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fet first

NATED SERIES

Fitting and Machining


N2

Students Book

R. Cameron and L. Maraschin

FET FIRST Fitting and Machining N2


Students Book
R. Cameron and L. Maraschin, 2013
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ISBN: 978-1-4308-0047-7

ISBN: 9781430800477
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Contents
Module 1: Occupational safety
Introduction............................................................................................................................................................................1

Part A

..................................................................................................................................................................2

Unit 1.1: Regulations applicable to the Occupational Health and Safety Act,

No. 85 of 1993, and later amendments and the general safety precautions

as specified by nosa.......................................................................................................................................2

Part B

..................................................................................................................................................................7

Unit 1.1: Regulations applicable to the Minerals Act, no. 50 of 1991................................................................7


Self-test questions............................................................................................................................................................ 10

Module 2: Couplings
Introduction..........................................................................................................................................................................11
Unit 2.1: The difference in application between a coupling and a clutch....................................................11
Unit 2.2: Classification of couplings............................................................................................................................12
Unit 2.3: Types of couplings..........................................................................................................................................12
Self-test questions............................................................................................................................................................ 16

Module 3: Limits and fits


Introduction..........................................................................................................................................................................17
Unit 3.1: The iso system of limits and fits............................................................................................................... 18
Unit 3.2: Definition of terms used when working with limit systems.............................................................19
Unit 3.3: The interchangeability of parts................................................................................................................. 22
Unit 3.4: Types of fits....................................................................................................................................................... 22
Unit 3.5: Determining sizes of different components......................................................................................... 24
Self-test questions............................................................................................................................................................ 25

Module 4: Bearings
Introduction......................................................................................................................................................................... 27
Unit 4.1: Types of loads.................................................................................................................................................. 28
Unit 4.2: The functions of a bearing.......................................................................................................................... 28
Unit 4.3: The classification of bearings..................................................................................................................... 29
Unit 4.4: Types of plain bearings solid type (journal bearings).................................................................... 32
Unit 4.5: Maintenance of plain bearings.................................................................................................................. 33
Unit 4.6: Plain bearing materials: properties and types...................................................................................... 34
Unit 4.7: Advantages and disadvantages of plain (sliding) bearings............................................................. 37
Unit 4.8: Rolling element (anti-friction) bearings.................................................................................................. 37
Unit 4.9: Types of rolling element bearings............................................................................................................ 38
Unit 4.10: Installation of anti-frictional bearings......................................................................................................41
Unit 4.11: Advantages and disadvantages of anti-frictional bearings............................................................. 43
Self-test questions............................................................................................................................................................ 44

Module 5: Lubrication
Introduction......................................................................................................................................................................... 45
Unit 5.1: Types, suitability and applications of lubricants.................................................................................. 46
Unit 5.2: Lubrication terminology.............................................................................................................................. 46
Unit 5.3: Important points regarding lubrication................................................................................................. 47
Unit 5.4: Lubricating devices........................................................................................................................................ 49
Unit 5.5: Cutting fluids and cutting oils.................................................................................................................... 52
Self-test questions............................................................................................................................................................ 52

Module 6: Valves
Introduction......................................................................................................................................................................... 53
Unit 6.1: Function of a valve......................................................................................................................................... 53
Unit 6.2: Classification of valves.................................................................................................................................. 53
Unit 6.3: Working principle of a valve....................................................................................................................... 53
Unit 6.4: Types of valves................................................................................................................................................. 54
Self-test questions............................................................................................................................................................ 56

Module 7: Packing, stuffing boxes and joints


Introduction......................................................................................................................................................................... 57
Unit 7.1: Function of packing and seals................................................................................................................... 58
Unit7.2: Materials used for packing and seals...................................................................................................... 58
Unit 7.3: Installation of seals and o-rings in hydraulic and/or pneumatic systems.................................. 59
Unit7.4: Function of a stuffing box........................................................................................................................... 60
Unit 7.5: Packing of stuffing boxes............................................................................................................................ 60
Unit 7.6: Joints and bends............................................................................................................................................. 61
Unit7.7: Reasons for using jointing materials........................................................................................................ 62
Self-test questions............................................................................................................................................................ 63

Module 8: Water pipe systems


Introduction......................................................................................................................................................................... 64
Unit8.1: Pipe terms......................................................................................................................................................... 65
Unit 8.2: Pipe fittings....................................................................................................................................................... 65
Unit 8.3: Joining methods for steel water pipes................................................................................................... 66
Unit 8.4: Types of plastic piping.................................................................................................................................. 67
Unit 8.5: Advantages and disadvantages of plastic piping............................................................................... 67
Unit 8.6: Uses of a pipe cutter...................................................................................................................................... 67
Unit 8.7: Uses of a pipe reamer.................................................................................................................................... 68
Unit 8.8: Materials used for sealing threaded pipes............................................................................................. 68
Self-test questions ........................................................................................................................................................... 68

Module 9: Pumps
Introduction......................................................................................................................................................................... 69
Unit 9.1: Functions of pumps....................................................................................................................................... 70
Unit 9.2: Centrifugal pumps........................................................................................................................................ 70
Unit 9.3: Rotary pumps.................................................................................................................................................. 71
Unit 9.4: Reciprocating pumps.................................................................................................................................... 73
Self-test questions.............................................................................................................................................................74

Module 10: Compressors


Introduction......................................................................................................................................................................... 75
Unit 10.1: Function of compressors............................................................................................................................. 76
Unit 10.2: Reciprocating piston compressors........................................................................................................... 76
Unit 10.3: Components of a compressor and their functions............................................................................. 77
Unit 10.4: Types of rotary compressors....................................................................................................................... 81
Self-test questions............................................................................................................................................................ 83

Module 11: V-belt drives


Introduction......................................................................................................................................................................... 84
Unit 11.1: Safety precautions when working on belt drives............................................................................... 84
Unit 11.2: Applications of V-belts.................................................................................................................................. 85
Unit11.3: Advantages and disadvantages of V-belts............................................................................................ 85
Unit 11.4: V-belt terminology......................................................................................................................................... 85
Unit 11.5: Types and uses of V-belts............................................................................................................................ 86
Unit11.6: Pulleys................................................................................................................................................................. 87
Self-test questions............................................................................................................................................................ 89

Module 12: Gear drives


Introduction......................................................................................................................................................................... 90
Unit 12.1: Safety precautions when working with or around gear drives...................................................... 91
Unit 12.2: Applications of gear drives.......................................................................................................................... 91
Unit 12.3: Advantages and disadvantages of gear drives when compared with V-belts

and chain drives.............................................................................................................................................. 91
Unit 12.4: Involute gear tooth profiles........................................................................................................................ 91
Unit 12.5: The principle of velocity ratios and mechanical advantage using different
sized gears in a gear assembly................................................................................................................... 92
Unit 12.6: Intermediate gears......................................................................................................................................... 92
Unit 12.7: Factors determining the correct meshing of gear teeth.................................................................. 92
Unit 12.8: Simple gear train and compound gear train........................................................................................ 92
Self-test questions............................................................................................................................................................ 93

Module 13: Chain drives


Introduction......................................................................................................................................................................... 94
Unit 13.1: Safety precautions when working with or around chain drives.................................................... 95
Unit 13.2: Uses of chain drives....................................................................................................................................... 95
Unit 13.3: Advantages and disadvantages of chain drives when compared to gear

and belt drives................................................................................................................................................. 95
Unit 13.4: Chain drive terms............................................................................................................................................ 96
Unit 13.5: Types of chains................................................................................................................................................ 97
Unit 13.6: The construction of a roller chain ............................................................................................................ 98
Unit 13.7: Types of sprockets.......................................................................................................................................... 98
Unit 13.8: Maintenance of chain drives....................................................................................................................... 99
Self-test questions.......................................................................................................................................................... 101

Module 14: Reduction gearboxes


Unit 14.1: Gears................................................................................................................................................................. 102
Unit 14.2: Safety precautions when working on gearboxes.............................................................................104
Unit 14.3: Applications of gearboxes and reduction gearboxes......................................................................104
Self-test questions..........................................................................................................................................................104

Module 15: Hydraulics and pneumatics


Unit 15.1: Pressure, area and flow...............................................................................................................................105
Unit 15.2: Hydraulics........................................................................................................................................................106
Unit 15.3: Pneumatics..................................................................................................................................................... 110
Unit 15.4: Hydraulic and pneumatic symbols..........................................................................................................112
Self-test questions...........................................................................................................................................................115

Module 16: Milling machines


Introduction....................................................................................................................................................................... 116
Unit 16.1: The dividing head.........................................................................................................................................117
Unit 16.2: Indexing........................................................................................................................................................... 118
Unit 16.3: Milling cutters................................................................................................................................................ 124
Unit 16.4: Milling processes.......................................................................................................................................... 128
Self-test questions.......................................................................................................................................................... 130

Module 17: Centre lathe


Introduction....................................................................................................................................................................... 131
Unit 17.1: Mandrels.......................................................................................................................................................... 133
Unit 17.2: Steadies............................................................................................................................................................ 134
Unit 17.3: Taper turning................................................................................................................................................. 135
Unit 17.4: Pitch and lead................................................................................................................................................ 139
Unit 17.5: Basic instructional forms for the computer numerical control (cnc) lathe............................. 147
Unit 17.6: Types of programming...............................................................................................................................148
Unit 17.7: Basic principles to programming a cnc lathe...................................................................................148
Self-test questions..........................................................................................................................................................148

Module 18: Surface grinding machines


Introduction....................................................................................................................................................................... 150
Unit 18.1: Different grinding methods...................................................................................................................... 151
Unit 18.2: Reasons for surface grinding.................................................................................................................... 152
Unit 18.3: Types of surface grinders........................................................................................................................... 152
Unit 18.4: Work holding................................................................................................................................................. 153
Unit 18.5: Identification of grinding wheels for a specific material................................................................ 154
Unit 18.6: Grinding wheel markings.......................................................................................................................... 155
Unit 18.7: Selection of a grinding wheel.................................................................................................................. 156
Unit 18.8: Different types of grinding wheels........................................................................................................ 157
Unit 18.9: Surface grinding faults............................................................................................................................... 158
Self-test questions.......................................................................................................................................................... 159

Glossary...........................................................................................................................................................................160

MODULE 1:

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
Overview
Overview
On completion of this module, you will be able to do the following:
Answer questions on the regulations and safety rules as applicable to the Occupational Health and
Safety Act, No. 85 of 1993. (Note: Previously these stipulations were contained in the Machinery
and Occupational Safety Act, No. 6 of 1983.) Here is an example of what is required: What is the
most important stipulation regarding transmission belts (driving belts, ropes, chains or sprockets)
that are within normal reach?
Explain and answer questions on the general safety precautions to be taken in the work
environment where machines are used.
OR
Explain the key regulations and safety rules relating to the regulations of the Minerals Act, No. 50
of 1991.

INTRODUCTION
Accidents are caused by people not taking appropriate actions. The actions that need to be taken to prevent
accidents are embodied in the Occupational Health and Safety Act, No. 85 of 1993. Some of these regulations
are discussed in this section of your training. Make sure that you are thoroughly familiar with them as they
may prevent you from being involved in a work accident.
Before we discuss the regulations as stipulated by the Act, let us briefly talk about good housekeeping
and the causes of accidents. Housekeeping essentially means keeping things clean and orderly. The saying
Have a place for everything and keep everything in its place remains true. Not only will the habit save you
time, but it has been proven that a clean, orderly workshop is also a safe one.
Good housekeeping means keeping all working areas free of obstructions at all times. Slipping and tripping
accidents can be minimised if you wipe up grease and oil spills and do not leave tools and other materials
lying around.
Apart from the legal problems one of the major consequences of an accident for an employer is the loss,
whether temporary or permanent, of a trained and productive employee.
Note: You have the option in the examination to answer questions relating to regulations applicable to the
Occupational Health and Safety Act, No. 85 of 1993, OR regulations applicable to the Minerals Act, No. 50
of 1991. Therefore, you only have to study Part A OR Part B of this module.

PART A
UNIT 1.1: Regulations applicable to the occupational
health and safety act, no. 85 Of 1993, and later
amendments and the general safety precautions as
specified by nosa
Note: NOSA stands for National Occupational Safety Association.

1.1.1 Regulations as stipulated by the Act


Dangerous places
All elevated platforms, openings in floors, pits, trap holes and other dangerous places on premises where
machinery is used should be securely fenced or otherwise adequately protected to prevent accident.

Projecting shaft ends


All shaft or spindle ends within reach which project for more than a quarter of their diameter must be
encased by a cap or shroud or be completely enclosed.

Transmission belts
The most important stipulation regarding transmission belts (driving belts, ropes, chains or sprockets) that
are within normal reach is that they must be guarded. This means that some form of protection must be
put in place to ensure that people do not injure themselves by accidentally coming into contact with such
equipment.
This includes making sure that the underside of every overhead driving belts above passages or work places
is so guarded as to prevent it falling. These guards must be so constructed as to resist the force of a broken
belt, rope or chain.
In the case of light belts these regulations do not apply if, in the opinion of an inspector, no danger exists due
to the nature and speed of operation.
No user shall require or permit any person to, and no person shall, ship or unship driving belts whilst the
machinery is in motion. There are two exceptions here: the first relates to light belts that may be shifted on
the coned pulley of machine tools for the purpose of alteration in the working speed; and secondly, in the
case of continuous processes an inspector may approve of an apparatus for shipping and unshipping belts
in motion.
The user shall provide, and cause to be used, efficient appliances such as belt perches or safety sleeves to
prevent any driving belt thrown off or removed from a wheel, drum or pulley coming into contact with any
shaft in motion and no person shall cause any driving belt to rest or ride upon a shaft in motion.

Condition of safety appliances and machinery


The user must maintain all safety appliances, devices or guards in good working condition and use them
properly and stop the working of any machinery which is or may become dangerous to those working in
the area.

Grinding wheels
The user must ensure that every power-operated grinding machine is marked in a conspicuous place
with the speed(s) in revolutions per minute of the spindle.
No user shall require or permit any person to and no person shall:
(a) fit a grinding wheel unless
(i) the manufacturers rated maximum speed in revolutions per minute is clearly and distinctly
marked on the wheel;

(ii) the speed of the spindle does not permit a peripheral speed of the wheel in excess of the
manufacturers rated speed;
(b) operate a grinding wheel at a peripheral speed in excess of the manufacturers rated maximum
speed;
(c) use a grinding wheel which is damaged or which is not properly dressed.
Mount every grinding wheel concentrically on the spindle by means of robust metal flanges having an
outside diameter of not less than one third of the diameter of the grinding wheel. Each flange should grip
the wheel properly (or as the regulation states ... bear upon the wheel by means of an annular peripheral
bearing surface of adequate breadth ...). A layer of suitable compressible material should also be fitted
between the flanges and the wheel. If this cannot be done (because of the specialised use of the grinding
wheel) it shall be so secured that displacement or rupture of the wheel in motion is eliminated as far as
possible.
Unless the nature of the work precludes its use, provide every grinding wheel with a substantial guard
which shall enclose the wheel as far as practicable and which shall be of sufficient strength to withstand
the force of a rupturing wheel.
Except in the case where the workpiece is not applied to the wheel by hand, provide the grinding
machine with a work rest which is securely fixed in a position which fits the contour of the grinding
surface of the wheel. These must be kept in position and adjusted to within 3 mm of the working
surface of the wheel (unless the nature of any specific operation makes this impractical).
Provide every grinding machine with a transparent shield which is kept so adjusted as to protect the
workers eyes. This shield may be omitted when every worker using the grinding machine is issued
individually with a suitable pair of goggles or face shield.
Affix a notice in a conspicuous place at every grinding machine prohibiting persons from carrying out,
inspecting or observing grinding work without suitable protection for the eyes.

1.1.2 General safety precautions


The importance of machine guarding
Injuries caused by machines are usually severe and permanent.
They are generally preventable.
Danger can often be reduced or removed altogether by mechanical safeguards and better machine
design or construction. On the other hand, while it is important to cultivate and maintain safe human
habits, it is difficult to do so.
Mechanical improvements are more permanent and therefore more cost effective in the long run.
Whilst both workers and management realise that unguarded machinery is dangerous, there is a cost
attached to providing adequate guarding and trade-offs between cost and safety need to be made.
However, if an employer fails to spend a reasonable amount on machine guards, one may doubt the
sincerity of any claims to wanting to protect his workers from injury. The cost in loss of production
as a result of injury is often much higher than the cost of implementing precautionary measures. If an
employer invests in safer and safety equipment, staff will also be more likely to co-operate to achieve a
good safety performance by acting in safer ways and in following safety procedures.

Classification of guards
Machine guards are classified into two classes, namely:
Transmission guards (e.g. guards for pulleys, gears, shafts)
Point of operation guards (e.g. guards covering circular saw blades, guillotine knives, punch press dies).

Different types of guards


Here are some of the types of guards:
Fixed guards: This type is used especially on transmission machinery and does not move with each
operation. Fixed guards are often used on power presses. The guard is adjusted to accommodate various
sizes of work and, after adjustment, is fixed into position.
Interlocking guards: This type prevents the operation of the controls which set the machine in motion,
until the guard is moved into place. Thus, the operator cannot place his hands in the danger area. These
guards may be interlocked mechanically, electrically, pneumatically or by a combination of all three.

Automatic guards: This type prevents the operator from coming into contact with dangerous parts of
a machine whilst it is moving. Other automatic guards stop machines when danger arises, for example
an electronic beam system which stops the machine as soon as the beam is interrupted by a person or
an object (such as those found in some lifts that cause the door not to close if the light beam is broken).

Characteristics of an effective guard


Here are the features of an effective guard:
It must provide maximum positive protection.
It must block access to a danger during operation.
It must be corrosion and fire resistant and easily repairable.
It should not create any hazards, such as splinters and pinch points.
It should comply with the requirements of the departments of Labour and Mineral Resources.
It should be a permanent part of the machinery without weakening its structure.
It should not affect the efficient operation of the machine.
Where the guard is bulky, hinging should be considered to facilitate servicing of belts and gears.

1.1.3 Precautionary measures when working on electrical equipment


Affix warning notices in a prominent place, indicating the supply voltage.
State whether the power supply is AC or DC.
Place Danger! or Do not start! boards on the start/stop controls or switches to warn that
maintenance work is in progress on the machine or equipment.
Ensure that switches are locked either with their own keys or by a padlocked guard over the switch.
Label switches to indicate which equipment they control.
Label the main switch prominently so that there is no confusion in an emergency.

1.1.4 Basic rules for the safe use of ladders


Always avoid bringing the ladder in contact with electricity.
Place the ladder so that its feet are a quarter of its length from the top support and against the object
against which it is resting.
Unless the ladder is securely tied at the top, it should always be held in position by another person
while in use.
Wherever possible the ladder should extend 1 m above its support.
Inspect ladders frequently. Defective ladders should be repaired or replaced.
As paint conceals defects, rather use varnish or wood-oil to preserve wooden ladders.
Keep ladders clean because dirt hides defects, while grease or oil cause people to slip.
Do not leave ladders lying on wet ground or exposed to the weather.
Do not leave ladders lying on floors as they may cause workers to trip and fall, or the may be run over
by vehicles and damaged.
Do not use ladders horizontally or as scaffolding.
Tools and equipment should be hauled up by ropes.
Never leave a ladder where it may fall.
Never place a ladder in front of a doorway before taking adequate precautions.
Equip ladders with safety feet.
Store ladders in a cool place, either lying on their sides or hanging in a horizontal position from several
wall brackets. Prevent any warping, that is distortion, of the ladder whenever possible.
Use both hands when climbing up or down a ladder.
Only one person at a time should use a ladder.
Do not leave tools or other equipment on the top of a ladder. Remove these items when descending
from a ladder.
Use the correct ladder for the job.

1.1.5 Basic rules for preventing mechanical handling accidents


Only people who are trained and authorised should operate mechanical handling equipment.
Use standardised signals.
Slings, hooks, chains and cables should be inspected and tested by a competent person. These findings
should be recorded in a register.

Prevent overloading by determining the load mass in relation to the equipment.


Keep people away from suspended loads.
Do not allow anyone to ride on a load or hook.
Check and maintain automatic safety devices regularly.
Ensure that outriggers are positioned for greater load stability.
Beware of overhead power lines.

1.1.6 Technical information


The following technical information should be stated on the manufacturers plate and safety devices of
pressure vessels or air receivers:
Manufacturers name
Country of origin
Makers registration number
Year of construction
Maximum permissible working pressure in pascal
Capacity in cubic metres (m3)
Initial test pressure of the vessel
Inspection test date.

1.1.7 Standard colours of oxygen and acetylene hoses


Oxygen hoses Black
Acetylene hoses Red

1.1.8 Basic rules for safe handling of compressed gas cylinders


As the shape and weight of cylinders make them awkward to carry, they may be rolled but never
dragged.
Never lift cylinders by means of electromagnets or by slings. A purpose-made cage or platform should be
used when cylinders are raised by a crane.
Do not use cylinders as rollers, supports, anvils or for any purpose other than for which they were
designed.
Do not tamper with the safety devices embodied in the valves.
Prevent cylinders from falling or bumping heavily against each other.
Use chalk to mark empty cylinders as empty or MT. Close valves and replace protective caps.
Always handle cylinders as if they are full.
The fusible plug on acetylene cylinders melts at the temperature of boiling water. Should the valve be
frozen, ice should be melted down by pouring warm, not boiling, water onto it.

1.1.9 Basic rules for safe storing of compressed gas cylinders


Store compressed gas cylinders in a well-ventilated area away from heat or direct sunlight and on a
level fire-proof surface.
Provide racks and/or chains for securing cylinders individually in an upright position.
Store cylinders containing oxygen well away from flammable products.
Keep full and empty cylinders apart.
Ensure that flames or the electrode of an arc-welding machine never come into contact with
compressed gas cylinders.

1.1.10 Basic safety measures for pneumatic and hydraulic tools, equipment
and machinery

Check for loose parts. Tighten them if necessary.


Check the air strainer and clean if necessary.
Lubricate machines unless an air line lubricator is used.
Blow out the air hose to remove moisture and dirt and clean the nipple before connecting up.
Check fittings for proper connection.

Ensure that the control valve is in closed position. An open valve results in a whipping motion of the
tool that can be dangerous.
Check air pressure at the tool being used.
Check equipment for tool retainer device. Without it the tool may be ejected.
Check the guard equipment provided. Ensure that it is properly installed.
When changing tools, close the stop valve in the air supply line. Never kink or bend the hose to cut off
the air supply in order to save time such practice weakens the supply line.

1.1.11 Safety checks to be carried out in order to operate pneumatic tools


where compressed air is the power source
Inspect the pressure vessel regularly, bearing in mind the pressures and capacities indicated on the
manufacturers data plate.
Whenever work is being carried out on a compressor or reservoir, the electric current must be switched
off and the switch locked out.
Indicate the normal working pressure clearly on the pressure gauge by means of a red line.
Drain accumulated water and oily matter daily by means of the drain cock situated under the reservoir.
This prevents corrosion and reduces the risk of explosion.
Do not use paraffin or other flammable solvents to clean the compressor, reservoir or pipes. Use soap
and water.
Do not over-oil the compressor as oil deposits form explosive carbon.
Keep the intake filter clean and ensure that there is no possibility of an explosive gas being sucked in.
Cool cylinders reduce the risk of explosion. Keep cylinder cooling fins clean or ensure that the water
jacket around the cylinder as well as all cooling pipes are kept clear of any deposits. Cool air must be
supplied at the intake.
Ensure that safety chains are attached to high-pressure hose connectors to reduce the risk of whiplash
if the hose disconnects accidentally.

1.1.12 Safety checks to be made before using portable electrical equipment,


including extension cords
Somebody should be given the responsibility for inspecting such tools at regular intervals preferably every
month. He/she should record these findings in a register and take action to have the following problem
areas rectified:
Loose connections
Cracked or broken insulation
Earth continuity
Switches in bad order
Joins in flexible cords
Incorrect polarity.

1.1.13 Basic rules for preventing manual handling accidents

All handling operations should be supervised.


Workers should be taught the correct techniques.
Determine how many persons are required to move a load safely.
Provide adequate space for the task to be done, placing the load correctly in the direction in which it is
to be moved.
The supervisor must give clear instructions and signals.
Supply personal protective equipment such as gloves, aprons and boots.
Where more than one worker is used, team work is essential.

PART B
UNIT 1.1: REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO THE MINERALS ACT,
NO. 50 OF 1991
1.1.1 Precaution against fire
Fire prevention
The following precautions are paraphrased from the Act. (Note: It may be a good idea to find the actual
text and review it.)
At any mine and at any works:
No person shall place, throw or leave any naked light or flame (or any burning lighting torch, match,
cigarette, tobacco, paper or any other burning material) on or near any combustible material or
inflammable substance where this may cause danger from fire or explosion.
No waste material of a combustible nature shall be stored anywhere in a quantity sufficient to create a
fire hazard.
Nor shall it be stored or kept in the immediate vicinity of a place where any transformer, switchgear or
other electrical apparatus or heating apparatus is installed.
No welding, flame-cutting or flame heating shall take place unless adequate means are available to
extinguish any fire immediately which may result from such an operation. On completion of such a task,
an examination shall be carried out by a competent person (as defined in the Act) to ensure that no fire
will result.
No person shall smoke or carry an open light in any cage, skip or other conveyance in any shaft or
wince or in any elevator car in a hatchway.
Calcium carbide is not to be taken underground unless it is in a lamp provided by the manager, or in a
water-tight receptacle of a type approved by the regional manger. No person shall store or leave calcium
carbide underground on coming off shift.
All machinery shall be so constructed, installed, operated and maintained as to prevent as far as
practicable dangerous heating.

1.1.2 Lighting, safety lamps and contraband


Lights to be carried
No person shall work or travel or cause or permit any other person to work or travel in any un-illuminated
part of a mine unless they carry a light.

Illumination of machinery
All places where winding, driving, pumping or other machinery is erected and where people work or move
about, must be lighted in such a way that the moving parts are clearly visible.

Only approved lamps are allowed in fiery mines and coal mines
No light or lamp, other than an enclosed and locked or sealed light or lamp of a design and construction
approved by the Director-General shall be allowed or used in the workings of any fiery mine. This excludes
stationary lights or lamps at such places as may be permitted in writing by the regional director.

Contraband
At every fiery mine (except as provided for in the regulations), no person shall take into the workings of
the mine, or have in his possession in the workings any device for the intentional creation of any arc, spark
or flame or any match or appliance of any kind for striking a light. No person shall smoke in the workings
or take into the workings or have in his possession in the workings any pipe, cigar, cigarette, tobacco other
than chewing tobacco and snuff, or any contrivance or material for smoking. (This prohibition does not
apply to the re-lighting device within an approved safety lamp.)

1.1.3 Traction
Drivers of self-propelled mobile machines
No person shall drive a vehicle which falls under the responsibility of the manager on a mine without
authorisation by such a manager. The extent of this authority is usually done in writing and included in the
letter of appointment.

Riding on machinery
No person shall travel in or on any self-propelled mobile machine, vehicle attached to a haulage rope or
vehicle operated by machinery or in a haulage way unless authorised to do so by the manager or other
person authorised to give such permission.

1.1.4 Machinery: Special measures


Danger to be reported
No employee, unless his duty absolutely necessitates it, shall trespass within the safety guards or fences
erected under these regulations. In case he notices anything which might be dangerous to life and limb, or
the working of machinery, he shall as soon as possible inform the person in charge thereof.

Dangerous places to be fenced


Every dangerous place, such as an elevated platform, pit or trap hole, shall be fenced off in such a way that
it effectively safeguards any person. No person shall, without authority, enter any place where machinery
is erected.

Loose clothing
No person working in close proximity to moving machinery shall wear or be permitted to wear loose outer
clothing.

Fencing
All exposed machinery which, when in motion, may be dangerous to any person shall be securely fenced off.
Efficient guards shall be provided to such parts of any machinery as may be a source of danger to any person.

Repairing and oiling of machines in motion


The repairing, adjusting, testing, examining, cleaning or lubricating of machinery in motion shall not be
undertaken by any person other than a person authorised to do so if there is any risk of personal injury, and
then only when it is impracticable to stop machinery. Automatic devices for oiling machinery while in motion
shall be provided wherever possible.

Shifting driving belts


No person shall shift or disengage any driving belt while the machinery is in motion, with the exception of
the customary shifting of light belts on the coned pulleys of machine tools in order to change the working
speed.

Safety precautions
No person shall set a machine or machinery in motion unless he/she has taken all reasonable precautions
to ensure that no other person may be injured by doing so.

Safety of persons
Every reasonable precaution shall be taken to ensure the safety of every person employed on or about
machinery.

Condition of safety appliances


Every safety appliance at a mine or works shall be maintained in good working order and be used properly.

Safety measures during repairs


The person in immediate charge of any work on or repairs to machinery shall ensure that the power supply
to such machinery is switched off and locked out or disconnected. This should be done in accordance with a
code drawn up in writing by the engineer or competent person appointed. The power supply mains should
remain disconnected or switched off until the work or repairs have been completed.

1.1.5 Electrical installations in coal mines


Unprotected cables
Any cable shall, as far as it is practical, be so suspended or placed in such a manner that it cannot be
damaged.

1.1.6 Boilers
Inspection and testing of boilers
No undue weight shall be placed on a safety valve of any boiler, nor shall the load on any safety valve be
increased in such a way that it will prevent the safety valve from opening at the authorised working gauge
pressure.

1.1.7 First aid rescue brigades


First aid certificates
The Act states that: At every mine, where more than 300 people are employed, every person under the age
of 50 years, who is in charge of workmen in the workings or is normally employed on the surface where
machinery is operated, shall within one year of his engagement on the mine, be in possession of a valid first
aid certificate recognised by the Director-General (except those exempted). Every first aid certificate shall
be renewed at intervals of not more than three years. The provisions here do not apply to persons such as
registered nurses.

1.1.8 Accidents and enquiries


Place of accidents to be left undisturbed
When an accident causes the immediate death of any person, the place where the accident occurred shall
not, without the consent of the regional director, be disturbed or altered. Such a place must first be inspected
by a regional mining engineer or other government official assigned by the Director-General. The only
exceptions are:
When such a disturbance is unavoidable to prevent further accidents
To remove bodies and injured persons or to rescue persons from danger
When the discontinuance of work at such place would seriously impede the working of the mine or
works.
If, however, the inspection does not take place within three days after notice, work may resume at the place
concerned.

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS
Part A (For students studying the Occupational Health and Safety Act)
1. List the safety precautions you would take in each of the following instances:
(a) Dangerous places
(b) Projecting shaft ends
(c) Transmission belts
(d) Condition of safety appliances and machinery
(e) Grinding wheels.
2. Explain, in your own words, what you understand by each of the following:
(a) Dangerous places
(b) Projecting shaft ends
(c) Transmission belts
(d) Condition of safety appliances and machinery
(e) Grinding wheels.
3. Name TWO reasons why it is important for a machine to be guarded.
4. Name the classes into which machine guards are classified.
5. What are the THREE basic types of guards available?
6. Name FOUR important characteristics of a good guard.
7. Give FOUR basic safety rules to be applied when working on ladders.
8. Name the standard colours that are used on oxygen and acetylene hoses.
9. Give THREE basic rules used to prevent accidents when handling objects manually.
10. Write, in your own words, what you know with regard to:
(a) Riding on machinery
(b) Taking special safety precautions of machinery regarding:
(i) Repairing and oiling machines in motion
(ii) Shifting driving belts
(iii) Loose outer clothing
(iv) Fencing of machines.

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS
Part B (For students studying the Minerals Act)
Explain, in your own words, what you understand by the following regulations as applicable to
the Minerals Act:
1. Lights to be carried
2. Approved lamps in fiery mines and new coal mines
3. Loose clothing
4. Safety of persons
5. Inspection and testing of boilers
6. Place of accident to be left undisturbed.

10

Module 2:

couplings
Overview
Overview
On completion of this module, you will be able to do the following:
Briefly explain the difference in application between a coupling and a clutch.
Classify the different couplings covered in this syllabus into three main groups, namely permanent
(fixed), self-aligning and flexible couplings.
With the aid of given drawings, describe the following couplings, state their main characteristics
and explain where they could be used in industry and for what reason:
{{Conventional couplings (e.g. flange, marine, Raffard and universal (Hookes) couplings)
{{Nylon sleeve couplings
{{Chain couplings
{{Gear couplings
{{Pin and rubber bush couplings (or leather washers)
{{Rubber belt couplings (Fenner flex type)
{{Spider couplings
{{Metal disc couplings
{{Fluid drive couplings
{{Resilient couplings.
Identify, name and describe the main function(s) of the basic components of each coupling
mentioned in the previous objective.

INTRODUCTION
In times gone by, a steam engine or a single motor drove all the machines in workshops by means of
overhead shafting. Modern technology, however, has made it possible for each machine to be driven by its
own motor. The length of the shafts between the motor and driven parts also became shorter.
For these two components to be connected, shaft couplings were introduced. This development made a big
difference in industry and had the following advantages over the older systems:
It is difficult and more expensive to manufacture long shafts than it is to manufacture shorter shafts.
It is more difficult to transport long shaft lengths than shorter shafts.
It takes time and is also difficult to handle and install shafts with long lengths in a workshop.
It is, therefore, better to use short shaft lengths, joined by couplings, to get long shaft lengths.
There are different types of couplings used for different purposes. We will discuss them later on in some
detail.

UNIT 2.1: THE DIFFERENCE IN APPLICATION BETWEEN A


COUPLING AND A CLUTCH
Machines that are not driven by gears, chains or belt drives are connected to their power source (electric
motor or engine) by means of a coupling or clutch. The coupling connects the output shaft of the prime
mover (power source) to the input shaft of the machine. This connection transmits the power from the
prime mover to the machine (where the power may be converted to useful work by the machine).
A clutch is a coupling which can be engaged or disengaged by the operator. A clutch is required when the
application requires the prime mover output shaft to continue to rotate whilst the machine input shaft is
kept stationary until such time that rotation of the machine input shaft is needed.

11

A coupling, on the other hand, connects the input and output shafts permanently. Thus, the two shafts will
always rotate or remain stationary together. For example, a truck has both a clutch and a coupling. The clutch
disengages and engages the engine from the rest of the drive train (gearbox, differential, driveshafts) as it suits
the driver. The coupling, however, connects the drive shaft to the differential input shaft (in this case with a
universal coupling) and ensures that the differential input shaft will rotate when the driveshaft rotates.

UNIT 2.2: CLASSIFICATION OF COUPLINGS


There are two general types of couplings, namely rigid (sometimes referred to as permanent or fixed
couplings) and flexible couplings. Rigid couplings can only be used where accurate alignment of the
connecting shafts can be guaranteed; however, this is difficult to achieve. Therefore, flexible couplings are
used where accurate alignment cannot be guaranteed. Flexible couplings forgive limited errors in axial,
radial and angular misalignment.
Axial misalignment is an alignment error in the plane of the axis of the shafts.
Radial misalignment refers to an error in the plane of the shaft radius.
Angular misalignment occurs when the shaft centre lines are at an angle to each other.
Side view

Aligned

Side view

Side view

Axial misalignment

Radial misalignment

Top view

Top view

Top view

Figure 2.1: Misalignment of couplings

The ability of a coupling to allow for angular misalignment lends to a further, third classification, within the
general classification of flexible couplings, namely self-aligning couplings. The different types of couplings
can thus be classified into these three groups:
Permanent (fixed) couplings

Self-aligning couplings

Flexible couplings

Flange coupling

Universal coupling

Nylon sleeve coupling

Marine coupling

CV joint

Pin and rubber bush coupling

Chain coupling

Raffard coupling

Gear coupling

Metal disc coupling

Fluid drive

Spider coupling
Rubber belt coupling
Resilient (Bibby) coupling

UNIT 2.3: TYPES OF COUPLINGS


2.3.1 Flange couplings
Flange couplings are usually made of cast iron or mild steel
and bored out to size. Then they may be shrunk or pressed
on to the shaft end and have the key fitted. The spigot and
recess are machined to ensure perfect alignment. The bolts are
carefully fitted and driven into place so that each bolt carries
its share of the load. Recesses are provided on the flanges
so that the heads and nuts of the bolts do not project, thus
preventing accidents happening if workers clothing is caught.

Key

Figure 2.2: Flange coupling

12

Spigot and recess

2.3.2 Marine couplings

Tapered bolts

Marine couplings are similar to flange couplings, except that the


flange is not fitted to the shaft but forged in one piece. Conical
bolts are generally used to bolt the flanges together. The bolt holes
are bored accurately and eased to the correct taper only when the
flanges are together.

2.3.3 Raffard couplings

Figure 2.3: Marine coupling

Raffard couplings are link-type couplings which allow both axial and
lateral flexibility. Leather or rubber bands are usually employed for coupling each pair of pins together.
The dotted position of the inclined band is adopted when driving takes place. The Raffard coupling also
insulates the motor electrically from the engine or machine.
Housing

Bands

Gap

Driving pins

Figure 2.4: Raffard coupling


Yoke

2.3.4 Universal (Hookes) couplings


Hookes couplings connect shafts whose axes are at an angle
other than 180, that is, whose axes would intersect if produced.
The angle between the shafts may be varied while the shafts are
in motion.

Cross piece

Figure 2.5: Hookes coupling

2.3.5 Nylon sleeve couplings


The nylon sleeve coupling really refers to the covering found in
couplings, as seen in Figure 2.6.

Nylon sleeve
Cover

Figure 2.6: Nylon sleeve coupling


Lubricant seal

2.3.6 Chain couplings


Chain couplings comprise two chain pinions
encircled by a detachable duplex (double
strand) chain which provides a means of easy
and quick disconnection of shafts. Oil-tight
plastic or aluminium covers ensure complete
protection of the coupling.

Sprocket B
Sprocket A

Figure 2.7: Chain coupling

13

Duplex
roller chain

2.3.7 Gear couplings

Direction of movement
to engage coupling

In gear couplings, a sleeve is keyed to each shaft, each


sleeve having gear teeth cut on a raised outer rim. The
two sleeves are coupled together by two half couplings,
each having internal gear teeth which mesh with the
teeth on the sleeves. The half couplings have flanges
which are bolted together.

Inside gear

Outside gear

2.3.8 Pin and rubber bush couplings


(or leather washers)

Figure 2.8: Gear coupling

The two flanges (shown in Figure 2.9) are provided


with alternate holes tapped to accommodate bolts
which hold a number of rubber or leather washers in place. The
Rubber washers
remaining holes are enlarged to suit the washer comfortably.
When the coupling fits together, the washers stop any shocks
and vibrations that may occur. They also act as insulators of
electric current flowing from the motor to the machine.
The steel studs are either bushes with rubber or have leather
washers. Such an arrangement allows for a little misalignment
and expansion in the two shafts, without causing end thrust to
the driving and driven machines. Figure 2.9 includes a clutch that
engages the coupling when it kicks out.

Clearance

Figure 2.9: Pin and rubber bush coupling

2.3.9 Rubber belt couplings

The rubber belt coupling (marketed in South Africa by


Fenaflex) is a torsionally elastic coupling that offers versatility
to designers and engineers with a choice of flange combinations to
suit most applications.

Tyre

The flanges are available in different fittings or bored to size for easy
positioning onto shafts.
With the addition of a spacer flange, the coupling can be used to
accommodate standard distance between shaft ends and facilitate
maintenance.
Rubber belt couplings can accommodate simultaneous maximum
misalignment in all planes without imposing undue loads on adjacent
bearings. The excellent shock-absorbing properties of the flexible tyre
also reduce vibration and torsional oscillations. The tyre enables
torque to be transmitted from one shaft to another in either
direction.

Figure 2.10: Rubber belt coupling

2.3.10 Spider couplings


The spider flexible coupling transmits the torque through an oil
resistant rubber spider assembled between two metal half-bodies.

Rubber spider

Figure 2.11: Spider coupling

2.3.11 Metal disc couplings

A metal disc coupling is designed to provide a highly reliable


connection for rotating equipment. The coupling requires no lubrication and so it is maintenance free. If it
is properly installed, it can last indefinitely.

14

Advantages
The link disc construction provides:
maximum misalignment capability and is ideal for low torque
applications
optimum power and misalignment capability
high torque carrying capacity with lower misalignment capability.

Tongue
Floating disc
Groove
Driven

The design is used to handle non-standard shaft separations using factory


Driver
assembled ring pack bolted to standard spacer tubes. A rigid connection
is ensured with 12-point body bound bolts.
Figure 2.12: Metal disc coupling
Discs are made from a special high -strength stainless steel.
All steel parts are coated with manganese phosphate.
Turbine

2.3.12 Fluid drive couplings


In fluid drive couplings, the fluid flywheel replaces the friction
clutch. When the engine speed rises above 600 rpm, the fluid
circulated through the cells enables one rotor to drive the other.

Input
shaft

This principle of the flywheel is explained clearly in the following


illustrations. Figure 2.14 shows a bowl provided with vanes, filled
with oil. The bowl is fitted with a vertical spindle which can be
driven round by the pulley and belt. The bowl is being spun
around. As the speed of rotation increases, the oil will be flung
upwards and outwards from the bowl. It is this centrifugal Figure 2.13: Fluid coupling
movement of the oil that enables the one rotor to drive the other
fluid drive coupling.
Suppose we fill the bowl again and, before spinning, we place an
inverted bowl of the same kind directly over it (see Figure 2.15).
When the lower bowl is spun round, the oil will be flung up and
round into the upper bowl. This will gradually cause the upper
bowl to rotate in the same direction as the lower bowl.
The oil inside the two bowls will by now be circulating from the
upper to the lower bowl as shown by the arrows. By shaping the
pockets in the driving bowl as shown, and driving the shaft at a
high speed, the oil is thrown out in jets.

Figure 2.15: Two bowls


demonstrating the principle of
operation

Pump

Output
shaft

Vanes

Oil
Belt drive

Figure 2.14: Basic principle of operation


of a flywheel

Figure 2.16: How it actually


operates

The principle of operation


Imagine that the complete ring-shaped cavity formed by the two contiguous, that is, adjacent or touching,
members is filled with oil and the driving shaft is rotating at a given number of revolutions per minute
(rpm). The oil in the driving member will be carried round by the vanes. Any one particle of oil, say at
a particular radius from the centre, has the kinetic energy of the circular path at that radius and also a
centrifugal force. The oil, therefore, has a tendency to move radially outward to a larger radius where it
acquires further kinetic energy and an even greater tendency to move outward.
15

Provided that its power to move outward is sufficient, it will be deflected or thrown off course into the
driven member at the extreme radius, when its energy is given up and is transmitted as a tangential pressure
on the radial vanes of the second member. Ultimately, the oil passes back into the driver where it acquires
energy again and repeats the process.
When running at revolutions above the designed maximum, it is found that the speed of the driven member
is between 1% and 2% lower than that of the driving member, but this is a practically negligible slip. It does
result in a sufficient difference in the centrifugal force of a particle of oil, however, that allows continuous
circulation as long as the oil from the driving member keeps pushing the oil in the driven member.

Automatic uncoupling at low speeds


When running at very low revolutions, the differences between the centrifugal forces are not sufficient to
enable this carry-over from the driver to the driven member to be effected. The result is that no or very little
transference of energy occurs and the driven member becomes stationary.

2.3.13 Resilient (Bibby) couplings

Spring

In resilient (Bibby) couplings there are two grooved discs, one


on each shaft. These two discs are connected by a grid spring.
The grooves are cut in the outside of the discs, and when the
spring is placed in them, it forms a flexible and resilient bridge.
The grooves are also flared in such a way that the spring
members have long flexible spans at normal loads, but become
supported by the sides of the grooves when overloads occur.
This feature effectively prevents overstressing of the springs.
Figure 2.17: Bibby coupling

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS
1. What is the difference between a clutch and a coupling?
2. Name two types of permanent couplings.
3. Name two types of flexible couplings.
4. Why are couplings used in industry? List three reasons.
5. Name the three main groups into which couplings are classified.
6. Figure 2.18 shows a representation of a universal coupling. Six of the components are indicated
by the letters AF. Name any FOUR of the components that are indicated by the letters in the
drawing.
A

E
A

B
C

F
C
E

Figure 2.18: Universal coupling

7. Briefly explain the difference in application between a


coupling and a clutch.
8. Figure 2.19 shows a drawing of a coupling that is used in
industry. Name this coupling and list the parts represented
by the letters AF.

16

Figure 2.19: Coupling used in


industry