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Practical No:

AIM: - To study and compare various communication protocols.


OBJECTIVE:

To study basics of protocol


To study data communication in DCS

THEORY:DCS Network Topology:In todays competitive production environment, process industries demand a totally integrated
control and optimization solution that can increase productivity, reliability, and quality while
minimizing cost. DCS is designed to meet these above needs.
The architecture of the DCS is designed in such a way that it reduces downtime, improve system
availability, enhance control reliability, and uninterrupted system access. The architecture distributes
risk so the loss of any one component does not affect the rrest
est of the system. For example, if a single
controller fails, operation in other areas of the plant will be uninterrupted.
DCS Typical Topology :-

To minimize the probability of total communication failure, most of DCS has a three level network;
namely Plant Data Highway (PDH), Unit Data Highway (UDH), and I/O Network (I/ONet). Such
network structure reduces extraneous network traffic, enhances network performance, and improves
network reliability.
Plant Data Highway connects Operator Management stations for fast and effective data
transfer of non-real-time files and print sharing. This improves overall network performance by
offloading non-critical communication from Unit Data Highway. This part of the architecture consist
of ring topology type network for data communication. Mostly Ethernet, TCP/IP protocols are used
to communicate in this level.
Unit Data Highway connects the Operating and Control levels of the system. UDH provides
superior reliability and availability between the operator and control layers through its double-ring
high-speed Ethernet backbone, allowing uninterrupted access to real-time process information,
alarms, and events. This level uses bus type topology to communicate with the field devices in such a
manner that the failure of particular device will not affect the whole system.
The redundant Process I/O Network establishes a high-speed data transmission between DCS and
Remote I/O stations over a distance of up to two kilometers. It uses a Ethernet, foundation fieldbus,
profibus, modbus, and many other protocols which are compatible with field instruments.
DCS Network Security:Over the past few years, most companies with Critical Infrastructure controlled by SCADA,
DCS, PCN or Process Control Network, and try to keep that environment as separate and isolated as
possible from the IT and Corporate Networks. While this concept is a move in the right direction,
treating the PCN environment like a black box and trying to manage one firewall or cyber defense
solution at the border with IT is not adequate to protect from changing external and internal threats.
The sensitive nature of the PLC and DCS devices controlling the Critical Infrastructure assets require
a higher level of network segmentation and advanced defense.
An assembly line shutdown at a Diamler-Chrysler plant (August 2005) due to the Zotob worm, and
the Slammer worm infestation at First Energys nuclear power plant (January 2003) present clear
evidence of such issues.
Safety v/s Security:It is important to realize the distinction between safety and security. While machines are built with
several fail-safes to ensure safety, these fail-safes are designed against circumstances that have
realistic probabilities of occurrence under normal operation. A cyber attack can skew the
probabilities severely or mislead the operator into taking inappropriate actions by presenting false
information.

To understand the vulnerabilities associated with control systems (CS), you must first know all of the
possible communications paths into and out of the Control system. Above figure presents various
devices, communications paths, and methods that can be used for communicating with typical
process system components.
As illustrated in above figure there are many ways to communicate with a control system network. A
person having knowledge in process equipment, networks, operating software can easily gain access
to the control system. Wireless access points that allow unauthorized connection to the system
component and networks makes system insecure.
In a typical large-scale production system utilizing SCADA or DCS configuration there are many
computer, controller and network communications components integrated to provide the operational
needs of the system. Typical network architecture is shown below.

In the world of network system firewall refers to a network device which blocks certain kind of
network traffic, forming a barrier between trusted and untrusted network. It is analogous to a
physical firewall in the sense that firewall security attempts to block the spread of computer attacks.
MODBUS in Distributed Control System :

Developed by Modicon (now Schneider Electric) in 1979.


Can run over RS232, but was adapted to run on RS485.
It can run over virtually all communication media, including twisted pair wires,
wireless, fiber optics, Ethernet, telephone modems, cell phones and microwave.
MODBUS provides digital communications in older plants, using existing twisted
pair wiring.
Master-slave configuration

A MODBUS network consists of one master, such as a PLC or DCS, and up to 247 slave
devices connected in a multi-drop configuration
The three most common MODBUS versions popular today are:
MODBUS ASCII
MODBUS RTU
MODBUS/TCP
MODBUS ASCII- All messages are coded in hexadecimal, using 4-bit ASCII characters. For every
byte of information, two communication bytes are needed, and twice as many as with MODBUS
RTU or MODBUS/TCP. Therefore, MODBUS ASCII is the slowest of the three protocols, but is
suitable when telephone modem or radio (RF) links is used.
MODBUS RTU-Data is coded in binary, and requires only one communication byte per data byte.
This is ideal for use over RS232 or multi-drop RS485 networks, at speeds from 1,200 to 115Kbaud.
The most common speeds are 9,600 and 19,200 baud. MODBUS RTU is the most widely used
industrial protocol.
MODBUS/TCP: Is simply MODBUS over Ethernet. Instead of using device addresses to
communicate with slave devices, IP addresses are used. With MODBUS/TCP, the MODBUS data is
simply encapsulated inside a TCP/IP packet. Hence, any Ethernet network that supports TCP/ IP
should immediately support MODBUS/TCP.
MODBUS DEVICE CONNECTION
The easiest ways to bring field devices into a process control system, PLC or industrial computer is
to simply connect digital and analog I/O into a distributed I/O system that has MODBUS
communication capability. This solution works for both new and existing plants. In many existing
plants, field instruments typically connect to the DCS or PLC via home run wiring, where each
device is connected with individual twisted pairs that carry analog signals.

With the NCS (NET connector system), one of those twisted pairs can be used for the MODBUS
signal. This is particularly useful if the plant wants to add additional field instruments, but does not
want to run more wiring. A distributed I/O system can accommodate all of the existing I/O, or it can
be used just to send data from all the new field instruments.

In some cases, the control system is not able to deal with a MODBUS signal. In that case, a peer-to
peer solution with two NCS systems simply replaces all the home run wiring with a single MODBUS
cable. Analog outputs from the control room NCS are then wired directly into the host systems I/O
card.
PROFIBUS :- (PROcess Field BUS)
PROFIBUS provide absolute consistency and are highly application-oriented. With its standard
protocol, PROFIBUS takes in all subprocesses found in production and process automation,
including safety related communication and drive applications, thereby providing the ideal basis for
ensuring horizontal consistency within an automation system.
PROFIBUS is open standard ,instead of proprietary solutions, ensures long term compatibility and
expandability.
PROFIBUS contributed considerably to the development of fieldbus technology. It links controllers
and control systems with sensors and actuators on the field level (field devices) and also enables
simultaneous consistent data exchange with superordinate systems(management system).
Specification:

Max. number of nodes 127


Distance supported up to 24 km (with repeater and fiber optics transmission)
Speed varying from 9600 bps to 12 Mbps
Master-slave configuration (RS-485)

The three most common PROFIBUS versions popular today are:1. Profibus DP(Decentralized Peripherals), (master/slave)
2. Profibus FMS(fieldbus message specification)(master/slave, peer to peer)
3. Profibus PA(process automation)(intrinsically safe)

PROFIBUS-DP is optimized for high speed and inexpensive hookup. This PROFIBUS version is
designed especially for communication between automation control systems and distributed I/Os at
the device level. PROFIBUS-DP can be used to replace parallel signal transmission with 24 V or 0 to
20 mA.
PROFIBUS-PA is designed especially for process automation. It permits sensors and actuators to be
connected on one common bus line even in intrinsically-safe areas. PROFIBUS-PA permits data
communication and power over the bus using 2-wire technology according to the international
standard IEC 1158-2.
PROFIBUS-FMS is the general-purpose solution for communication tasks at the cell level.
Powerful FMS services open up a wide range of applications and provide great flexibility.
PROFIBUS-FMS can also be used for extensive and complex communication tasks.

The protocol architecture is oriented to the OSI (Open System Interconnection) reference model All
three PROFIBUS versions (DP, FMS and PA) use a uniform bus access protocol. PROFIBUS is said
to be a multi-master bus. Note that this multi-master bus access protocol is different from that of
CAN in which every node is able to request access to the bus. In PROFIBUS the masters are
predefined and have assigned slaves to control. The PROFIBUS bus access protocol includes the
token passing procedure which is used by masters to communicate with each other.
Comparison of Different Type of Network Communication Protocol and their Characteristic
Interface

Developed
By

4-20 mA

Topology
Point-topoint

Number
Bus
Of
Length
Devices
Dedicated 600m
link
between 2
devices

HART

HCF

Point-topoint,
multidrop

In
2000m
multidrop
mode 15
slaves

MODBUS

Modicon

MODBUS/
TCP

Schneider

Bus, daisy 250


chaining,
multipoint
Bus,star
Unlimited

PROFIBUS-DP

SIEMENS

PROFIBUS-PA

SIEMENS

Line, stat, 32, or 127 100ring


with
1200m
repeaters
Bus, tree, 32
1900m
RS-485

PROFINET SIEMENS

Ethernet

DeviceNet

Trunk line, 64
Drop line

AllanBradley

1200m

Unlimited

100500m

Data Rate

Typical Use

Comm.
Between
transmitters &
control
system.
Comm.
Between
transmitters &
control
system.
9.6-115.2
Industrial
kbps
manufacturing
network
>1kbps
PLC,
HMI,
field
I/O
devices
to
communicate
over Ethernet
1.5-12
Factory and
Mbps
processautomation
31.25 kbps
Comm.
In
exploration
hazardous
area.
10/100
Factory and
Mbps
process auto,
motioncontrol.
125,250,500 Low-cost
kbps
comm.
between
sensors
and
controllers.

ControlNet

AllanBradley

Trunk line, 99
Tree, star

1000m

5Mbps

Ethernet/IP

AllanBradley

EthernetUnlimited
Bus, star,
daisy chain

100m

10/100
Mbps

FFH1(LowSpeed
Fieldbus)
FF-H2
(HighSpeed
Fieldbus)

Fieldbus
Foundation

Multidrop,
star.

2 to 32

1900m,
spur
length
120m

31.25 kbps

Fieldbus
Foundation

Bus

Vary
based on
cable,
repeater,
etc

FF-HSE
(HighSpeed
Ethernet)

Fieldbus
Foundation

Star

Unlimited

1.0,
Mbps

100m

10/100
Mbps

Real-time
high-speed
comm.
complex
control
system.
Integrated
sensoractuator
network
Manufacturing
and
process
automation

2.5 Advance
Process
control,
remote
I/O,
Factory
automation
Basic
and
advance
Process
control

Assignment: Which are the communication protocols supported by any one of the DCS available in
the market?

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