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You are on page 1of 18

SPACE

JAE-HYUN YANG

which are invariant under the natural action of the Jacobi group explicitly and also provide

the Laplacians of these invariant metrics. These are expressed in terms of the trace form.

1. Introduction

For a given fixed positive integer n, we let

Hn = { Z C(n,n) | Z = t Z,

Im Z > 0 }

Sp(n, R) = {M R(2n,2n) | tM Jn M = Jn }

be the symplectic group of degree n, where

0

En

Jn =

.

En 0

We see that Sp(n, R) acts on Hn transitively by

M Z = (AZ + B)(CZ + D)1 ,

(1.1)

A B

where M =

Sp(n, R) and Z Hn .

C D

For two positive integers n and m, we consider the Heisenberg group

(n,m)

HR

(, ; ) ( , ; ) = ( + , + ; + + t t ).

(n,m)

(n,m)

GJ := Sp(n, R) HR

+ ,

t

M, (, ; ) M , ( , ; ) = M M , (

+ ; + +

t )

Key words and phrases. invariant metrics, Siegel-Jacobi space, spectral theory.

2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary 32F45, 32M10.

This work was supported by Inha University Research Grant .

1

JAE-HYUN YANG

(n,m)

and (,

) = (, )M . We call this

with M, M Sp(n, R), (, ; ), ( , ; ) HR

J

group G the Jacobi group of degree n and index m. We have the natural action of GJ on

Hn C(m,n) defined by

(1.2)

M, (, ; ) (Z, W ) = M Z, (W + Z + )(CZ + D)1 ,

A B

(n,m)

where M =

and (Z, W ) Hn C(m,n) . The

Sp(n, R), (, ; ) HR

C D

homogeneous space Hn C(m,n) is called the Siegel-Jacobi space of degree n and index m.

We refer to [2-3], [6-7], [11], [14-21] for more details on materials related to the Siegel-Jacobi

space.

For brevity, we write Hn,m := Hn C(m,n) . For a coordinate (Z, W ) Hn,m with Z =

(z ) Hn and W = (wkl ) C(m,n) , we put

Z =

W =

X + iY,

U + iV,

X = (x ),

U = (ukl ),

Y = (y ) real,

V = (vkl ) real,

dZ =

(dz ),

dZ = (dz ),

dY = (dy ),

dW =

(dwkl ),

dW = (dw kl ),

dV = (dvkl ),

=

Z

=

X

w11

= ...

W

w1n

u11

1+

2

z

1+

2

x

...

..

.

...

wm1

..

.

,

,

wmn

um1

=

=

1+

2

z

1+

2

y

w11

= ...

W

w1n

v11

...

.. ,

..

= ...

.

.

V

u1n . . . umn

v1n

where ij denotes the Kronecker delta symbol.

= ...

U

...

..

.

...

...

..

.

...

,

,

w m1

..

.

w mn

vm1

... ,

vmn

C. L. Siegel [12] introduced the symplectic metric ds2n on Hn invariant under the action

(1.1) of Sp(n, R) given by

(1.3)

ds2n = Y 1 dZ Y 1 dZ

and H. Maass [8] proved that the differential operator

t

n = 4 Y

Y

(1.4)

Z Z

is the Laplacian of Hn for the symplectic metric ds2n . Here (A) denotes the trace of a

square matrix A.

In this paper, for arbitrary positive integers n and m, we express the GJ -invariant metrics

on Hn C(m,n) and their Laplacians explicitly.

Theorem 1.1. For any two positive real numbers A and B, the following metric

ds2n,m;A,B = A Y 1 dZ Y 1 dZ

+ B Y 1 t V V Y 1 dZ Y 1 dZ + Y 1 t (dW ) dW

1

1 t

1

1 t

(dW )

V Y dZ Y

(dW ) V Y dZ Y

is a Riemannian metric on Hn,m which is invariant under the action (1.2) of the Jacobi

group GJ .

Theorem 1.2. For any two positive real numbers A and B, the Laplacian n,m;A,B of

(Hn,m , ds2n,m;A,B ) is given by

t

1 t

t

Y

+ VY

V

Y

Y

n,m;A,B =

Z Z

W W

t

t

t

+ V

Y

+ V

Y

Z W

W Z

t

4

.

+ Y

B

W W

The following differential form

4

A

is a GJ -invariant volume element on Hn,m , where

[dX] = dx ,

[dY ] = dy ,

in terms of the trace form.

ds2n,m;A,B

and

For the case n = m = 1 and A = B = 1, Berndt proved in [1] (cf. [19]) that the metric

ds21,1 on H C defined by

ds21,1 := ds1,1;1,1 =

y + v2

y3

( dx2 + dy 2 ) +

1

y

( du2 + dv 2 )

( dx du + dy dv )

2v

y2

is a Riemannian metric on H C invariant under the action (1.2) of the Jacobi group and

its Laplacian 1,1 is given by

2

2

2

1,1 := 1,1;1,1 = y 2 x

+ ( y + v 2 ) u

2 + y 2

2 + v 2

2

2

+ 2 y v xu

+ yv

.

It is a pleasure to thank Eberhard Freitag for his helpful advice and letting me know the

paper [8] of H. Maass.

JAE-HYUN YANG

Notations: We denote by R and C the field of real numbers, and the field of complex

numbers respectively. The symbol := means that the expression on the right is the

definition of that on the left. For two positive integers k and l, F (k,l) denotes the set of

all k l matrices with entries in a commutative ring F . For a square matrix A F (k,k)

of degree k, (A) denotes the trace of A. For any M F (k,l) , tM denotes the transpose

matrix of M . En denotes the identity matrix of degree n. For A F (k,l) and B F (k,k) ,

we set B[A] = t ABA. For a complex matrix A, A denotes the complex conjugate of A. For

A C(k,l) and B C(k,k), we use the abbreviation B{A} = t ABA.

2. Proof of Theorem 1.1

A B

J

Sp(n, R) and (Z, W )

Let g = (M, (, ; )) be an element of G with M =

C D

Hn,m with Z Hn and W C(m,n) . If we put (Z , W ) := g (Z, W ), then we have

Z = M Z = (AZ + B)(CZ + D)1 ,

W = (W + Z + )(CZ + D)1 .

Thus we obtain

(2.1)

and

(2.2)

d(CZ + D)1 = (CZ + D)1 C dZ(CZ + D)1

and that (CZ + D)1 C is symmetric.

We put

Z = X + iY ,

W = U + iV ,

X , Y , U , V real.

(2.3)

En b

t(b) =

, b = t b real,

0 En

t

h 0

, h GL(n, R),

g0 (h) =

0 h1

0 En

Jn =

En

0

generate the symplectic group Sp(n, R) (cf. [4], [5]). Therefore the following elements

En b

(n,m)

t(b; , , ) =

,

, (, ; ) , b = t b real, (, ; ) HR

0 En

t

h 0

, (0, 0; 0) , h GL(n, R),

g(h) =

0 h1

0 En

n =

, (0, 0; 0)

En

0

generate the Jacobi group GJ . So it suffices to prove the invariance of the metric ds2n,m;A,B

under the action of the generators t(b; , , ), g(h) and n . For brevity, we write

(a) = Y 1 dZ Y 1 dZ ,

(b) = Y 1t V V Y 1 dZ Y 1 dZ ,

(c) = Y 1t (dW )dW ,

(d) = V Y 1 dZ Y 1 t (dW ) + V Y 1 dZ Y 1 t (dW )

and

(a) = Y1 dZ Y1 dZ ,

(b) = Y1 t V V Y1 dZ Y1 dZ ,

(c) = Y1 t (dW ) dW ,

(d) = V Y1 dZ Y1 t (dW ) + V Y1 dZ Y1 t (dW )

(n,m)

Z = Z + b,

Y = Y,

W = W + Z + ,

V = V + Y

and

dZ = dZ,

dW = dW + dZ.

Therefore

(a) = Y1 dZ Y1 dZ = Y 1 dZ Y 1 dZ = (a),

(b) = Y 1 t V V Y 1 dZ Y 1 dZ + Y 1 t V dZ Y 1 dZ

+ t V Y 1 dZ Y 1 dZ + t dZ Y 1 dZ ,

(c) = Y 1 t (dW ) dW + Y 1 t (dW ) dZ

+ Y 1 dZ t dW + Y 1 dZ t dZ

JAE-HYUN YANG

and

(d) = V Y 1 dZ Y 1 t (dW ) dZ Y 1 t (dW )

V Y 1 dZ Y 1 dZ t dZ Y 1 dZ t

V Y 1 dZ Y 1 t (dW ) dZ Y 1 t (dW )

V Y 1 dZ Y 1 dZ t dZ Y 1 dZ t .

(a) = (a)

and

Hence

n

o

ds2n,m;A,B = A (a) + B (b) + (c) + (d)

Case II. g = g(h) with h GL(n, R).

In this case, we have

Z = t h Z h,

Y = t h Y h,

W = W h,

V = V h

and

dZ = t h dZ h, dW = dW h.

Therefore by an easy computation, we see that each of (a), (b), (c) and (d) is invariant

under the action of all g(h) with h GL(n, R). Hence the metric ds2n,m;A,B is invariant

under the action of all g(h) with h GL(n, R).

0 En

Case III. g = n =

, (0, 0; 0) .

En

0

In this case, we have

Z = Z 1

(2.4)

and

W = W Z 1 .

We set

1 := Re Z 1

and

2 := Im Z 1 .

Then 1 and 2 are symmetric matrices and we have

(2.5)

Y = 2

and

V := Im W = V 1 + U 2 .

(2.6)

Y = Z2 Z = Z2 Z,

(2.7)

1 Y + 2 X = 0

and

(2.8)

1 X 2 Y = En .

(2.9)

X = (2 )1 1 Y

and

Y 1 = 1 (2 )1 1 2 .

dZ = Z 1 dZZ 1

(2.10)

and

(2.11)

dW = dW Z 1 W Z 1 dZZ 1 = dW W Z 1 dZ Z 1 .

1

1

(a) = (2 )1 Z 1 dZ Z 1 (2 )1 Z dZ Z

= Y 1 dZ Y 1 dZ = (a).

According to (2.5)-(2.10), we have

1

= { t U (2 )1 1 t V }{U V 1 (2 )1 }Z 1 dZ Y 1 dZ Z

= { t W + (iEn (2 )1 1 ) t V }{W V (iEn + 1 (2 )1 )}

1

1

1

Z dZ Y dZ Z

,

1

1

1

1 t

1

1 t

Z

(dW ) Z dZZ

W dW Z W Z dZ Z

(c) = (2 )

1

1

1

= (2 )1 Z 1 t (dW ) dW Z (2 )1 Z 1 t (dW )W Z dZ Z

(2 )1 Z 1 dZZ 1 t W dW Z

1

1

+(2 )1 Z 1 dZZ 1 t W W Z dZ Z

1

= Y 1 t (dW ) dW Y 1 t (dW )W Z dZ

1

Y 1 dZ Z 1 t W dW + Y 1 dZ Z 1 t W W Z dZ

JAE-HYUN YANG

and

1 t

1 t

o

Z

(dW ) Z dZ Z

W

(d) = (V 1 + U 2 )(2 ) Z dZZ (2 )

1 t

1

1 1

1

1

1 t

(V 1 + U 2 )(2 ) Z dZ Z (2 )

Z

(dW ) Z dZZ

W

1 1

1 t

= (V 1 + U 2 )(2 ) Z dZ Y

(dW )

1 t

1 1

1

W

+ (V 1 + U 2 )(2 ) Z dZ Y dZ Z

1

(V 1 + U 2 )(2 )1 Z dZ Y 1 t (dW )

1

1 t

1 1

W .

+ (V 1 + U 2 )(2 ) Z dZ Y dZZ

Taking the (dZ, dW )-part (Z, W ) in (b) + (c) + (d) , we have

(Z, W ) = V Y 1 dZ Y 1 t (dW ) + Y 1 dZ ( t W Z 1 t W ) dW

because W = W Z 1 (cf. (2.4)).

= V Y 1 dZ Y 1t (dW )

Similiarly, if we take the (dZ, dW )-part (Z, W ) in (b) + (c) + (d) , we have

1

(Z, W ) = V Y 1 dZ Y 1 t (dW ) + dZ Y 1 t (dW )(W W Z )

because W = W Z 1 .

= V Y 1 dZ Y 1t (dW )

(W, W ) = Y 1 t (dW ) dW .

Finally, if we take the (dZ, dZ)-part (Z, Z) in (b) + (c) + (d) , we have

t

(Z, Z) =

W + (iEn (2 )1 1 ) t V

W V (iEn + 1 (2 )1 )

1

1

1

Z dZ Y dZ Z

1

+ Z 1 t W W Z dZ Y 1 dZ

1

1 1

1

t

+ W (V 1 + U 2 )(2 ) Z dZ Y dZ Z

t

1 1

1

1

+ W (V 1 + U 2 )(2 ) Z dZ Y dZZ

.

Since

(V 1 + U 2 )(2 )1 = U + V 1 (2 )1

= W + V {iEn + 1 (2 )1 }

= W V {iEn 1 (2 )1 },

we have

1

iEn (2 )1 1 t V W V (iEn + 1 (2 )1 )

1

1

Z dZ Y dZ

t

1

1

1

1

Z

iEn (2 ) 1 V W Z dZ Y dZ

1

iEn (2 )1 1 t V V iEn + 1 (2 )1

= Z

1

1

Z dZ Y dZ .

(Z, Z) = Z

o

o

n

n

1

= (1 i2 ) iEn (2 )1 1

iEn (2 )1 1

Z

= 2 1 (2 )1 1 = Y 1

and

Therefore

o

n

iEn + 1 (2 )1 Z 1 = 1 (2 )1 1 2 = Y 1 .

(Z, Z) = Y 1 t V V Y 1 dZ Y 1 dZ .

=

(b) + (c) + (d).

n

o

ds2n,m;A,B = A (a) + B (b) + (c) + (d)

Consequently ds2n,m;A,B is invariant under the action (1.2) of the Jacobi group GJ . In

particular, for (Z, W ) = (iEn , 0), we have

ds2n,m;A,B = A dZ dZ + B t (dW )dW

( n

)

X

X

2

2

= A

(dx2 + dy

)+2

(dx2 + dy

)

=1

+B

1<n

(du2kl

1km, 1ln

2

dvkl

)

which is clearly positive definite. Since GJ acts on Hn,m transitively, ds2n,m;A,B is positive

definite everywhere in Hn,m . This completes the proof of Theorem 1.1.

Remark 2.1. The scalar curvature of the Siegel-Jacobi space (Hn,m , ds2n,m;A,B ) is constant

because of the transitive group action of GJ on Hn,m . In the special case n = m = 1 and

10

JAE-HYUN YANG

3.

A B

If (Z , W ) = g (Z, W ) with g =

, (, ; ) GJ , we can see easily that

C D

t

= (CZ + D) (CZ + D)

(3.1)

Z

Z

+ (CZ + D) t C t W + C t D t t

W

and

(3.2)

= (CZ + D)

.

W

W

() := 4 Y

Y

,

Z Z

t

,

() := 4 Y

W

W

1 t

t

() := 4 V Y

V

,

Y

W W

t

() := 4 V

Y

Z W

and

() := 4

We also set

V

Y

.

W Z

t

,

() := 4 Y Y

Z Z

t

,

() := 4 Y

W

W

1 t

t

,

() := 4 V Y V Y

W W

t

() := 4 V Y

Z W

and

() := 4

We need the following lemma for the proof of Theorem 1.2. H. Maass [8] observed the

following useful fact.

11

Lemma 3.1. (a) Let A be an n k matrix and let B be a k n matrix. Assume that the

entries of A commute with the entries of B. Then (AB) = (BA).

(b) Let A be an m n matrix and B an n l matrix. Assume that the entries of A commute

with the entries of B. Then t (AB) = t B t A.

(c) Let A, B and C be a k l, an n m and an m l matrix respectively. Assume that the

entries of A commute with the entries of B. Then

t

(A t (BC)) = B t (A t C).

Now we are ready to prove Theorem 1.2. First of all, we shall prove that n,m;A,B is

invariant under the action of the generators t(b; , , ), g(h) and n .

En b

, (, ; ) with b = t b real.

Case I. g = t(b; , , ) =

0 En

In this case, we have

Y = Y,

V = V + Y

and

t t t

=

=

.

and

Z

Z

W

W

W

Using Lemma 3.1, we obtain

t

() = () Y

Y

Z W

t t

t t

Y Y

+ Y Y

W Z

W W

t

= (),

() = Y

W

W

t

t

() = () + V Y

W W

t t

t t

+ V Y

+ Y Y

,

W W

W W

() = () + Y t Y

Z W

t t

t t

+ Y Y

V Y

W W

W W

and

()

= () + Y Y

W Z

t

t

t t

V Y

Y Y

.

W W

W W

Thus () = () and

() + () + () + () = () + () + () + () .

12

JAE-HYUN YANG

Hence

o

4 n

4

() + () + () + ()

() +

B

A

is invariant under the action of all t(b; , , ).

t

h 0

, (0, 0; 0) with h GL(n, R).

Case II. g = g(h) =

0 h1

In this case, we have

Y = t h Y h V = V h

and

= h1 t h1

= h1

.

,

Z

Z

W

W

According to Lemma 3.1, we see that each of (), (), (), () and () is invariant under

the action of all g(h) with h GL(n, R). Therefore n,m;A,B is invariant under the action

of all g(h) with h GL(n, R).

0 En

Case III. g = n =

, (0, 0; 0) .

En

0

In this case, we have

n,m;A,B =

Z = Z 1

and

W = W Z 1 .

We set

1 := Re Z 1

and

2 := Im Z 1 .

Then we obtain the relations (2.5)-(2.9). From (2.6), we have the relation

2 Z = Z 1 Y.

(3.3)

It follows from the relation (2.3) that

(3.4)

Y = Z

Y Z 1 = Z 1 Y Z

= 2 .

(3.5)

1 21 1 = Y 1 2 .

t

t t

t

(3.6)

=Z Z

+Z

W

Z

Z

W

and

=Z

.

W

W

From (2.6), (3.3) and Lemma 3.1, we obtain

t

t

i V 2 Z Y

() = () U 2 Z Y

Z W

Z W

t

t

t

t

Z2 U Y

+ i Z2 V Y

W Z

W Z

+ W 2 t V t Y

.

W 2 t U t Y

W W

W W

(3.7)

13

From the relation (3.4), we see () = (). According to (3.3), (3.5) and Lemma 3.1, we

otain

t

t

t

t

t

.

() = () + (V 2 V V 1 U U 1 V U 2 U ) Y

W W

Using the relation (3.3) and Lemma 3.1, we finally obtain

() = V 1 Z t Y

+ U 2 Z t Y

Z W

Z W

t

t

t

t

+ U 2 W Y

+ V 1 W Y

W W

W W

and

() =

t

t

Z1 V Y

+ Z2 U Y

W Z

W Z

t

t

t

t

+ W 2 U Y

.

+ W 1 V Y

W W

W W

() + () + () + () = () + () + () + () .

Hence

o

4

4 n

() + () + () + ()

() +

B

A

is invariant under the action of n .

Consequently n,m;A,B is invariant under the action (1.2) of GJ . In particular, for

(Z, W ) = (iEn , 0), the differential operator n,m;A,B coincides with the Laplacian for the

metric ds2n,m;A,B . It follows from the invariance of n,m;A,B under the action (1.2) and the

transitivity of the action of GJ on Hn,m that n,m;A,B is the Laplacian of (Hn,m , ds2n,m;A,B ).

The invariance of the differential form dv follows from the fact that the following differential

form

( det Y )(n+1) [dX] [dY ]

is invariant under the action (1.1) of Sp(n, R) (cf. [13], p. 130).

n,m;A,B =

Before we describe a fundamental domain for the Siegel-Jacobi space, we review the

Siegels fundamental domain for the Siegel upper half plane.

We let

n

o

Pn = Y R(n,n) | Y = t Y > 0

be an open cone in Rn(n+1)/2 . The general linear group GL(n, R) acts on Pn transitively by

h Y := h Y t h,

h GL(n, R), Y Pn .

n

o

GL(n, Z) = h GL(n, R) h is integral

14

JAE-HYUN YANG

The fundamental domain Rn for GL(n, Z)\Pn which was found by H. Minkowski [10] is

defined as a subset of Pn consisting of Y = (yij ) Pn satisfying the following conditions

(M.1)-(M.2) (cf. [9] p. 123):

(M.1) aY t a ykk for every a = (ai ) Zn in which ak , , an are relatively prime for

k = 1, 2, , n.

(M.2) yk,k+1 0 for k = 1, , n 1.

We say that a point of Rn is Minkowski reduced or simply M-reduced.

Siegel [12] determined a fundamental domain Fn for n \Hn , where n = Sp(n, Z) is the

Siegel modular group of degree n. We say that = X + iY Hn with X, Y real is Siegel

reduced or S-reduced if it has the following three properties:

(S.1) det(Im ( )) det(Im ())

for all n ;

(S.2) Y = Im is M-reduced, that is, Y Rn ;

(S.3) |xij | 12 for 1 i, j n, where X = (xij ).

Fn is defined as the set of all Siegel reduced points in Hn . Using the highest point method,

Siegel [12] proved the following (F1)-(F3) (cf. [9], p. 169):

(F1) n Fn = Hn , i.e., Hn = n Fn .

(F2) Fn is closed in Hn .

(F3) Fn is connected and the boundary of Fn consists of a finite number of hyperplanes.

The metric ds2n given by (1.3) induces a metric ds2Fn on Fn . Siegel [12] computed the

volume of Fn

n

Y

k (k)(2k),

vol (Fn ) = 2

k=1

where (s) denotes the Gamma function and (s) denotes the Riemann zeta function. For

instance,

vol (F1 ) =

,

3

vol (F2 ) =

3

,

270

vol (F3 ) =

6

,

127575

vol (F4 ) =

10

.

200930625

Let fkl (1 k m, 1 l n) be the m n matrix with entry 1 where the k-th row and

the l-th column meet, and all other entries 0. For an element Hn , we set for brevity

hkl () := fkl ,

1 k m, 1 l n.

n

m X

n

m X

X

X

kl hkl () 0 kl , kl 1 .

kl fkl +

P =

k=1 j=1

k=1 j=1

o

n

D := (, Z) Hn C(m,n) | Z P .

We define

Fn,m := Fn D .

15

(n,m)

n,m := Sp(n, Z) HZ

J

be the discrete subgroup of G , where

n

o

(n,m)

(n,m)

HZ

= (, ; ) HR

| , , are integral .

Then Fn,m is a fundamental domain for n,m \Hn,m .

In the case n = m = 1, R. Berndt [2] introduced the notion of Maass-Jacobi forms. Now

we generalize this notion to the general case.

Definition 4.1. For brevity, we set n,m := n,m;1,1 (cf. Theorem 1.2). Let

(n,m)

n,m := Sp(n, Z) HZ

o

n

(n,m)

(n,m)

| , , are integral .

= (, ; ) HR

HZ

following conditions (MJ1)-(MJ3) :

(MJ1) f is invariant under n,m .

(MJ2) f is an eigenfunction of the Laplacian n,m.

(MJ3) f has a polynomial growth, that is, there exist a constant C > 0 and a positive

integer N such that

|f (X + iY, Z)| C |p(Y )|N

as det Y ,

It is natural to propose the following problems.

Problem A : Construct Maass-Jacobi forms.

Problem B : Find all the eigenfunctions of n,m .

We consider the simple case n = m = 1. A metric ds21,1 on H1 C given by

ds21,1 =

1

y + v2

( dx2 + dy 2 ) + ( du2 + dv 2 )

y3

y

2v

2 ( dx du + dy dv )

y

is a GJ -invariant K

ahler metric on H1 C. Its Laplacian 1,1 is given by

2

2

2

+

1,1 = y

x2

y 2

2

2

2

+

+ (y + v )

u2

v 2

2

2

+ 2yv

+

.

xu

yv

16

JAE-HYUN YANG

1

2

Z

o

n z

1

exp (t + t1 ) ts1 dt,

Ks (z) :=

2 0

2

where Re z > 0.

(2) y s , y s x, y s u (s C) with eigenvalue s(s 1).

(3) y s v, y s uv, y s xv with eigenvalue s(s + 1).

(4) x, y, u, v, xv, uv with eigenvalue 0.

(5) All Maass wave forms.

For an element Hn , we set

L := Z(m,n) + Z(m,n)

It follows from the positivity of Im that the elements fkl , hkl () (1 k m, 1 l n)

of L are linearly independent over R. Therefore L is a lattice in C(m,n) and the set

{ fkl , hkl () | 1 k m, 1 l n } forms an integral basis of L . We see easily that if

is an element of Hn , the period matrix := (In , ) satisfies the Riemann conditions

(RC.1) and (RC.2) :

(RC.1) Jn t = 0 ;

(RC.2) 1i Jn t > 0.

Thus the complex torus A := C(m,n) /L is an abelian variety.

It might be interesting to investigate the spectral theory of the Laplacian n,m on a

fundamental domain Fn,m . But this work is very complicated and difficult at this moment.

It may be that the first step is to develop the spectral theory of the Laplacian on the

abelian variety A . The second step will be to study the spectral theory of the Laplacian

n (see (1.4)) on the moduli space n \Hn of principally polarized abelian varieties of dimension n. The final step would be to combine the above steps and more works to develop

the spectral theory of the Lapalcian n,m on Fn,m . Maass-Jacobi forms play an important

role in the spectral theory of n,m on Fn,m . Here we deal only with the spectral theory

on L2 (A ).

We fix an element = X + iY of Hn with X = Re and Y = Im . For a pair (A, B)

with A, B Z(m,n) , we define the function E;A,B : C(m,n) C by

E;A,B (Z) = e2i((

t AU

)+ ((BAX)Y 1 t V ))

Lemma 4.1. For any A, B Z(m,n) , the function E;A,B satisfies the following functional

equation

E;A,B (Z + + ) = E;A,B (Z),

Z C(m,n)

17

E;A,B (Z + + ) = E;A,B ((U + X + ) + i(V + Y ))

= e2i{ (

+Y )) }

= e2i{ (

= e2i{ (

tAU ) + ((BAX)Y 1 t V

+B t AX t )}

)}

= E;A,B (Z).

Here we used the fact that

tA

ds2 = (Im )1 t (dZ) dZ)

(m,n)

is a K

ahler metric on A invariant under the action (5.15) of J = Sp(n, Z) HZ

(, Z) with fixed. Its Laplacian of ds2 is given by

t

= (Im )

.

Z

Z

on

We let L2 (A ) be the space of all functions f : A C such that

Z

|f (Z)|2 dv ,

||f || :=

A

R

where dv is the volume element on A normalized so that A dv = 1. The inner product

( , ) on the Hilbert space L2 (A ) is given by

Z

f (Z) g(Z) dv , f, g L2 (A ).

(f, g) :=

A

Theorem 4.2. The set E;A,B | A, B Z(m,n) is a complete orthonormal basis for

L2 (A ). Moreover we have the following spectral decomposition of :

L2 (A ) = A,BZ(m,n) C E;A,B .

References

[1] R. Berndt, Sur larithmetique du corps des fonctions elliptiques de niveau N , Seminaire de Theorie de

nombres de Paris 1982-83, Birkh

auser, Boston (1984), 2132.

[2] R. Berndt and R. Schmidt, Elements of the Representation Theory of the Jacobi Group, Birkh

auser,

1998.

[3] M. Eichler and D. Zagier, The Theory of Jacobi Forms, Progress in Math., 55, Birkh

auser, Boston, Basel

and Stuttgart, 1985.

[4] E. Freitag, Siegelsche Modulfunktionen, Grundlehren der Math. Wissenschaften, Springer-Verlag, 1983.

[5] M. Kashiwara and M. Vergne, On the Segal-Shale-Weil Representations and Harmonic Polynomials,

Invent. Math. 44 (1978), 147.

18

JAE-HYUN YANG

[6] J. Kramer, A geometrical approach to the theory of Jacobi forms, Compositio Math. 79 (1991), 119.

[7] J. Kramer, An arithmetical theory of Jacobi forms in higher dimensions, J. reine angew. Math. 458

(1995), 157182.

[8] H. Maass, Die Differentialgleichungen in der Theorie der Siegelschen Modulfunktionen, Math. Ann. 126

(1953), 4468.

[9] H. Maass, Siegel modular functions and Dirichlet series, Lecture Notes in Math. 216, Springer-Verlag,

Berlin and New York, 1971.

[10] Minkowski, H.: Gesammelte Abhandlungen. Chelsea, New York (1967).

[11] B. Runge, Theta functions and Siegel-Jacobi functions, Acta Math. 175 (1995), 165196.

[12] C. L. Siegel, Symplectic Geometry, Gesammelte Abhandlungen, Band II, Springer-Verlag (1966), 274

359.

[13] C. L. Siegel, Topics in Complex Function Theory : Abelian Functions and Modular Functions of Several

Variables, vol. III, Wiley-Interscience, 1973.

[14] J.-H. Yang, The Siegel-Jacobi Operator, Abh. Math. Sem. Univ. Hamburg 63 (1993), 135146.

[15] J.-H. Yang, Remarks on Jacobi forms of higher degree, Proc. of the 1993 Workshop on Automorphic

Forms and Related Topics, the Pyungsan Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Seoul (1993), 3358.

[16] J.-H. Yang, Singular Jacobi Forms, Trans. of American Math. Soc. 347, No. 6 (1995), 20412049.

[17] J.-H. Yang, Construction of Modular Forms from Jacobi Forms, Canadian J. of Math. 47 (1995), 1329

1339.

[18] J.-H. Yang, A geometrical theory of Jacobi forms of higher degree, Proceedings of Symposium on Hodge

Theory and Algebraic Geometry ( edited by Tadao Oda ), Sendai, Japan (1996), 125-147 or Kyungpook

Math. J. 40 (2), 209237 (2000) or arXiv:math.NT/0602267.

[19] J.-H. Yang, A Note on Maass-Jacobi Forms, Kyungpook Math. J. 43 (2003), 547566.

[20] J.-H. Yang, A note on a fundamental domain for Siegel-Jacobi space, Houston Journal of Mathematics,

Vol. 32, No. 3 (2006), 701712.

[21] C. Ziegler, Jacobi Forms of Higher Degree, Abh. Math. Sem. Hamburg 59 (1989), 191224.

Department of Mathematics, Inha University, Incheon 402-751, Korea

E-mail address: jhyang@inha.ac.kr

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