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XLIX

, 2015 .



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9
1. .
2. .
3. .,
.
4. .
5. .

10
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

.
.
.
.
.

-
LATEX 2 .
c

141700, , .
-

11
1. .,
.
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .

XLIX

9
1.
, v , , .
. .
, v1 = 20 /. v2 = 30 /.
u ?
v2

v1

. 1
2.
.
, (. 2).
. F , .
, . , , f .
.
1. N
F ?
2. Nmax .

. 2

.
3.
, t0 =
= 30 , ,
.
, = 9 . ,
. :
1. t1 t2
?
2. tm ,
?
3. t3 ?
: t tt/2. t+t/2,
, t t/2 . , :
1)

t t/2.
2) , , .
3) .
4.
, 3,
R1 = R2 = R3 = R D1 , D2 , D3 . , ,
4. I U .
. I U , (, ,
, ).
D3

D2

R3
R2

R1

I
B

D1

D
. 3

U0
. 4

XLIX
5. -

-.
.
100- ( ), .


. 5
(. 5). , - . . ,
21 , T1 = 2 , T2 = 4 .
1. ?
2. , ?
3.
?
. , .
. 12 .

10
1.
k2

, F~
6 ( ).
k1 k1
m, m
. k2
,
. 6
. F , . m ,
.
1. .
2. ,
.
, , , , F ,
( ),
.
2.

. p
z ( ). , z1 = 5
T1 = 250 . T0 . , R z1 .
.
.
.
3.
,
q q,
, q
q
(. 7).
.
, . 7
, .
, . , ,
.
6

XLIX
4.
3
1
~v . ,
~v
,
,
. 8
(. 8).
. ,

1. ;
2. .
. ,
, 2 , 1
.

5.
,
, , . , ,
I U , , I U2 ,
. , :
, .
, ,
P1 = 7,2 . , , ?

11
1.
O
. q
. O, ~g
,
q1 , , . 9
(. 9).
, , T .
, , q2 ,
|q2 /q1 | = 2, , ,
T . T , ,
T0 = 1,0 .
.
2.


. C

, . ,
B RAB = r = 32 .
I
I
A
M
B
I =
= 1 , ,
. 10
M ( AB)
UMC = M C = U = 2,0 .
RAC A . RAB RAC , ,
, 2
?
3.
, ,
.
t = 20 , M = 17 .
v0 = 1 / ,
q = 20 , . S = 20 ?
8

XLIX
. , . ,
.
= 29 /.
4.
,
, . ,
t ,
T T + T , T T .
. c.
5.
, , ,
f .
S, . , S1 S
v0 .
. .


9
1.
( ). L , a .
12 23 1, 2 3 (. 11). ,
12 v1 , 23, , v2 . u1 ,
12 t1 , 23 t2 .
v1

v2

u1

u3

u
. 11

,
L = v1 t1 = v2 t2 .
(1)
C , :
L = u 1 t1 +

at21
,
2

(2)

L = ut2 +

at22
,
2

(3)

u = u1 + at1 .

(4)

(2) v1 /t1 (3) v2 /t2 , , t1 t2


(1) u1 (4) (2) (3),
v12 = uv1

aL
,
2

v22 = uv2 +

aL
.
2

L, u :
u=

v12 + v22
= 26 /.
v1 + v2

(5)

(). , (1).
10

XLIX
. (1) , 12
, 23 ( 6 4 ).
u, /
30

20

t/
10
0

4
6
. 12

10

. , 20 30 /
5 . 3 6 /.
26 /.
( ). . 2-3 u3 .
:
v1 =

u1 + u
,
2

(6)

v2 =

u + u3
.
2

(7)

L=

u2 u21
,
2a

(8)

L=

u23 u2
.
2a

(9)

(8) (9)
u2 u21 = u23 u2 .
11

(10)

.
(6), (7) (10) u :
u=

v12 + v22
= 26 /.
v1 + v2

(11)

2.
s ,
F , x .
,
F s:
F s = 2f x.

(12)

, 0, :
kx2
,
(13)
2
k . (13) (12)
Fs = fx +

kx = 2f.

(14)

(12) (14)
4f 2
(15).
F

( ,
). ,
F , , ,
,
ks =

4f 2
+ f,
F
= kx + f = 3f.

N = ks + f =
Nmax

(16)
(17)

3.
P
, P = (t t0 ), P0
, C .
1. t T ( ):
T =

Ct
Ct
=
.
P
(t0 t)

(18)
12

XLIX

t ( ):
=

Ct
Ct
=
.
P0 P
P0 (t0 t)

(19)

t = t1 ,
= 2T , , (18) (19) :
2P0
.
3
2 = T t = t2 , (18) (19) :
t1 = t0

t2 = t0

P0
.
3

= t2 t1 = P0 /(3),
t1 = t0 2 = 12 , t2 = t0 = 21 .
2. , , :
P0 6 (t0 t), t 6 t0

P0
,

P0
= t0 3 = 3 .

3. ,

tm = t0

T + =

Ct
Ct
CtP0
+
=
.
P
(t0 t)
(t0 t)(P0 (t0 t))

,
y = (t0 t)(P0 (t0 t)). (t0 t) x.
y(x) = P0 x 2 x2 , , y
. x =
= P0 /(2), ,
t3 = t0

P0
3
= t0 = 16,5 .
2
2

4.
, + . U .
13

.
U0 , ( ).
U , , ,

U
.
(1)
3R
D C. I (U )
. (1) ,
D1 U0 , ..
IA =

UDB = IA 2R < U0 ,

3
U
3
U < U0 . , IA =
U < U0 .
2
3R
2
UAB = 3U0 /2 D1 , ,
, DB U0
UAB > 3U0 /2. , D2
D3 ,
I=

U0
2R

D2 D3 , AC
2U0 . CB D1
U0 /2, D2 D3 UAB =
= 2U0 + U0 /2 = 5U0 /2. AC
2U0 , DB U0 . , UDC

UDC = D C = B + U0 (A 2U0 ) = B A + 3U0 = 3U0 UAB ,
A , B , C D A, B, C D .

IA =

3U0
UAB

.
R
R

(2)

(2) UAB = 5U0 /2 D2 D3 . , UAB


UAB > 5U0 /2 ,
UAB = 5U0 /2, ,
U < 3U0 /2.
, + B .. U < 0,
, .

IA = U3R
, IA < 0. IA UAB
13:
14

XLIX
IA
U0
2R
UAB

3
U0
2
. 13

5
U0
2

3U0

:
U
3R
U0
IA =
2R
3U0 U
IA =
R
IA =

U <

3
U0 ,
2

3
5
U0 < U < U0 ,
2
2
5
U > U0 .
2

5. -
,

360
=
= 15 /.
24
14, , , ,
.
= T1 = 30 .
, , ,

= T2 = 60 .
h, n, , , L.
, 14, :
L
1
= tg 30 = ,
(100 10)h
3

L
= tg 60 = 3.
(100 n)h
15

.
, :
n = 100 90

tg 30
= 70.
tg 60

(100 n)h

1
15h

30h

2
90h

L


. 14



. 15

, ( 12 ) .
t1
. , ,
, (. 15).
t1 1 ,
tg 1 =

L
= 3, 1 = 60 .
30h

, t1 = 1 / = 4 , 16 ,
.
t2 .
,
, . 2 ,
:
tg 2 =

L
= 2 3, 2 73,9.
15h

, t2 = 2 / 4,93 . 56 .

16

XLIX

10
1.
, F ,
x0 = F/k,
k = k1 + k2 , E0 = F 2 /2k.
1. , , , , F .
F ,


F
F
mv 2
F2
F2
F

=
+

,
k2
k
2
2k2
2k
:
s
v=F

k1
.
mk2 (k1 + k2 )

2. , ,

, , .
x1 x2 :

k1 x1 + k2 x2 = F,
2
2
2
F (x2 x0 ) + kx0 = k1 x1 + k2 x2 .
2
2
2

, ,
x1 = x2 = x0 , .
x1 = x0 ,

x2 = x0

2k1 + k2
.
k2

,
,
F
x1 =
.
k1 + k2
, .

17

.
2.
S, z z + z. :
p(z)S, p(z + z)S; Szg,
. , ,
, 0:
(p(z) p(z + z))S Szg = 0
p = gz, p = p(z + z)
p(z). , T ,
, R p = RT , :
T =

p
g
p/z R

p,
l1

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20

l0

10

z,

0
1

3
. 16

g : , g ,
. ,
:
T

p
.
p/z
18

XLIX
z = 0 z = 5 :
. , l0 = 2,5 , l1 = 1,25 ,
T0 T0 = T1 l0 /l1 = 680 40 . , .
.
3.
V , P T , , d ,
1 .
,
, :
E=

q
,
20 S

S .
a F = qE:
F = qE =

q2
.
20 S

,
.

Wc =

q2 d
q2
=
= F d = P V.
2C
20 S

, .

3
5
5
W = P V + P V = P V = RT.
2
2
2
:
5
3
P
P1 V1 = P V + V,
2
2
4

5
7
RT1 = RT,
2
4

T1 =

7
T.
10

, P1 = P/4:
T1
7
P1 V1
=
=
,
PV
T
10

d1
V1
14
=
=
.
d
V
5

d .
19

.
4.
1 v~2
v~3
v~1
. x

. 17
v1 = v, v2 = v3 = v (. 17).
1. ,
. :
v = 2v3 v2 v1 = 0.

(20)

, ,
:
v3 + v2 + v1 = v.
(21)
:
m

v2
v1
= T, m
= T.
t
t

,
v1 = v2 , ,
:
v2 v = v1 (v).

(22)

(20), (21), (22)


,
2
4
1
v1 = v, v2 = v, v3 = v.
3
3
3
2. ,
, v1 , v2 , v3 . (21)
v1 v2 (22) .
, , . :
3v 2 = v12 + v22 + v32 .

(23)

(21), (22), (23) . :


v1 = v, v2 = v,

v3 = v,

, .
20

XLIX
:
1
5
1
v1 = v, v2 = v, v3 = v,
3
3
3
.
5.
,
.
E r , ,
I. P = IU = I(E Ir).
R ( R
) I0 = Er ( R =
E
= 0). , P I0 = 2r
= I20 (
P (I)).
R = r, U = IR = E2 . ,
, ,
I0
2 , :
r
r

2
2U2
I0 U
I0 2U
I0 2U
I =
=
,
I =
=
.
2
E
2r
2
E
I0 r2
:
2r
U = I2 ,
I0

U = r

I0 I
.
2

:
():

( I1 ):
r
2r 2
I0 I1
E I1 r = (I0 I1 )r = U (I1 ) + U (I1 ) = I1 + r
I0
2

I
=
I
x
,

x
1
0
p
1 x = 2x2 + x2 . ,
. ,
x, x > 0. .
( I2 ):

q
r

2r 2
I0 I
I = I0 (I02I2 )
E I2 r = (I0 I2 )r = U (I ) = U (I ) = I = r

I = 2(I0 I2 )2
I0
2
I0

21

.
I2 = I + I =

I0 (I0 I2 )
2

2(I0 I2 )2
I0

. I2 ,
p
I2 = I0 (1 y), 1 y = 2y 2 + y2 .
x, .
, y = x, I1 +I2 = I0 ! ,
P1 = I1 (E I1 r) = rI1 (I0 I1 ), : P2 = I2 (E I2 r) = rI2 (I0 I2 ) =
= r(I0 I1 )I1 = P1 = 7,2 .
(): () ,
, ( 1, 2).
+

. 18

. 19


I0 E , ( 3),
.
( I1 I2 ) U (I) = E Ir , 3
U
I
E = 1 I0 , ,
, :

I/I0

I2 /I0
1/2
I1 /I0
U/E
1/2
. 20

I1
I2
+
= 1 I1 + I2 = I0
I0
I0
, : P2 = I2 (E I2 r) = rI2 (I0 I2 ) =
= r(I0 I1 )I1 = P1 = 7,2 . , P2 = P1 = 7,2 .
22

XLIX

11
~2
E
B

~1
E

O
~ 1
E

1.
, . A , :
~ =E
~1 + E
~ 2 = 0.
E

(1)

B A (. 21). , . 21
A , , B
~ = E
~ 1 . (1) E
~ = E
~ 2 , : E
1
1
,
, .
+2q

~ 2
E

B
O

P
~ 1
E

~
E
A

. 22

l
q

~g

. 23

, , A (. 22). ,
, . M N
, . , , ,
, ,
, A; ,
.
,
. ,

23

.
,
q2 > 0 (. 23).
f1 .
, :
f1 = (q1 mg).
( q2 ) :
f2 = (q2 + mg).
( l
):
ml + (mgq1 ) = 0 ,
ml + (q2 mg) = 0 .

, ,
12 = 02 q1 ,

22 = 02 + q2 ,
02 = g/l - , = /(ml)
.
: q1 > 0 q1 < 0.
,
.
1
q1 > 0. q2 = 2q1 .
1 = 2 = , ,
02 q1 = 02 + 2q1 ,

q1 =

2 2

3 0

2 = 31 02
T =

2
= T0 3 = 1,73 .

p
T0 = 2 l/g .
2
q1 < 0. q2 = 2q1 .
24

XLIX
1 1 2 ,
q1 = 202 . 2 = 302 :
T =

2
T0
= = 0,58 .

2.
B .
A B I, , , M

1
1
M = A = Ir,
2
2

UAC = A C = (A M ) + (M C ) =

1
Ir + U.
2

B I , , I, C.
C ,


1
=
Ir + U .
2
, B = 0. A C


1
UAC = A C = 2
Ir + U = 2U + Ir.
2
, I A,
C ( B ). :
RAC =

2U
UAC
=
+ r = 36 .
I
I

a, d. , R L/S a/ad = 1/d a


, L a , S ad . ,
d,
.

25

.
3.
,
.
, - , , ,
. , . .
, , . (, Cp
). . ,
m , .
V1 , V2 , q
U = U2 U1
A = P (V2 V1 ): q = U + A,
q = U2 U1 + P V2 P V1 = (U2 + P V2 ) (U1 + P V1 ) =
 m
m
=
(CV T2 + RT2 ) (CV T1 + RT1 ) = Cp T,

CV = 5R/2 ,
CP = CV + R = 7R/2
, T2 T1 , R = 8,31
, .
v, v,
:
Fp = mv =

mvv
mvT
vq
=
=
= v.
v
T
CP T

. :
=

q
= 6,8 105 /.
CP T

:
M dv = Fp dt = vdt = dS,
, v = v0 +

, M v = S.

S
= 9 /.
M

26

XLIX
4.
T0 T = T0 (1 + (v/c) cos ), v -
.
, A , T0 B vT0 . , BC = AB cos =
= vT0 cos (. 24), (vT0 cos )/c, c
- . T0 T .
,
t0 t :
t = t0 (1 + (v/c) cos ).
A

N
. 24

. 25


( N ()
, (. 25)):

dT
v
T = = T0 sin
d
c

(v sin , ).
t0 ,
t = vt0 sin /r, r - .
T , :
T = T0 ()2 r/ct0 = T ()2 r/ct
T0 /T = t0 /t. :
r=

cT t
.
T ()2

, ,
v c.
27

.
5.
x

y
S1

~v0

~v

. 26
S x,
y,
(xy = f 2 ) x y :
xy + yx = 0

x
v
x
xy
f2
=
= = 2 = 2.
y
v0
y
y
y

: v = v0 f 2 /y 2 . , (x , v > 0),
(y , v0 < 0). :
a=

v0 f 2 dy
v2 f 2
v 2 x3
dv
=2 3
= 2 03 = 2 04 .
dt
y dt
y
f

( ) amax = g. , :
s
2v02 |x|3
gf
6 g,

|x| 6 f 3
,
f4
2v02
..
q ,
f 3 gf
. , l 2v02
:
s
s
!
!
gf
gf
3
3
f 1
6l<f

f <l 6f 1+
.
2v02
2v02
q
(l < f ), (l > f ).
v0 <

gf
2 ,

0<l<f

f <l6f

1+

s
3

gf
2v02

28