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# Vibrations and Waves MP205, Assignment 10 Solutions

* 1. Two strings, of tension T and mass densities 1 and 2 , are connected together.
Consider a traveling wave incident on the boundary. Given the following equations for the transverse displacements in the two strings




x
x
y1 (x, t) = f1 t
+ g1 t +
v1
v1


x
y2 (x, t) = f2 t
v2
derive the expressions for the ratio of the reflected amplitude to the incident
amplitude, and the ratio of the transmitted amplitude to the incident amplitude.
Assuming partial reflection and partial transmission at the junction, the displacements of
the two strings are given by:




x
x
+ g1 t +
y1 (x, t) = f1 t
v1
v1


x
y2 (x, t) = f2 t
v2
At the junction we impose the following conditions to insure that the strings join with
equal slopes and tension.
y1 (0, t) = y2 (0, t)
y1
y2
(0, t) =
(0, t)
x
x
Imposing these conditions implies that we must have:

f1 t
x
Using the substitutions:

x
v1

y1
y2
(x, t) =
(x, t)
x 
x


g1 t +
+

x
v1

f2 t

(1)
(2)
x
v2

(3)
(4)

x
u1
1

=
v1
x
v1
u2
1
x
u2 = t +

=
v1
x
v1
x
u3
1
u3 = t

=
v2
x
v2
u1 = t

(5)
(6)
(7)

## We can rewrite this using the chain rule:

(8)
1 f1 (u1 )
1 g1 (u2 )
1 f2 (u3 )
+
=
v1 u1
v1 u2
v2 u3
At x = 0, we can see these substitutions simplify to u1 = u2 = u3 = t

(9)

(10)

1 df1 (t)
1 dg1 (t)
1 df2 (t)
+
=
v1 dt
v1 dt
v2 dt
1 0
1 0
1 0
f (t) g1 (t) = f2 (t)
v1 1
v1
v2

(11)
(12)

## We rewrite equation 2 before integrating it.


1  0
1
f1 (t) g10 (t) = f20 (t)
v1
v2

1 d  0
1 d 0
f1 (t) g10 (t) =
f (t)
v1 dx
v2 dx 2
 0

v2 df1 (t) dg10 (t) dx = v1 df20 (t)dx
Z
Z
Z
0
0
v2 df1 (t)dx v2 dg1 (t)dx = v1 df20 (t)dx
v2 f1 (t) v2 g1 (t) = v1 f2 (t)
We substitute 1 into this result to find:
v2 f1 (t) v2 g1 (t) = v1 f1 (t) + v1 g1 (t)
(v2 v1 )f1 (t) = (v1 + v2 )g1 (t)
g1 (t)
v2 v1
=
f1 (t)
v2 + v1
And from 1: g1 (t) = f2 (t) f1 (t). Filling in gives:
v2 f1 (t) v2 f2 (t) + v2 f1 (t) = v1 f2 (t)
2v2 f1 (t) = (v1 + v2 )f2 (t)
f2 (t)
2v2
=
f1 (t)
v1 + v2
2. Two strings, of tension T and mass densities 1 and 2 , are connected together.
Consider a traveling wave incident on the boundary. Find the ratio of the
reflected amplitude to the incident amplitude, and the ratio of the transmitted
amplitude to the incident amplitude, for the cases 2 /1 = 0, 0.25, 1, 4, .
s

T
1

T
2

v=

v1 =
v2 =

v
uT
r
v1 u
2
1
t
=
=
T
v2
1

## So we can rewrite our ratios in terms of

2
1 :

g1 (t)
v2 v1
=
f1 (t)
v2 + v1
1 vv21
=
1 + vv12
q
1 21
q
=
1 + 21
2v2
f2 (t)
=
f1 (t)
v1 + v2
2
= v1
v2 + 1
2
=q
2
1 + 1
For

2
1

= 0,

2
1

= 0 so we obtain:
1

1
g1 (t)
10
q =
=
=1
f1 (t)
1+0
1 + 21

f2 (t)
2
2
=q
=
=2

2
f1 (t)
0+1
+1
1

For

2
1

= 0.25 = 14 ,

2
1

1
2

so we obtain:
1

1
1
g1 (t)
q =
=
f1 (t)
1+
1 + 21

2
f2 (t)
=q
=
2
f1 (t)
+1
1

For

2
1

= 1,

2
1

1
2

1
2
1
2

1
2
3
2

2
2
4
= 3 =
3
+1
2

= 1 so we obtain:
1

1
g1 (t)
11
q =
=
=0
2
f1 (t)
1+1
1 + 1

f2 (t)
2
2
=q
=
=1
2
f1 (t)
1+1
+1
1

For

2
1

= 4,

2
1

= 2 so we obtain:
1

1
g1 (t)
12
1
q =
=
=
2
f1 (t)
1
+
2
3
1 + 1

f2 (t)
2
2
2
=q
=
=
2
f1 (t)
2+1
3
+1
1

1
3

For

2
1

= ,

2
1

= .

1

2
1

## = t and take the limit as t :

1
t
1
t

1
g1 (t)
1t
q =
=
=
f1 (t)
1+t
1 + 21

1
= lim
+ 1 t

2
2
f2 (t)
2
=
=q
= t
2
f1 (t)
t+1
1+
+1
1

1
t

= lim

1
t
1
t

1
01
=
= 1
0+1
+1
2
t

1+

1
t

0
=0
1+0

3. Two strings, of tension T and mass densities 1 and 2 , are connected together.
Consider a traveling wave incident on the boundary. Show that the energy flux
of the reflected wave plus the energy flux of the transmitted wave equals the
energy flux of the incident wave. [Hint: The energy flux of a wave (the energy
density times the wave speed) is proportional to A2 /v, where A is the amplitude
and v is the wave speed.]
A2
v
A2
=C
v

where C is a constant

To show:
g1 + f2 = f1
(f2 )2
(f1 )2
(g1 )2
+C
=C
v1
v2
v1
2
2
(g1 )
(f2 )
(f1 )2
+
=
v1
v2
v1
2
2
1 (g1 )
1 (f2 )
1
+
=
v1 (f1 )2 v2 (f1 )2
v1
 
 
1 g1 2
1 f2 2
1
+
=
v1 f1
v2 f1
v1



2
1 v2 v1 2
1
2v2
1
+
=
v1 v2 + v1
v2 v1 + v2
v1
 2



v2 2v2 v1 + v12
4v22
v2
+ v1
= v2
v22 + 2v2 v1 + v12
v22 + 2v2 v1 + v12



v2 v22 2v2 v1 + v12 + v1 4v22 = v2 v22 + 2v2 v1 + v12


v22 2v2 v1 + v12 + v1 (4v2 ) = v22 + 2v2 v1 + v12
C

## v22 2v2 v1 + v12 + 4v1 v2 = v22 + 2v2 v1 + v12

v22 + 2v2 v1 + v12 = v22 + 2v2 v1 + v12
QED
* 4. A police car, traveling at 60 mi/hr, passes an innocent bystander while sounding its siren, which has a frequency of 2000 Hz. What is the overall change of
frequency of the siren as heard by the bystander?
Using:
() =

0
1

u cos
v

## We have the following values:

u = 60mi/hr = 26.82m/s
v = 344m/s
0 = 2000Hz
2000
2000
=
() =
26.82 cos
1

0.08
cos
1
344

To work out the overall change in frequency we need at the point furthest from the
bystander on either side of him. (Were assuming the police car moves from left to right)
As x increases, decreases, so if we imagine the point furthest from the bystander on the
left to be the point where x we can take = 0.
As y increases, increases, so if we imagine the point furthest from the bystander on the
right to be the point where y we can take = .
2000
1 0.08 cos
2000
2000
=
= 2173.9Hz
(0) =
1 0.08 cos(0)
1 0.08
2000
2000
() =
= 1851.86Hz
1 0.08 cos() 1 + 0.08
= 2173.9 1851.86 = 322.04Hz
() =

## 5. A car, traveling at 65 mi/hr, passes 8m in front of a man while blaring its

horn continuously, which has a frequency of 1800 Hz. It crashes into a wall
0.2s after passing the man, what is the overall change of frequency of the horn
as heard by the bystander?
Using:
() =

0
1

u cos
v

## We have the following values:

u = 65mi/hr = 29.06m/s
v = 344m/s
0 = 1800Hz
1800
1800
=
() =
29.06 cos
1 0.084 cos
1
344

To work out the overall change in frequency we need at the point furthest from the
bystander on either side of him. (Were assuming the car moves from left to right)
Again, as x increases, decreases, so if we imagine the point furthest from the bystander
on the left to be the point where x we can take = 0.
However, unlike last time, we have a definite stopping point for the car.
We know when the car it is in front of the man it is 8m in front of him, and we know it
stops a distance (29.06)(0.2) = 5.8m to the right of him.
Plotting this on a triangle, we need to work out the angle and then = .

8
= 1.4
5.8
= 0.9

tan =

= = 2.24
1800
1 0.084 cos
1800
1800
(0) =
=
= 1965.07Hz
1 0.084 cos(0)
1 0.084
1800
1800
(2.24) =
= 1714.29Hz
1 0.084 cos(2.24) 1 + 0.05
= 1965.07 1714.29 = 250.78Hz
() =