methods


These are the most fundamental digital modulation techniques:

In the case of PSK, a finite number of phases are used.

In the case of FSK, a finite number of frequencies are used.

In the case of ASK, a finite number of amplitudes are used.

In the case of QAM, a finite number of at least two phases and at least two
amplitudes are used.

In QAM, an inphase signal (the I signal, for example a cosine waveform) and a
quadrature phase signal (the Q signal, for example a sine wave) are amplitude
modulated with a finite number of amplitudes, and summed. It can be seen as a twochannel system, each channel using ASK. The resulting signal is equivalent to a
combination of PSK and ASK.
In all of the above methods, each of these phases, frequencies or amplitudes are
assigned a unique pattern of binary bits. Usually, each phase, frequency or amplitude
encodes an equal number of bits. This number of bits comprises the symbol that is
represented by the particular phase.
If the alphabet consists of M = 2N alternative symbols, each symbol represents a
message consisting of N bits. If the symbol rate (also known as the baud rate) is fS
symbols/second (or baud), the data rate is NfS bit/second.
For example, with an alphabet consisting of 16 alternative symbols, each symbol
represents 4 bits. Thus, the data rate is four times the baud rate.
In the case of PSK, ASK or QAM, where the carrier frequency of the modulated
signal is constant, the modulation alphabet is often conveniently represented on a
constellation diagram, showing the amplitude of the I signal at the x-axis, and the
amplitude of the Q signal at the Y-axis, for each symbol.
Modulator and Demodulator principles of operation PSK and ASK, and sometimes
also FSK, are often generated and detected using the principle of QAM. The I and Q
signals can be combined into a complex-valued signal I+jQ (where j is the imaginary
unit). The resulting so called equivalent lowpass signal or equivalent baseband signal
is a complex-valued representation of the real-valued modulated physical signal (the
so called passband signal or RF signal).

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These are the general steps used by the modulator to transmit data:
1.

Group the incoming data bits into codeword, one for each symbol that will be
transmitted.

2.

Map the codewords to attributes, for example amplitudes of the I and Q signals
(the equivalent low pass signal), or frequency or phase values.

3.

Adapt pulse shaping or some other filtering to limit the bandwidth and form the
spectrum of the equivalent low pass signal, typically using digital signal
processing.

4.

Perform Digital-to-Analog Conversion (DAC) of the I and Q signals (since


today all of the above is normally achieved using Digital Signal Processing
(DSP).

5.

Generate a high-frequency sine wave carrier waveform, and perhaps also a


cosine quadrature component. Carry out the modulation, for example by
multiplying the sine and cosine wave form with the I and Q signals, resulting in
that the equivalent low pass signal is frequency shifted into a modulated
passband signal or RF signal. Sometimes this is achieved using DSP technology,
for example direct digital synthesis using a waveform table, instead of analog
signal processing. In that case the above DAC step should be done after this
step.

6.

Amplification and analog bandpass filtering to avoid harmonic distortion and


periodic spectrum

At the receiver side, the demodulator typically performs:


1.

Bandpass filtering.

2.

Automatic gain control, AGC (to compensate for attenuation, for example
fading).

3.

Frequency shifting of the RF signal to the equivalent baseband I and Q signals,


or to an intermediate frequency (IF) signal, by multiplying the RF signal with a
local oscillator sinewave and cosine wave frequency (see the superheterodyne
receiver principle).

4.

Sampling and analog-to-digital conversion (Sometimes before or instead of the


above point, for example by means of undersampling).

5.

Equalization filtering, for example a matched filter, compensation for multipath


propagation, time spreading, phase distortion and frequency selective fading, to
avoid inter symbol interference and symbol distortion.

6.

Detection of the amplitudes of the I and Q signals, or the frequency or phase of


the IF signal.

7.

Quantization of the amplitudes, frequencies or phases to the nearest allowed


symbol values.

8.

Mapping of the quantized amplitudes, frequencies or phases to code words (bit

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groups).
9.

Parallel-to-serial conversion of the code words into a bit stream.

10.

Pass the resultant bit stream on for further processing such as removal of any
error-correcting codes.

As is common to all digital communication systems, the design of both the modulator
and demodulator must be done simultaneously. Digital modulation schemes are
possible because the transmitter-receiver pair have prior knowledge of how data is
encoded and represented in the communications system. In all digital communication
systems, both the modulator at the transmitter and the demodulator at the receiver are
structured so that they perform inverse operations.
Non-coherent modulation methods do not require a receiver reference clock signal
that is phase synchronized with the sender carrier wave. In this case, modulation
symbols (rather than bits, characters, or data packets) are asynchronously transferred.
The opposite is coherent modulation.
Synchronization:
The demodulation techniques in digital communication are classified into coherent
and non- coherent methods. Coherent detection and demodulation requires the
utilization of synchronization systems that extract carrier phase and frequency
information from the received signal. Phase and frequency are two parameters used
by synchronization systems, such as Phase-Locked Loops (PLL) to acquire, track and
synchronize to the carrier of the received signal. Costas Loop is a form of phaselocked loop used for carrier phase recovery.
The Costas Loop is a synchronization system that could be analyzed as two PLLs that
operate in phase quadrature to each other (i.e an upper PLL with Cosine NCO signal
and a lower PLL with a Sine NCO signal). Consequently, the operation of any Costas
Loop system is influenced by the operation of these two PLLs to a great extent.
The components of the system are the Arm Filters, the Loop Filter, three multipliers
that are referred as Phase Detectors, and a Numerical-Controlled Oscillator (NCO).
The Costas Loop is able to obtain the phase and frequency information of the
modulated carrier. Then achieve phase tracking, acquisition and synchronization to
this extracted carrier while demodulating and extracting the data contained in the
received signal.

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The incoming signal is multiplied with the cosine and the sine signal generated from
the NCO. The output of the multiplier contains high ( fin + f nco ) and low ( fin f nco )
frequency components. The high frequency components are filtered out by the low
pass filters (called as Arm filters). The outputs of the Arm filters are again multiplied
to get a signal, which consists of the error (frequency difference) component. The
output of the third multiplier is passed throupgh another narrow band low pass filter
(called Loop filter) to filter out any noise components present and to obtain a value
proportional to the error component. This value is used to change and adjust the NCO
signal frequency and phase so that the error value is minimized. When the NCO phase
and frequency is equal to that of the incoming signal, the loop is said to be locked and
the output of the upper and lower arm filters gives the I and Q components of the
symbol.
Applications of Costas Loop:
In addition to demodulating double-sideband suppressed-carrier AM signals, Costas
Loops are used to demodulate BPSK, QPSK, 8-PSK, OQPSK, FSK, and FM signals.
This characteristic of the Costas Loop makes it suitable for many applications such as
satellite communications, spread spectrum, and CDMA (used in cellular telephone
communications).

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Demodulation Techniques
This section presents a discussion of carrier recovery problem in demodulation and a
review of different demodulation techniques available for QAM signals.
Carrier Recovery:
Usually, the generation of modulated signals is quite easy; the same is not true for the
receiving side where it is necessary to rebuild the parameters very precisely the
parameters utilized during transmission Generally, the receivers are subdivided in two
categories: coherent receivers and non-coherent receivers. Non-coherent receivers
dont need the knowledge of the frequency and the phase of the carrier. However in
the case of angular modulations it is not possible to use a non-coherent detector
because the information is carried by the frequency and phase. Because of that, a
correct coherent demodulation needs a precise synchronization between the oscillator
of the receiver and the one of the transmitter. This process is known as carrier
recovery, has been solved through different techniques and is still subject of study to
continue improving the performances of the systems and to allow communications.
Some of the demodulation techniques are
Data directed recovery
Times-four method
Select points on the diagonal of constellation method
Decision feedback loop based method.

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Chapter A: Binary Digital Modulation


Experiment 1
Objective: ASK Modulation and Demodulation
1.

To know the concept of amplitude modulation and demodulation.

2.

To grasp Binary ASK modulation principles and its realization methods.

3.

To grasp Binary ASK demodulation principles and its realization methods.

Equipment Needed:
1. Digital Communication Training System (Scientech 2137)
2. Dual trace Oscilloscope for external signal analysis on mimic.
Theory:
Amplitude-Shift Keying (ASK) or Binary Digital Amplitude Modulation
(BDAM) or On Off Keying (OOK) is a form of modulation that represents digital
data as variations in the amplitude of a carrier wave. The amplitude of an analog
carrier signal varies in accordance with the bit stream (modulating signal), keeping
frequency and phase constant. The level of amplitude can be used to represent binary
logic 0s and 1s. We can think of a carrier signal as an ON or OFF switch. In the
modulated signal, logic 0 is represented by the absence of a carrier, thus giving
OFF/ON keying operation and hence the name given. Mathematically ASK is given
by

In the above equation ,the modulating signal ( vm (t ) ) is a normalized binary


waveform, where
+1V = logic 1 and -1V = logic 0. Therefore , for logic 1 equation reduces to

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for logic0 equation reduces to

Thus the modulated wave vask (t ) , is either


waveform diagram below.

[ A cos(c t )]

or 0. As shown in the

Waveform of ASK modulation

Block diagram of ASK transmitter


Transmitter

Receiver: The incoming modulated ASK signal is multiplied with the sine signal
generated from the NCO. The output of the multiplier contains high ( fin f nco ) and
low

( fin + f nco )

frequency components. The high frequency components are filtered

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out by the low pass filters (called as Arm filters). The output of low pass filter will
resemble the input data for modulation. with the help of thresh hold detector(decoder)
input signal is received
Receiver

Test Point Detail


Transmitter:
TP1

Serial Data Input for modulation.

TP2

Data Sampling Clock for Transmitter (bit clock).

TP11 :

Sine Carrier.

TP17 :

ASK modulated signal from transmitter.

Receiver:
TP18 :

Sine NCO.

TP22 :

Multiplied result of modulated signal with receiver sin NCO.

TP23 :

Low Pass Filter output for Multiplied result of modulated signal with
receiver sin NCO.

TP32 :

Data Sampling Clock for Receiver.

TP33 :

Serial Data output after demodulation.

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Procedure:
1.

Connect power supply and switch on .make sure that led for power supply
should glow.

2.

Select ASK modulation from home window on touch panel LCD.

3.

Touch on enter button on LCD.

4.

Now we can see the block diagram of ASK transmitter/receiver along with test
point for the corresponding signal from modulation to be analyzed.

5.

Select test point for signals which you want to analyze on MSO for eg:-select
test point 1, 2, 11, 17, 32, 33. Then touch on MSO button and analyze the signal
for the test points you have selected.

6.

Adjust the settings according to your need using menu button and mimic
control.

Observation:
MSO or DSO Result for Reference

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Experiment 2
Objective FSK Modulation and Demodulation
1.

To know the concept of frequency modulation and demodulation.

2.

To grasp Binary FSK modulation principles and its realization methods.

3.

To grasp Binary FSK demodulation principles and its realization methods.

Equipment Needed:
1.

Digital Communication Training System (Scientech 2137)

2.

Dual trace Oscilloscope for external signal analysis on mimic.

Theory:
Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK) In FSK Modulation, we change the frequency in
response to information, one particular frequency for Logic 1 and another frequency
for Logic 0. In this example below f1 for 1 is higher than f2 used for the 0 bit.
Sin (2 f1t) for bit 1.
Sin (2 f2t) for bit 0.
The general expression for FSK is

From equation 1, it can be seen that the peak shift in the carrier ( f ) is propotionalto

the amplitude of the binary input signal ( vm (t ) ) , and the direction of the shift is
determined by the polarity. The modulating singal is a normalized waveform where
logic 1 = +1 volt and logic 0 = -1volt.Thus,for a logic1 input ,equation1 can be written
as

For logic0 input , equation can be written as


With binary FSK, the carrier center frequency ( f c ) is shifted up and down in the
frequency domain by binary input signal. As the input changes from logic 1 to a logic

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0 and vice versa, the output frequency shift between two frequencies. The waveform
and block diagram of FSK is
Waveform of FSK modulation

Block diagram of FSK transmitter & receiver


Transmitter

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Receiver: The incoming modulated FSK signal is multiplied with the sine signal
generated from the NCO. The output of the multiplier contains high ( fin + f nco ) and

low ( fin f nco ) frequency components. The high frequency components are filtered
out by the low pass filters (called as Arm filters). The output of low pass filter will
resemble the input data for modulation with the help of thresh hold detector (decoder)
input signal is received .
Receiver

Test Point Detail


Transmitter:
TP1

Serial Data Input for modulation.

TP2

Data Sampling Clock for Transmitter (bit clock).

TP11 :

Sine Carrier.

TP17 :

FSK modulated signal from transmitter.

Receiver:
TP18 :

Sine NCO.

TP22 :

Multiplied result of modulated signal with receiver sin NCO.

TP23 :

Low Pass Filter output for Multiplied result of modulated signal with
receiver sin NCO.

TP32 :

Data Sampling Clock for Receiver.

TP33 :

Serial Data output after demodulation.

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Procedure:
1.

Connect power supply and switch on .make sure that led for power supply
should glow.

2.

Select FSK modulation from home window on touch panel LCD.

3.

Touch on enter button on LCD.

4.

Now we can see the block diagram of FSK transmitter/receiver along with test
point for the corresponding signal from modulation to be analyzed.

5.

Select test point for signals which you want to analyze on MSO.

6.

For eg:-select test point 1, 2, 11, 17, 32, 33. Then touch on MSO button and
analyze the signal for the test points you have selected.

7.

Adjust the settings according to your need using menu button and mimic
control.

Observation:
MSO or DSO Result for Reference

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Experiment 3
Objective: BPSK Modulation and Demodulation
1.

To know the concept of phase modulation and demodulation.

2.

To grasp Binary Phase Shift modulation principles and its realization methods.

3.

To grasp Binary Phase Shift demodulation principles and its realization


methods.

Equipments Needed:
1.

Digital Communication Training System (Scientech 2137)

2.

Dual trace Oscilloscope for external signal analysis on mimic.

Theory:
Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) or Phase Reversal Keying (PRK) or Biphase
Modulation In BPSK (Binary Shift Keying) Modulation, the phase of the carrier is
varied to represent binary 1 or 0. Both peak amplitude remains constant as the phase
changes. BPSK is a form of square-wave modulation of continuous wave signal For
example, if we start a phase of 0deg. to represent binary 1, then we can change the
phase to 180deg. to send binary 0. The phase of the signal during each bit duration is
constant, and its value depends on the bit (0 or 1).
Sin (2pft) for bit 0
Sin (2pft + p/) for bit 1
Figure below shows the generation of BPSK with clock signal, pattern or baseband
data, 1 bit encoded. Normal Sine wave or carrier is transmitted for logic 0 and 180.
Phase shifted carrier is transmitted for logic 1.As shown in the waveform and block
diagram
Waveform and constellation of BPSK modulation

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Constellation of BPSK

Block Diagram of BPSK Transmitter

Receiver: The incoming modulated BPSK signal is multiplied with the sine signal
generated from the NCO. The output of the multiplier contains high ( fin + f nco ) and

low ( fin f nco ) frequency components. The high frequency components are filtered
out by the low pass filters (called as Arm filters). The output of low pass filter will
resemble the input data for modulation. With the help of thresh hold detector
(decoder) input signal is received.

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Block Diagram of BPSK Receiver

Test Point Detail


Transmitter:
TP1

Serial Data Input for modulation.

TP2

Data Sampling Clock for Transmitter (bit clock).

TP11 :

Sine Carrier.

TP17 :

FSK modulated signal from transmitter.

Receiver:
TP18 :

Sine NCO.

TP22 :

Multiplied result of modulated signal with receiver sin NCO.

TP23 :

Low Pass Filter output for Multiplied result of modulated signal with
receiver sin NCO.

TP32 :

Data Sampling Clock for Receiver.

TP33 :

Serial Data output after demodulation.

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Procedure:
1.

Connect power supply and switch on .make sure that led for power supply
should glow.

2.

Select BPSK modulation from home window on touch panel LCD.

3.

Touch on enter button on LCD.

4.

Now we can see the block diagram of BPSK transmitter/receiver along with test
point for the corresponding signal from modulation to be analyzed.

5.

Select test point for signals which you want to analyze on MSO .

6.

For eg:-select test point 1, 2, 11, 17, 32, 33. Then touch on MSO button and
analyze the signal for the test points you have selected.

7.

To see the constellation diagram for BPSK select test point 6 and 10.Use
external DSO/CRO for constellation.

8.

Adjust the settings according to your need using menu button and mimic
control.

Observation:
MSO or DSO Result for Reference -- Change IMAGE

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Experiment 4
Objective: DBPSK Modulation and Demodulation
1.

To know the concept of phase modulation and demodulation.

2.

To grasp Differential Binary Phase Shift modulation principles and its


realization methods.

3.

To grasp Differential Binary Phase Shift demodulation principles and its


realization methods.

Equipments Needed:
1.

Digital Communication Training System (Scientech 2137)

2.

Dual trace Oscilloscope for external signal analysis on mimic.

Theory:
Differential Encoding Is used to provide polarity reversal protection Bit streams
going through the many communications circuits in the channel can be unintentionally inverted. Most signal processing circuits can not tell if the whole stream
is inverted. This is also called phase ambiguity. Differential Encoding is used to
protect against this possibility. It is one of the simplest form of error protection coding
done on a baseband sequence prior to modulation Then the phase of the carrier is
varied to represent binary 1 or 0 of encoded data. Both peak amplitude remains
constant as the phase changes.
A Differential Coding system consists of a modulo 2 adder operation as shown below.

din = Data sequence in


e out = Differentially Encoded data sequence out

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Waveform of DBPSK modulation

Block Diagram of DBPSK Transmitter

Receiver: The incoming modulated ASK signal is multiplied with the sine signal
generated from the NCO. The output of the multiplier contains high ( fin + f nco ) and

low ( fin f nco ) frequency components. The high frequency components are filtered
out by the low pass filters (called as Arm filters). The output of low pass filter will
resemble the differentially encoded input data for modulation. with the help of thresh
hold detector(decoder) input signal is received .the data received for decoder will be
differential decoded to get original data.

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Differential decoding

Block Diagram of DBPSK Receiver

Test Point Detail: Test Point Detail:


Transmitter:
TP1

Serial Data Input for modulation.

TP2

Data Sampling Clock for Transmitter (bit clock).

TP1

Serial Data Input for modulation.

TP7

Differential encoded Serial Data for modulation.

TP11 :

Sine Carrier.

TP17 :

DBPSK modulated signal from transmitter.

Receiver:
TP18 :

Sine NCO.

TP22 :

Multiplied result of modulated signal with receiver sin NCO.

TP23 :

Low Pass Filter output for Multiplied result of modulated signal with
receiver sin NCO.

TP32 :

Data Sampling Clock for Receiver.

TP33 :

Serial Data output after demodulation.

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Procedure:
1.

Connect power supply and switch on .make sure that led for power supply
should glow.

2.

Select DBPSK modulation from home window on touch panel LCD.

3.

Touch on enter button on LCD.

4.

Now we can see the block diagram of DBPSK transmitter/receiver along with
test point for the corresponding signal from modulation to be analyzed.

5.

Select test point for signals which you want to analyze on MSO.

6.

For eg:-select test point 1, 2, 7, 911, 17, 22, 23, 32, 33. Then touch on MSO
button and analyze the signal for the test points you have selected.

7.

Adjust the settings according to your need using menu button and mimic
control.

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Observation:
MSO or DSO Result for Reference

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Chapter B: Multi-ary Digital Modulation


Experiment 5
Objective: QPSK Modulation and Demodulation
1.

To know the concept of Mutli-ary phase modulation and demodulation.

2.

To grasp Quadrature Phase Shift modulation principles and its realization


methods.

3.

To grasp Quadrature Phase Shift demodulation principles and its realization


methods.

Equipments Needed:
1.

Digital Communication Training System (Scientech 2137)

2.

Dual trace Oscilloscope for external signal analysis on mimic.

Theory:
Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK ) or, involves the splitting of a data stream
mk (t)=m0,m1,m2, . . ., into an in-phase stream or Even data mI (t) = m0,m2,m4, . . .
and a quadrature stream or Odd data mQ(t) = m1,m3,m5, . . .. Both the streams have
half the bit rate of the data stream mk(t), and modulate the cosine and sine functions
of a carrier wave simultaneously. As a result, phase changes across intervals of 2Tb,
where Tb is the time interval of a single bit (the mk(t)s). The phase transitions can be
as large as 180. Sudden phase reversals of 180 can throw the amplifiers into
saturation. As shown in Figure 1, the phase reversals of 180 cause the envelope to go
to zero momentarily. This may make us susceptible to non-linearity in amplifier
circuitry. The above may be prevented using linear amplifiers but they are more
expensive and power consuming. A solution to the above mentioned problem is the
use of OQPSK. The two bit streams generated from 1/2bit encoding technique are
used as I channel data and Q channel data respectively for modulation of Cosine and
Sine wave.
Phase relation between I & Q channel data and carrier phase.
Channel Data

Carrier Phase

Q Data

I Data

225

90

315

180

45

270

135

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Waveform of QPSK modulation

QPSK Constellation Diagram

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Block diagram of QPSK Transmitter

Receiver: The incoming modulated signal is multiplied with the cosine and the sine
signal generated from the NCO. The output of the multiplier contains high
( fin + f nco ) and low ( fin f nco ) frequency components. The high frequency
components are filtered out by the low pass filters (called as Arm filters). The output
of low pass filter will resemble the input data for modulation on I and Q channel. with
the help of thresh hold detector(decoder) input signal is received on I and Q channel
of demodulator. Then this data form I and Q channel is give to parallel to serial
converter to give original data.
Receiver

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Test Point Detail:


Transmitter:
TP1

Serial Data Input for modulation.

TP2

Data Sampling Clock for Transmitter (bit clock).

TP3

I channel Data for modulation.

TP7

Q channel Data for modulation.

TP11 :

Sine Carrier.

TP12 :

Cosine Carrier.

TP14 :

I channel modulation.

TP16 :

Q channel modulation.

TP17 :

QPSK modulated signal from transmitter.

Receiver:
TP18 :

Sine NCO.

TP19 :

Cosine NCO.

TP20 :

Multiplied result of modulated signal with receiver Cosin NCO.

TP21 :

I Channel Low Pass Filter output for Multiplied result of modulated


signal with receiver Cosin NCO.

TP22 :

Multiplied result of modulated signal with receiver sin NCO.

TP23 :

Q channel Low Pass Filter output for Multiplied result of modulated


signal with receiver sin NCO.

TP24 :

I channel Data recovered from LPF .

TP28 :

Q channel Data recovered from LPF.

TP32 :

Data Sampling Clock for Receiver.

TP33 :

Serial Data output after demodulation.

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Procedure:
1.

Connect power supply and switch on .make sure that led for power supply
should glow.

2.

Select QPSK modulation from home window on touch panel LCD.

3.

Touch on enter button on LCD.

4.

Now we can see the block diagram of QPSK transmitter/receiver along with test
point for the corresponding signal from modulation to be analyzed.

5.

Select test point for signals which you want to analyze on MSO .

6.

For eg:-select test point 1, 2, 3, 7, 11, 14, 16, 17, 24, 28, 32, 33. Then touch on
MSO button and analyze the signal for the test points you have selected.

7.

To see the constellation diagram for QPSK select test point 6 and 10.Use
external DSO/CRO for constellation.

8.

Adjust the settings according to your need using menu button and mimic
control.

Observation:
MSO or DSO Result for Reference

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Experiment 6
Objective: DQPSK Modulation and Demodulation
1.

To know the concept of Mutli-ary phase modulation and demodulation.

2.

Differential encoding and decoding of serial data.

3.

To grasp Differential Quadrature Phase Shift modulation principles and its


realization methods.

4.

To grasp Differential Quadrature Phase Shift demodulation principles and its


realization methods.

Equipment Needed:
1.

Digital Communication Training System (Scientech 2137)

2.

Dual trace Oscilloscope for external signal analysis on mimic.

Theory:
Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) is a common form of phase modulation that
conveys data by changing the phase of the carrier wave. As mentioned for BPSK and
QPSK there is an ambiguity of phase if the constellation is rotated by some effect in
the communications channel through which the signal passes. This problem can be
overcome by using the data to change rather than set the phase.
For example, in differentially-encoded BPSK a binary '1' may be transmitted by
adding 180 to the current phase and a binary '0' by adding 0 to the current phase. In
differentially-encoded QPSK, the phase-shifts are 0, 90, 180, -90 corresponding to
data '00', '01', '11', '10'.
Waveform of DQPSK modulation

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Block Diagram of Transmitter

Receiver: The incoming modulated signal is multiplied with the cosine and the sine
signal generated from the NCO. The output of the multiplier contains high
( fin + f nco ) and low ( fin f nco ) frequency components. The high frequency
components are filtered out by the low pass filters (called as Arm filters). The output
of low pass filter will resemble the input data for modulation on I and Q channel.
With the help of thresh hold detector (decoder) input signal is received on I and Q
channel of demodulator. Then this data form I and Q channel is given to differential
decoder The output of differential encoder is given to parallel to serial converter to
give original data.
Receiver

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Test Point Detail:


Transmitter:
TP1

Serial Data Input for modulation.

TP2

Data Sampling Clock for Transmitter (bit clock).

TP3

I channel Data.

TP7

Q channel Data.

TP3

Differential encoded I channel Data for modulation.

TP7

Differential encoded Q channel Data for modulation.

TP11 :

Sine Carrier.

TP12 :

Cosine Carrier.

TP14 :

I channel modulation.

TP16 :

Q channel modulation.

TP17 :

DQPSK modulated signal from transmitter.

Receiver:
TP18 :

Sine NCO.

TP19 :

Cosine NCO.

TP20 :

Multiplied result of modulated signal with receiver Cosin NCO.

TP21 :

I Channel Low Pass Filter output for Multiplied result of modulated


signal with receiver Cosin NCO.

TP22 :

Multiplied result of modulated signal with receiver sin NCO.

TP23 :

Q channel Low Pass Filter output for Multiplied result of modulated


signal with receiver sin NCO.

TP24 :

I channel Data recovered from LPF .

TP26 :

Differential decoded data from I channel.

TP28 :

Q channel Data recovered from LPF.

TP30 :

Differential decoded data from Q channel.

TP32 :

Data Sampling Clock for Receiver.

TP33 :

Serial Data output after demodulation.

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Procedure:
1.

Connect power supply and switch on .make sure that led for power supply
should glow.

2.

Select DQPSK modulation from home window on touch panel LCD.

3.

Touch on enter button on LCD.

4.

Now we can see the block diagram of DQPSK transmitter/receiver along with
test point for the corresponding signal from modulation to be analyzed.

5.

Select test point for signals which you want to analyze on MSO.

6.

for eg: select test point 1,2,3,5,7,9,11,14,16,17, 24,28,32,33. Then touch on


MSO button and analyze the signal for the test points you have selected.

7.

Adjust the settings according to your need using menu button and mimic
control.

Observation:
MSO Result for Reference

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Experiment 7
Objective: OQPSK Modulation and Demodulation
1.

To grasp Offset Quadrature Phase Shift modulation principles and its realization
methods.

2.

To grasp Offset Quadrature Phase Shift demodulation principles and its


realization methods.

Equipment Needed:
1.

Digital Communication Training System (Scientech 2137).

2.

Dual trace Oscilloscope for external signal analysis on mimic.

Theory:
Offset Quadrature Pase-Shift Keying (OQPSK) is a variant of Phase-Shift Keying
modulation using 4 different values of the phase to transmit. It is sometimes called
Staggered Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (SQPSK).Taking four values of the phase
(two bits) at a time to construct a QPSK symbol can allow the phase of the signal to
jump by as much as 180 at a time. When the signal is low-pass filtered (as is typical
in a transmitter), these phase-shifts result in large amplitude fluctuations, an
undesirable quality in communication systems. By offsetting the timing of the odd
and even bits by one bit-period, or half a symbol-period, the in-phase and quadrature
components will never change at the same time. In the constellation diagram shown
on the right, it can be seen that this will limit the phase-shift to no more than 90 at a
time. This yields much lower amplitude fluctuations than non-offset QPSK and is
sometimes preferred in practice.
The picture on the right shows the difference in the behavior of the phase between
ordinary QPSK and OQPSK. It can be seen that in the first plot the phase can change
by 180 at once, while in OQPSK the changes are never greater than 90.
Waveform of OFFSET QPSK modulation

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Block diagram of OFFSET QPSK transmitter and receiver


Transmitter

Receiver: The incoming modulated signal is multiplied with the cosine and the sine
signal generated from the NCO. The output of the multiplier contains high
( fin + f nco ) and low ( fin f nco ) frequency components. The high frequency
components are filtered out by the low pass filters (called as Arm filters). The output
of low pass filter will resemble the input data for modulation on I and Q channel. with
the help of thresh hold detector(decoder) input signal is received on I and Q channel
of demodulator. Then this data form I and Q channel is give to parallel to serial
converter to give original data.
Receiver

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Constellation diagram of OFFSETQPSK

Test Point Detail:


Transmitter:
TP1 :
Serial Data Input for modulation.
TP2

Data Sampling Clock for Transmitter (bit clock).

TP3

I channel Data.

TP7

Q channel Data.

TP9

Half bit delayed Q channel Data for modulation.

TP11 :

Sine Carrier.

TP12 :

Cosine Carrier.

TP14 :

I channel modulation.

TP16 :

Q channel modulation.

TP17 :

OFFSET QPSK modulated signal from transmitter.

Receiver:
TP18 :

Sine NCO.

TP19 :

Cosine NCO.

TP20 :

Multiplied result of modulated signal with receiver Cosin NCO.

TP21 :

I Channel Low Pass Filter output for Multiplied result of modulated


signal with receiver Cosin NCO.

TP22 :

Multiplied result of modulated signal with receiver sin NCO.

TP23 :

Q channel Low Pass Filter output for Multiplied result of modulated


signal with receiver sin NCO.

TP24 :

I channel Data recovered from LPF.

TP26 :

Half bit delayed data from I channel.

TP28 :

Q channel Data recovered from LPF.

TP32 :

Data Sampling Clock for Receiver.

TP33 :

Serial Data output after demodulation.

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Procedure:
1.

Connect power supply and switch on .make sure that led for power supply
should glow.

2.

Select OQPSK modulation from home window on touch panel LCD.

3.

Touch on enter button on LCD.

4.

Now we can see the block diagram of OQPSK transmitter/receiver along with
test point for the corresponding signal from modulation to be analyzed.

5.

Select test point for signals which you want to analyze on MSO .

6.

for eg:-select test point 1,2,3,5,7,9,11,14,16,17, 24,28,32,33. Then touch on


MSO button and analyze the signal for the test points you have selected.

7.

To see the constellation diagram for OQPSK select test point 6 and 10.Use
external DSO/CRO for constellation.

8.

Adjust the settings according to your need using menu button and mimic
control.

Observation:
MSO Result for Reference

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Experiment 8
Objective: /4 QPSK Modulation and Demodulation
1.

To grasp /4 Quadrature Phase Shift modulation principles and its realization


methods.

2.

To grasp /4 Quadrature Phase Shift demodulation principles and its realization


methods.

Equipment Needed:
1.

Digital Communication Training System (Scientech 2137)

2.

Dual trace Oscilloscope for external signal analysis on mimic.

Theory:
/4 QPSK is variant of QPSK uses two identical constellations which are rotated by
45 (/4 radians, hence the name) with respect to one another. Usually, either the even
or odd symbols are used to select points from one of the constellations or the other
symbols select points from the other constellation. This also reduces the phase-shifts
from a maximum of 180, but only to a maximum of 135.
One property this modulation scheme possesses is that if the modulated signal is
represented in the complex domain, it does not have any paths through the origin. In
other words, the signal does not pass through the origin. This lowers the dynamical
range of fluctuations in the signal which is desirable when engineering
communications signals.

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Waveform of /4QPSK modulation

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Block diagram of /4 QPSK Transmitter

Receiver: The incoming modulated signal is multiplied with the cosine and the sine
signal generated from the NCO. The output of the multiplier contains high
( fin + f nco ) and low ( fin f nco ) frequency components. The high frequency
components are filtered out by the low pass filters (called as Arm filters). The output
of low pass filter will resemble the input data for modulation on I and Q channel with
the help of thresh hold detector (decoder) input signal is received on I and Q channel
of demodulator. Then this data form I and Q channel is give to parallel to serial
converter to give original data.
Receiver

Constellation diagram of

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Test Point Detail:


Transmitter:
TP1

Serial Data Input for modulation.

TP2

Data Sampling Clock for Transmitter (bit clock).

TP3

I channel Data.

TP7

Q channel Data.

TP9

Half bit delayed Q channel Data for modulation.

TP11 :

Sine Carrier.

TP12 :

Cosine Carrier.

TP14 :

I channel modulation.

TP16 :

Q channel modulation.

TP17 :

OFFSET QPSK modulated signal from transmitter.

Receiver:
TP18 :

Sine NCO.

TP19 :

Cosine NCO.

TP20 :

Multiplied result of modulated signal with receiver Cosin NCO.

TP21 :

I Channel Low Pass Filter output for Multiplied result of modulated


signal with receiver Cosin NCO.

TP22 :

Multiplied result of modulated signal with receiver sin NCO.

TP23 :

Q channel Low Pass Filter output for Multiplied result of modulated


signal with receiver sin NCO.

TP24 :

I channel Data recovered from LPF.

TP26 :

Half bit delayed data from I channel.

TP28 :

Q channel Data recovered from LPF.

TP32 :

Data Sampling Clock for Receiver.

TP33 :

Serial Data output after demodulation.

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Procedure:
1.

Connect power supply and switch on .make sure that led for power supply
should glow.

2.

Select /4 QPSK modulation from home window on touch panel LCD.

3.

Touch on enter button on LCD.

4.

Now we can see the block diagram of /4QPSK transmitter/receiver along with
test point for the corresponding signal from modulation to be analyzed.

5.

Select test point for signals which you want to analyze on MSO.

6.

For eg: select test point 1,2,3,5,7,9,11,14,16,17, 24,28,32,33. Then touch on


MSO button and analyze the signal for the test points you have selected.

7.

To see the constellation diagram for /4QPSK select test point 6 and 10.Use
external DSO/CRO for constellation.

8.

Adjust the settings according to your need using menu button and mimic
control.

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Observation:
MSO or DSO Result for Reference

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Experiment 9
Objective: M-ary ASK Modulation and Demodulation
1.

To understand the concept of M-ary encoding.

2.

To grasp M-ary Amplitude Phase Shift modulation principles and its realization
methods.

3.

To grasp M-ary Amplitude Phase Shift demodulation principles and its


realization methods.

Equipments Needed:
1.

Digital Communication Training System (Scientech 2137)

2.

Dual trace Oscilloscope for external signal analysis on mimic.

Theory:
M-ary is a term derived from the word Binary .M simply represents a digital that
corresponds to the number of conditions, levels or combination possible for a given
number of binary variables. It is often advantageous to encode at a level higher than
binary where there are more than two conditions possible e.g a digital signal with four
possible condition is an M-ary system where M=4.The number of bits necessary to
produce a given number of condition is expressed as
N = log 2 M

where N=number of bits necessary.


M=number of conditions, levels or combination possible with N bits.
In M-ary there are M signals with different amplitude to represent these M messages.
Here we have four levels of binary data is modulated with carrier of four different
amplitudes as shown in the waveform.
Waveform of M-ary ASK modulation

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Block diagram of M-ary ASK transmitter and receiver


Transmitter

Receiver: The incoming modulated signal is multiplied with the sine signal generated
from the NCO. The output of the multiplier contains high ( fin + f nco ) and low

( fin f nco )

frequency components. The high frequency components are filtered out


by the low pass filters (called as Arm filters). The output of low pass filter will
resemble the input data for modulation on I and Q channel. With the help of thresh
hold detector (decoder) input signal is received on Q channel of demodulator. Then
this data form Q channel is give to parallel to serial converter to give original data .
Receiver

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Test Point Detail:


Transmitter:
TP1

Serial Data Input for modulation.

TP2

Data Sampling Clock for Transmitter (bit clock).

TP3

I channel Data

TP7

Q channel Data.

TP11 :

Sine Carrier.

TP14 :

I channel modulation.

TP16 :

Q channel modulation.

TP17 :

M-ARY ASK modulated signal from transmitter.

Receiver:
TP18 :

Sine NCO.

TP19 :

Cosine NCO.

TP20 :

Multiplied result of modulated signal with receiver Cosin NCO.

TP21 :

I Channel Low Pass Filter output for Multiplied result of modulated


signal with receiver Cosin NCO.

TP22 :

Multiplied result of modulated signal with receiver sin NCO.

TP23 :

Q channel Low Pass Filter output for Multiplied result of modulated


signal with receiver sin NCO.

TP24 :

I channel Data recovered from LPF.

TP28 :

Q channel Data recovered from LPF.

TP32 :

Data Sampling Clock for Receiver.

TP33 :

Serial Data output after demodulation.

Procedure:
1.

Connect power supply and switch on .make sure that led for power supply
should glow.

2.

Select M-ary ASK modulation from home window on touch panel LCD.

3.

Touch on enter button on LCD.

4.

Now we can see the block diagram of M-ary ASK transmitter/receiver along
with test point for the corresponding signal from modulation to be analyzed.

5.

Select test point for signals which you want to analyze on MSO .

6.

For eg:-select test point 1,2,7,,11,17, 22,23,28,32,33. Then touch on MSO


button and analyze the signal for the test points you have selected.

7.

Adjust the settings according to your need using menu button and mimic
control.

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Observation:
MSO Result for Reference

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Experiment 10
Objective: M-ary FSK Modulation and Demodulation
1.

To understand the concept of M-ary encoding.

2.

To grasp M-ary Frequency Shift Keying modulation principles and its


realization methods.

3.

To grasp M-ary Frequency Shift Keying demodulation principles and its


realization methods.

Equipments Needed:
1.

Digital Communication Training System (Scientech 2137)

2.

Dual trace Oscilloscope for external signal analysis on mimic.

Theory:
M-ary is a term derived from the word Binary .M simply represents a digital that
corresponds to the number of conditions, levels or combination possible for a given
number of binary variables. It is often advantageous to encode at a level higher than
binary where there are more than two conditions possible . e.g a digital signal with
four possible condition is an M-ary system where M=4.The number of bits necessary
to produce a given number of condition is expressed as
N = 1og 2 M
where N=number of bits necessary.
M=number of conditions, levels or combination possible with N bits.
In M-ary FSK modulation four levels of binary data is modulated with four carrier of
different frequencies as shown in the waveform.
Waveform of M-ary FSK modulation

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Block diagram of M-ary FSK transmitter and receiver


Transmitter

Receiver: The incoming modulated signal is multiplied with the sine signal generated
from the NCO. The output of the multiplier contains high fin + f nco and low fin f nco
frequency components. The high frequency components are filtered out by the low
pass filters (called as Arm filters). The output of low pass filter will resemble the
input data for modulation on I and Q channel with the help of thresh hold detector
(decoder) input signal is received on Q channel of demodulator. Then this data form
Q channel is give to parallel to serial converter to give original data.
Block diagram of M-ary
Receiver

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Test Point Detail:


Transmitter:
TP1 :
Serial Data Input for modulation.
TP2 :
Data Sampling Clock for Transmitter (bit clock).
TP3 :
I channel Data.
TP7 :
Q channel Data.
TP11 :
Sine Carrier.
TP12 :
Cosine Carrier.
TP14 :
I channel modulation.
TP16 :
Q channel modulation.
TP17 :
M-ARY FSK modulated signal from transmitter.
Receiver:
TP18 :
Sine NCO.
TP19 :
Cosine NCO.
TP20 :
Multiplied result of modulated signal with receiver Cosin NCO.
TP21 :
I Channel Low Pass Filter output for Multiplied result of modulated
signal with receiver Cosin NCO.
TP22 :
Multiplied result of modulated signal with receiver sin NCO.
TP23 :
Q channel Low Pass Filter output for Multiplied result of modulated
signal with receiver sin NCO.
TP24 :
I channel Data recovered from LPF.
TP28 :
Q channel Data recovered from LPF.
TP32 :
Data Sampling Clock for Receiver.
TP33 :
Serial Data output after demodulation.
Procedure:
1.

Connect power supply and switch on .make sure that led for power supply
should glow.

2.

Select M-ary FSK modulation from home window on touch panel LCD.

3.

Touch on enter button on LCD.

4.

Now we can see the block diagram of M-ary FSK transmitter/receiver along
with test point for the corresponding signal from modulation to be analyzed.

5.

Select test point for signals which you want to analyze on MSO.

6.

for eg:-select test point 1,2,7,,11,17, 22,23,28,32,33. Then touch on MSO button
and analyze the signal for the test points you have selected.

7.

Adjust the settings according to your need using menu button and mimic
control.

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Observation:
MSO Result for Reference

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Chapter C Modern digital Modulation


Experiment 11
Objective: MSK Modulation and Demodulation
1.

To grasp Minimum Shift Keying modulation principles and its realization


methods.

2.

To grasp Minimum Shift Keying demodulation principles and its realization


methods.

Equipments Needed:
1.

Digital Communication Training System (Scientech 2137)

2.

Dual trace Oscilloscope for external signal analysis on mimic.

Theory:
In digital modulation, Minimum-Shift Keying (MSK) is a type of Continuous-Phase
Frequency-Shift Keying(CPFSK). Similar to OQPSK, MSK is encoded with bits
alternating between quaternary components, with the Q component delayed by half
the symbol period. However, instead of square pulses as OQPSK uses, MSK encodes
each bit as a half sinusoid. This results in a constant-modulus signal, which reduces
problems caused by non-linear distortion. In addition to being viewed as related to
OQPSK, MSK can also be viewed as a continuous phase frequency shift keyed
(CPFSK) signal with a frequency separation of one-half the bit rate.
The resulting signal is represented by the formula

c(t ) = a1 (t ) sin
2T

t cos t + aq (t ) sin

T
2T


t sin t
T

with underlined portions represents half sinusoid pulse shape. where ai (t ) and aq (t )
encode the even and odd information respectively with a sequence of square pulses as
of duration 2T.

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Waveform of MSK modulation

Block diagram of MSK transmitter and receiver


Transmitter

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Receiver: The incoming modulated signal is multiplied with the cosine and the sine
signal generated from the NCO. The output of the multiplier contains high
( f in + f nco ) and low ( f in f nco ) frequency components. The high frequency
components are filtered out by the low pass filters (called as Arm filters). The output
of low pass filter will resemble the input data for modulation on I and Q channel with
the help of thresh hold detector (decoder) input signal is received on I and Q channel
of demodulator. Then this data form I and Q channel is given to differential decoder
The output of differential encoder is given to parallel to serial converter to give
original data.
Receiver

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Test Point Detail:


Transmitter:
TP1

Serial Data Input for modulation.

TP2

Data Sampling Clock for Transmitter (bit clock).

TP3

I channel Data .

TP7

Q channel Data.

TP11 :

Sine Carrier.

TP12 :

Cosine Carrier.

TP13 :

Half Cosine signal.

TP15 :

Half Sine signal.

TP14 :

I channel modulation.

TP16 :

Q channel modulation.

TP17 :

MSK modulated signal from transmitter.

Receiver:
TP18 :

Sine NCO.

TP19 :

Cosine NCO.

TP20 :

Multiplied result of modulated signal with receiver Cosin NCO.

TP21 :

I Channel Low Pass Filter output for Multiplied result of modulated


signal with receiver Cosin NCO.

TP22 :

Multiplied result of modulated signal with receiver sin NCO.

TP23 :

Q channel Low Pass Filter output for Multiplied result of modulated


signal with receiver sin NCO.

TP24 :

I channel Data recovered from LPF .

TP28 :

Q channel Data recovered from LPF.

TP32 :

Data Sampling Clock for Receiver.

TP33 :

Serial Data output after demodulation.

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Procedure:
1.

Connect power supply and switch on .make sure that led for power supply
should glow.

2.

Select MSK modulation from home window on touch panel LCD.

3.

Touch on enter button on LCD.

4.

Now we can see the block diagram of MSK transmitter/receiver along with test
point for the corresponding signal from modulation to be analyzed.

5.

Select test point for signals which you want to analyze on MSO.

6.

For eg: select test point 1,2,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,14,16,17, 24,28,32,33. Then touch


on MSO button and analyze the signal for the test points you have selected.

7.

Adjust the settings according to your need using menu button and mimic
control.

Observation:
MSO Result for Reference

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Experiment 12
Objective: 8-PSK Modulation and Demodulation
1.

To understand 3 bit encoding techniques.

2.

To grasp 8-Phase Shift Keying modulation principles and its realization


methods.

3.

To grasp 8-Phase Shift Keying demodulation principles and its realization


methods.

Equipment Needed:
1.

Digital Communication Training System (Scientech 2137)

2.

Dual trace Oscilloscope for external signal analysis on mimic.

Theory:
In three bit encoding techniques the incoming base band data stream is divided into
three data streams. Encoding is done in a manner that the rate of three new bit streams
will become 1/3 of that of the main baseband data. In case of 8-PSK we have two
basic functions again, a Sine and a Cosine and each configuration has eight different
phase to indicate a specific bit pattern. Actually, two multilevel baseband signals need
to be established: one for I channel and one for Q channel. These baseband signals are
referred to as mI(t) and mQ(t) for the I and Q signals, respectively. The level chosen
for the two baseband signals correspond to the coefficients needed to represent a PSK
signal as a linear combination of the I and Q signals.
where ai (t ) and aq (t ) encode the even and odd information respectively with a
sequence of square pulses as of duration 2T.

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Waveform of 8-PSK modulation

Constellation diagram for 8-PSK

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Block diagram of 8-PSK transmitter and receiver


Transmitter

Receiver: The incoming modulated signal is multiplied with the cosine and the sine
signal generated from the NCO. The output of the multiplier contains high
( f in + f nco ) and low ( f in f nco ) frequency components. The high frequency
components are filtered out by the low pass filters (called as Arm filters). The output
of low pass filter will resemble the input data for modulation on I and Q channel with
the help of thresh hold detector (decoder) input signal is received on I and Q channel
of demodulator. Then this data form I and Q channel is given to differential decoder
The output of differential encoder is given to parallel to serial converter to give
original data.
Receiver

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Test Point Detail:


Transmitter:
TP1

Serial Data Input for modulation.

TP2

Data Sampling Clock for Transmitter (bit clock).

TP3

I channel encoder (bit0) .

TP4

I channel encoder (bit1) .

TP5

I channel encoder (bit2) .

TP6

I channel encoder (constellation) .

TP7

Q channel Data.

TP8

Q channel encoder (bit1) .

TP9

Q channel encoder (bit2) .

TP10 :

Q channel encoder (constellation) .

TP11 :

Sine Carrier.

TP12 :

Cosine Carrier.

TP14 :

I channel modulation.

TP16 :

Q channel modulation.

TP17 :

8 PSK modulated signal from transmitter.

Receiver:
TP18 :

Sine NCO.

TP19 :

Cosine NCO.

TP20 :

Multiplied result of modulated signal with receiver Cosine NCO.

TP21 :

I Channel Low Pass Filter output for Multiplied result of modulated


signal with receiver Cosine NCO.

TP22 :

Multiplied result of modulated signal with receiver sin NCO.

TP23 :

Q channel Low Pass Filter output for Multiplied result of modulated


signal with receiver sin NCO.

TP24 :

I channel decoder(bit0) .

TP25 :

I channel decoder(bit1) .

TP26 :

I channel decoder(bit2) .

TP27 :

I channel decoder ( constellation) .

TP28 :

Q channel decoder(bit1) .

TP29 :

Q channel decoder(bit1) .

TP30 :

Q channel decoder(bit2) .

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TP31 :

Q channel decoder(constellation) .

TP28 :

Q channel Data recovered from LPF.

TP32 :

Data Sampling Clock for Receiver.

TP33 :

Serial Data output after demodulation.

Procedure:
1.

Connect power supply and switch on .make sure that led for power supply
should glow.

2.

Select 8-PSK modulation from home window on touch panel LCD.

3.

Touch on enter button on LCD.

4.

Now we can see the block diagram of 8-PSK transmitter/receiver along with test
point for the corresponding signal from modulation to be analyzed.

5.

Select test point for signals which you want to analyze on MSO .

6.

For eg:-select test point 1,2,3,5,7,9,11,14,16,17, 24,28,32,33. Then touch on


MSO button and analyze the signal for the test points you have selected.

7.

To see the constellation diagram for 8-PSK select test point 6 and 10.Use
external DSO/CRO for constellation.

8.

Adjust the settings according to your need using menu button and mimic
control.

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Observation:
MSO Result for Reference

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Experiment 13
Objective: 8-QAM Modulation and Demodulation
1.

To understand 3 bit encoding techniques.

2.

To grasp 8-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation principles and its realization


methods.

3.

To grasp 8-Quadrature Amplitude demodulation principles and its realization


methods.

Equipment Needed:
1.

Digital Communication Training System (Scientech 2137)

2.

Dual trace Oscilloscope for external signal analysis on mimic.

Theory:
In the 8-QAM the data are divided into groups of 3 bit (Tribit), one of which varies
the amplitude of the carrier, the last two the phase. The modulated signal can take 4
different phase and 2 different amplitude, for a total of 8 different states. The 8-QAM
signal can be seen as 4PSK signal which amplitude can take 2 different values. In this
way, each modulation interval depends on the state of 3 data bits (I, Q, C):
the first two (I and Q) determine the phase of the output signal, the third (C) the
amplitude.
Waveform of 8-QAM modulation

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Constellation diagram for 8-QAM

Block diagram of 8-QAM transmitter and receiver


Transmitter

Receiver: The incoming modulated signal is multiplied with the cosine and the sine
signal generated from the NCO. The output of the multiplier contains high
( f in + f nco ) and low ( f in f nco ) frequency components. The high frequency
components are filtered out by the low pass filters (called as Arm filters). The output
of low pass filter will resemble the input data for modulation on I and Q channel with
the help of thresh hold detector (decoder) input signal is received on I and Q channel
of demodulator. Then this data form I and Q channel is given to differential decoder
The output of differential encoder is given to parallel to serial converter to give
original data.

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Receiver

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Test Point Detail:


Transmitter:
TP1

Serial Data Input for modulation.

TP2

Data Sampling Clock for Transmitter (bit clock).

TP3

I channel encoder (bit0) .

TP4

I channel encoder (bit1) .

TP5

I channel encoder (bit2) .

TP6

I channel encoder (constellation) .

TP7

Q channel Data.

TP8

Q channel encoder (bit1) .

TP9

Q channel encoder (bit2) .

TP10 :

Q channel encoder (consetellation) .

TP11 :

Sine Carrier.

TP12 :

Cosine Carrier.

TP14 :

I channel modulation.

TP16 :

Q channel modulation.

TP17 :

8 QAM modulated signal from transmitter.

Receiver:
TP18 :

Sine NCO.

TP19 :

Cosine NCO.

TP20 :

Multiplied result of modulated signal with receiver Cosine NCO.

TP21 :

I Channel Low Pass Filter output for Multiplied result of modulated


signal with receiver Cosine NCO.

TP22 :

Multiplied result of modulated signal with receiver sin NCO.

TP23 :

Q channel Low Pass Filter output for Multiplied result of modulated


signal with receiver sin NCO.

TP24 :

I channel decoder(bit0) .

TP25 :

I channel decoder(bit1) .

TP26 :

I channel decoder(bit2) .

TP27 :

I channel decoder ( constellation) .

TP28 :

Q channel decoder(bit0) .

TP29 :

Q channel decoder(bit1) .

TP30 :

Q channel decoder(bit2) .

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TP31 :

Q channel decoder(constellation) .

TP28 :

Q channel Data recovered from LPF.

TP32 :

Data Sampling Clock for Receiver.

TP33 :

Serial Data output after demodulation.

Procedure:
1.

Connect power supply and switch on .make sure that led for power supply
should glow.

2.

Select 8-QAM modulation from home window on touch panel LCD.

3.

Touch on enter button on LCD.

4.

Now we can see the block diagram of 8-QAM transmitter/receiver along with
test point for the corresponding signal from modulation to be analyzed.

5.

Select test point for signals which you want to analyze on MSO .

6.

for eg:-select test point 1,2,3,5,7,9,11,14,16,17, 24,28,32,33. Then touch on


MSO button and analyze the signal for the test points you have selected.

7.

To see the constellation diagram for 8-QAM select test point 6 and 10.Use
external DSO/CRO for constellation.

8.

Adjust the settings according to your need using menu button and mimic
control.

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Experiment 14
Objective: 16-QAM Modulation and Demodulation
1.

To understand 4 bit encoding techniques.

2.

To grasp 16-Quadrature Amplitude modulation principles and its realization


methods.

3.

To grasp 16-Quadrature Amplitude demodulation principles and its realization


methods.

Equipment Needed:
1.

Digital Communication Training System (Scientech 2137)

2.

Dual trace Oscilloscope for external signal analysis on mimic.

Theory:
In the 16-QAM the data are divided into groups of 4 bits (Quadbit). The 16 possible
combinations change amplitude and phase of the carrier, which can take 16 different
states. In case of 16-QAM we have two basic functions again, a Sine and a Cosine and
each configuration has sixteen different phase to indicate a specific bit pattern.
Actually, two multilevel baseband signals need to be established: one for I channel
and one for Q channel. These baseband signals are referred to as mI(t) and mQ(t) for
the I and Q signals, respectively. The level chosen for the two baseband signals
correspond to the coefficients needed to represent a QAM signal as a linear
combination of the I and Q signals.
Waveform of 16-QAM modulation

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Constellation Diagram for 16-QAM

Block diagram of 16-QAM transmitter and receiver


Transmitter

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Receiver: The incoming modulated signal is multiplied with the cosine and the sine
signal generated from the NCO. The output of the multiplier contains high
( f in + f nco ) and low ( f in f nco ) frequency components. The high frequency
components are filtered out by the low pass filters (called as Arm filters). The output
of low pass filter will resemble the input data for modulation on I and Q channel. with
the help of thresh hold detector(decoder) input signal is received on I and Q channel
of demodulator. Then this data form I and Q channel is given to differential decoder
.The output of differential encoder is given to parallel to serial converter to give
original data .
Receiver

Test Point Detail:


Transmitter:
TP1 :
Serial Data Input for modulation.
TP2 :
Data Sampling Clock for Transmitter (bit clock).
TP3 :
I channel encoder (bit0) .
TP4 :
I channel encoder (bit1) .
TP5 :
I channel encoder (bit2) .
TP6 :
I channel encoder (consetellation).
TP7 :
Q channel Data.
TP8 :
Q channel encoder (bit1) .
TP9 :
Q channel encoder (bit2) .
TP10 :
Q channel encoder (consetellation) .
TP11 :
Sine Carrier.
TP12 :
Cosine Carrier.
TP14 :
I channel modulation.
TP16 :
Q channel modulation.
TP17 :
16- QAM modulated signal from transmitter.
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Receiver:
TP18 :

Sine NCO.

TP19 :

Cosine NCO.

TP20 :

Multiplied result of modulated signal with receiver Cosine NCO.

TP21 :

I Channel Low Pass Filter output for Multiplied result of modulated


signal with receiver Cosine NCO.

TP22 :

Multiplied result of modulated signal with receiver sin NCO.

TP23 :

Q channel Low Pass Filter output for Multiplied result of modulated


signal with receiver sin NCO.

TP24 :

I channel decoder(bit0) .

TP25 :

channel decoder(bit1) .

TP26 :

I channel decoder(bit2) .

TP27 :

I channel encoder ( constellation) .

TP28 :

Q channel encoder(bit0) .

TP29 :

Q channel encoder(bit1) .

TP30 :

Q channel encoder(bit2) .

TP31 :

Q channel encoder (constellation) .

TP28 :

Q channel Data recovered from LPF.

TP32 :

Data Sampling Clock for Receiver.

TP33 :

Serial Data output after demodulation.

Procedure:
1.

Connect power supply and switch on .make sure that led for power supply
should glow.

2.

Select 16-QAM modulation from home window on touch panel LCD.

3.

Touch on enter button on LCD.

4.

Now we can see the block diagram of 16-QAM transmitter/receiver along with
test point for the corresponding signal from modulation to be analyzed.

5.

Select test point for signals which you want to analyze on MSO .

6.

for eg:-select test point 1,2,3,5,7,9,11,14,16,17, 24,28,32,33. Then touch on


MSO button and analyze the signal for the test points you have selected.

7.

To see the constellation diagram for 16-QAM select test point 6 and 10.Use
external DSO/CRO for constellation.

8.

Adjust the settings according to your need using menu button and mimic
control.

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Experiment 15
Objective: 16-PSK Modulation and Demodulation
1.

To understand 4 bit encoding techniques.

2.

To grasp 16-Phase Shift Keying modulation principles and its realization


methods.

3.

To grasp 16- Phase Shift Keying demodulation principles and its realization
methods.

Equipment Needed:
1.

Digital Communication Training System (Scientech 2137)

2.

Dual trace Oscilloscope for external signal analysis on mimic.

Theory:
In four bit encoding techniques the incoming base band data stream is divided into
four data streams. Encoding is done in a manner that the rate of three new bit streams
will become 1/4 of that of the main baseband data.In case of 16-PSK we have two
basic functions again, a Sine and a Cosine and each configuration has sixteen different
phase to indicate a specific bit pattern. Actually, two multilevel baseband signals need
to be established: one for I channel and one for Q channel. These baseband signals are
referred to as mI(t) and mQ(t) for the I and Q signals, respectively. The level chosen
for the two baseband signals correspond to the coefficients needed to represent a PSK
signal as a linear combination of the I and Q signals.
Waveform of 16-PSK modulation

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Constellation diagram for 16-PSK

Block diagram of 16-PSK transmitter and receiver


Transmitter

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Receiver

Receiver: The incoming modulated signal is multiplied with the cosine and the sine
signal generated from the NCO. The output of the multiplier contains high
( f in + f nco ) and low ( f in f nco ) frequency components. The high frequency
components are filtered out by the low pass filters (called as Arm filters). The output
of low pass filter will resemble the input data for modulation on I and Q channel with
the help of thresh hold detector(decoder) input signal is received on I and Q channel
of demodulator. Then this data form I and Q channel is given to differential decoder
The output of differential encoder is given to parallel to serial converter to give
original data .

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Test Point Detail:


Transmitter:
TP1

Serial Data Input for modulation.

TP2

Data Sampling Clock for Transmitter(bit clock).

TP3

I channel encoder (bit0).

TP4

I channel encoder (bit1).

TP5

I channel encoder (bit2).

TP13 :

I channel encoder (consetellation).

TP7

Q channel encoder (bit0).

TP8

Q channel encoder (bit1).

TP9

Q channel encoder (bit2).

TP15 :

Q channel encoder (consetellation).

TP11 :

Sine Carrier.

TP12 :

Cosine Carrier.

TP14 :

I channel modulation.

TP16 :

Q channel modulation.

TP17 :

16- QAM modulated signal from transmitter.

Receiver:
TP18 :

Sine NCO.

TP19 :

Cosine NCO.

TP20 :

Multiplied result of modulated signal with receiver Cosine NCO.

TP21 :

I Channel Low Pass Filter output for Multiplied result of modulated


signal with receiver Cosine NCO.

TP22 :

Multiplied result of modulated signal with receiver sin NCO.

TP23 :

Q channel Low Pass Filter output for Multiplied result of modulated


signal with receiver sin NCO.

TP24 :

I channel decoder(bit0) .

TP25 :

I channel decoder(bit1) .

TP26 :

I channel decoder(bit2) .

TP27 :

I channel decoder ( constellation) .

TP28 :

Q channel decoder(bit0) .

TP29 :

Q channel decoder(bit1) .

TP30 :

Q channel decoder(bit2) .

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TP31 :

Q channel decoder(constellation) .

TP28 :

Q channel Data recovered from LPF.

TP32 :

Data Sampling Clock for Receiver.

TP33 :

Serial Data output after demodulation.

Procedure:
1.

Connect power supply and switch on .make sure that led for power supply
should glow.

2.

Select 16-PSK modulation from home window on touch panel LCD.

3.

Touch on enter button on LCD.

4.

Now we can see the block diagram of 16-PSK transmitter/receiver along with
test point for the corresponding signal from modulation to be analyzed.

5.

Select test point for signals which you want to analyze on MSO.

6.

for eg:-select test point 1,2,3,5,7,9,11,14,16,17, 24,28,32,33. Then touch on


MSO button and analyze the signal for the test points you have selected.

7.

To see the constellation diagram for 16_PSK select test point 13 and 15.Use
DSO/CRO for constellation.

8.

Adjust the settings according to your need using menu button and mimic
control.

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Observation:
MSO Result for Reference

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Scientech 2137 PC to PC Communication - Overview


1. To use Scientech 2137 in Software mode, First run setup.exe to install
Software. It will create desktop Shortcut for both transmitter and receiver
window. It will also install USB driver required for USB cable.
2. In software mode ASCII Equivalent of the typed data in Transmitting window
of Scientech 2137 Software will be used as digital data to perform different 1
bit Modulation.
3. PC to PC communication may be possible using Serial Cable (RS232) / USB
interface depends on the availability of Serial / USB Cable.
4. Cable Should be connected between Serial / USB port on Peripheral Card1 PC1 and Serial / USB port on Peripheral Card2 - PC2.
5. Peripheral Card 1 will be always used for Transmitter i.e. the typed data on
Transmitter window of the software will be entered as a digital data in for the
transmitter.
6. Peripheral Card 2 will be always used for receiver i.e. data will be received on
PC reception window through this peripheral card.
How to use PC to PC Communication
1. Set Jumpers on both Peripheral Cards i.e. Serial/USB with respect to center
pin as per the type of cable connected to the Peripheral Cards.
Example - If you are using USB cable then Jumper on Peripheral card should
be connected between center pin and USB.
2. Connect the cables between PC and Peripheral Cards and set the jumpers as
per above instruction.
3. Switch ON the TechBook Scientech 2137.
4. In case of USB cable on any peripherals,
a. First check the COM number setting (USB serial Port(COM_ _))
b.

To go to the COM settings.


i. Right click on My Computer > go to properties > Hardware > Device
Manager > PORTs
ii. If (USB serial Port(COM_ _) is not between 2 to 9 as in the below
image

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iii. Double click on USB Serial Port (COMXX) > Port Settings > Advanced.
iv. Force it between 2 to 9

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v. Click OK OK and scan for hardware changes by clicking Scan button on


device manager window.
vi. Close Device Manager.
5. Repeat the above process for Receiver (If also using USB Cable on receiver
side)
6. Select Modulation Type ASK / FSK / BPSK etc. using touch screen LCD.
7. Move toggle switch on the Hardware towards PC mode.
8. Using setting button on your touch screen, Change the mode to PC Mode.
9. Now open Transmitter and Receiver window on your PC
10. Select ports in connection window for both Transmitter and Receiver window
as per cable connected and COM selected in the above process for USB Cable,
Press Connect Button.
11. Type any text to transmit and click send button on Tx Window

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Warranty
1.

We guarantee this product against all manufacturing defects for 24 months from
the date of sale by us or through our dealers.

2.

The guarantee will become void, if


a. The product is not operated as per the instruction given in the Learning
Material.
b. The agreed payment terms and other conditions of sale are not followed.
c. The customer resells the instrument to another party.
d. Any attempt is made to service and modify the instrument.

3.

The non-working of the product is to be communicated to us immediately giving


full details of the complaints and defects noticed specifically mentioning the
type, serial number of the product and date of purchase etc.

4.

The repair work will be carried out, provided the product is dispatched securely
packed and insured. The transportation charges shall be borne by the customer.
Hope you enjoyed the Scientech Experience.

List of Accessories
1.

Scientech 2137 TechBook Board ........................................................ . 1 No.

2.

Power Supply.............................................................................................1 No

3.

Stylus ........................................................................................................ 1 No.

4.

Learning Material (CD) ............................................................................ 1 No.

5.

USB Cable .............................................................................................. 2 Nos.

6.

RS232 Serial Cable (Male to Female) ..................................................... 2 Nos.

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