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AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering

CHAPTER Four
TRAVERSING PRINCIPLES
4.1. Introduction
A traverse consists of a series of straight lines connecting successive points. The points
defining the ends of the traverse lines are called traverse stations or traverse points.
D

B
A

Distance along the line between successive traverse points is determined either by
direct measurement using a tape or electronic distance measuring (EDM) equipment, or by
indirect measurement using tachometric methods. At each point where the traverse changes
direction, an angular measurement is taken using a theodolite.

Traverse party: it usually consists of an instrument operator, a head tape man and rare tape
man.

Equipments for the traverse party:-The equipments for the traverse party are the
theodolite, tapes, hand level, leveling staff, ranging pole & plumb bobs, EDM & reflector,
stakes & hubs, tacks, marking crayon, points, walkie talkies, & hammer etc.

Purpose of traverse: It is a convenient, rapid method for establishing horizontal control


particularly when the lines of sights are short due to heavily built up areas where
triangulation and trilateration are not applicable. The purpose includes:
- Property surveys to locate or establish boundaries;
- Supplementary horizontal control for topographic mapping surveys;
- Location and construction layout surveys for high ways, railway, and other private
and public works;
- Ground control surveys for photogrammetric mapping.

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Lecture Note:- Surveying I

AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering

4.2 Traversing by compass and theodolite


4.2.1. Types of traverse

1. Open traverse: It starts at a point of known position and terminates at a point of


unknown position.
X

B
C

- It is not possible to check the consistence of angles and distance measurement.


- To minimize errors, distances can be measured twice, angles turned by repetition,
magnetic bearings observed on all lines and astronomic observations made
periodically (not done in engineering works).

2. Closed traverse:- It originates at a point of known position and close on another point
of known horizontal position .
D

X
D
B

A
A

Closed loop traverse

Closed link traverse

This type of traverse is preferable to all others since computational checks are possible
which allow detection of systematic errors in both distance and direction.
Traverses also categorized on the method of observing angles.

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Lecture Note:- Surveying I

AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering

4.2.2 Compass Traverse


When compasses are used to run traverses, forward and back bearings are observed from
each traverse station and distances are taped. If local attraction exists at any traverse station,
both the forward and back bearings are affected equally. Thus interior angles computed from
forward and back bearings are independent of local attraction. Since these angles are
independent of local attraction, the sum of these interior angles provides a legitimate
indication of the angular error in the traverse.
Assuming that all bearings are of equal precision and non-correlated, this error is distributed
equally among the number of interior angles. Since none of the traverse lines has an absolute
direction that is known to be correct, it is necessary to select a line affected least by local
attraction.

Exercise:
The following are bearings taken on a closed compass traverse. Compute the

interior angle

and correct them.


Assuming the observed bearing of XY to be clear of local attraction and adjust the bearing
of all other sides.

-3-

Line

Forward bearing

Backward bearing

XY

S 27030E

N 27030W

YC

S 45015 W

N 44015 E

CD

N 730 00 W

S 720 15 W

DE

N 120 45 E

S 130 15 W

EX

N 60000 E

S 590 00 W

Lecture Note:- Surveying I

AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering

4.2.3 Interior angle traverse:


Interior angle traverse is the one that is employed for closed loop traverse. Successive
stations occupied and back sight is taken to the preceding station with horizontal circle set
zero. The instrument is then turned on its upper motion until the next station is
bisected/sighted and the interior angle is observed. The horizontal circle reading gives the
interior angle in the clockwise direction. Horizontal distances are determined by stadia and
angles should be observed twice by double sighting.
4
3

2
1

Azimuth of a line =360-(back azimuth of preceding line + Clockwise interior angle).


n

In closed figure

i ( n 2 )180
i 1

n is the number of stations


The error of closure can be distributed to all angles equally assuming that all observations are
made with equal precision.
Example:
A clockwise interior angle in a closed traverse is as follows
A= 84058, B=157038, C=24037
D= 1530 14 , E=1030 54, F= 139 06 G= 2360 49
Compute the error of closure and adjust the interior angle.

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AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering

Solution:

Station

Observed
Interior angle

Correction

Adjusted
interior Angle

840 58

-00 2

84056

157038

-0 02

157036

240 37

-0 02

24 35

-0 2

153 12

153 14
0

-0 2

103 52

103 54

139 06

-0 2

139 04

2360 47

-0 02

236 45

Sum

9000 14 00

(n-2)1800

9000 00 00

Error of
closure

90000000

00 1400

Exercise:
Calculate azimuth and bearing of all lines for Azimuth of AB Az AB=315012
4.2.4 Deflection angle traverses
This method of running traverses is widely employed than the other especially on open
traverses. It is mostly common in location of routes, canals, roads, highways, pipe lines, etc.
Successive traverse stations are occupied with a theodolite with horizontal circle set at zero
and back sight taken to the preceding station with a telescope reverse. The telescope is then
plunged and the line of sight is directed to the next station, by turning the instrument about
the vertical axis on its upper motion and the deflection angle is observed. Angles have to be
observed by double sighting.
Azimuth of line =Azimuth of preceding line + R
Azimuth of line =Azimuth of preceding line - L

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Lecture Note:- Surveying I

AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering

3
C

In the above figure the azimuth of line AX and DY and are used to check the angular
closure for the traverse
AXA + 2 + 4-1-3-3600=ADY
A1

i 1

R i

i 1

Li

360

A2

Where A1=Azimuth of starting station


A2=Azimuth of closing station
R= deflection to the right
L= deflection to the left.
The angular error of closure can be computed and the adjustment of the observed angles is
made assuming equal weights for all angles, the error of closure may be distributed equally
among the deflection angles.
Example:
The following are deflection angles observed in a closed loop traverse.
A=850 20 L; B=100 11 R; C= 830 32 L; D= 630 27 L
E= 340 18 L; F= 720 56 L; G= 300 45 L
Compute the error of closure and adjust the deflection angles assuming that all observations
are made with equal precision.

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Lecture Note:- Surveying I

AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering

Solution:
A1=A2

(for closed loop)

For closed loop traverse

Ri

Li

360

For the given traverse

=370018

R =10 11
0

10011-370018=-360007
360007-360000=0.07
0
Correction per angle= 0 07 ' 0 0 01 ' 00 "

This correction angle is added to deflection to the right and subtracted to deflection to the
left.
Station

From/To Circle
observed

A
B
C

0000

85020

0000

10011

0000

Deflection

Correction

angle

Corrected
deflection

85020L

-0001

85019

10011R

+0001

10012

D
D

C
E

D
F

E
G

F
A

Ri Li 360

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Lecture Note:- Surveying I

AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering

Exercise:
Azimuth of line AB is given as Az AB= 85024.Calculate the azimuth and bearing of all
other lines.
4.2.5 Angle to the right traverse
This method can be used in open, closed, or closed loop traverses. Successive theodolite
stations are occupied and back sight is taken to the preceding station with the horizontal
circle set zero. Then foresight is taken on the next station using the upper motion in the
clockwise direction. The reading gives the angle to the right at the station and angles should
be observed by double sighting.
Azimuth a line= angle to the right - Back azimuth of preceding line.
3

Error of closure

A1X 1 2 3 4 (4 1)180 A4Y


X

The condition of closure can be expressed by


A1+1+2+ -----n-(n-1)180-A2=0
Where A1 & A2 are Azimuths of the starting and closing stations.
n=no of traverse stations (exclusive of fixed stations).
Any misclosure can be distributed equally to all angles assuming equal precision.
Exercise:
Try the above example in 5.2.4 (Deflection angle traverse.)

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Lecture Note:- Surveying I

AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering

4.2.6. Azimuth traverse


This method is used extensively on topographic and other surveys where a large number of
details are located by angular and linear measurements from the traverse stations. Successive
stations are occupied, beginning with the line of known or assumed azimuth. At each station
the theodolite is oriented by setting the horizontal circle index to read the back azimuth (fore
ward azimuth 1800) of the preceding line, and then back sighting to the preceding traverse
station. The instrument is then turned on the upper motion, and a foresight on the following
traverse station is taken. The reading indicated by the horizontal circle on the clockwise
circle is the azimuth of the forward line.
Any angular error of closure of a traverse becomes evident by the difference between initial
and final observations taken along the first line.
4.2.7 Stadia traverse
In stadia traverse the horizontal distance between traverse station is determined by stadia
method. The stadia traverse is sufficiently accurate and considerably more rapid and
economical than corresponding surveys made with theodolite and tape. Its advantage is that
elevations can be determined concurrently with horizontal position.
L1= distance BC observed at station B
L2= distance BC observed at station C
So LBC

L1 L2
2

4.2.8 Plane table and alidade


Traversing with the plane table involves the same principle as running a traverse with a
theodolite. Successive plane table and alidade stations are occupied, the table is oriented and
back sight on the preceding station is taken. A fore sight is then taken to the next station and
its location is plotted on the plane table sheet. Distances and difference in elevations are
determine by stadia using the alidade and scaled off on the paper. Check lines can also
provided for checking the consistency.

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Lecture Note:- Surveying I

AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering

4.3 Traverse Computations


Field operation for traverses yields angles or directions and distance for a set of lines
connecting a series of traverse stations. Angles can be checked for error of closure and
corrected so that preliminary corrected values can be computed. And observed distances can
be reduced to equivalent horizontal distanced. The preliminary directions and reduced
distances are suitable for use in traverse computations, which are performed in a plane
rectangular coordinate system.
Computation with plane coordinates by considering the figure below.
Y
xj

xij
xij
j
Aj

yij

dij

yi

Aj

yij

djk

i
yk

yi

xk
Let the reduced horizontal distance of traverse lines ij and jk be dij and djk respectively, and
Ai and Aj be the azimuths of ij and jk. Let Xij and Yij be the departure & latitude.
Xij= dij sin Ai = departure
Yij = dij cos Ai =latitude
If the coordinates of i are xi and yi
So, the coordinates of j are:

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Lecture Note:- Surveying I

AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering

Xj=xi+xij ;

yj= yi+yij

Xk=xj+xjk ;

yk=yj-yjk

=xi+xij+xik ;
xjk =djk sin Aj

=yi+yij-yjk
yjk=djk cos Aj

Note: the signs of azimuth functions


IV
Sin Cos +

N
I
Sin +
Cos +

III
Sin Cos -

II sin+
Cos -

S
If the coordinates for the two ends of a traverse line are given, distance between two ends
can be determined as:
dij =[(xj-xi)2+(yj-yi)2]1/2
The azimuth of line ij from north and south is

Aij tan 1

xj xi
yj yi

Asij tan 1

xi xj
yi yj

After coordinates for all the traverse points (all the departure and latitudes) for all lines have
been computed, a check is necessary on the accuracy of the observations and the validity of
calculations. In a closed traverse, the algebraic sum of the departures should equal the
difference between the x- coordinates at the beginning and ending stations of the traverse.
Similarly, the algebraic sum of the latitudes should equal the difference between the y
coordinates at the beginning and ending stations.
In a closed loop traverse, the algebraic sum of the latitudes and the algebraic sum of the
departures each must equal zero.
For a traverse containing n stations starting at i=1 and ending at station i=n, the foregoing
conditions can be expressed as follows.

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Lecture Note:- Surveying I

AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering


n 1

n 1

i 1

i 1

X n X 1 xi, i 1
n 1

n 1

i 1

i 1

departures

Yn Y1 yi, i 1

latitudes

The amounts by which the above equation will fail to be satisfied are called simply closures.
The closure correction in departure dx and dy, which are of opposite signs to errors, are:
n 1

d x X n X 1 Xi, i 1
i 1

n 1

d y Yn Y1 Yi, i 1
i 1

And for closed loop traverse

dx=- departures and dy=- latitudes.

4.4 Sources of errors and precision of traversing


When traversing, errors may arise in the following measurements.
a. Linear measurements: Errors in linear measurement are those as systematic,
and random errors. These errors in linear measurements should by corrected
considering its type.
b. Angular measurements: There are two main sources of errors in the
measurement of the traverse angle.
i) Observational errors:

Due to lateral refraction, haze and wind the line of sight may not be truly
straight. It is there fore important to keep the line of sight 1m above ground on
hot sunny days. In wind and haze no need to attempt at accurate readings.

If the signal is too large it is not possible to bisect accurately, and if the signal is
not plumbed vertically above the station mark, wrong direction will be observed.
There fore try and always observe directly on the station mark. If this is not
possible, sight to a plumb-bob or accurately plumbed target or signal; never sight
to a hand held ranging rod.

Errors can arise in mis reading and mis booking observations of the vernier or
micrometer, so always check that the reading booked appears on the instrument.

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Lecture Note:- Surveying I

AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering

ii) Instrumental errors.

Error in the adjustment of the theodolite. Always observe on both faces of the
theodolite when measuring horizontal and vertical angles.

The theodolite must be properly leveled before observations are made. So that
ensure the plate bubble remains in the same position in its tube when the
theodolite is rotated through 360.

Ensure that the theodolite is stable with the legs firmly planted in solid ground
and that the tripod adjusting screws are properly tightened.

The theodolite must be properly centered over the station mark with an optical
plummet or plumbing rod.

If the horizontal circle is moved between observations the reduced angles will be
in error. This can occur for any of the following reasons.
i) Screwing the theodolite too loosely to the tripod head.
ii) Omitting to secure the movable head.
iii) Omitting to clamp the lower plate.
iv) Using the lower tangent screw instead of the upper tangent screw.
v) Moving the orientation screw on single-axis theodolites.

4.5 Checking and adjusting traverse.


Traverse adjustment should be applied before the results of the traverse are usable for
determining areas or coordinates for publishing the data, or for computing lines to be
located from the traverse stations, to make the traverse mathematically consistent. The
closure in latitudes and departures must be adjusted out.
4.5.1 The compass rule.
Consider a traverse station i,

xi =correction to Xi
yi = correction to Yi
Xt =total closure correction of the traverse in the X coordinate.

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Lecture Note:- Surveying I

AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering

Yt =total closure correction of the traverse in the Y coordinate.


Li =distance from station i to the next station.
L =total length of traverse
dxt= (Xn-X1)- departure
dyt = (Yn-Y1)- latitude
Then the corrections are

Li
dX t .and
L

Li
dYt
L

xi

yi

Alternatively, corrections may be applied to the departure and latitudes prior to calculating
coordinates
dij
dx t
L

xij

dij
and yij
dy t
L

xij and yij are respective corrections to the departure and latitude of line ij which has a
length of dij.
Example:
In a closed traverse the distance between traverse stations and the deflection angle are as
hereunder. Compute the error of closure and adjust the traverse using compass rule.

AXA=170024
ADY=80038

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Line

Distance (m)

Deflection angle

Azimuth

AB

225.94

A 10234L

67050

BC

143.39

B 85055R

153045

CD

188.47

C 150 47L

2058

=557.80

D 78020R

Lecture Note:- Surveying I

AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering

Solution:
Using the formula
A1+ R-L-3600=A2
170024+164015-253021-3600=8101880038
Error of closure 81018-80038=004000
0
Correction per angle= 0 40 '00 " 0 010 '00 "

Station

Correction

Correct deflection angle

Azimuth

+0010

102044

67040

-0010

85045

153025

+0010

150057

2028

-0010

78010

Traverse Computation
Station

Distance

Azimuth

Departure

Latitude

Coordinates ,m
X

100

100

225.94

670 40

208.992

85.856

308.992

185.856

143.39

153025

64.167

-128.231

373.159

57.625

188.47

2028

8.111

188.295

381.27

245.920

=281.27

=145.92

[382.0]

[245.0]

XD XA

- 15 -

282 .0
,
0.73

YD YA

145 .0
0.92

Lecture Note:- Surveying I

AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering

Adjustment of coordinates by the compass rule


Station

Distance

Corrections

Adjusted
coordinates,m

xi

yi

100

100

225.94

0.296

-0.373

309.288

185.483

143.39

0.483

-0.609

373.642

56.016

188.47

0.730

-0.920

382.0

245.0

Adjusted distance and Azimuth


Station

Adjusted
Distance

DAB=[(XB-XA)2+(YB-YA)2]1/2

Azimuth
DAB=[(309.288-100)2+(185.483-100)2]1/2

A
B

226.073

6704652.36

143.684

15302331.1

188.170

203244.75

=226. 073m
AAB=tan-1

XB XA
YB YA

=tan-1 309 . 288 100 =6704657.36


185 . 483 100

4.6 Computation of Area


Area computation is one of the primary objective of land survey. A closed traverse is run, in
which the lines of the traverse are made to coincide with property lines as possible. The
length and bearings of all straight boundary lines are determined either directly or by
computation.
In ordinary land surveying, the area of a tract of land is taken as its projection up on a
horizontal plane, and it is not the actual area of the surface of land. For precise
determination of the area of a large tract, such as state or nation, the area is taken as the
projection of the tract up on the earths spheroidal surface to mean sea level.

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AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering

Methods of determining area:


1.

The area of the tract may be obtained by use of the planimeter from a map or plan. It
may also be calculated by dividing the tract in to triangles and rectangles, scaling the
dimensions of these figures, and computing their areas mathematically.

2.

Area by triangles.
It is computation of areas individually mathematically by dividing the track in to
triangles.
If length of two sides and included angle of any triangle are known,

B
c
a
A
b

area

1
ab sin c
2

If lengths of the three sides of any triangle are given,


area

s s a ( s b )( s c )

1
S
a b c
2

3. Area by coordinates:
When the points defining the corners of a tract of land are coordinated with respect to
some arbitrarily chosen coordinate axes or are given in a regional system, these
coordinates are useful not only in finding the lengths and bearings of the boundaries
but also in calculating the area of the tract. The calculation involves finding the areas
of trapezoids formed by projecting the line up on a parallel at right angle to this.
Considering the figure under here

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AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering

X2
X1

1
X3

c
e

5
Y1

X5
Y2

X4

Y5
a

4
Y4
d

Y3

Area 12345= area 23cb+area 34dc-area 45fd-area 15fa-area 12bc


Area=

1
X 2 X 3 Y2 Y3 1 X 3 X 4 Y3 Y4 _ 1 X 4 X 5 Y5 Y4
2
2
2

1
X 1 X 5 Y1 Y5 1 X 2 X 1 Y2 Y1
2
2

Rearranging the above eqn.

2 area y1 x2 x5 y2 x3 x1 y3 x4 x2 y4 x5 x3 y5 x1 x4
The general formula for any polygon having n stations

2 area y1 x2 xn y2 x3 x1 ....... yn 1 xn xn 2 yn ( x1 xn 1 )

or

2 area x1 y2 yn x2 y3 y1 ....... xn 1 yn yn 2 xn y1 yn 1
The area of tract can also be computed by using

y1
x1

y2
x2

y3
y y
.......... .......... . n 1
x3
x n x1

2 area y1 x2 y2 x3 y3 xn yn x1 x1 y2 x2 y3 x3 yn xn y1
4.

Area by double meridian distance and latitudes:

After the adjustment of latitude and departure of traverse lines in a given traverse it is
possible to compute the area enclosed by the traverse. The method by which the adjusted
departures and latitudes are used to compute the area is called double meridian distance
method.

- 18 -

Lecture Note:- Surveying I

AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering

A reference meridian is assumed to pass through the most westerly point of the survey; the
double meridian distance of the lines are computed; and double the areas of the trapezoids
or triangles formed by orthographically projecting the several traverse lines up on the
meridian are computed. The algebraic sum of these double areas is double the area within
the traverse. The meridian distance of a point is the total departure or perpendicular distance
from the reference meridian and the meridian distance of a straight line is the meridian
distance of its mid point. The double meridian distance of a straight line is the sum of the
meridian distances of the two extremities.
N
b

Meridian distance of B M.D.B =bB


Meridian distance of C M.D.C =cC

A
C
c
d

Double meridian distance of AB=0+ bB


Double meridian distance of BC= MD@B+MD@C
=bB+cC
DMD of line =DMD of preceding line + departure of
Preceding line + departure of the line.

The length of the orthographic projection of a line up on the meridian is the latitude of the
line.
The double area of the triangle or trapezoidal formed by projecting a given line up on the
meridian is:
Double area=DMD* latitude
In computing double area algebraic signs should be taken in to account.
Example:
For a traverse 123456 the adjusted distance and azimuths are given as below. Coordinate of
1(0.0, 0.0)

- 19 -

Lecture Note:- Surveying I

AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering

Adjusted
Line

Distance

Adjusted

Azimuth
0

Departure

Latitudes

12

405.18

106 1945

+388.84

-113.92

23

336.59

5705401

+285.13

+178.86

34

325.18

33502843

-134.96

+295.85

45

212.92

21902833

-135.41

-164.31

56

252.21

26605530

-251.85

-13.53

61

237.69

21904028

-151.75

-182.95

Compute the area in the traverse by using all methods.


Solution:
Station

Computation of area

1. Area by triangle

3
3

1
2

1
2

( X

D 62

388.84

-113.92

673.97

64.94

539.01

306.79

403.4

196.48

151.75

182.95

Coordinate, m

X 2 ) 2 (Y 6 Y 2 ) 2

151 .75 388 .84

(182 .95 ) ( 113 .92 )

379 .93 m

D 52

403

. 4 388 . 84

196 . 48 ( 113 . 92 )

310 . 74 m

D53

403.4 673.97 2 196.48 64.942

300.85m
Using the formula.

Area
S

- 20 -

s s a s b s c
a b c
2

Lecture Note:- Surveying I

AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering

For triangle 1,
area

126

405.18

237.69
2

379.73

511 . 4

511 . 4 ( 511 . 4 405 . 18 )( 511 . 4 237 . 69 )( 511 . 4 379 . 93 )

44212 . 20 m 2

For triangle 2, S

379.93 252.21 310.74


471.44
2

area 256 471.44(471.44 379.93)(471.44 310.74)471.44 252.21)


38985.71m 2
For triangle 3, S

310 .74 300 .85 336 .59


474 .09
2

area 235 479.09(479.09 310.74)(474.09 300.85)(474.09 336.59


42950.22m 2
For triangle 4, S

300.85 325.18 212.92


419.48
2

area 345 419.48(419.48 300.85)(419.48 325.18)(419.48 212.92


31133.78m 2
Total area of traverse =a1+a2+a3+a4
=44212.20+38985.71+42950.22+31133.78
= 157,281.91m2

2. Area by coordinate method.


Using the general formula
2 area=Y1(X2-Xn)+Y2(X3-X1)+.+Yn-1(Xn-Xn-2)+Yn(X1-Xn-1).
=0 (388.84-151.75) +-113.92(673.97-0) +64.94(539.01-388.84)
+360.79(403.4-673.97) +196.48(151.75-539.01) +182.95(0-403.4).
2 area =-314536.45
Area= 157268.22m2

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Lecture Note:- Surveying I

AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering

3. Area by DMD and latitude


Assume the meridian passes through the westerly corner of the traverse i.e station
1.

d
e
f
a
c

1
3

DMD of line=DMD of preceding line+ departure of preceding line + departure


of the line.
Line

Departure

DMD

Latitudes

Double Area

+388.84

388.84

-113.92

-44296.65

23

+285.13

1062.81

+178.86

+190094.20

34

-134.96

1212.98

+295.85

+358860.13

45

-135.41

942.61

-164.31

-154880.25

56

251.85

555.35

-13.53

-7513.89

61

-151.75

151.75

-182.95

-27762.66

Double area =548954.33


-234453.45
=314500.88
Area of tract =314500.88/2

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=157250.44m2

Lecture Note:- Surveying I

AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering

Area of tract with irregular or curved boundaries


When the boundary of a tract of land follows some irregular or curved line, such as a
stream or road, it is necessary to run a traverse in some convenient location near the
boundary and to locate the boundary by offsets from the traverse line. Offsets are taken
at changing points of an irregular boundary from the near by traverse line, and when the
boundary is a gradual curve, offsets are taken at regular intervals.

If the offsets are taken sufficiently close together, the error involved in considering the
boundary as straight between offsets is small as compared with the inaccuracies of the
measured offsets. So, the areas between offsets are of trapezoidal shapes and irregular
areas can be calculated by the trapezoidal rule.

**Area by trapezoidal rule

Area

hn D
h1 h 2
D
h h3 D
h

2
... n 1

2
2
2
n 1
n 1

n 1

If offsets are taken at equal interval

h1
A

h2

h3

h4

h5

h6
h7

D h1 h2 h2 h3 h3 ..... hn 1 hn 1 h n

n 1
2

D h1 hn

h2 h3 ...hn 1

n 1 2
2

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Lecture Note:- Surveying I

AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering

If

D
d interval, n=-number of offsets.
n 1

h
h

Area d 1 n h 2 h 3 ... h n 1
2
2

**Area by Simpsons one-third rule.


Simpsons one-third rule is applied directly for odd number of offsets.
Area between line AB and curved line DFC
h h 2
h h

1 3 2d h2 1 3 2d
2 3
2

d
h1 4h2 h3
3

Area for the next two intervals


Area

d
h 3 4 h 4 h 5
3

The summation of these partial areas for (n-1) intervals, n being on odd number
representing the number of offsets, is

area

d
h1 hn 2(h3 h5 ... hn 2 ) 4(h2 h4 ... hn 1 )
3

Exercise:
The following offsets are taken at equal interval of 5 m, and offsets between the traverse
line and an irregular boundary is as below. Calculate the area bounded between the traverse
line and an irregular boundary by using both methods.
Distance,m 0

16

24

32

40

48

56

64

Offsets,m

3.8

17.9

12.7

20.2

11.4

25.7

23.3

20.9

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2.9

Lecture Note:- Surveying I

AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering

**Area by coordinate rule


When offsets are taken at irregular intervals, the area of each figure between pairs of
adjacent offsets may be computed and the values are added. The coordinate rule for
irregular spacing of offsets can be applied by the relation; twice the area can be calculated
if each offset is multiplied by the distance to the preceding offset plus the distance to the
following offset.
2 Area=h1d1+h2 (d1+d2)+h3(d2+d3)+h4(d3+d4)+h5(d4+d5)+h6(d5+d6)+h7d6
The general formula
2 Area=h1x d1+h2 (d1+d2)++hn-1(dn-2+dn-1)+hn x dn-1.
Exercise:
Try the above exercise!
Coordinates of unoccupied point
Some times it is not possible to set the instrument up over points like top of building etc.
So, in order to determine the coordinates of points, spur lines or ties lines must be run
from the traverse to these points. In the figure below, the boundaries if a parcel of land
are defined by an iron pipe, a nail in a tree and two fence posts. The only corner that can
be occupied is the one marked by the iron pipe. The problem is to determine the lengths
and bearings of the property lines.
It will be assumed that the coordinates of the iron pipe at point A and the bearing of the
line AB are known. The procedure is then as follows:
1. Measure the lengths of the traverse sides AB, BC, CD and DA, and also the lengths
of the three tie lines BP, CR, and DS.
2. Measure the angles in the traverse ABCD, and also the angles between traverse lines
and the tie lines to P, R, and S, a shown in the figure.

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Lecture Note:- Surveying I

AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering

3. Adjust the angles in the traverse ABCD, and compute the bearings of lies BC, CD
and DA based on the known bearing of the one AB.
4. Balance the traverse ABCD.
5. Compute the coordinates of points B, C, and D.
6. Determine the bearings of the lines BC, CD, and DA based on the coordinates
computed in (5).
7. Compute the bearing of the tie lies from the bearings computed in (5) and the
measured angles.
8. Compute the latitudes and departures of the tie lines.
9. Compute the coordinates of the unoccupied stations from the coordinates of
traverse stations B, C, and D and the latitudes and departures of the lines BP, CR,
and DS, respectively.

When the coordinates of P, R, and S have been computed, the bearings and
lengths of the boundary lines may be computed.
Example:
The following adjusted coordinates of stations A, B, C and D of traverse are given.
Additionally, unadjusted deflection angles and unadjusted lengths of supr lines are recorded
determine the lengths and bearings of the boundary lines AP, PR, RS and SA.
Station

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Adjusted Coordinate
Y

1000.00

1000.00

1279.68

1018.13

1197.70

735.31

1015.45

713.45

1000.00

1000.00

Lecture Note:- Surveying I

AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering

Station

From

To

Def-angle

Line

Length, m

69008L

BP

40.15

128002R

CR

64.24

124030L

DS

24.80

Solution:
From the adjusted coordinate of the traverse the azimuth of line AB, BC, CD, DA can be
computed
For line AB tan A N
For line BC tan A N
For line CD tan A N

1018 . 13 1000
1279 . 68 1000

A AB 3 0 42 '32 . 25 "

735 . 31 1018 . 13

1197 . 70 11279 . 68
713 . 45 735 . 310

1015 . 45 1197 . 70

A BC 253

A CD 186

50 '5 . 7 "

50 ' 22 "

For line DA tan AN= 1000 713 . 45 A DA 93 0 5 '10 . 5


1000 1015 . 45
Computation of Azimuth of tie lines
Line

Azimuth

Line

Azimuth

Line

Azimuth

AB

304232.25

BC

2530505. 7

CD

18605022.8

36304232.25

+<C

+1280200

-<D

-12403000

-<B

-690800

CR

3810525.7

BP

29403432.25

CR

210525.7

DS

6202022.8

BP

N6502527.75W

CR

N210525.7E

DS

N6202022.8E

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Lecture Note:- Surveying I

AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering

Computation of coordinates of boundary corners.


Station
B
P
C
R
D
S

Length

Bearing

Latitude

Departure

40.15

N6502527.75W

16.70

-36.51

64.24

N210525.7E

59.62

23.93

29.80

N6202022.8E

13.83

26.39

Coordinates
X

1018.13

1279.68

*981.62

1296.38

735.31

1197.70

*759.24

1257.32

713.45

1015.45

*739.84

1029.28

From adjusted coordinates azimuth and distance of property lines can be computed.
For line AP tan AAP = 981 . 61 1000

1296 . 38 1000

=-303255.15+36000000 =3560274.85

Distance AP=[(981.62-1000)2+(1296.38-1000)2]1/2 =296.95


Adjusted distance and azimuth

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Line

Distance, m

Azimuth

AP

296.95

3650274.85

PR

225.78

26000220

RS

228.86

18405150

SA

261.80

9602520

Lecture Note:- Surveying I

AAIT, Department of Civil Engineering

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Lecture Note:- Surveying I

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