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CHEMISTRY- WORKSHEET- CHAPTER 13- SOLUTIONS

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
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1. All of the following are heterogeneous mixtures except


a. whole wheat bread.
c. tap water.
b. granite.
d. an oil-water mixture.
2. Carbon dioxide in water is an example of which solute-solvent combination?
a. gas-liquid
c. liquid-liquid
b. liquid-gas
d. cannot be determined
3. Which of the following expresses concentration?
a. molality
c. parts per million
b. molarity
d. All of the above
4. Which of the following would be the most concentrated solution?
a. 200 g of C12H22O11 in 1 kg of water
c. 1000 ppm of C12H22O11 in water
b. 1500 ppm of C12H22O11 in water
d. 1 mol of C12H22O11 in 1 L of solution
5. The solubility of a substance at a given temperature can be expressed as
a. grams of solute.
b. grams of solvent.
c. amount of solute per amount of solvent.
d. grams of water per 100 g of solute.
6. The solubility of a solute depends on
a. the nature of the solute and the temperature of the solvent.
b. the nature of the solute only.
c. the temperature of the solvent only.
d. neither the nature of the solute nor the temperature of the solvent.
7. Which of the following is soluble in water?
a. potassium nitrate
c. benzene
b. silver
d. carbon tetrachloride
8. The compound that will most likely dissolve in water
a. is not a dipole.
b. has the effective poles in different positions.
c. has effective poles in the same position.
d. contains hydrogen sulfide.
9. The formation of solid-liquid solutions
a. always releases heat.
c. can either absorb or release heat.
b. always absorbs heat.
d. neither absorbs nor releases heat.
10. In a solution at equilibrium,
a. no dissolution occurs.
b. the rate of dissolution is less than the rate of crystallization.
c. the rate of dissolution is greater than the rate of crystallization.
d. the rate of dissolution and the rate of crystallization are equal.
11. Pressure has the greatest effect on the solubility of
a. solids in liquids.
c. gases in gases.
b. liquids in liquids.
d. gases in liquids.
12. Which of the following is an electrolyte?
a. sodium chloride
c. water
b. sugar
d. glass
13. Which is a molecular substance whose water solution conducts electricity?
a. liquid hydrogen
c. sugar
b. hydrogen chloride
d. iron
14. Molecules whose water solutions conduct current
a. require carbon to decompose in water.
c. do not dissolve in water.
b. ionize in water.
d. can crystallize.

____ 15. A dissolved solute that does not form ions is


a. a nonelectrolyte.
c. a strong electrolyte.
b. a weak electrolyte.
d. insoluble.
____ 16. Which of the following is a molecular compound that ionizes in water?
a. C6H12O6
c. HCl
b. Cl2
d. C6H6
____ 17. Colligative properties depend on
a. the identity of the solute particles.
b. the concentration of the solute particles.
c. the physical properties of the solute particles.
d. the boiling point and freezing point of the solution.
____ 18. Why is boiling-point elevation a colligative property?
a. It is inversely proportional to the concentration of particles in a solution.
b. It is directly proportional to the concentration of particles in a solution.
c. It does not depend on the concentration of particles.
d. It is independent of changes in vapor pressure.
____ 19. Nonvolatile solutes
a. depress the freezing point and elevate the boiling point.
b. elevate the freezing point and depress the boiling point.
c. depress both the freezing point and the boiling point.
d. elevate both the freezing point and the boiling point.
____ 20. Compared with a 0.01 M sugar solution, a 0.01 M MgCl2 solution has
a. the same freezing-point depression.
b. about twice the freezing-point depression.
c. about three times the freezing-point depression.
d. about four times the freezing-point depression.
____ 21. Electrolytes affect colligative properties differently than do nonelectrolytes because electrolytes
a. are volatile.
b. have lower boiling points.
c. produce fewer moles of solute particles per mole of solute.
d. produce more moles of solute particles per mole of solute.
____ 22. Molecules that have both polar and nonpolar regions
a. are likely to be flammable.
c. will not dissolve in any solvent.
b. could act as emulsifying agents.
d. are unstable.
____ 23. Adding the emulsifier lecithin to an oil-water mixture
a. causes the oil and water to separate.
c. prevents the water from evaporating.
b. changes the oil into soap.
d. keeps the oil and water mixed.
Completion
Complete each statement.
24. Agitation prevents a(n) ____________________ from settling.
25. Particles in an emulsion are ____________________ than the particles in a suspension.
26. A mixture in which small particles are suspended throughout a solvent is a(n) ____________________.
27. Oxygen in nitrogen is an example of a(n) ____________________ solute-solvent combination.
28. A(n) ____________________ is a thoroughly mixed homogeneous mixture of substances in a single phase.
29. Pollution amounts that occur in small concentrations would most likely be measured in ____________________.
30. You know the molarity and the volume of a solution. You also need to know the _________________________ to
determine the mass of solute.
31. An excess of magnesium is placed in 25.00 mL of a 0.16 M acid solution. To find the number of moles of product
produced you also need to know the _________________________.

32. A 0.25 M solution of HCl reacts with an excess of sodium oxide, Na2O. A volume of 30.00 mL of HCl is used. To
determine the mass of NaCl produced you must know the _________________________.
33. Carbon tetrachloride is an example of a(n) ____________________ solvent.
34. In the expression like dissolves like, the word like refers to similarity in molecular ____________________.
35. Water is an example of a(n) ____________________ solvent.
36. Dry cleaners use tetrachloroethylene, C2Cl4, to dissolve oil, grease, and alcohol because C2Cl4 is a(n)
____________________ molecule.
37. An equation for the dissociation of an ionic solid shows the solid on the ____________________ side and aqueous
ions on the ____________________ side.
Solubility Rules for Some Common Ionic Compounds
Compounds containing these ions are soluble in water:
Alkali metals (Group 1), except LiF
Ammonium, NH4+
Bromides, Br, except those of Ag+, Pb2+, and Hg22+
Chlorides, Cl, except those of Ag+, Pb2+, and Hg22+
Nitrates, NO3
Sulfates, SO42, except those of Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Pb2+, and Hg22+
Compounds containing these ions are insoluble in water:
Carbonates, CO32, except those of Group 1 and NH4+
Hydroxides, OH, except those of Group 1
Oxides, O2, except those of Group 1, Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+ (which form hydroxides)
Phosphates, PO43, except those of Group 1 and NH4+
Sulfides, S2, except those of Group 1, Mg2+,Ca2+, Ba2+, and NH4+
38. According to the solubility table, the compound AgCl is ____________________ in water.
39. According to the solubility table, the compound PbS is ____________________ in water.
40. According to the solubility table, the compound Na3PO4 is ____________________ in water.
41. According to the solubility table, the compound BaCO3 is ____________________ in water.
42. If the amount of solute in a solution at a given temperature is less than the maximum amount that can dissolve at
that temperature, the solution is said to be ____________________.
43. A(n) ____________________ solution is likely to produce crystals if disturbed.
44. A(n) ____________________ solution is at equilibrium when undissolved solute is visible.
45. Increasing the temperature ____________________ the solubility of a gas in a liquid.
46. The law that relates partial pressure of a gas to its solubility is ____________________.
47. A substance whose water solution conducts a current is a(n) ____________________.
48. A dissolved solute that only partially dissociates to form few ions is a(n) ____________________.
49. Compared with the freezing-point depression of a 0.01 M sugar solution, the freezing-point depression of 0.01 M
HCl solution is almost ____________________ as great.
50. The amount of solute that can dissolve depends on _______________________________________.
51. Dynamic equilibrium is _________________________________________________.
52. Gases can dissolve in __________________________.
53. Factors that affect gas solubility might be _______________ and _______________.

54. The conductivity of a substance depends on ________________________ and


________________________________.
55. The electrolytes are divides into _____________, first _______________and second
________________________..
56. Tap water conducts ___________________.
57. Emulsifying agent example __________________.
Short Answer
58. Define concentration.
59. How is a solute distinguished from a solvent?
60. How is petroleum commonly separated into its component parts?
61. Describe the process of paper chromatography.
62. Describe decanting.
63. Describe the use of a centrifuge.
64. Describe how to calculate ppm from the number of mg of solute and the number of grams of solvent.
65. Describe the conditions necessary for two materials to dissolve in each other.
66. Ethylene glycol molecules are slightly polar, while tetrachloroethylene molecules are nonpolar. The hydroxyl
groups of ethylene glycol can form hydrogen bonds with water, but tetrachloroethylene has no groups capable of
hydrogen bonding. Predict the solubility in water of each liquid and briefly explain your prediction.
67. Explain how you could use a crystal of solute to determine the whether a solution is unsaturated, saturated, or
supersaturated.
68. Differentiate between a strong electrolyte and a weak electrolyte in terms of conductance, solubility, and percent
dissociation.
69. What characteristics make soap a good emulsifying agent?
70. Why is detergent a better choice than soap for laundering with hard water?
71. Name common ways to express concentration
72. What is part per millions?
73. When are you going to use Molarity?
74. When are you going to use Molality?
75. When are you going to use Parts per Million?
76. What does Molarity describe?
77. How is the solubility in polar and nonpolar compounds?
78. What is scurvy?
79. What is the most important function of vitamin C?
80. Talk about the solubility in vitamin C, why is this possible?
81. Can you die from an overdose of vitamin C? Why?
82. Why is Vitamin A good to you?
83. How is the solubility of vitamin A; why?
84. Could you die from a vitamin A excess? Why?
85. Explain the rule Like dissolves Like

86. Where can dissolving take place?


87. Name ways to make solids dissolve faster
88. How do entropy and enthalpy affect solubility of salts?
89. Is safe to look for shelter under a tree in a thunderstorm? Why?
90. What is freezing-point depression?
91. What is boiling point elevation?
92. How are the colligative properties caused?
93. Explain the difference between soaps and other salts
94. What is hard water?
95. Name the difference between detergent and soap?
96. What is going to happen if you do not have an emulsifying agent?
97. What is the freezing point?
Essay
98. What factors should be considered before taking vitamin supplements? Why?

99. Which of the above compounds is more likely to dissolve in water? Explain.
100. When a solute is added to a pure liquid, the boiling point increases, but the freezing point
decreases. Explain.