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2nd year Laboratory Report

Name: Ivan Sim Luk Chuan


Group Number: C 3
Experiment Number: 16
Date of Experiment: 23 October 2015
Date of Report Submission: 12 November 2015

MARK/30 (for demonstrator use):

Ivan Sim Luk Chuan


Group C 3
Experiment 16: GUNT Shell and Tube Heat Transfer
23 October 2015
Section 1.0: Introduction
1.1 Learning Outcomes
- Compare the effect of co-current and counter-current flow on heat transfer and the
temperature profile.
- Find out how different temperatures on counter-current flow affect the heat transfer on the
heat exchanger.
- Investigate the effects of applying different flow ratio of hot and cold water on the
temperature profile of heat exchanger.
- Learn to plot an E-NTU graph for a shell and tube heat exchanger to find out heat exchanger
performance, where the Thermal Effectiveness (E) is plotted as a function of the Number of
Transfer Units (NTU) for different combinations of fluid flow rates and temperatures.
- Able to differentiate the meaning between Thermal capacity ratio and Thermal Effectiveness.
1.2 Theory
In a co-current flow, the hot and cold stream flows in the same direction. Likewise, in a countercurrent flow, the hot and cold stream flows in the opposite direction.

Figure 1: Temperature profile for co-current


flow.

Figure 2: Temperature profile for countercurrent flow.

For heat transfer calculations, the log-mean temperature difference ( ) has to be used instead of
temperature difference. The formula for is:
=

ln(

(1)

For co-current flow,


=

(, , ) (, , )
(, , )

ln(

(, , )

(2)

For counter-current flow,


=

(, , ) (, , )
(, , )

ln(

(, , )

(3)

The heat capacity of hot or cold stream is given by:


/ = ( )/ = (V )/

(4)

In an efficient heat exchanger (assuming there are no heat loss), the amount of heat transferred
from the hot stream, Q, would equal the amount of heat transferred to the cold stream. Therefore:
= ( ) (, , ) = ( ) (, , )

(5)

Where is the mass flow rate of water is, is the specific heat capacity of water, is the
temperature of the hot stream and is the temperature of the cold stream.
To find the actual heat transfer, the following formula can be used:
|( )|
= ( )

(6)

Where smaller means the smaller value when comparing between the hot and cold stream, and vice
versa for larger.1
The maximum theoretical heat transferred, is calculated using the equation:
= ( )
, )
(
,

(7)

Also, assuming that no heat was lost when heat is transferred from the hot water through the pipe
surface, the amount of heat could be calculated using the formula:
=

(8)

Where the heat transfer coefficient of fluid, h can be calculated from U using the equation:
1

(9)

And is the thermal conductivity of the tube wall and x is the thickness of the tube wall.
Where U is the overall heat transfer coefficient, and A is the heat transfer area of the pipe, and is
calculated using the formula
=

(10)

Where D is the inner diameter of the tube, L is the length of the tube and N is the number of tubes in
the heat exchanger.
The thermal effectiveness, E, is a ratio of the actual heat transfer and the maximum possible heat
transfer rate.

(|( )| )
(, , )
=

( )
( )

(|( )| )

(11)

(, , )

The number of transfer units, NTU, is calculated using the formula:


=

( )

|( ) |

(12)

C* is the specific heat capacity ratio between the hot and cold stream.
=

( )
( )
(V )
(V )
=

(13)

The Reynolds Number2 for flow is given by the equation:


=

(14)

Where u is the velocity of the fluid, A is the cross-sectional area of the tube, the density and the
viscosity of the fluid.
The Prandtl Number3 is given by the equation:
Pr =

(15)

The The Dittus-Boelter Correlation4 for to calculate Nusselt number is:


= 0.023 0.8 =

(16)

Assuming that the density, and specific heat capacity, of the hot and cold stream are the same.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Thermopedia. Mean Temperature Difference. [Online] Available from: Engineering Toolbox. Reynolds Number. [Online]
Available from: http://www.thermopedia.com/content/945/ [Accessed: 10 November 2015]
Engineering Toolbox. Reynolds Number. [Online] Available from: http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/reynolds-numberd_237.html [Accessed: 10 November 2015]
Engineering Toolbox. Prandtl Number. [Online] Available from: http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/prandtl-numberd_1068.html [Accessed: 10 November 2015]
[Online] Available from: http://www.me.umn.edu/courses/old_me_course_pages/me3333/gallery/eq%203.pdf [Accessed: 10
November 2015]

1.3 Relevance
Heat transfer is a very important aspect in industry and in our everyday lives. For any given process,
heat is released into the environment. Some of the processes require cooling to prevent the hardware
from overheating. The shell and tube heat exchanger is one out of many designs which is efficient at
cooling down systems.
Some examples of heat transfer include car radiator, which cools down the engine using the flow of
air. Also, refrigerators help transfer heat from the inside to the outside, keeping food cool. In industry,
heat exchangers are used to cool down reactants to achieve optimum reaction kinetics.
Section 2.0: Experimental Work
2.1 System Used
The system used in this experiment was hot and cold water.
2.2 Experiment and Procedure

Figure 1: The equipment used in the experiment.


The experiment is initialised by turning on the power and waiting for the hot water to reach the
desired temperature of around 70. The heat exchanger is tuned to co-current state. The flow rate
of cold water is set to values ranging from 0.4-1.9 L min-1. The flow rate of hot water is determined
using specific ratios to the flow rate of cold water at 1.0, 0.6, 0.3, and 0.1. The temperature of the
inlet and outlet of the hot and cold stream are then recorded respectively after the temperature has
stabilised. The experiment is repeated using a counter-current arrangement of the heat exchanger
and at hot water of temperatures 40, 60 and 70.
2.3 Hazards and Safety
Several safety aspects were noted and practiced when conducting this experiment.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Safety goggles were worn because the machinery has sharp edges.
Lab coats were worn in case there were spillages of hot water.
Extra caution was taken when handling the water to prevent electrocution.
Extra caution was taken to prevent water spillages.

2.4 Results
(a) Observed Data
/
.
L min-1
1.90
1.60
1.30
1.00
0.70
0.40
1.14
1.02
0.90
0.78
0.66
0.54
0.57
0.51
0.45
0.39
0.33
0.27
0.19
0.18
0.16
0.15
0.13
0.12

/
.
L min-1
1.90
1.60
1.30
1.00
0.70
0.40
1.90
1.70
1.50
1.30
1.10
0.90
1.90
1.70
1.50
1.30
1.10
0.90
1.90
1.80
1.60
1.50
1.30
1.20

/ .
In
Out

/ .
In
Out

65.2
55.5
13.8
24.4
66.5
55.6
13.9
24.4
66.7
55.5
14.0
24.8
66.7
55.0
14.1
25.0
66.1
52.8
14.4
26.6
61.5
46.6
15.1
29.2
66.2
53.7
13.9
21.5
66.8
53.9
14.0
21.9
67.0
53.2
14.0
21.9
66.6
52.3
14.2
22.8
64.2
49.5
14.3
23.0
50.8
39.1
14.4
22.3
48.5
36.9
14.1
17.6
47.0
35.1
14.0
17.7
45.4
33.7
14.1
17.7
44.7
32.7
14.2
18.0
43.8
31.5
14.2
18.1
43.6
31.3
14.4
18.7
43.2
27.6
14.0
16.4
42.4
27.4
14.1
16.4
41.6
27.0
14.1
16.5
41.5
26.4
14.2
16.7
41.8
26.6
14.1
16.8
41.8
26.4
14.2
17.1
Table 1: Observed data for co-current flow at 70.

/
.
L min-1
1.90
1.60
1.30
1.00
0.70
0.40
1.14
1.02
0.90
0.78
0.66
0.54
0.57
0.51
0.45
0.39
0.33
0.27
0.19
0.18
0.16
0.15
0.13
0.12

/
.
L min-1
1.90
1.60
1.30
1.00
0.70
0.40
1.90
1.70
1.50
1.30
1.10
0.90
1.90
1.70
1.50
1.30
1.10
0.90
1.90
1.80
1.60
1.50
1.30
1.20

/ .
In
Out

/ .
In
Out

66.6
55.9
14.1
24.5
66.8
55.8
14.2
25.3
66.8
55.1
14.1
24.5
67.1
54.8
14.4
25.6
66.6
52.6
14.7
27.7
60.5
45.6
15.4
30.1
66.6
53.9
14.0
22.1
66.3
53.2
14.1
22.1
67.0
53.1
14.1
22.4
66.3
51.8
14.1
23.4
64.0
49.0
14.2
22.9
60.7
45.5
14.4
23.2
50.2
37.4
13.9
17.7
48.9
35.0
14.0
17.9
46.3
33.8
14.1
17.8
44.9
32.1
14.2
17.7
45.2
32.5
14.3
18.7
44.5
31.1
14.3
18.9
43.5
27.4
14.0
16.4
42.4
26.8
14.0
16.4
42.3
26.6
14.0
16.4
42.2
26.3
14.2
16.8
42.1
26.0
14.2
17.1
41.7
25.7
14.2
17.2
Table 2: Observed data for counter-current flow at 70.

/
.
L min-1
1.90
1.60
1.30
1.00
0.70
0.40
1.14
1.02
0.90
0.78
0.66
0.54
0.57
0.51
0.45
0.39
0.33
0.27
0.19
0.18
0.16
0.15
0.13
0.12

/
.
L min-1
1.90
1.60
1.30
1.00
0.70
0.40
1.90
1.70
1.50
1.30
1.10
0.90
1.90
1.70
1.50
1.30
1.10
0.90
1.90
1.80
1.60
1.50
1.30
1.20

/ .
In
Out

/ .
In
Out

39.7
35.0
13.7
18.4
40.1
35.1
13.7
18.4
40.4
35.2
13.9
19.0
39.8
34.3
14.0
19.2
39.4
33.2
14.2
19.9
39.1
31.4
14.7
21.8
38.9
33.3
13.7
17.2
39.5
33.6
13.8
17.6
39.4
33.3
13.9
17.7
38.9
32.5
13.9
17.8
38.2
31.7
14.0
18.3
38.1
30.8
14.1
18.3
36.8
29.2
13.8
16.1
35.8
28.1
13.8
16.2
36.5
28.6
13.8
16.5
36.3
27.4
13.9
16.6
35.6
26.8
14.0
17.2
35.0
25.8
14.1
17.1
34.6
23.6
13.8
15.4
34.0
23.5
13.8
15.4
33.8
23.1
13.8
15.6
33.5
22.9
13.9
15.7
33.3
22.6
13.9
15.9
34.0
22.6
14.0
16.1
Table 3: Observed data for counter-current flow at 40.

/
.
L min-1
1.90
1.60
1.30
1.00
0.70
0.40
1.14
1.02
0.90
0.78
0.66
0.54
0.57
0.51
0.45
0.39
0.33
0.27
0.19
0.18
0.16
0.15
0.13
0.12

/
.
L min-1
1.90
1.60
1.30
1.00
0.70
0.40
1.90
1.70
1.50
1.30
1.10
0.90
1.90
1.70
1.50
1.30
1.10
0.90
1.90
1.80
1.60
1.50
1.30
1.20

/ .
In
Out

/ .
In
Out

57.1
48.7
13.8
23.0
57.9
49.0
13.9
22.9
57.9
48.9
14.0
23.1
58.1
48.8
14.2
23.6
56.2
45.3
14.4
24.2
52.0
39.8
15.0
26.6
57.2
47.2
13.9
20.3
57.6
47.2
14.0
20.6
57.8
46.8
14.1
20.9
57.2
45.9
14.1
21.6
55.6
43.7
14.1
21.3
48.3
37.7
14.3
20.6
48.0
36.4
13.9
17.5
46.4
34.7
13.9
17.5
43.3
33.1
14.0
17.6
43.1
31.4
14.0
17.6
42.5
30.8
14.1
18.0
41.3
29.6
14.2
18.4
40.2
26.2
13.8
15.9
39.8
25.5
13.9
16.0
39.1
25.6
14.0
16.2
39.1
24.8
14.0
16.2
39.3
25.0
14.0
16.6
39.2
24.9
14.1
16.8
Table 4: Observed data for counter-current flow at 60.

(b) Derived Results

0.13
0.11
0.09
0.07
0.05
0.03
0.13
0.12
0.11
0.09
0.08
0.06
0.13
0.12
0.11
0.09
0.08
0.06
0.13
0.13
0.11
0.11
0.09
0.08

C*
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1

Q / kW / kW

NTU

9.7
10.6
1.29
6.84
40.40
0.24
10.9
10.5
1.22
5.89
40.97
0.27
11.2
10.8
1.02
4.80
40.71
0.28
11.7
10.9
0.82
3.68
40.25
0.29
13.3
12.2
0.65
2.53
37.52
0.35
14.9
14.1
0.42
1.30
29.57
0.50
12.5
7.6
1.00
4.17
41.44
0.30
12.9
7.9
0.92
3.77
41.54
0.31
13.8
7.9
0.87
3.34
41.20
0.33
14.3
8.6
0.78
2.86
39.86
0.36
14.7
8.7
0.68
2.31
36.97
0.40
11.7
7.9
0.44
1.38
25.35
0.46
11.6
3.5
0.46
1.37
26.13
0.44
11.9
3.7
0.42
1.18
24.37
0.49
11.7
3.6
0.37
0.99
22.80
0.51
12.0
3.8
0.33
0.83
21.65
0.55
12.3
3.9
0.28
0.68
20.44
0.60
12.3
4.3
0.23
0.55
19.75
0.62
15.6
2.4
0.21
0.39
18.78
0.83
15.0
2.3
0.19
0.36
18.31
0.82
14.6
2.4
0.16
0.31
17.66
0.83
15.1
2.5
0.16
0.29
17.01
0.89
15.2
2.7
0.14
0.25
17.23
0.88
15.4
2.9
0.13
0.23
16.82
0.92
Table 5: Derived results for co-current flow at 70.

E
0.19
0.21
0.21
0.22
0.26
0.32
0.24
0.24
0.26
0.27
0.29
0.32
0.34
0.36
0.37
0.39
0.42
0.42
0.53
0.53
0.53
0.55
0.55
0.56

Co-current 70 C
0.60
0.50
0.40

0.13
0.11
0.09
0.07
0.05
0.03
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.05
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01

0.30

0.6

0.20

0.3

0.10

0.1

0.00
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

NTU

Graph 1: E-NTU graph for co-current flow at 70.

U / kW m2 K
1.97
1.84
1.55
1.26
1.07
0.87
1.49
1.37
1.30
1.21
1.13
1.08
1.09
1.08
1.00
0.93
0.86
0.73
0.68
0.64
0.57
0.58
0.50
0.47


0.13
0.11
0.09
0.07
0.05
0.03
0.13
0.12
0.11
0.09
0.08
0.06
0.13
0.12
0.11
0.09
0.08
0.06
0.13
0.13
0.11
0.11
0.09
0.08

C*
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1

Q / kW / kW

NTU

10.7
10.4
1.42
41.95
0.26
6.98
11.0
11.1
1.23
41.55
0.26
5.89
11.7
10.4
1.06
41.65
0.28
4.80
12.3
11.2
0.86
40.95
0.30
3.69
14.0
13.0
0.69
38.40
0.36
2.54
14.9
14.7
0.42
30.30
0.49
1.26
12.7
8.1
1.01
42.16
0.30
4.20
13.1
8.0
0.94
41.60
0.31
3.73
13.9
8.3
0.88
41.74
0.33
3.33
14.5
9.3
0.79
40.24
0.36
2.85
15.0
8.7
0.69
37.86
0.40
2.30
15.2
8.8
0.57
34.20
0.44
1.75
12.8
3.8
0.51
27.76
0.46
1.45
13.9
3.9
0.50
25.68
0.54
1.25
12.5
3.7
0.39
23.83
0.52
1.01
12.8
3.5
0.35
22.23
0.58
0.84
12.7
4.4
0.29
22.09
0.57
0.71
13.4
4.6
0.25
20.89
0.64
0.57
16.1
2.4
0.21
19.45
0.83
0.39
15.6
2.4
0.20
18.63
0.84
0.36
15.7
2.4
0.18
18.46
0.85
0.32
15.9
2.6
0.17
17.94
0.89
0.29
16.1
2.9
0.15
0.23
17.58
0.92
16.0
3.0
0.13
0.00
17.19
0.93
Table 6: Derived results for counter-current flow at 70.

E
0.20
0.21
0.22
0.23
0.27
0.33
0.24
0.25
0.26
0.28
0.30
0.33
0.35
0.40
0.39
0.42
0.41
0.44
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.57
0.58
0.58

Counter-current 70 C
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40

0.30

0.6

0.20

0.3

0.13
0.11
0.09
0.07
0.05
0.03
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.05
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01

0.1

0.10
0.00
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

NTU

Graph 2: E-NTU graph for counter-current flow at 70.

U / kW m2 K
2.09
1.83
1.58
1.30
1.10
0.85
1.48
1.39
1.30
1.21
1.13
1.04
1.14
1.19
1.02
0.97
0.82
0.75
0.68
0.65
0.59
0.57
0.51
0.39


0.13
0.11
0.09
0.07
0.05
0.03
0.13
0.12
0.11
0.09
0.08
0.06
0.13
0.12
0.11
0.09
0.08
0.06
0.13
0.13
0.11
0.11
0.09
0.08

C*
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1

Q / kW / kW

NTU

4.7
4.7
0.63
3.46
16.00
0.29
5.0
4.7
0.56
2.96
21.55
0.23
5.2
5.1
0.47
2.41
21.35
0.24
5.5
5.2
0.39
1.81
20.45
0.27
6.2
5.7
0.30
1.23
19.25
0.32
7.7
7.1
0.22
0.68
17.00
0.45
5.6
3.5
0.45
2.01
20.63
0.27
5.9
3.8
0.42
1.83
20.83
0.28
6.1
3.8
0.38
1.61
20.53
0.30
6.4
3.9
0.35
1.37
19.82
0.32
6.5
4.3
0.30
1.12
18.78
0.35
7.3
4.2
0.28
0.91
18.21
0.40
7.6
2.3
0.30
0.92
17.92
0.42
7.7
2.4
0.27
0.79
16.81
0.46
7.9
2.7
0.25
0.72
17.27
0.46
8.9
2.7
0.24
0.61
16.41
0.54
8.8
3.2
0.20
0.50
15.43
0.57
9.2
3.0
0.17
0.40
14.58
0.63
11.0
1.6
0.15
0.28
13.98
0.79
10.5
1.6
0.13
0.25
13.67
0.77
10.7
1.8
0.12
0.22
13.26
0.81
10.6
1.8
0.11
0.21
12.90
0.82
10.7
2.0
0.10
0.18
12.55
0.85
11.4
2.1
0.10
0.17
12.69
0.90
Table 7: Derived results for counter-current flow at 40.

E
0.18
0.19
0.20
0.21
0.25
0.32
0.22
0.23
0.24
0.26
0.27
0.30
0.33
0.35
0.35
0.40
0.41
0.44
0.53
0.52
0.54
0.54
0.55
0.57

Counter-current 40 C
0.60
0.50
0.40

0.13
0.11
0.09
0.07
0.05
0.03
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.05
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01

0.30

0.6

0.20

0.3

0.10

0.1

0.00
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

NTU

Graph 3: E-NTU graph for counter-current flow at 40.

U / kW m2 K
2.41
1.60
1.37
1.16
0.97
0.78
1.34
1.25
1.16
1.09
0.99
0.94
1.04
1.01
0.89
0.91
0.81
0.74
0.65
0.60
0.56
0.53
0.48
0.47


0.13
0.11
0.09
0.07
0.05
0.03
0.13
0.12
0.11
0.09
0.08
0.06
0.13
0.12
0.11
0.09
0.08
0.06
0.13
0.13
0.11
0.11
0.09
0.08

C*
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1

Q / kW / kW

NTU

8.4
9.2
1.12
5.76
34.50
0.24
8.9
9.0
1.00
4.93
35.05
0.25
9.0
9.1
0.82
3.99
34.85
0.26
9.3
9.4
0.65
3.07
34.55
0.27
10.9
9.8
0.53
2.05
31.45
0.35
12.2
11.6
0.34
1.04
25.10
0.49
10.0
6.4
0.80
3.46
35.07
0.29
10.4
6.6
0.74
3.11
35.07
0.30
11.0
6.8
0.69
2.75
34.76
0.32
11.3
7.5
0.62
2.35
33.66
0.34
11.9
7.2
0.55
1.92
31.89
0.37
10.6
6.3
0.40
1.29
25.49
0.42
11.6
3.6
0.46
1.36
26.30
0.44
11.7
3.6
0.42
1.16
24.63
0.48
10.2
3.6
0.32
0.92
22.24
0.46
11.7
3.6
0.32
0.79
21.19
0.55
11.7
3.9
0.27
0.66
20.35
0.57
11.7
4.2
0.22
0.51
18.90
0.62
14.0
2.1
0.19
0.35
17.69
0.79
14.3
2.1
0.18
0.33
16.98
0.84
13.5
2.2
0.15
0.28
16.61
0.81
14.3
2.2
0.15
0.26
16.10
0.89
14.3
2.6
0.13
0.23
16.15
0.89
14.3
2.7
0.12
0.21
15.90
0.90
Table 8: Derived results for counter-current flow at 60.

E
0.19
0.20
0.21
0.21
0.26
0.33
0.23
0.24
0.25
0.26
0.29
0.31
0.34
0.36
0.35
0.40
0.41
0.43
0.53
0.55
0.54
0.57
0.57
0.57

Counter-current 60C
0.60
0.50
0.40

0.13
0.11
0.09
0.07
0.05
0.03
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.05
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01

0.30

0.6

0.20

0.3

0.10

0.1

0.00
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

NTU

Graph 4: E-NTU graph for counter-current flow at 60.

U / kW m2 K
2.00
1.76
1.45
1.16
1.05
0.84
1.40
1.31
1.23
1.13
1.06
0.97
1.09
1.05
0.89
0.93
0.82
0.72
0.65
0.66
0.56
0.58
0.50
0.47

Section 3.0: Calculations


1. Heat capacity, and .
Applying equation (4), and assuming the density of water is 100 kg m-3 and the specific heat
capacity of water is 4.2 kJ kg-1 -1, and using flow rate of hot water at 1.9 L min-1:

1 3
1

= 1000 3 1.9

4.2
= 0.13 1

1000
60

2. Temperature difference, .
When temperature of the inlet of the hot stream is at 65.2, temperature at the outlet is
55.5.
= 65.2 55.5 = 9.7
3. Amount of heat transferred, Q.
Applying equation (6), when is 0.130.13 1 , is 9.7.
= 0.13 9.7 = 1.26
4. Maximum amount of heat transferred, .
Applying equation (7), when is at 0.131 , temperature at the inlet of hot stream is
65.2 and 13.8 at the cold stream inlet.
= 0.13 (65.2 13.8) = 6.68
5. Thermal effectiveness, E.
Applying equation (11), and using the same sets of data above:
65.2 55.5
=
= 0.19
65.2 13.8
6. Log mean temperature difference, .
Applying equation (2), and using the same sets of data above:
(65.2 13.8) (55.5 24.4)
=
= 40.4
(65.2 13.8)
(
)
(55.5 24.4)
7. Number of transfer units, NTU.
Applying equation (11), and using the same sets of data above:
65.2 55.5
=
= 0.24
40.4
8. Heat transfer area, Am.
Applying equation (10), and using the data given on Blackboard5:
= 0.004 0.184 7 = 0.01622
9. Overall heat transfer coefficient, U.
Applying equation (8), and using the same sets of data as above:
1.29
=
= 1.97 2 1
0.0162 40.4
10. Reynolds Number, Re and Prandtl Number, Pr.
1.9
The volumetric flow rate of water in 1 tube = 1000 60 7 = 4.52 106 3 1
At 70 (inlet of hot stream): = 4191 1 1 , = 1023 3 1 , =
4.05 104 , = 0.662 W 1 1 .
4 1023 4.52 106
=
= 3637
4.05 104 0.004
6
4191 4.05 10
Pr =
= 2.56
0.662
11. Nusselt Number, Nu.
For the hot water stream,
= 0.023 36370.8 2.560.33 = 22.1
12. Fluid heat transfer coefficient, h.
Applying equation (16):
For the hot water stream,

22.1 0.662
= 3663 = 3.663 1 1
0.004
For the cold water stream, the thermal conductivity of stainless steel at around 50 is given
to be 0.01524kW m-1 K-1.6 Also, the thickness of the tube wall is 1mm as given on Blackboard.
Applying equation (9) and using the same sets of data as above:
1
1

1
=
+ +

1
1
=
= 5.915 1 1
1
1

1
1
0.001

1.97 3.663 0.01524
This value seems acceptable for a moderate flow of water in a pipe through forced
convection.7 Also, the value of h makes sense because hc is larger than hh as the temperature
difference for the hot stream is larger.
13. Error for heat capacity, C.
Using the method of propagation of error, the error for heat capacity for the above sets of
data can be calculated as follow:
2
2
(
) = (
)

0.13 0.01
=
=
= 6.84 104 1

1.9
=

14. Error for enthalpy, Q.


Using the method of propagation of error, the error for enthalpy for the above sets of data
can be calculated as follow:
2
2
2
( ) = (
) + (
)

2
2

= (
) + (
)

= 1.29(

1.

2.

3.

6.84 104
0.2 2
) + ( ) = 0.03
0.13
9.7

[Online] Available from:


https://online.manchester.ac.uk/webapps/blackboard/execute/content/file?cmd=view&content_id=_4019361_1&course_id=_
36102_1 [Accessed: 10 November 2015]
MACE. Stainless Steel Thermal Properties. [Online]. Available from:
http://www.mace.manchester.ac.uk/project/research/structures/strucfire/materialInFire/Steel/StainlessSteel/thermalProperti
es.htm [Accessed: 10 November 2015]
Engineers Edge. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients Table Chart. [Online]. Available from:
http://www.engineersedge.com/heat_transfer/convective_heat_transfer_coefficients__13378.htm [Accessed: 10 November
2015]

Section 4.0: Discussions


1. Temperature difference between hot and cold stream is not the same.
This is because some heat from the hot stream is lost to the surrounding. Therefore, the
temperature difference of the hot stream is larger than the cold stream because not all heat
is absorbed by the cold stream. Furthermore, the ratio of the length of the pipe connected to
the heat exchanger to the diameter is less than 60. This means that the properties of water
inside the pipe may not be uniform across the pipe, leading to inaccurate data. Also, the
position of the probe to record the temperature in the pipe is not known, which affects the
temperature reading.
2. The temperature of hot water supply does not stay constant throughout the experiment.
This is because since there is circulation of water on the system, it is hard to regulate the
temperature of water. This causes some inconsistency with the recorded data.
3. Relationship between C* and E.
The heat capacity ratio, C* is a ratio between the heat capacity of the hot and cold stream,
while the thermal effectiveness, E is a ratio between the heat transferred of the hot stream
and the maximum theoretical achievable heat transfer.
4. Graph analysis.
From the graph, it can be seen that the line with ratio of 1.0 is always at the bottom while
the line with ratio of 0.1 is always at the top. This is because as the ratio decreases, the hot
water stream carries less energy while the cold stream still has the same capacity to absorb
heat. Therefore, heat is lost faster when the ratio is lower, resulting in a lower temperature
reading at the inlet. As a result, E increases as the C* ratio decrease.
5. Comparing co-current flow and counter-current flow.
The range of results given in this experiment is too small to compare between co-current and
counter-current flow. However, theoretically, since counter-current flow can exchange heat
more efficiently, the temperature difference of the hot/cold stream should be larger
compared to co-current flow. Therefore, E should be larger in the counter-current flow. This
is shown in the gradient of the 2 graphs, where the gradient of the counter-current flow is
steeper.
6. Comparing the E-NTU graph for counter-current flow of different temperatures.
Again, the range of results given in this experiment is too small to compare between E-NTU
graphs of different temperatures.
7. Comparing the heat transfer coefficient, h.
From the calculations section, the value of overall heat transfer coefficient, U, was quite
similar to the value obtained from derived data (2.3 and 2). This shows that there is some
error in the value of h obtained, but the accurate value is not far from the calculated value.
Furthermore, individual results for Reynolds Number, Prandtls Number and Nusselts
Number is not shown in the derived section as each component has different values for
density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity, and therefore would take
too much time to calculate all the individual values.
Section 5.0: Conclusions
In conclusion, it can be seen that a counter-current arrangement is more efficient than a co-current
arrangement as it has a higher rate of heat transfer. Also, a higher temperature set-up is more efficient
than a set-up with lower temperatures. Furthermore, it can be observed that the lower the C* ratio,
the higher the thermal effectiveness (E).

Section 6.0: Nomenclature


Symbol

C
C*
Q

U
Am
A
x

h
D
L
N
E
NTU
Re
Pr
Nu

Definition
Log mean temperature difference
Heat capacity
Heat capacity ratio
Enthalpy
Maximum theoretical enthalpy
Mass flow rate
Specific heat capacity
Overall heat transfer coefficient
Heat transfer area
Cross-sectional area
Thickness of tube
Thermal conductivity
Heat transfer coefficient
Diameter of tube
Length of tube
Number of tube
Thermal effectiveness
Number of transfer units
Reynolds number
Prandtls number
Nusselts number
Viscosity

Unit
K
kJ K-1
kJ
kJ
kg s-1
kJ kg -1 K-1
kW m-2 K-1
m2
m2
m
kW m-1 K-1
kW m-2 K-1
m
m
Pa s

Section 7.0: References


4. Thermopedia. Mean Temperature Difference. [Online] Available from: Engineering Toolbox.
Reynolds Number. [Online] Available from: http://www.thermopedia.com/content/945/
[Accessed: 10 November 2015]
5. Engineering Toolbox. Reynolds Number. [Online] Available from:
http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/reynolds-number-d_237.html [Accessed: 10
November 2015]
6. Engineering Toolbox. Prandtl Number. [Online] Available from:
http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/prandtl-number-d_1068.html [Accessed: 10 November
2015]
7. [Online] Available from:
http://www.me.umn.edu/courses/old_me_course_pages/me3333/gallery/eq%203.pdf
[Accessed: 10 November 2015]
8. [Online] Available from:
https://online.manchester.ac.uk/webapps/blackboard/execute/content/file?cmd=view&con
tent_id=_4019361_1&course_id=_36102_1 [Accessed: 10 November 2015]
9. MACE. Stainless Steel Thermal Properties. [Online]. Available from:
http://www.mace.manchester.ac.uk/project/research/structures/strucfire/materialInFire/St
eel/StainlessSteel/thermalProperties.htm [Accessed: 10 November 2015]
10. Engineers Edge. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients Table Chart. [Online]. Available from:
http://www.engineersedge.com/heat_transfer/convective_heat_transfer_coefficients__133
78.htm [Accessed: 10 November 2015]