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Tema: 1.6_Voltaje, Corriente y Potencia Eléctrica en un Circuito Trifásico Balanceado.

Integrantes:

Marco Antonio Salto Molina.

13570299

Armando Daniel Becerril Valdovinos.

13570332

BALANCED THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS

The generation, transmission and distribition of eletric power is accomplished by means of theree-phase cirtuits. at the generating station, three sinusoidal voltages are gererated having the same amplitude but displaced in phase by 120°. this is called a balanced source. if the renerated voltages reach their peak values in the sequential order ABC, the generator is said to have a positive phase sequence, shown in Figure 2.11 (a). if the phase order is ABC, the generator is said to have a negative phase sequence, as shown in Figure

2.11(B)

Tema: 1.6_Voltaje, Corriente y Potencia Eléctrica en un Circuito Trifásico Balanceado.  Integrantes:  Marco Antonio

La generación, transmisión y distribución de energía eléctrica se lleva a cabo por medio de circuito trifásicos en la estación generadora, tres tensiones sinusoidales se generan, que tienen la misma amplitud, pero desfasadas en fase en 120°. esto se llama una fuente equilibrada. si los voltajes Generados alcanzan sus valores máximos en el orden secuencial ACB, se dice que el generador tiene una secuencia de fase positiva, que se muestra en la Figura 2.11 (a). si el orden de las fases es ABC, se dice que el generador tiene una secuencia de fase inversa, como se muestra en la figura 2.11(B)

In a three-phase system, the instantaneous power delivered to the external loads is constant rather than pulsaung as it is In a single-phase circuit, Also. three-phase motors, having constant torque, start and run much better than single-phase motors. This feature of three-phase power, coupled with the inherent efficiency of its transmission compared to single-phase (less wire for the same delivered power), accounts for its universal use.

En un sistema de trifásico, la potencia instantánea entregada a las cargas externas es constante en lugar de pulsante como lo es en un circuito monofásico, Además. Los motores trifásicos, con par constante, iniciar y ejecutar mucho mejor que los motores de una sola fase. Esta característica de potencia trifásica, junto con la eficiencia inherente de su transmisión en comparación con el de una sola fase (menos alambre para la misma potencia de salida), cuenta con uso universal.

A power system has Y-connected generators and usually includes both ∆ - and Y-connected loads Generators are rarely ∆ -connected, because if the voltages are not perfectly balanced, there will be a net voltage, and consequently a circulat-ing current, around the ∆. Also, the phase voltages are tower in the Y-connected generator, and thus less insulation is required.

 In a three-phase system, the instantaneous power delivered to the external loads is constant rather

Un sistema de energía

de generadores Y-conectado y por lo general

incluye tanto ∆ - y cargas conectadas ∆-generadores son raramente Una conectado, ya que si los voltajes no son perfectamente equilibrado, habrá una tensión de red, y en consecuencia una circulante ing actual, alrededor del ∆. Además, las tensiones de fase que están en la torre y conectado en estrella se requiere generador, y por lo tanto menos aislamiento.

In

power

systems, great care

is taken

to

ensure that the

loads of

transmission

lines

are

balanced.

For

balanced

loads, the

terminal

voltages of the generator

V An

,

V Bn

and

V Cn

and the phase

voltages

V an

,

V bn

and

V cn

at the load terminals are balanced For

"phase A," these are given by.

 In power systems, great care is taken to ensure that the loads of transmission lines

En los sistemas de energía, se tiene mucho cuidado para asegurar que las cargas de las líneas de transmisión están equilibrados. Para cargas

equilibradas, las tensiones en los terminales del generador de V An

,

V Bn

y

V Cn

y las tensiones de fase

V an

,

V bn

y

V cn

en los

terminales de carga están equilibradas Por "fase A", estos se dan por:

BALANCED THREE-PHASE POWER

consider a balanced three-phase source supplying a balanced Y-connected load with the following instantaneous voltages.

 In power systems, great care is taken to ensure that the loads of transmission lines

for a balanced load the phase currents are

 In power systems, great care is taken to ensure that the loads of transmission lines

where ¿V P ¿ and ¿ I P ¿ are the magnitudes of the rms phase voltage and current, respectively. the total instantaneous power is the sum of the instantaneous power of each phase, given by

where P and P are the magnitudes of the rms phase voltage and current, respectively. the

substituting for the instantaneous voltage and currents from (2.40) and (2.41) into (2.42)

where P and P are the magnitudes of the rms phase voltage and current, respectively. the

using the trigonometric identity

where P and P are the magnitudes of the rms phase voltage and current, respectively. the

the three double frequency cosine terms in (2.43) are out of phase with each other by 120° and add up to zero, and the three-phase instantaneous power is

where P and P are the magnitudes of the rms phase voltage and current, respectively. the

note that although the power in each phase is pulsating, the total instantaneous power is constant and equal to three times the real power in each phase. indeed, this constant power is the main advantage of the three-phase system over the single-phase system. since the power in each phase is pulsating, the power, then, is made up of the real power and the reactive power. in order to obtain formula symmetry between real and reactive powers, the concept of complex or apparent power (S) is extended to three-phase systems by defining the three-phase reactive power as

thus, the complex three-phase power is

thus, the complex three-phase power is equation (2.44) and (2.45) are sometimes expressed in terms of

equation (2.44) and (2.45) are sometimes expressed in terms of the rms magnitude of the line voltage and the rms magnitude of the line current. in a Y-

connected load the phase voltage

| I P | = | I L |

| V P | = | V L |

3

and

the phase current

in the delta-connection | V P | = | V L |

y | I P | = | I L |

3

. substituting for the phase

voltage and phase currents in (2.44 ) and (2.45) the real and reactive powers for either connection are given by

thus, the complex three-phase power is equation (2.44) and (2.45) are sometimes expressed in terms of