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INTRODUCTION

The Global Positioning System (GPS), also known as Navstar, is a global


navigation satellite system (GNSS) that provides location and time
information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth where
there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. The GPS
system operates independently of any telephonic or internet reception,
though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS
positioning information. The GPS system provides critical positioning
capabilities to military, civil, and commercial users around the world. The
United States government created the system, maintains it, and makes it
freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver. GPS is a satellite-based navigation
system originally developed for military purposes and is maintained and controlled by the United
States Department of Defense. GPS permits land, sea, and airborne users to determine their
three-dimensional position, velocity, and time. It can be used by anyone with a receiver
anywhere on the planet, at any time of day or night, in any type of weather. GPS uses radio
transmissions. The satellites transmit timing information and satellite location information. The
system can be separated into three parts space segment, user segment and control
segment. The space segment: The GPS satellites themselves. The control
system, operated by the U.S. military. The user segment, which
includes both military and civilian users and their GPS equipment.
Static Positioning: Static positioning typically uses a network or multiple
baseline approach for positioning. It may consist of multiple receivers,
multiple baselines, multiple observational redundancies and multiple
sessions. A least squares adjustment of the observations is required. This
method provides the highest accuracy achievable and requires the longest
observation times.
Fast-Static Positioning: This method requires shorter occupation times
(i.e. 5 to 20+ minutes) than static positioning and may use a radial baseline
technique, network technique, or a combination of the two. Fast static
requires a least squares adjustment or use of processing software capable of
producing a weighted mean average of the observations. Fast-static
positioning may be used for observing both the Cadastral Project Control and
the Cadastral Measurements of a cadastral survey.
Post-Processed Kinematic (PPK) Positioning: Post processed kinematic
survey methods provide the surveyor with a technique for high production
Cadastral Measurements and can be used in areas with minimal obstructions

of the satellites. PPK uses significantly reduced observation times compared


to static or fast-static observations.
Real-time Kinematic (RTK) Positioning: Real-time kinematic positioning
is similar to a PPK or a total station radial survey. RTK does not require postprocessing of the data to obtain a position solution. This allows for real-time
surveying in the field. This method allows the surveyor to make corner
moves (stake out) similar to total station/data collector methods.

OBJECTIVES
1. To discuss the basic of planning a static GPS survey.
2. To recognize the role of NGS control.
3. To explain Continuously Operating Reference Stations.
4. To explain Static GPS project design.
5. To demonstrate drawing GPS baselines.
6. Describe how to calculate the number of sessions necessary for a static survey.
7. Explain the use of real kinematic GPS and DGPS.
8. Recognize some practical RTK suggestions.
9. To enable student and expose them to the GPS field work.
10. To ensure students can conduct GPS efficiently.
11. To expose student to the GPS field work.

INSTRUMENTS AND FUNCTION

INSTRUMENTS

ZEPHYR ANTENNA

FUNCTION

Literally burns up multi-path energy


using technology similar to that used
by Stealth aircraft to hide from radar.
It is protected by weather-resistant
materials and a low profile design, so
when the antenna is used for a
permanent installation, you can count
on many years of continuous operation
without the need for a radome.

RECEIVER

GNSS Receivers process the Signals


In Space (SIS) transmitted by the
satellites, being the user interface to
any Global Navigation Satellite
System (GNSS).
Even though the information provided
by a generic GNSS receiver can be
used by a wide range of Application,
most of them rely on the receiver's
navigation solution - i.e. receiver
computed Position, Velocity and Time
(PVT).

CONTROLLER

A range of connectivity and


communication options make setup
and data delivery fast and streamlined.
Simply choose the form factor that
best fits your preferences and
requirements and pair with your
Trimble GNSS receiver or total
station.
Matched with Trimble Access field
software, Trimbles controllers enable
you to accomplish more every day.

TRIPOD

TRIBACH

A three-legged object such as a


cauldron, stool or table. An adjustable
three-legged stand as for supporting a
Total Station.
To hold the Total Station or Prism.
To make sure the Total Station or
Prism is positioned correctly on the
point.
Used to hold and mounted the tribach
on the Total Station to the upper side
of the tripod.

PROCEDURE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

First tripod was set up at any of station and the GPS instruments was set up.
The height of instruments were taken.
Make sure the cables are connected and the cables and the instruments are ensured safe.
Then, survey Controller was on.
Next, File menu was clicked to create a name for the new job.
New job was selected to create new file for data GPS.
From properties coordinates system, the Malaysia Cassini State Plane was selected. Then,
Zone 13 Negeri Sembilan Melaka was click on the zone box. Then, button Store was
click.
8. The Instrument menu was click and Position was selected.
9. The high of antenna was measured in 3 side and the average for the high of antenna was
calculated. Then, the height of antenna was input to the Antenna height (UNCOR).
10. The Option button was click to make sure the coordinates views is in WGS84.
11. Survey menu was click and Fast Static Survey was selected to start the survey.
12. The blue button was click when survey was start.
13. Make sure when the survey was started, the PDOP is less than 3 and the satellite more
than 6. Ensure to check this during the process of conducting GPS.
14. Always make sure to record the time when start the survey and the height of instruments.
15. After 30 minutes end the survey and off the controller and leave about 5 minutes.
16. Then On the controller and start the survey in the same file which we conducted GPS.
17. Finally, once 30 minute was done for the second GPS data collect then end survey and
download the data into computer using software.

PROCEDURE TO RECORD DATA IN SURVEY CONTROLLER

1) The Survey Controller was on. The File menu was clicked to create a name for the new
job.

2) New job was selected to create new file for data GPS.

New Job

3) From properties coordinates system, the Malaysia Cassini State Plane was selected.
Then, Zone 13 Negeri Sembilan Melaka was click on the zone box. Then, button Store
was click.

Zone 13 Negeri
Sembilan Melaka

Malaysia Cassini
State Plan

4) The Instrument menu was click and Position was selected.

Position

5) The high of antenna was measured in 3 side and the average for the high of antenna was
calculated. Then, the height of antenna was input to the Antenna height (UNCOR).

6) The Option button was click to make sure the coordinates views is in WGS84.

7) Survey menu was click and Fast Static Survey was selected to start the survey.

FastStatic

8) The blue button was click when survey was start.

9) Make sure when the survey was started, the PDOP is less than 3 and the satellite more
than 6.
PDOD : Less than 3

Satellite : More than 6

ANALYSIS

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/questex/gps0111/index.php?
startid=Cover1&WidgetId=null&BookId=c42b04fa9f878d32f89a4696b9bf5306#/22