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Harmes Paris Logo Shaped Wearable Antenna for Multiband Applications

Pujayita Saha * , Bappaditya Mandal , Ayan Chatterjee δ , Susanta Kumar Parui §

*§δ Dept. of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering Indian Institute Engineering Science & Technology Shibpur, Howrah, India 711103 * Email: pujayita.2011@hotmail.com, Email: bappaditya.kgec@gmail.com δ Email: ayanmrinal26@gmail.com, § Email:arkapv@yahoo.com

Abstract In this article a compact wearable Harmes Paris logo antenna for multiband applications is presented. For proper antenna design, the electrical properties of various leathers are measured. The antenna has been optimized to operate within the ISM frequency bands with centre frequencies are 2.41GHz as well as 3.1GHz and 3.7GHz.

Index Terms Wearable, Logo Antenna, Leather, ISM

I. INTRODUCTION

Wearable antennas are an important research topic last few years. A flexible textile material and planar structure are normally used by wearer in order to effortlessly integrate antennas into a garments as well as shoes. In several wearable antennas for GPS, WLAN, and Bluetooth applications were studied [1]. A wearable antenna using a textile material for wireless body area network (WBAN) applications has growing research interest due to its low weight, low cost, ease of production [2].Usually, to fabricate a textile antenna, a conductive material is used for the radiating element or ground, while a nonconductive material, such as cotton, leather, or felt, is used as a substrate [3]-[4]. Now a day’s an idea growing up, a textile antenna can be integrated onto the cloth or bag as well as shoes with a manufacturer’s logo or brand name for advertising purposes. Logotype antennas are a hopeful research area in the antenna field. However, designing antennas to have a unique logo shape is very tricky, and some types of antenna have been proposed to achieve this. Different symbol shapes have been proposed, such as university emblems, circle-shapes, and shield-shapes, and their operating principles have been described [5][6].A wearable logo antenna using the “AIUB” shape was demonstrated for a WBAN application [7]. Yet, few logo antennas for commercial advertisement purposes have been investigated. In this letter, a compact wearable multi band logo antenna is proposed that can be mounted on shoes as well as bag for tracking and health monitoring applications. The radiating part of the antenna is made of copper sheet, whilst a leather sheet material is used as a substrate and fed by a coaxial line through the ground plane. The H shaped logo is composed of two long thin arms and other arms in middle, which are responsible for three desire bands. The antenna is designed to

for three desire bands. The antenna is designed to Fig. 1 Fabricated Logo antenna Fig. 2

Fig. 1 Fabricated Logo antenna

The antenna is designed to Fig. 1 Fabricated Logo antenna Fig. 2 Proposed designs operate at
The antenna is designed to Fig. 1 Fabricated Logo antenna Fig. 2 Proposed designs operate at

Fig. 2 Proposed designs

operate at ISM band 2.41GHz, as well as 3.1GHz, and 3.7GHz. The proposed antenna is simulated by Ansoft HFSS FEM based EM simulator.

II. ANTENNA ARCHITECTURE

A. Geometry of the Antenna

Fig 2 shows photographs of the Harmes Paris bag with H logo. The H shaped logo is composed of two thin arms with same length and other arms of different lengths. Fig. 3 shows the geometry of the proposed antenna. The logo is used as a patch radiator having a practical size (50˟70) mm for a logo on the shoes. The logo patch and ground are designed to implement a conductive copper sheet. The antenna is fed by a coaxial cable at the top point at the one arm of H. The electrical properties of the wearable substrate are important factor in the antenna design because they determine the overall antenna size and the size of the radiating element. The radius of the proposed antenna is 45 mm, and a leather substrate of 2 mm thickness is used for this practical integrated application on a shoes or bag.

S 11 (dB)

S 1 1 (dB) Fig. 3 Antenna geometry TABLE I L R w L1 L2 L3

Fig. 3 Antenna geometry

TABLE I

L

R

w

L1

L2

L3

W1

H

ε

r

50

45

22

30

10

12

26

2

2.75

Fig. 1 shows the fabricated prototype of the proposed antenna. The proposed antenna is made with conductive copper sheets and nonconductive leather materials. The H-shaped logo patch and the ground are made of copper sheet conductive with a thickness of 0.1 mm. The mixed leather, which is a substrate material (ε r =2.75 δ=0.02) with thickness 2 mm, is used as a substrate. The SMA connector is attached to the logo patch through the ground.

III. EXPERIMANANTAL RESULT

A. Reflection Coefficient Measured and simulated reflection coefficient (S 11 ) of the fabricated antenna is presented in Fig. 4. The measurements have been taken inside an anechoic chamber, and the measurements results are in good agreement with the simulated results. The measured -10dB reflection coefficient bandwidth is 60 MHz (2.5%), over the range from 2.38 GHz to 2.44 GHz in the ISM 2.45 GHz band, 100 MHz (1.9%) over the range from 3.04 GHz to 3.14 GHz and 240MHz (6.4%) over the range from 3.66 GHz to 3.88 GHz . The inconsistency between the simulated and measured results is possibly due to a fabrication error of the fabricated antenna. Fig. 5 shows the antenna input impedance variation with frequency while Fig.6 representing a phase shifts as a function of frequency arising out of impedance mismatch. The real part related to the input impedance of the antenna is found to be 58.37Ω at 3.11GHz and 49.40Ω at 3.78GHz where as the imaginary part of the frequencies is nearly 0 Ω. The phase shift of antenna is seen to be close to almost 0 0 at the corresponding resonating frequencies.

0 -10 -20 -30 Simulated Measured -40 On Body Simulated On Body Measured -50 2.0
0
-10
-20
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Simulated
Measured
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On Body Simulated
On Body Measured
-50
2.0
2.5
3.0
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4.5
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Freq (GHz)

Fig. 4 Simulated and measured return losses of proposed antenna with on body measured S 11

100 50 0 Imaginary part Real part -50 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0
100
50
0
Imaginary part
Real part
-50
2.0 2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
Input impedance(re,im) ohm

Freq(GHz)

Fig. 5 Impedance variation of proposed with frequencies

200 150 100 50 0 -50 -100 -150 -200 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5
200
150
100
50
0
-50
-100
-150
-200
2.0 2.5
3.0
3.5
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Phase(deg)

Freq(GHz)

Fig. 6 Phase variation proposed with frequencies

0 0 -10 -10 -20 -20 -30 -30 -40 Co-pol(Simulated) Co-pol(Simulated) Co-pol(Measured) -40 -50
0
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Gain(dB)
Gain(dB)

(a)

(b)

0 0 -10 -10 -20 -20 -30 -30 -40 Co-pol(Simulated) Co-pol(Simulated) Co-pol(Measured) -40 Co-pol(Measured)
0
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0 0 -10 -10 -20 -20 Co-pol(Simulated) Co-pol(Measured) -30 X-pol(Simulated) X-pol(Measured) Co-pol(Simulated)
0
0
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Co-pol(Measured)
-30
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X-pol(Simulated)
X-pol(Measured)
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0
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180
-180
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Theta
Theta
(e)
(f)
Gain(dB)
Gain(dB)

Fig. 7 Normalized Radiation pattern (a), (b) φ =0 0 , φ =90 0 at 2.38GHz and (c),

(d) φ =0 0 , φ =90 0 at 3.1GHz, (e), (f) φ =0 0 , φ =90 0 at 3.84GHz

B. On Body Performance

To validate the on-body performance, measured with the antennas placed on the chest was performed. The measured S 11 value is illustrated in Fig. 4 shows a constant resonate frequencies, which is indicating a satisfactory on body performance. S 11 variation is due to scattering and absorption by the lossy body area where the antenna is mounted.

C. Radiation Characteristics

Radiation patterns are simulated and measured in both principal planes of φ= 0 0 (x-z plane) and φ= 90 0 (y-z plane), at 2.41GHz, 3.1GHz, and 3.7GHz in Fig. 7. As can be seen, in both the planes, there is a significant difference near about average 17dB between co-pol and X-pol radiation. The composite structure provides a nearly constant gain are 0.8dBi, 2.2dBi and 3.2dBi in the desired frequency band. The efficiency of proposed antenna is more than 62% achieved at desired frequencies.

D. Surface Current Distribution:

Simulated surface current distributions of the proposed antenna at 2.41GHz, 3.1GHz, and 3.7GHz are shown in fig.8. This is a result of the repulsion of electrons on the metallic surface which tend to migrate toward the edges. Since the majority of surface current was concentrated toward the edges. The current distribution is relatively stable over the operating frequency range, which indicates that the radiation characteristics are to be stable as well. It is also observed from the current distribution pattern that the proposed antenna is a good radiator.

pattern that the proposed antenna is a good radiator. Fig.8 Surface current distribution at 2.38GHz, 3.1GHz

Fig.8 Surface current distribution at 2.38GHz, 3.1GHz and 3.84GHz

V.

CONCLUSION

In this letter, a leather based Hermes Paris logo antenna is proposed. The H shaped patch representing the Hermes Paris logo is analyzed for application as an antenna. The overall size of the composite structure is 45mm 2 . The proposed logo antenna is fabricated from a leather material and has a realistic logo size for bag and smart shoes applications. The measured corresponding -10 dB reflection coefficient bandwidths are 60MHz, 140MHz, and 180MHz with free-space gains are 0.8dBi, 2.2dBi and 3.2dBi respectively. Efficiency of desire frequencies more than 62% achieved. Therefore, this logo antenna is a good applicant for wireless communication and anti-theft applications for smart wearable devices such as luxury bags as well as smart shoes.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Authors like to acknowledge Indian Institute Engineering Science & Technology, Shibpur (I.I.E.S.T) (formerly known as B.E.S.U.) for providing necessary support in this research work.

REFERENCES

[1] N. H. M. Rais et al., “A review of wearable antenna,” in Proc. LAPC Loughborough, U.K., Nov. 2009, pp. 225228. [2] Low Profile Inverted-F-L Antenna for 5.5 GHz WiMAX Applications Al- Ahsan Talukde1, Debabrata Kumar Karmokar, Khaled Mahbub Morshed2 and Md. Nurunnabi Mollah ACEEE Int. J. on Communications, Vol. 03, No. 01, March 2012. [3] Kaivanto, E.K., Berg, M., Salonen, E. and de Maagt,. Wearable circularly polarized antenna for personal satellite communication and navigation. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 59(12), pp.4490-4496. [4] T. Kaufmann and C. Fumeaux, Wearable textile half-mode substrate integrated cavity antenna using embroidered vias,” IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 805808, 2013 [5] M. Rafiee and M. R. Kamarudin, UTM-logo wideband printed monopole antenna surrounded with circular ring patch,Prog. Electromagn. Res. C, vol. 15, pp. 157164, 2010. [6] W. G. Whittow and J. M. Rigelsford, “Performance and radiation patterns of aesthetic and asymmetric logo-based patch antennas,J. Electromagn Waves, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 848860, Mar. 2014. [7] M. S. Mahmud and S. Dey, Design, performance and implementation of UWB wearable logo textile antenna,in Proc. 15th ANTEM,Toulouse, France, Jun. 2012, pp. 14.