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Chapter 8 Learning Guide Political Geography

Key Issue 1 Where Are States Located?


Pgs. 238 247
Problems of Defining States
1.

Define state:

2.

Define sovereignty:

3.

There is some disagreement about how many states there actually


are in the world because of regions which may, or may not, actually
be states. Complete the chart to demonstrate three cases.

Korea (North & South)

Western Sahara or
Sahrawi Republic

One state if you agree


that

Peoples Democratic
Republic of China
(China) and/or Republic
of China (Taiwan)
One state if you agree
that

Two states if you agree


that

Two states if you agree


that

No state if you agree


that

Varying Size of States


4.

List the 6 largest states in order.

One state if you agree


that

5.

How many microstates are recognized? What do many have in


common? List 6 that you can find on a map, and state where they
are. (If you can only come up with 3 on your own, youll have to
look up three more!)

Development of the State Concept


6.

Complete the graphic organizers on the topics indicated below as


they related to the history of the concept of political states and their
developments.

Ancient States

Early European
States

7.

By definition, what is a colony?

8.

Define colonialism:

9.

Summarize three reasons Europeans sought colonies.

10.

Define imperialism:

11.

Which country had the largest empire? Second largest?

12.

Use the chart below to contrast the basic colonial policies of these
two countries.

Colonial Practices of

13.

Colonial Practices of

List the largest remaining colonies in the world and who possesses
each.

Chapter 8 Learning Guide Political Geography


Key Issue 2 Why Do Boundaries Cause Problems?
Pgs. 247 256
1.

Define boundary:

Shapes of States
2.

Complete the chart based on your reading. The text gives examples
of African countries that you should provide (map pg. 250).

Shapes
Compact

Greatest advantage

Examples

Elongated

Biggest problem

Prorupted

Reason for prorupting the shape of a


state

Perforate
d

How is the perforator state dependent on


the perforatee?

Fragment
ed

Different kinds

3.

Define landlocked state:

4.

Where are most of the worlds landlocked states?

5.

Why there?

6.

What problems do landlocked states have?

7.

Shade and label all 15 of Africas landlocked states.

Types of Boundaries
8.

Define physical boundary:

9.

Define cultural boundary:

10.

Complete the chart below to describe the advantages of each type


of physical boundary.
Deserts

11.

Mountains

Water

What are three types of cultural boundaries that have often been
used? Give an example of each type of cultural boundary and
describe.

Case Study: Cyprus


12.

Bullet in the most significant facts regarding the boundary and


ethnic situation in Cyprus. Annotate the map as appropriate.

13.

Define frontier:

14.

List characteristics of frontiers:

Boundaries Inside States


15.

Define unitary state:

16.

Define federal state:

17.

Regarding unitary states, what are the three characteristics that


tend to favor it for a country?

18.

Where are unitary states most common?

19.

Why is the federal state system more effective for larger states?

20.

List good examples of federal states that fulfill these conditions


rather well.

21.

Why has tiny Belgium adopted a federal system?

22.

Why has enormous China adopted a unitary system?

23.

Multinational states often adopt unitary systems for what reason?


Also, describe an example where this has occurred.

Case Study: France


24.

Describe the internal political organization of France in the box


below.

France: Internal Political


Organization

25.

Why are boundaries of legislative districts occasionally redrawn?


How often is this done in the U.S.?

26.

How is this type of boundary redrawing different in the U.S. than in


Europe?

27.

What is gerrymandering?

28.

What are the three types of gerrymandering? Explain them.

29.

How is gerrymandering combined with ethnicity for political use?

Chapter 8 Learning Guide Political Geography


Key Issue 3 Why Do States Cooperate With Each Other?
Pgs. 257 260
Political & Military Cooperation
1.

When was the United Nations established? By whom?

2.

Identify the reason for which membership in the UN grew


significantly in each of the following periods.

1955

1960

1990s

3.

Who are the five permanent members of the Security Council?

4.

Identify some of the problems the UN faces as it attempts to


operate and influence world affairs.

5.

Why is the idea of two superpowers a relatively new one?

6.

Define balance of power:

7.

Describe the purpose of NATO.

8.

Describe the purpose of the former Warsaw Pact countries.

9.

List 3 facts about the OSCE (Organization on Security &


Cooperation in Europe).

10.

Complete the chart on notable non-military regional organizations.

Regional
Organization
OAS (Organization
of American States)

Members

Purpose

AU (African Union)

The Commonwealth

Economic Cooperation
11.

What states have joined the superpowers based on their


economic successes? What former power has slipped from its
earlier status?

12.

The leading (economic) superpower since the 1990s is not a single


state. What is the leading (economic) superpower in the world
today?

Answer #s 13-16 regarding the European Union


13.

When was it formed?

14.

By what states?

15.

For what purpose?

16.

What are some important changes in recent years?

Chapter 8 Learning Guide Political Geography


Key Issue 4 Why Has Terrorism Increased?
Pgs. 260 268
1.

By definition, what is terrorism?

2.

List typical methods/acts of terrorists.

Terrorism By Individuals & Organizations


3.

Why is terrorism different from other acts of political violence?

4.

List some places in which Americans were attacked by terrorists in


the late 20th century.

In #s 5-9, identify each of the following terms as they relate to the terrorist
organization known as Al-Qaeda.
5.

Osama bin-Laden:

6.

Afghanistan:

7.

Yemen & Somalia:

8.

the base:

9.

fatwa:

10.

In what ways does Al-Qaeda, its religious and political views, and its
methods pose a challenge to Muslims?

11.

In what ways does Al-Qaeda, its religious and political views, and its
methods pose a challenge to Americans?

State Support for Terrorism


12.

List three ways in which states (particularly in the Middle East in


recent decades) have given support to terrorists.

13.

Note in which of the above ways each of the following states has
supported terrorism and then briefly describe it.

State
Libya

Afghanistan

Iraq

Iran

Type of Support
(from question #12)

Brief Summary of Issues

Chapter 8 Learning Guide Political Geography


Key Issue 1 Where Are States Located?
Pgs. 238 247
Problems of Defining States
1. Define state:
Area organized into a political unit ruled by an established
government that has control over its internal & foreign affairs;
it occupies a defined territory & has permanent population
2. Define sovereignty:
Ability of a state to govern its territory without intervention
from other states
3. There is some disagreement about how many states there actually are
in the world because of regions which may, or may not, actually be
states. Complete the chart to demonstrate three cases.
Korea (North & South)

Western Sahara or
Sahrawi Republic

One state if you agree


that

Peoples Democratic
Republic of China
(China) and/or Republic
of China (Taiwan)
One state if you agree
that

The Korean govts


should unify into one

China has control of


Taiwan

Two states if you agree


that

Two states if you agree


that

The Polisario Front


has rightful control
of the territory
No state if you agree
that

According to the UN
they are 2 separate
states

Nationalists control
Taiwan & agree with
most countries that
they are separate
sovereign states

One state if you agree


that

Morocco has control


of the territory

Varying Size of States


4. List the 6 largest states in order.
Russia, Canada, United States, China, Brazil & Australia
5. How many microstates are recognized? What do many have in
common? List 6 that you can find on a map, and state where they are.

(If you can only come up with 3 on your own, youll have to look up
three more!)
24; many are islands in the Caribbean, Pacific & Indian Oceans
Development of the State Concept
6. Complete the graphic organizers on the topics indicated below as they
related to the history of the concept of political states and their
developments.

Ancient States

Early European
States
- City-States
- Walls created boundary to cities
- City controlled agricultural land
to produce food for urban
residents
- Countryside provided city with
defense from other city-states

- Large # of estates owned


by kings, barons, dukes &
nobles
- Handful of powerful kings
became rulers of multiple
European estates
- Consolidation of estates

7. By definition, what is a colony?


Territory legally tied to a sovereign state rather than being
completely independent
8. Define colonialism:
Effort by one country to establish settlements in a territory
and to impose its political, economic & cultural principles on
that territory
9. Summarize three reasons Europeans sought colonies.
God spread of Christianity
Gold extract useful resources
Glory establish power through a number of colonies
10.
Define imperialism:
Control of a territory already occupied and organized by an
indigenous society

11.
Which country had the largest empire? Second largest?
Largest British; 2nd Largest - French
12.
Use the chart below to contrast the basic colonial policies of
these two countries.
Colonial Practices ofBritish
Empire

Colonial Practices ofFrench

- Protected diverse cultures,


local customs & educational
systems through decentralized
approach
- Generally made peaceful
transitions to independence

- Assimilate colonies into French


culture
- Educate elite group to provide
leadership

13.
List the largest remaining colonies in the world and who
possesses each.
Puerto Rico in the possession of U.S.
Pitcairn Island in the possession of United Kingdom

Chapter 8 Learning Guide Political Geography


Key Issue 2 Why Do Boundaries Cause Problems?
Pgs. 247 256
1. Define boundary:
Something that separates a state from its neighbors; an
invisible line marking the extent of the states territory
Shapes of States
2. Complete the chart based on your reading. The text gives examples of
African countries that you should provide (map pg. 250).
Shapes
Compact

Greatest advantage
Good communications can be
established to all regions

Examples
Rwanda & Burundi

Elongated

Biggest problem
Poor internal communications

Malawi &
Mozambique

Prorupted

Reason for prorupting the shape of a


state
To provide a state with access to
a resource or to separate two
states that would normally
share a boundary

Congo & Namibia

Perforate
d

How is the perforator state


dependent on the perforatee?
For the import and export of
goods

South Africa

Fragment
ed

Different kinds
States separated by water;
states separated by another
state

Madagascar; Angola

3. Define landlocked state:


State that has no outlet to the sea because its surrounded by
other states
4. Where are most of the worlds landlocked states?
Africa

5. Why there?
Due to colonial era where Britain & France set up regions, and
now those regions are independent states
6. What problems do landlocked states have?
They have trouble accessing sea ports to send & receive goods

7. Shade and label all 16 of Africas landlocked states.

Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Botswana
Central
African
Republic
Chad
Ethiopia
Lesotho
Malawi
Mali
Niger
Rwanda
South Sudan
Swaziland
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe

Types of Boundaries
8. Define physical boundary:
Boundary that coincides with significant features of the natural
landscape
9. Define cultural boundary:
Boundary that follows the distribution of cultural
characteristics
10.
Complete the chart below to describe the advantages of each
type of physical boundary.

Deserts
- Permanent
- Not really inhabited
- Difficult to cross

Mountains
- Difficult to cross
- Sparsely inhabited

Water
- Good protection
against attacking
state

11.
What are three types of cultural boundaries that have often
been used? Give an example of each type of cultural boundary and
describe.
Geometric Boundary (i.e. line at 49th parallel that separates
U.S. & Canada)
Language Boundary (i.e. lines drawn between/around Bulgaria,
Hungary, Poland & Romania after WWI at Versailles
Conference)
Religious Boundary (i.e. line that separates India (Hindus) &
Pakistan (Muslims)
Case Study: Cyprus
12.
Bullet in the most significant facts regarding the boundary
and ethnic situation in Cyprus. Annotate the map as appropriate.
- Population: 78% Greek
& 18% Turkish
- Greek & Turkish halves
separated by UN buffer
- Peace & unification
plan accepted by Turkish
side but rejected by
Greek side

13.
Define frontier:
Zone where no state has complete political control
14.
List characteristics of frontiers:
Tangible geographic area; provides separation; sparsely
inhabited
Boundaries Inside States

15.
Define unitary state:
States where most power is in the hands of central govt
officials
16.
Define federal state:
States that give strong power to units of local govts within
the country
17.
Regarding unitary states, what are the three characteristics
that tend to favor it for a country?
1. Few internal differences; 2. Strong national unity; 3. Smaller
states
18.
Where are unitary states most common?
Europe

19.
Why is the federal state system more effective for larger
states?
National capital may be too far/remote to provide effective
control over regions
20.
List good examples of federal states that fulfill these
conditions rather well.
United States, Russia, Canada
21.
Why has tiny Belgium adopted a federal system?
To accommodate 2 cultural groups: Flemmish & Waloons
22.
Why has enormous China adopted a unitary system?
To promote Communist values
23.
Multinational states often adopt unitary systems for what
reason? Also, describe an example where this has occurred.
So that the values of one nationality can be imposed on others.
Kenya & Rwanda one ethnic group has become dominant over
weaker groups
Case Study: France
24.
Describe the internal political organization of France in the
box below.
France: Internal Political
Organization
- Strong national govt that

dominates local govt


decisions
- 96 local govt departments
with elected general council
& appointed prefect
- 36,686 local communes with
an elected mayor & council
- 22 regional councils that are
elected & can raise taxes

25.
Why are boundaries of legislative districts occasionally
redrawn? How often is this done in the U.S.?
To ensure each district has same population; every 10 years
following the census
26.
How is this type of boundary redrawing different in the U.S.
than in Europe?
In U.S. its done by state legislature; in Europe its done by an
independent commission to create compact homogeneous
regions
27.
What is gerrymandering?
Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of
benefitting the political party in power
28.
What are the three types of gerrymandering? Explain them.
Wasted Vote: Spreads opposition supporters across many
districts but in the minority
Excess Vote: Concentrates opposition supporters into a few
districts
Stacked Vote: Links distant areas of likeminded voters
through odd shaped boundaries

29.
How is gerrymandering combined with ethnicity for political
use?
Using stacked vote gerrymandering is attractive for creating
districts inclined to elect ethnic minorities. By creating an
ethnic district, it ensures the candidates election by that
district

Chapter 8 Learning Guide Political Geography


Key Issue 3 Why Do States Cooperate With Each Other?
Pgs. 257 260
Political & Military Cooperation
1. When was the United Nations established? By whom?
End of WWII in 1945 by the victorious Allies
2. Identify the reason for which membership in the UN grew significantly
in each of the following periods.
1955

16 countries that had been liberated from Nazi


Germany during WWII

1960

17 countries that had ben former colonies of Britain &


France

1990s

26 countries that resulted from the break up of the


Soviet Union & Yugoslavia

3. Who are the five permanent members of the Security Council?


China, France, Russia, United Kingdom & United States
4. Identify some of the problems the UN faces as it attempts to operate
and influence world affairs.
Relies on individual countries to supply troops; must maintain
strict neutrality which is difficult to do
5. Why is the idea of two superpowers a relatively new one?
Prior to WWI there were 8 great powers that made temporary
alliances
6. Define balance of power:
Equal strength between opposing alliances
7. Describe the purpose of NATO.
Military alliance of 16 democratic states to prevent Soviet
Union from overrunning smaller countries
8. Describe the purpose of the former Warsaw Pact countries.
Communist Eastern European countries to defend each other
in case of attack & to provide Soviet Union with buffer states
between it an Germany

9. List 3 facts about the OSCE (Organization on Security & Cooperation in


Europe).
1. 56 members; 2. Active forum for countries concerned with
ending European conflicts; 3. Calls upon member states for
troops

10.
Complete the chart on notable non-military regional
organizations.
Regional
Organization
OAS (Organization
of American States)

Members
All 35 western
hemisphere states
except Cuba

AU (African Union)

53 African
countries

The Commonwealth

United Kingdom &


52 other states
once under British
control

Purpose
Promotes social,
cultural, political &
economic links among
members
Promoting economic
integration in Africa
Economic & cultural
cooperation

Economic Cooperation
11.
What states have joined the superpowers based on their
economic successes? What former power has slipped from its earlier
status?
China, Germany & Japan have had economic successes while
Russia has slipped due to economic problems
12.
The leading (economic) superpower since the 1990s is not a
single state. What is the leading (economic) superpower in the world
today?
European Union
Answer #s 13-16 regarding the European Union
13.
1958

When was it formed?

14.
By what states?
Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Italy & West
Germany
15.
For what purpose?
Designed to heal (rebuild) Western Europe economically
after WWII
16.
What are some important changes in recent years?
Removed barriers to free trade; Introduction of Euro as
common currency; Created Europe as worlds wealthiest
market

Chapter 8 Learning Guide Political Geography


Key Issue 4 Why Has Terrorism Increased?
Pgs. 260 268
1. By definition, what is terrorism?
Systematic use of violence by a group in order to intimidate a
population or coerce a govt into granting its demands
2. List typical methods/acts of terrorists.
Spread of fear through: bombing, kidnapping, hijacking, taking
hostages, assassination, etc.
Terrorism By Individuals & Organizations
3. Why is terrorism different from other acts of political violence?
Attacks are aimed at ordinary people instead of military
targets or political leaders
4. List some places in which Americans were attacked by terrorists in the
late 20th century.
1993 World Trade Center; 1995 Oklahoma City bombing; 1998
U.S. embassies in Kenya & Tanzania
In #s 5-9, identify each of the following terms as they relate to the terrorist
organization known as Al-Qaeda.
5. Osama bin-Laden:
Founder of Al-Qaeda which was responsible for Sept. 11, 2001
attacks
6. Afghanistan:
bin-Ladens place of residence where he supported fight
against Soviet govt in 1980s and returned in 1990s
7. Yemen & Somalia:
Where bin-Laden instigated attacks against U.S. troops
8. the base:
The foundation; another name for Al-Qaeda
9. fatwa:
Religious decree that Muslims had a duty to wage a holy war
against U.S. citizens
10.
In what ways does Al-Qaeda, its religious and political views, and
its methods pose a challenge to Muslims?

How to express disagreements with U.S. govt policies yet


renounce terrorism
11.
In what ways does Al-Qaeda, its religious and political views, and
its methods pose a challenge to Americans?
Ability to distinguish difference between peaceful but
unfamiliar practices & principles of Muslims & abuse of Islam
by terrorists
State Support for Terrorism
12.
List three ways in which states (particularly in the Middle East in
recent decades) have given support to terrorists.
1. Providing sanctuary for terrorists wanted by other
countries; 2. Supplying weapons, money & intelligence for
terrorists; 3. Planning attacks using terrorists
13.
Note in which of the above ways each of the following states has
supported terrorism and then briefly describe it.
State

Type of Support
(from question #12)

Brief Summary of Issues

Libya

Planning attacks
using terrorists

- Libyan govt sponsored


bombing of German nightclub
- Libyans planted bombs that
killed people on Pan Am flight
over Scotland & UTA flight
over Niger

Afghanistan

Provided Sanctuary Taliban sheltered bin-Laden &


Al-Qaeda

Iraq

Supplying
Weapons

Iran

Provided Sanctuary Believed by U.S. to have


harbored members of AlQaeda

Belief by U.S. that they were


creating weapons of mass
destruction