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Determining the Rates of Red Bean Germination

Introduction
According to National Gardening Association (2001), Germination, the process during
which a seed begins to develop, is controlled by both internal and external factors. The external
factors that contribute to a seeds growth are water, temperature, oxygen, and sunlight or
darkness. During this process, the seed begins to absorb water from the soil, which provides
moisture for the embryo. As the embryo receives nourishment from the duplication of plant cells
inside the seed and the activation of enzymes, it starts growing. Eventually, the growing plant
will start photosynthesis as it emerges from its seed coat. Finally, when the seed coat falls off, the
roots grow downwards in the ground, and the shoot begins to grow upwards.
In the importance of seed germination, fertilizers are essential for plant growth and
development. Inorganic fertilizers usually contain only a few nutrients generally nitrogen,
phosphorus, potassium, and some sulfur, either singly or in combination (Savonen, 2008).
These fertilizers distinguish as commercial fertilizers because they go through a manufacturing
process. Furthermore, they are concentrated and very soluble, but the application of too much
inorganic fertilizer can damage plants because it may contain harmful nutrients and salts.
However, commercial fertilizers can provide a certain element, such as nitrogen that is available
for plants, and they are less expensive than organic fertilizers.
In addition to inorganic fertilizers, The word organic applied to fertilizers simply means
that the nutrients contained in the product are derived solely from the remains or a byproduct of a
once living organism (Haby, Baker, & Feagley, n.d.). In general, organic fertilizers slowly
release nutrients over a long period and are less concentrated. Additionally, a plant may not

receive the principal amount of nutrients for an appropriate growth if the fertilizer does not
release enough nutrients, and organic fertilizers rely on soil organisms to mineralize and emit
nutrients. Although this may be true, Organics may improve water movement into the soil and,
in time, add structure to the soil. Organics feed beneficial microbes, thereby making the soil
easier to work (Savonen, 2008).
Works Cited
Germination. (2001). Retrieved November 03, 2016, from
http://garden.org/onlinecourse/PartI4.htm
Haby, V., Baker, M. L., & Feagley, S. (n.d.). Vegetable Resources. Retrieved November 03,
2016, from http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/vegetable/guides/texas-vegetable-growershandbook/ chapter-iii-soils-fertilizers/
Savonen, C. (2008, April 30). Here's the scoop on chemical and organic fertilizers. Retrieved
November 03, 2016, from http://extension.oregonstate.edu/gardening/node/955
Experimental Design
Problem Question: Do organic and inorganic fertilizers affect the rates of seed germination?
Hypothesis: If I use inorganic and organic fertilizers for the germination of red beans, then the
organic fertilizer will increase the rate of seed germination than the inorganic fertilizer because it
will provide the necessary nutrients to grow successfully.
Independent Variable: types of fertilizers
Dependent Variable: rates of seed germination
Control Group: topsoil

Experimental Groups: miracle growth and bone meal


Materials and Methods
First, we will obtain six water bottles to create three EcoBottles. Then, we will cut three of those
bottles in half and add water to each bottle in order to create an aquafer. After this, we will use
the three other water bottles to add the fertilizers on the topsoil, which are manure and bone
meal. Next, we will make a hole on the water caps using an exacto knife to insert a pipe cleaner
for the water to flow through the fertilizers. Then, we put the fertilizers in the bottles and insert it
in the cut bottles using tape to secure it. Finally, we will plant the red beans and wait for the
results.

Topsoil

11/4/16
0

11/8/16
0

11/9/16
1/3

11/11/16
3/3

11/14/16
3/3

11/15/16
3/3

11/16/16
3/3

Rates
100%

Miracle

1/3

1/3

1/3

1/3

1/3

1/3

0.33%

Growth
Bone

1/3

1/3

1/3

1/3

0.33%

Meal
Data

Conclusion
In conclusion, the organic and inorganic fertilizers affected the rates of germination in
bone meal and miracle growth in 7 days (not including weekends). Based on our data, bone meal
and miracle growth had the lowest seed germination rate of .33% and topsoil had the highest
germination rate of 100%. Moreover, we can conclude that bone meal had the slowest
germination rate because organic fertilizers release nutrients slowly in long period and the
overuse of bone meal may have contributed to its germination while inorganic fertilizers
contained minerals and synthetic chemicals to enhance its seed growth. In addition, our
hypothesis refuted because we thought the organic fertilizer would increase the rate of
germination than inorganic. Despite this, there were human-made errors in our lab such as the
over use of bone meal and using manure in one of the Eco-Bottles as our organic fertilizer.

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