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ululorywedwrdry,

!rs-^I
In {roduc li6,py

and go\)

Arch
/\/L'\_,

tte

c{crre
_\

Ylge PgsiryI'- ruP),X cPo built on q singrle rc 5 cal lec{ M i c ro il roc


i

poroer

su7i9

ReOisters

eo

.dclr.rs

a.to

sscr'

Jinus

li.,*s

ntrol

Fg; Block dagrar.,


X U P erecutes

c+ o lrp

prcararns

And

(cr) c prl

monerg

es rnerncrq

'\il ot? dev,,(S

+-

it

prc(essor.-

Mcs

-4

Hecnllq

*co+(qsed
4CIo2,

tn cotcurlqtcrr), 4oo),4t)c2/

lco, , 4oo9

Mcs.+o R:.no,lg* 4c+0, 4tat,


{Lorr +2og etc,

g'

blt

prc,c.

16'

Bit

Prccessor

p.-lJ;{
64-B

it

ssc

Boog ,

prcce Ebor *

processor -

g086,

gago,gc|5 e{c.
gOBg,BDlg 6,EOLBO

E03L6DX , s o: B6

3X,

et,

BAJT 6

fntel perr{iurrr, c3rq i3,


core

1r

-,

penfiurn po,

core

etc...-

\\,

e{..

3Urzlzor+ ,"tednadQ_

5rp igtst!.1:- 6!1c7,)t A s,nqll rornptt"r


X fr, Motorolors o8 t I

on_chip

^Tntel

RAM, RoM,

,s 8o5,

t lo pcrts .

*
.

, Zilo{s 78 qnd Ptc

Jrc
cPt-t

RAvr

ROM

Io

"Ti-.r

Serial

CI

por{

cotYl

port

*e,
X lc

o.

Block

js q srnclll

Phocessor core

diagro-

cf

P;.

rnitc

to.opu-ter cn

meroorg

x'l

ccrrlrcller

a single Ic

progrq-rnoble

x Ae's Qhe used


in qu{or.qhcollg

!o

X
conta, njr lfr
(

purphero)s

xl

contnollecl produck

fud
-Gnces

devices arch
, {ogs

as

d other

keroo*g conti-ors

, horu

apprr

o,rbedded sgsterns,

@%_S:ps:,!X The cyerqll

xA
o.tl

sgstern

log, sieed

pc

ccst

s is

is

jr

hiqh,

regtrired

{ar

l-eguires

rnor *-.

th. oroponents

a CreCl p.duct d.sg.,

X,
assernbl,rog

:rfrzf og

phgsrcol aizt of

X A

the product is b,?


are usd, -thu

sgste,r>

peripherals ore in.[egrate( jn{o a

st ng le

dis11.e{e ccropcnen{s

not rc liable,
?tc

gttg:
X As

-th

oL-uc gJgtrp,-

Chp, +l-,e overall :gste- cost


P

in coun t

h,-rrfl
(
r,pi rrq)s

)lg l:;'f5
:.1 ';)i

iE of

sn^,all

sgstern d.sqn nor)

usig, -[i.',e

sg

stern

Though

js

size ccropared +o
reeui

lrsrrj

res v( rg ittle e ffcrts


I

ted*ce s)

As the periph erq{s &r e


{he

&nd

led.rces

X "Ihe product

'lhu

ts yeq l.ss

nrnre

re

M?,

RArv.r

6r/s

integra"ted r'rith

licrble

uc h.(1g h*n cn*chip,Ro*4,

Pcr+s, add;"licncul RArq, RoM , do ports .oag be


' nkr$V,oded
externollg t,f hqui.ed.
cn' chi7 Rovt proride

"fl

o- scftrrnre s curity

flrlorr N.a.,oa*l

t(i". +.f-St reiry g^Ua-

X .nqqtinfi {he conrguting


oyrd co st e fftct )ve lg
al

SPeeq Ornount-

po(s,
b2 E
C2

{ivnrs

rg t0

needs Of *be

tosk efftc;ertly

of RArvl ancl Roru, the nc,o+ 'ro @fu,

t b}Ler pckagtnffr

lcurc

r consc}mp=ln:n

ufgrade

CoSt per uniL

Avai{abil;tg
o7 Asoernb)rs

of

5cf{urar. deveiop.".nf tools

,Cebugqe re,

c cornpile B, Ernet/ato r, slrncrlak:r

{t

fuchnicq/ sqp?ort

/(

,qide avollqbltitg reiiablu


sourceE
d

of ilt" pc

& 49 pgeli. 4n rmbedded eyste.n is (t svecial


Ittpctse co"nputer

DE

gte-

des

,gn {o

tcok coD

Jt is a

desiTned

{or spec,4c applica&or-s.

x Es conbrin
e

ther

corob

frOce

rnailcn

do

50rn e spec;+ic

hcrrc,lore

rurfl corej thct ore

tof{,^:are

fuytrafig

.Mc co rt j,tF
5r

5n

(q"rn

rysl

6tt
on{

+(tlzots u'rdn

gS Wy,JJ*-

lentlg

M(
t-

I IJ,

il.s,,

1\

Mirro controller

-_rl7

-,/

t
i

K Reads

*
I

Ip

such

devices

c;{ic

os btrtfcns d sen$ors

dotcr. (arr lrans{o.rq{inn

p roce ss

x control

o(P deyices su cb

Differcnc<s

bplLg

as S?uqkers,rnotc rs 6 drspla!'"

y:
Micro conholler (lc (or/

Micro Processer ( )Jf )

al

/ olr

r/ (orrrpLtter

on chip
ry
ry )s th. heart cf
l/ cpu

on.chip

uc ]a the heort o{

t1

7l(

llc
(PU

Rnv

Rot l

control

firner

Sekiol

So

lntrdryl

TorE

47

up is

3us{ a p}ocrs;or

g7 since rnen r3rEogo

J.rp

bu 5.r SiTtCe

.bcsud

rystem RQures rngrp horrtr -rcrre

- IIP&:rgn
o)
Sgster",
ex,pensiv6

lS

cornpkf

uc

hos p.,es5or abng c[th


tnternq\ r>ernglg
d Co porb

hos to

rornecfo6l ex,+ernqllv,

qn,i

r"nbedded

sgs{elrn.

Pqter sgstern,

\n-rirgA

t'4cu)

*nOlQ

ffe
cneanot
9d 116

P)^esent

, A. basrd

sg

sfern

mter

Teeanes

less hcnrdulore

6) ltc bosrd sgrfun r


d,r.,gn ",
sfmp{e qhd co st
rornpS+o
e

flictfu.

MiC ro pTocrslo(

1l

Les3 irfieb(e

Tl t'4ore rel,.able

is rnorc fleri
bte- in d.sign
Pu*t cf Weut

B)

,tlp hs.C sgstern

$) less f lex,b (e
poirrt of vieur,

in

d*sqn

g) {ccess tirnes pfor rnernorgg4/6 g) lerg Qcess tir.,e for burlt


(evices ere rnore, so i[ js:fou-ler
lo rnemory t flo device , tb,rs

thnn lrc

$o.ster

to) JJP', Qre Lqsed -for

g.nertl

to2

lp hsed sEsterq.

used -i-or specifi"c opplico

Purpos agp lico$,ors

tor.r special

t/ Iess no,o.[ Ptns are .nt-llti

tl/ hooR rD,Of Pins

ncf,bned,

l? Instlarcban
i

processors o.re bqsed

dv1,( Vonnerumenn

(or.1

{un (rchlfucLure. ,n v4
sgS{ern

prinq6

@r1

verg

srr,7p1e

3o

tnsbcrctions

3/Tt hq, rnor* no.ot


Fograrns qre esier

regisftr5, so

hcrve

l)

+!

\rtthO

4O u:rite

fcrotr consqrafl$e6 iS

Ylg

Operc
u'rt-

IesS

4Jtc

Miuo coqtrr:l\trs qr,e boEed on

hqrvqrd crrchitec+ure, -Ir h0.


doto-

mc[ pmgrqrn rcerrrorre_:

x +l

I
I

lou;

6 do-h,

Tt hq: one (oD {uro bit

ImX r" s{ucbons


Micro procssor.j
5ed

y11

l--

u5rs Scrme rnernog {or Qre s.pe,netr,

frognr.ns

il-'

u;!th \ess ro,Of tns[ructi ons-

l$potoer cohsurapfuDn .js Hpl^,

Vico

&rr rnql{i

xt:g

?.r,*
o .ot

i=
ll.

pUrpose (gp\icqbons

Q, Pfc rrc

P, It hcrs less no,S hegretere

try

il,

,l

$.lnctoned,

tr; Tn5{tucNryl sef B cornplex


urith [q.gr no,of in:{ruchorS,

l9

thon

hon4

T ho.g rnong bit hondlxlg


efuuctn:r-,s.

are roernlg lfl Mtcrc ccn$ctfers are UstQ

in Pc's, hptrys , desklayg in

trophrccrl \,gh\s,

cvensr

I rrnters, /.lTM:,

phones

et..

Mic16
cef

icrql

fulrco

l"tfSiQr
Ir'me/roun Ler

lilo

br o.,ttl[

ce tbus
Tnternq/

{rsi:ra

Rorv

Tn{ema/

pplrlq

ftAM

,1;ccbonr

rEarl

mqlti

Y1g

control

4-bit

-t-tc:-

{e

r5 !9ILeg,-

qnd {og ic
operottone at Gn ingLruc {ron , {he ,txc i5 sc?id to be
+lc, Ihe inbernai bu 6/ t^_tidth
AbiL /rc is o{ 4b
r,,Jhen

the

"l-tc

perforrns +JDit or{he-crtic

b\t-

q(

u,,

4 bit

.Ug/s

crl-e Srr,all sizt ,{out cogt J-,rc's LlseC {-or

\our end applicahons liku toqs, led ,s, Jcd E etc.-,

r)o'..

oncUtct rre; I.,todel

d'rg
e rrstd
l'1:c rO

pf,

pins ,lc
Pins:qc
_l

ll{ochi r H.ucD4c

20: r0

l.tottonql .. cop42a

2-b". L3

: TN1

SIOOO

n otaQ
'/_u
" z)

l count rs l no, I no, I *h:t


+'at'-res
;)*a

lrro+,'t

-:--- ! zi I ut, /lo-r,it n,v


lk

/s.';o| bit r/o

o,u*l

Tllnv

t !tjs'-

rnost popular

thes o.re thu

and u_ridelg

?+

lltrul

,=-

Used nricro conlrollers,

Intel

I -bit .u. hes e bit )rr&rncil bus qnd *he Ato


perforr-ns oll the Qrthe-alic ond iogic opero.kcns on

Jhe

Punlt..

sVeed

O bgte ingtruction.

t:y'!

l"hnuhctur.,f"frarlF

Mi;;fI

Mlicrrrhi

'

p,Frct6c,6ltso,t^

;;i ?U!;l
l"-';tl",T"L{1;l

',

r,;:,;::

{!r1

['::, 1:'

li.",erl reset the controllen )f


elecufion hcngs uf ' (op col (ccryu-ter
operaln

lh.g 0)r &ritqb [e -fot hY h

opvlrcahors

Ptinters, s(anners, ond seryo

-, .ARY

I s tlnnr:
{
I

/..

leve /

PrrA(

proPertgl
lar>guaqes

in d,sk drvers , rnod.nns,

\_o)",

,,

?rr

c ancl c++,

Jh,g {ind

Prcqrc-rn

\'ro?tot'-'s like

5Ot

l'ftrctfo-

tNDTrwetch do?

l.-

at[)la.,

_r tti(l

f\.^&

fcr

ij o 1,, i,o !iX,r.,l,


,*,,lE

ffi:::: //-r['.'.,:, /
to"bi{ J-kr-

r,Ct

contolls"

prth

Vllnt;

*'awtfr
RAM
tbfite>,t

4a^

ti-

f ulse uiiclth cnodulation) cfy i5


>feel 0 liEht tnte nsitg a{ LED'

?n cont

Phlrl (

SON

rrl

s!!!*,-

'Ih*q are usd

BK

ol

\n hVh enC appl,Tat,ons

mcbiles, C?Rs,seteltiks, Drgrtat rrr;ag pyoces9fl|

t,ros
--i

motor

lik,e

hrr',J

,.ll

,a)rdrrnLrnf

j,r

nrrL.
, 'rrrUlp'h^.

.t

'l
i^r i-

catrc)n

,
"iro,iARMg

AerosfaceS

i"e'

Mhnrrfctc{urc,kroCe)

'f
1

netu:orJ< 3,

ArvlEL 32, 5HABr ' LH rgszo, rNrELBoge

D ' ' .ic"st

, fobo{tcs etc.-sone c>f 4h, ?opulqr ez-bit Jur's are pksL,ARMt

, Sl-iARPr LHlg Dza

} p\nsz:fo\ fntt Junms/ ,ourt.,


I

T6l64-

ph*, tocked loop,

D1vtA[Dr"ct
1.1

Pe+h bl,.t

4"s

Lrs

ed {cr

devl6js g rnernos.

cyiber

'

fraiup5

yt,.h*nus 66 pqrrL(t-)ic..*^[mn

rnlmag Rcces, , provides difeCt

!o

etc--

coEa taD ."rtrllL,.


2PWryl tuPIrRIC
?LL( ot 44

3Lk

?Li(

ccrri^\rnL{niCatrAn

gllors

Ttr! YQ-TI"@,.
*=l .*l-',rilf
'*W
tbs'{eil P*'&trXP
(

ruo",*
,

|
{
AH I tz4 lqkRoM
r.srns, lzse jr*n*
i,,

I
I
I
I

luoEJ2R.,M

zsa /**uo*o,
--=-l-

|otiug,

bti*

tlt

--L

lr

lrl
t 3
l'I '

,;r5l

irrsr l\zB
l.tsz I

Ttnuf cou"tersl

-1

-;ral
,,"rt

lt

\;l;J{
rl'i'\

",'
I ?^3zAH
I .\r:,.
,on I

--r-

---t--

le / t
to
t,
l_l

_l

luc
loy.rlor I
lntroduced
in& I rn tb. gear wge, Jh e BoDl is
\
,.rte r)
Uc,sed oo Gn B bit cisc (cc0 rnplet instuction se{ corrPuter
.c'f.,tre
core u-ritb harra( archi{u, ture, ft 's e b;t ctrch;t.c'fqt
nsive
i t opfl.oizrd {or ccntrol ofPlrca{ions cuitl^, ertensivr

The *os*rc ,s

btt

o. verg

t1

?Taceeb\nX, T+ ?s &veilab1.
utr:rks at +5 r dc ,

booJec,n

qrd

*= a lp ?fn chrp

lo/r/uru S**urr@r

f " leq"tuy,es cf Bostlc:--/_-laf

1) B

b)t cPe

f-iqrvcr.rd Ar.hitecture

3) + kb on-chlp

m (roor 9
?r0 gr61rn

Bor-a rcD

+ lzS bgtrs on *chrp do{a w:eaor9 [nnv)


i g biL dqtct bus
6; t6 bil a-ddress bus

E?ROM)

a-t
t)

B)

e)

@il:srye1
6+kb ,erternq) rn<nu{e {o, co cle,
6+kb rternol nwow) 1r:, data

ar,3r-'1

s+

one t

Crrran

tO)

$enero)

q.^ crs

Ds

'

pur?os( reqistevs (o,b qncl othu 32 oyt

lart af Ihternql Bn lrt

\n 4bcmds,bo*or)

L) s pec ia I {:rncl,on re? ie ters. (Onrt , D pL ,?o,?,, f2, f, , T\

fP, Fcorv,SboftS(oN,16pp,T/YaD,
lD

te b it p rcgraffi

32 Tlo pine

t,fics|,TL

1,T1-J

L,Sp, ?sxl),

certnter.

Qwqnqed

ae +rg bit ports,

bit 4rrnerfcoqnters: % crncl f


tU5 \,ffiq}t, ( 2erternolp3rhterno. l

,?r

-yu'

13) 2 , ta -

ntytlpts

socrrces)

l5i Direct Bgte Gnd. h+ addresseb ili+g,


I,67

cof

jo,

ab;lit9

lTr on-cbrp

srngie

it

baokay't oF erahans"

clock osciilotclr,

tU on r {utr Cupler seriq I

cc

rnrnuniccsorr pcd,

SU"!l{^pPrt3'? :n!!'
The cPu cf Borl con:ists of B bit A,tt: uttb
Gssoc;et-ed registers like Arb,psru , sp ,DprR , pc clo-rg
u:i{h

tl^rese registers

it

har

a set o{

spe

cicl

'{unc'tron registers.
Ato Of I osl Perfor.ns
openatrcng

on B b;t Cate,

crth.matic

ond

logrc

f-,

r,9,.

rt

lolrlo6;4urd/

ond unique fea{.te cf BoDt


archFtecture iS thot {h. ALa can also neoipq,/o{e
tne b lt as i ae 0 b it dat-e Up.r
Qn irnportarrt

I cre

,,ue

./vJb^+oh

-F&li-eo

?z , T-8.

PI5

g\ oL?

(oo
'f,L-),

urrct)

h
ilc.,

rc

J;a3r^.* ,t

g;o

q"Sl

st'fr-f,chltechrra

tO

ltlorr Sduld

Me{ 5jtg -9ett:lath

trw1

It

rnanlpqlqtionE.

dotq

tr,anSfe rs

-:t
"E

i9 crn I

reg

ancl

booluan b'ft

Jhe A regis{er )s qtso ugqC $tr atl


b/,^J {1. 8os t o.nc[ ang er&rna{ *effiog '

operations oJong u.rith

/r

rnultip licqhon

Afrg

u;''lr

bg

D?rt

re-alSte n
0

Corl

Qk lo,rrer fole product

A!

rnernCrtJ

?P,g
Ps tl ir

teqrster"

g,od.uct

Drv

+^

rSrmrnof

ister rtsed {<r nqnq

odditicn, subtrqefion e{c''

BA<-

H,jher

)s en I bi'L

bll register .narnlg t-t5ed {or

qnc di visron

aj,e
\- p(

'- w(

oP.rQ',tions like

AB

^-

is-Lers ( A ond D):/vzt!+

Peq

@r,

MUL

l-

sb

(t'lag

BA +_ A+B

er

/\

;s

Re'o,nder euo{;gn{

Conditir

P:!3l 9gBt3c):- scnr hos q la btt pc, The Pc


oitlogs points

to

the

eddress

of

quri la

,th. nert instructron

After ef,ecu{ion of On lns$uc {\ott,


{ne Pmgrqrn countrr i: inci^ernentec -Lc pnint to {he
Gdclresg of tl^re rtelt ln g#ucticn -Lo be erec u-ted . Sin
-lhe Pc is 16 bit \,uidth boEl (en ec-|> es pro1rcfi
,
+c be elecuted,

ce

Qdctresses

of

{rorn oocoH tc FFFFI-1, ct {otol

codE roerDorgt.

cf

6+kb

bits
offu.r

?r

(wig
It

=tto Pgulsr.!Pff9,---w

'

> useC to pcnrt tc

'crnrnands , crhich oflou:

on

roernovr) o

Ir

enoU,
celon

t6 b f,

OCCe

reg

Isters D? H and

no'c:f

Sg$ erternai n"en-,Org

it ac{g e(terna} rnurorg at {h


"
bg ,PrR, Tbis DprR cen also bc
u:l

th. Bosl +a cds clE er{etna1

hlhen 'Lhe boS)

regts{er" DprB

clata' -Tl ig ugqi bt

nqng
b''1"

is

s indrcatec{
useC es t *abit
adCres

D p L,

tpggl sgn Jgtc

psu))t- Jhe Bonr has Gn

aln

I bii

cs flag regis te r
brs sk^fus r-eoleter' E-qch bit in psxr iE mllec allag,
Ps

Lnt YeEisLer , .chich Ie

(t'lag is

ere used

knor"rp

4lrgf top)

, Jn the g b;{ reqrs{er onlg 6 bi{s

b2

, In

bosl

-the o

Corrditrenal {lc1Xs ,crtmath


c1_uri

rlion
7{',og

lorq

bits TnCica{e
,

t,'

efter An

'ry)

bits

t of th"-

flo-gs. ll-,rg cre rcy(j*cl

ftc,,porifu -p, cver-f16u]-oy, These ff.uX


sorne conditror-rs =that

of resulfed

gtrclc{,on '&JqB erecukd^

1,1.e

'1
.;in

rO

ce

CY

lnl6+kb

ctye

AC

r0,

Rs1

RSO

oV

i'hx-.tt

futt6

Bit
f\/\-

RrncUon

sgrobol

c\*^--^-

/*-/--'/--

cy

T
b

Ac

FO
RS J-

carru {tog,used m oYl.l-,t*otic / )umP,


'rnsbdchonS'
hotnte onC Booleqn

no'of

.flaq; used
Aur,larg corru

rnohc

qser flaX c

lf

bit L
R.gtster bonk reJect
c
bqnl( xlect bit

ex{

RSL Rso

BanK
select kglster

o 'l
1 o
I I
ov

over

Select
S elec

fl"g)

Reversed

uged

if tt

l-egister gank 3

th.

odd Prrkl

(QTl --_--g_
llgq [c]:-

4!
.&. ghot^

It is set urheneyer a

during &r{hen-.olic

s\gnu

usg

Dit oddrt ssabb crs fsw'o

Ccu-rs

For

'Pqr,'! ef rcgisWA)
floq;
shors
Pqrite
l=

gqnk

tl

*nalrc

in erthern*i*,Luns,

f.rt.r.

{<rr

regisber

is

if

rqok
?
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