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SUMMARY

In this publication, the Contravention of Law of the Republic of Moldova, which is in force from May 31st, 2009, is
submitted to a juridical analysis. The chief aim consists in the study of the legal system of application of administrativejuridical norms. The author brings arguments for the necessity to modify the above mentioned law and comes with definite
suggestions.
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SUMMARY

During the examination of criminal, civil and administrative cases the issue is established by means of gathering and
changing of evidences. The special knowledge is of no small importance for realisation of this task. This knowledge is very
often used nowadays direct by specialists and experts of prosecuting agency or of court of justice.
In the Republic of Moldova, according to the legislation in force, the prosecuting agencies and courts use special
knowledge of three types such as participation of specialist in the process of criminal investigation, execution by the
specialist of technical-scientific establishment execution of legal examination.
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The article states that each countrys constitution is the legal base of the legislation. It comprises the consolidation of the
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The article is about the principles, requirements and guarantees of the legitimacy.
According to the authors opinio their normative consolidation and concrete
definition will allow to create additional possibility for order strebgthening.
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Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis
of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that state's political system) and
commercial institutions of the market.
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proves a positive role of cooperation of a civil society and educational institutions of Moldova.
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The article presents the comparative analysis of the classification of medical crimes in the Republic of Moldova and
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:
1. . . -
-, 2005 ., 576 ., .158.
2. , .511.
3.
. . . ..
, .. . -
, , 2001 ., 767 ., .
108.
4. Sergiu Brnz, Xenofon
Ulianovschi, Vitalie Stati, Ion urcanu,
Vladimir Grosu. Drept penal. Partea
special. Vol. II, Chiinu, Cartier,
2005, 804 p., p.48-51
5. Sergiu Brnz, Xenofon
Ulianovschi... op. cit., p.130.
6. Codul penal al RM. Comentariu.
Redactor A: Barbneagr, Chiinu,
2003, p.337.
7. . .. . - ,
, 1997 ., .329.

.
, 3-
. . .. . -
..., , 2003, .325
8. ().


1.2010

. 24-25, , 2005, .4
9. Codul penal al RM. Comentariu,
Chiinu, 2003, p.351.
10. . .
? , 46, 9-15 2003 ., .
24.
11. .
, .
, 2
2003 .
12. ..
. . , 1990 .,
. 39-40.

37

:
.

. ,
,
Summary

Human trafficking is the practice of people being tricked, lured, coerced or otherwise removed from their home or
country, and then compelled to work with no or low payment or on terms which are highly exploitative. The practice is
considered to be trade or commerce in people, which has many features of slavery, and which is illegal in most countries.
Human trafficking across international borders requires cooperation and collaboration between states if it is to be tackled
effectively. This article is preparing by Institute of Womens Rights for the project for fighting the trafficking, sponsored by
Global Fund for Women.
***
.
.

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, , 2000 . . ,
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42



. ,
Mg.iur.,
SUMMARY

The given heading is devoted to the issues of criminal classification of the falsification of payment cards. The author
suggested that falsification can be divided into three types: the falsification of the plastic card, falsification of the electronic
information, falsification of both plastic card and the electronic information.
***
.
.
, 3 : 1)
, 2) , 3) .


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, ,
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:
(. Erasing the Magnetic
Strip) , .

(.
Creating a Fake Card).
(. Altering
Card Details),
(. Re-embossing),
(. Re-encoding).
(. Skimming),
, ,


.
(. White
Plastic) , ,

. 4


:
(. Electronic
Counterfeit)

(. Manual Counterfeit). 5


.
,

.


(. Re-embossing) (. Re-encoding).6
. .
:
; ,

; ,
, .7

, ,

(. Completely
Counterfeit Cards)


1.2010

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(. Re-embossing),
(. Reencoding).8



. ,
VISA

(. counterfeit),
.., , (.
altered) .
, .9 ,
American Express


(. Phisical Alteration,
Magnetic Alteration).10



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)


1.2010

:
Comission of the European
Communities. Report on fraud
regarding non cash means of payments
in the EU: the implementation of
the 2004-2007 EU Action Plan.
22.04.2008. SEC(2008) 511., 34 .,
- .6. : http://ec.europa.
eu/internal_market/payments/docs/
fraud/implementation_report_en.pdf
2
Kronberga G. Domjot par sava
konta drobu // Latvijas Vstnesis
Plus. 2006.gada 6.jlija nr.103 (131).
3
Mike Maguire, Rodney Morgan,
Robert Reiner. The Oxford handbook
of criminology. Oxford University
Press, 2007, 1185 ., - .282.
4
Tej Paul Bhatla, Vikram Prabhu,
Amit Dua. Understanding Credit Card
Frauds.: Tata Consultancy Services
2002, 15 . .3-6.
1

47
Peter Burns, Anne Stanley.
Fraud Management in the Credit Card
Industry. Federal Reserve Bank of
Philadelphia, 2002., 16 ., .2-6.
6
Smith Russel G., Grabovsky
P. Plastic Card Fraud, Melbourne:
Australian Institute of Criminology,
1998, 11 . .3.
7
. .
,
. . , 2006., 29
. - .22.
8
Paramjit Singh. Economic Crime:
Emerging Threats and Responses
Singapores`s Experience. Annual
Report for 2004 and Resouce Material
Series No.66, 126th International
Senior Seminar Visiting Eksperts`
Papers, Tokyo: UNAFEI, 2005., 220
.,- .56.
9
Resource Manual For Prosecutors
& Investiogators. VISA U.S.A. Fraud
Control Department, 2000., 72 ., .25-16.
10
Credit Card & Travelers Cheque
Fraud. A Guide For Law Enforcement.
American Express Travel Related
Services Company., 36 .,- .89.
11
..

. //
:
. . . . - . -, 2007. . 2. 422 .,
- .336.
12
.. ,

/
..:
5

, 2004. 160 .,
- .128-129.
13
..
. //
: , , .
: :
- ,
23 2008 . /
: -
, 2008,
c.133-139 (156), .139.
14
..
: ..
. / .: , 2005. . 60.
15
. . // i i, N.22
(459), 2009 - c.50-54. (72), .51.
16
,
. .
: , 1999, 415 .,
.316.
17
.. ,
: .
, 2005. 280 .
18
.., .. ,
-
//


2001 . . 5. : .
, 2002.
.111-117.


1.2010

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2006, 25 ., - .21.
20
.., .. ,
-
//


2001 . . 5. : .
, 2002.
.111-117, .117.
21
.
[], //
Crime-research.
org [.10.10.2009.], :
http://www.crime-research.ru/library/
BelousTem3.htm.
19

48





. ,
,
SUMMARY

Banking practice of the Republic of Moldova does not practice elevates to the rank of priority one or another way
to enforce credit obligations. Bank, as a participant in the business turnover, primarily interested in the liquidity of the
security measures, and which of them it is most clearly seen, often does not show the predicted and the already established
relationship.
***
, .
, , .

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. . ,


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49

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.

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)
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[4, 143 144].
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1.2010

:
[1] . . . .: ,
1968.
[2] . . //
. ,
2002.
[3] . .
. ., 1994.
[4] . .
: 2
. . II. ., 2002.
[5] . . : 2 .
. 1: .

. ., 2005.
[6] . .


//
- :
:
. :
, 2007.
[7] ,
.
70
23.03.2006 . (Monitorul Oficial al
Republicii Moldova, 2006, 51-54,
. 188).
[8] :
/ . . . . .:
, 2007.

54

-

. ,
,
Summary
In our days in the science of constitutional law the problems of ensuring the rights and freedoms of man and citizen
became the priority.
It is important to mention that subjective rights and legal interests might be performed only trough a decent behavior of
the legal relationships participants - actively or passively. Thats why the duties, in particular their fulfillment and execution
require a special legal settlement and different approach, when in some cases it is necessary to establish active legal duties
and in others passive legal duties, in the same time strictly to establish states duties, its legal servants and citizens duties,
not forgetting about the legal responsibility measures for illegal behavior, on the constitutional base.
In present the Constitution of the Republic of Moldova has settled general limits of usage by the person of the rights
and freedoms in a democratic society: their fulfillments dont have to disturb the rights and freedoms of other persons. Unfortunately, in the legislation in force of the Republic of Moldova till now werent ascertain strict framework and limits of
the enforcement of the officer discretion that generates the negative effects in the legal and social spheres of our life, leads
to the no usage of the grated subjective rights and no usage of the legal duties, otherwise to the legal passiveness . Such an
important and actual problem recently has been started to develop in the theory and practice of the constitutional law.
***


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- . 30.
2
.. : , , . - ., 1985. - . 29.
3
..
. , 2000. . 68
4
A. Arseni, Jurisprudena
constituional a Republicii Moldova,
Editura Euro- Press S.R.L.,
Chiinu, 2000. . 13
1


1.2010

..

/ . .. . -
, 1996. . 225
6
.. . - , 1987. - .
153.
7
Ioan Muraru, Ghe. Iancu,
Drepturile, libertile i ndatoririle
constituionale, Institutul Romn
pentru Drepturile Omului, Bucureti,
1992. . 43.
8
.. . ., 1994. - . 160-161.
9
..
. - ., 1996. - .
187.
10
.. . - , 1987. - .
150.
11
..
. - ., 1999. - . 147.
12

29.07.1994 ., Monitorul
Oficial 1994. 1. - . 55.
5

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