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PROCEEDINGS OF THE

XIV th INTERNATIONAL NUMISMATIC CONGRESS

GLASGOW 2009

Edited by Nicholas Holmes

PROCEEDINGS OF THE XIV t h INTERNATIONAL NUMISMATIC CONGRESS GLASGOW 2009 Edited by Nicholas Holmes GLASGOW

GLASGOW 2011

International Numismatic Council British Academy All rights reserved by The International Numismatic Council ISBN
International Numismatic Council British Academy All rights reserved by The International Numismatic Council ISBN

International Numismatic Council

International Numismatic Council British Academy All rights reserved by The International Numismatic Council ISBN

British Academy

International Numismatic Council British Academy All rights reserved by The International Numismatic Council ISBN

All rights reserved by The International Numismatic Council

ISBN 978-1-907427-17-6

Distributed by Spink & Son Ltd, 69 Southampton Row, London WC1B 4ET Printed and bound in Malta by Gutenberg Press Ltd.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE

XIV th INTERNATIONAL NUMISMATIC CONGRESS

GLASGOW 2009

I

CONTENTS

Preface

18

Editor’s note

19

Inaugural lecture

‘A foreigner’s view of the coinage of Scotland’, by Nicholas MAYHEW

23

Antiquity: Greek

I Delni (distribuzione, associazioni, valenza simbolica), by Pasquale APOLITO

35

Lessons from a (bronze) die study, by Donald T. ARIEL

42

Le monete incuse a leggenda Pal-Mol: una verica della documentazione disponibile, by Marta BARBATO

48

Up-to-date survey of the silver coinage of the Nabatean king Aretas IV, by Rachel BARKAY

52

Remarks on monetary circulation in the chora of Olbia Pontica – the case of Koshary, by Jarosław BODZEK

58

The ‘colts’ of Corinth revisited: a note on Corinthian drachms from Ravel’s Period V, by Lee L. BRICE

67

Not only art! The period of the ‘signing masters’ and ‘historical iconography’, by Maria CACCAMO CALTABIANO

73

Les monnaies préromaines de BB’T-BAB(B)A de Mauretanie, by Laurent CALLEGARIN & Abdelaziz EL KHAYARI

81

Mode iconograche e determinazioni delle cronologie nell’occidente ellenistico, by Benedetto CARROCCIO

89

La phase postarchaïque du monnayage de Massalia, by Jean-Albert CHEVILLON

97

A new thesis for Siglos and Dareikos, by Nicolas A. CORFÙ

105

Heroic cults in northern Sicily between numismatics and archaeology, by Antonio CRISÀ

114

La politica estera tolemaica e l’area del Mar Nero: l’iconograa numismatica come fonte storica, by Angela D’ARRIGO

123

2

CONTENTS

New light on the Larnaca hoard IGCH 1272, by Anne DESTROOPER- GEORGIADES

The coinage of the Scythian kings in the West Pontic area: iconography, by Dimitar DRAGANOV

The ‘royal archer’ and Apollo in the East: Greco-Persian iconography in the Seleukid Empire, by Kyle ERICKSON & Nicholas L. WRIGHT

. Retour sur les critères qui dénissent habituellement les ‘imitations’ Athéniennes, by Chr. FLAMENT

On the gold coinage of ancient Chersonese (46-133 AD), by N.A. FROLOVA

Propaganda on coins of Ptolemaic queens, by Agnieszka FULIŃSKA

Osservazioni sui rinvenimenti di monete dagli scavi archeologici dell’antica Caulonia, by Giorgia GARGANO

La circulation monétaire à Argos d’après les monnaies de fouille de l’ÉFA (École française d’Athènes), by Catherine GRANDJEAN

Silver denominations and standards of the Bosporan cities, by Jean HOURMOUZIADIS

Seleucid ‘eagles’ from Tyre and Sidon: preliminary results of a die-study, by Panagiotis P. IOSSIF

Archaic Greek coins east of the Tigris: evidence for circulation?, by J. KAGAN

Parion history from coins, by Vedat KELEŞ

Regional mythology: the meanings of satyrs on Greek coins, by Ann-Marie KNOBLAUCH

The chronology of the Hellenistic coins of Thessaloniki, Pella and Amphipolis, by Theodoros KOUREMPANAS

The coinage of Chios during the Hellenistic and early Roman periods, by Constantine LAGOS

Évidence numismatique de l’existence d’Antioche en Troade, by Dincer Savas LENGER

131

140

163

170

178

184

189

199

203

213

230

237

246

251

259

265

CONTENTS

3

Hallazgo de un conjunto monetal de Gadir en la necrópolis Feno-Púnica de los cuarteles de Varela, Cádiz, España, by Urbano LÓPEZ RUIZ & Ana María RUIZ TINOCO

Gold and silver weight standards in fourth-century Cyprus: a resume, by Evangeline MARKOU

Göttliche Herrscherin – herrschende Göttin? Frauenbildnisse auf hellenistischen Münzen, by Katharina MARTIN

Melkart-Herakles y sus distintas advocaciones en la Bética costera, by Elena MORENO PULIDO

Some remarks concerning the gold coins with the legend ‘ΚΟΣΩΝ’, by Lucian MUNTEANU

‘Une monnaie grecque inédite: un triobole d’Argos en Argolide’, by Eleni PAPAEFTHYMIOU

The coinage of the Paeonian kings Leon and Dropion, by Eftimija PAVLOVSKA

Le trésor des monnaies perses d’or trouvé à Argamum / Orgamé (Jurilovca, dép. de Tulcea, Roumanie), by E. PETAC, G. TALMAŢCHI & V. IONIŢĂ

The imitations of late Thasian tetradrachms: chronology, classication and dating, by Ilya S. PROKOPOV

Moneta e discorso politico: emissioni monetarie in Cirenaica tra il 321 e il 258 a.C., by Daniela Bessa PUCCINI

Tesoros sertorianos en España: problemas y nuevas perspectivas, by Isabel RODRÍGUEZ CASANOVA

‘Ninfa’ eponima grande dea? Caratteri e funzioni delle personicazioni cittadine, by Grazia SALAMONE

The coin nds from Hellenistic and Roman Berytas (fourth century BC – third century AD, by Ziad SAWAYA

Monetazione incusa magnogreca: destinazione e funzioni, by Rosa SCAVINO

Uso della moneta presso gli indigeni della Sicilia centro-meridionale, by Lavinia SOLE

La moneta di Sibari: struttura e metrologia, by Emanuela SPAGNOLI

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280

285

293

304

310

319

331

337

350

357

365

376

382

393

405

4

CONTENTS

Le stephanophoroi prima delle stephanophoroi, by Marianna SPINELLI

Weight adjustment al marco in antiquity, and the Athenian decadrachm, by Clive STANNARD

The Magnesian hoard: a preliminary report, by Oğuz TEKIN

Zur Datierung und Deutung der Beizeichen auf Stateren von Górtyn, by Burkhard TRAEGER

Aspetti della circolazione monetaria in area basso adriatica, by Adriana TRAVAGLINI & Valeria Giulia CAMILLERI

La polisemia di Apollo attraverso il documento monetale, by Maria Daniela TRIFIRÒ

Thraco-Macedonian coins: the evidence from the hoards, by Alexandros R.A. TZAMALIS

The pattern of ndspots of coins of Damastion: a clue to its location, by Dubravka UJES MORGAN

The civic bronze coins of the Eleans: some preliminary remarks, by Franck WOJAN

The hoard of Cyzicenes from the settlement of Patraeus (Taman peninsula), by E.V. ZAKHAROV

Antiquity: Roman

The coinage of Diva Faustina I, by Martin BECKMANN

Coin nds from the Dutch province of North-Holland (Noord-Holland). Chronological and geographical distribution and function of Roman coins from the Dutch part of Barbaricum, by Paul BELIËN

The key to the Varus defeat: the Roman coin nds from Kalkriese, by Frank BERGER

Monetary circulation in the Bosporan Kingdom in the Roman period c. rst - fourth century AD, by Line BJERG

The Roman coin hoards of the second century AD found on the territory of present-day Serbia: the reasons for their burial, by Bojana BORIĆ-BREŠKOVIĆ

417

427

436

441

447

461

473

487

497

500

509

514

527

533

538

CONTENTS

5

Die Münzprägung des Thessalischen Bundes von Marcus Aurelius bis Gallienus (161-268 n. Chr.), by Friedrich BURRER

The denarius in the rst century, by K. BUTCHER & M. PONTING

Coinage and coin circulation in Nicopolis of Epirus: a preliminary report, by Dario CALOMINO

La piazza porticata di Egnazia: la documentazione numismatica, by Raffaella CASSANO, Adriana TRAVAGLINI & Alessandro CRISPINO

Dallo scavo al museo: un ripostiglio monetale di età antonina del IV municipio

di Roma (Italia), by Francesca CECI

I rinvenimenti dal Tevere: la monetazione della Diva Faustina, by Alessia

CHIAPPINI

Analytical evidence for the organization of the Alexandrian mint during the Tetrarchy (III-IV centuries AD), by J.M.COMPANA, L. LEÓN-REINA, F.J. FORTES, L.M. CABALÍN, J.J. LASERNA, & M.A.G. ARANDA

L’Oriente Ligoriano: fonti, luoghi, mirabilia, by Arianna D’OTTONE

Le emissioni isiache: quale rapporto con il navigium Isidis?, by Sabrina DE

PACE

A centre of aes rude production in southern Etruria : La Castellina

(Civitavecchia, Roma), by Almudena DOMÍNGUEZ-ARRANZ & Jean GRAN-

AYMERICH

Perseus and Andromeda in Alexandria: explaining the popularity of the myth in the culture of the Roman Empire, by Melissa Barden DOWLING

Les fractions du nummus frappées à Rome et à Ostie sous le règne de Maxence (306-312 ap. J.C.), by V. DROST

Monuments on the move: architectural coin types and audience targeting in the Flavian and Trajanic periods, by Nathan T. ELKINS

‘The restoration of memory: Minucius and his monument’ by Jane DeRose

EVANS

La circulation monétaire à Lyon de la fondation de la colonie à la mort de Septime Sévère (43 av. – 211 apr. J.C.): premiers résultats, by Jonas FLUCK

545

557

569

576

580

592

595

605

613

621

629

635

645

657

662

6

CONTENTS

Le monnayage en orichalque romain: apport des expérimentations aux études numismatiques, by Arwen GAFFIERO, Arnaud SUSPÈNE, Florian TÉREYGEOL & Bernard GRATUZE

New coins of pre- and denarial system minted outside Italy, by Paz GARCÍA- BELLIDO

Les bronzes d’Octave à la proue et à la tête de bélier (RPC 533) attribués à Toulouse-Tolosa: nouvelles découvertes, by Vincent GENEVIÈVE

Crustumerium, Cisterna Grande (Rome, Italy): textile traces from a Roman coins hoard, by Maria Rita GIULIANI, Ida Anna RAPINESI, Francesco DI GENNARO, Daniela FERRO, Heli ARIMA, Ulla RAJANA & Francesca CECI

Deux médaillons d’Antonin le Pieux du territoire de Pautalia (Thrace), by Valentina GRIGOROVA-GENCHEVA

Mars and Venus on Roman imperial coinage in the time of Marcus Aurelius:

iconological considerations with special reference to the emperor’s correspondence with Marcus Cornelius Fronto, by Jürgen HAMER

The silver coins of Aegeae in the light of Hadrian’s eastern silver coinages, by F. HAYMANN

The coin-images of the later soldier-emperors and the creation of a Roman empire of late antiquity, by Ragnar HEDLUND

Coinage and currency in ancient Pompeii, by Richard HOBBS

Imitations in gold, by Helle W. HORSNÆS

Un geste de Caracalla sur une monnaie frappée à Pergame, by Antony HOSTEIN

New data on monetary circulation in northern Illyricum in the fth century, by Vujadin IVANIŠEVIĆ & Sonja STAMENKOVIĆ

Die augusteischen Münzmeisterprägungen: IIIviri monetales im Spannungsfeld zwischen Republik und Kaiserzeit, by Alexa KÜTER

Imperial representation during the reign of Valentinian III, by Aládar KUUN

The Nome coins: some remarks on the state of research, by Katarzyna LACH

Le monnayage de Brutus et Cassius après la mort de César, by Raphaëlle LAIGNOUX

668

676

686

696

709

715

720

726

732

742

749

757

765

772

780

785

CONTENTS

7

L’ultima emissione di Cesare Ottaviano: alcune considerazioni sulle recenti proposte cronologiche, by Fabiana LANNA

Claudius’s issue of silver drachmas in Alexandria: Serapis Anastole, by Barbara LICHOCKA

La chronologie des émissions monétaires de Claude II: ateliers de Milan et Siscia, by Jérôme MAIRAT

La circulation monétaire à Strasbourg (France) et sur le Rhin supérieur au premier siècle après J.-C., by Stéphane MARTIN

The double solidus of Magnentius, by Alenka MIŠKEC

A hoard of bronze coins of the third century BC found at Pratica di Mare

(Rome), by Maria Cristina MOLINARI

Un conjunto de plomos monetiformes de procendencia hispana de la colección antigua del Museo Arqueológico Nacional (Madrid), by Bartolomé MORA SERRANO

Monete e ritualitá funeraria in epoca romana imperiale: il sepolcreto dei Fadieni (Ferrara – Italia), by Anna Lina MORELLI

Il database Monete al femminile, by Anna Lina MORELLI & Erica FILIPPINI

La trouvaille monétaire de Bex-Sous-Vent (VD, Suisse): une nouvelle analyse, by Yves MUHLEMANN

Die Sammlung von Lokalmythen griechischer Städte des Ostens: ein Projekt der Kommission für alte Geschichte und Epigraphik, by Johannes NOLLÉ

Plomos monetiformes con leyenda ibérica Baitolo, hallados en la ciudad romana de Baetulo (Hispania Tarraconensis), by Pepita PADRÓS MARTÍ, Daniel VÁZQUEZ & Francesc ANTEQUERA

I denari serrati della repubblica romana: alcune considerazioni, by Andrea PANCOTTI & Patrizia CALABRIA

Monetary circulation in late antique Rome: a fth-century context coming from the N.E. slope of the Palatine Hill. A preliminary report, by Giacomo PARDINI

Securitas e suoi attributi: lo sviluppo di una iconograa, by Rossella PERA

Could the unofcial mint called ‘Atelier II’ be identied with the ofcinae of Châteaubleau (France)?, by Fabien PILON

794

800

809

816

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828

839

846

856

864

872

878

888

893

901

906

8

CONTENTS

Coin nds from Elaiussa Sebaste (Cilicia Tracheia), by Annalisa POLOSA

El poblamiento romano en el área del Mar Menor (Ager Carthaginensis): una aproximación a partir de los recientes hallazgos numismáticos, by Alfredo PORRÚA MARTÍNEZ & Elvira NAVARRO SANTA-CRUZ

The presence of local deities on Roman Palestinian coins: reections on cultural and religious interaction between Romans and local elites, by Vagner Carvalheiro PORTO

The male couple: iconography and semantics, by Mariangela PUGLISI

Countermarks on the Republican and Augustan brass coins in the south-eastern Alps, by Andrej RANT

A stone thesaurus with a votive coin deposit found in the sanctuary of Campo

della Fiera, Orvieto (Volsinii), by Samuele RANUCCI

L’image du pouvoir impériale de Trajan et son évolution idéologique: étude des frappes monétaires aux types d’Hercule, Jupiter et Soleil, by Laurent RICCARDI

The inow of Roman coins to the east-of-the-Vistula Mazovia (Mazowsze) and Podlachia (Podlasie), by Andrzej ROMANOWSKI

Numismatics and archaeology in Rome: the nds from the Basilica Hilariana, by Alessia ROVELLI

Communicating a consecratio: the deication coinage of Faustina I, by Clare

ROWAN

An alleged hoard of third-century Alexandrian tetradrachms, by Adriano SAVIO

& Alessandro CAVAGNA

Some notes on religious embodiments in the coinage of Roman Syria and Mesopotamia, by Philipp SCHWINGHAMMER

Roman provincial coins in the money circulation of the south-eastern Alpine area and western Pannonia, by Andrej ŠEMROV

Recenti rinvenimenti dal Tevere (1): introduzione, by Patrizia SERAFIN

Recenti rinvenimenti dal Tevere (2): la moneta di Vespasiano tra tradizione ed innovazione, by Alessandra SERRA

A hoard of denarii and early Roman Messene, by Kleanthis SIDIROPOULOS

911

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954

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973

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991

999

1004

1013

1019

1020

1025

CONTENTS

9

La ‘corona radiata’ sui ritratti dei bronzi imperiali alessandrini, by Giovanni Maria STAFFIERI

The iconography of two groups of struck lead from Central Italy and Baetica in the second and rst centuries BC, by Clive STANNARD

Monete della zecca di Frentrum, Larinum e Pallanum, by Napoleone STELLUTI

Personalized victory on coins: the Year of the Four Emperors – Greek imperial issues, by Yannis STOYAS

Les monnaies d’or d’Auguste: l’apport des analyses élémentaires et le problème de l’atelier de Nîmes, by Arnaud SUSPÈNE, Maryse BLET-LEMARQUAND & Michel AMANDRY

The popularity of the enthroned type of Asclepius on Peloponnesian coins of imperial times, by Christina TSAGKALIA

Gold and silver rst tetrarchic issues from the mint of Alexandria, by D. Scott VANHORN

Note sulla circolazione monetaria in Etruria meridionale nel III secolo a.C., by Daniela WILLIAMS

Roman coins from the western part of West Balt territory, by Anna ZAPOLSKA

Antiquity: Celtic

La moneda ibérica del nordeste de la Hispania Citerior: consideraciones sobre su cronología y función, by Marta CAMPO

Les bronzes à la gueule de loup du Berry: essai de typochronologie, by Philippe CHARNOTET

Les imitations de l’obole de Marseille de LTD1/LTD2A (II e s. / I er s. av. J.C.) entre les massifs des Alpes et du Jura, by Anne GEISER

Le monnayage à la légende TOGIRIX: une nouvelle approche, by Anne GEISER & Julia GENECHESI

Trading with silver bullion during the third century BC: the hoard of Armuña de Tajuña, by Manuel GOZALBES, Gonzalo CORES & Pere Pau RIPOLLÈS

Données expérimentales sur la fabrication de quinaires gaulois fourrés, by Katherine GRUEL, Dominique LACOSTE, Carole FRARESSO, Michel PERNOT & François ALLIER

1037

1045

1056

1067

1073

1082

1092

1103

1115

1135

1142

1148

1155

1165

1173

10

CONTENTS

Pre-Roman coins from Sotin, by Mato ILKIĆ

Les monnaies gauloises trouvées à Paris, by Stéphane MARTIN

Die keltischen Münzen vom Oberleiserberg (Niederösterreich), by Jiři MILITKÝ

New coin nds from the two late Iron Age settlements of Altenburg (Germany) and Rheinau (Switzerland) – a military coin series on the German-Swiss border?, by Michael NICK

Le dépôt monétaire gaulois de Laniscat (Côtes-d’Armor): 547 monnaies de bas titre. Étude préliminaire, by Sylvia NIETO-PELLETIER, Bernard GRATUZE & Gérard AUBIN

Antiquity: general

La moneda en el mundo funerario-ritual de Gadir-Gades, by A. ARÉVALO GONZÁLEZ

Neues Licht auf eine alte Frage? Die Verwandschaft von Münzen und Gemmen, by Angela BERTHOLD

Tipi del cane e del lupo sulle monete del Mediterraneo antico, by Alessandra BOTTARI

Not all these things are easy to read, much less to understand: new approaches to reading images on ancient coins, by Geraldine CHIMIRRI-RUSSELL

The collection of ancient coins in the Ossoliński National Institute in Lvov (1828-1944), by Adam DEGLER

Preliminary notes on Phoenician and Punic coins kept in the Pushkin Museum, by S. KOVALENKO & L.I. MANFREDI

Greek coins from the National Historical Museum of Rio de Janeiro: SNG project, by Marici Martins MAGALHÃES

La catalogazione delle emissioni di Commodo nel Codice Ligoriano, by Rosa Maria NICOLAI

The sacred life of coins: cult fees, sacred law and numismatic evidence, by Isabelle A. PAFFORD

Anton Prokesch-Osten and the Greek coins of the coin collection at the Universalmuseum Joanneum in Graz, Austria, by Karl PEITLER

1182

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1207

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1254

1261

1266

1278

1292

1303

1310

CONTENTS

11

Monete ed anelli: cronologia, tipologie, fruitori, by Claudia PERASSI

Il volume 21 delle Antichitá Romane di Pirro Ligorio ‘Libri delle Medaglie da Cesare a Marco Aurelio Commodo’, by Patrizia SERAFIN

Greek and Roman coins in the collection of the Çorum Museum, by D. Özlem YALCIN

Mediaeval and modern western (mediaeval)

The exchanges in the city of London, 1344-1358, by Martin ALLEN

Fribourg en Nuithonie: faciès monétaire d’une petite ville au centre de l’Europe, by Anne-Francine AUBERSON

Die Pegauer Brakteatenprägung Abt Siegfrieds von Rekkin (1185-1223):

Kriterien zu deren chronologischer Einordnung, by Jan-Erik BECKER

Die recutting in the eleventh-century Polish coinage, by Mateusz BOGUCKI

Le retour à l’or au treizième siècle: le cas de Montpellier ( Marc BOMPAIRE & Pierre-Joan BERNARD

1244-1246

), by

Le monete a leggenda ΠAN e le emissioni arabo-bizantine. I dati dello scavo di Antinoupolis / El Sheikh Abada, by Daniele CASTRIZIO

Scavi di Privernum e Fossanova (Latina, Italia): monete tardoantiche, medioevale e moderne, by Francesca CECI & Margherita CANCELLIERI

La aportación de los hallazgos monetarios a ‘la crisis del siglo XIV’ en Cataluña, by Maria CLUA I MERCADAL

Norwegian bracteates during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, by Linn EIKJE

Donative pennies in Viking-age Scandinavia?, by Frédéric ELFVER

Carolingian capitularies as a source for the monetary history of the Frankish empire, by Hubert EMMERIG

Ulf Candidatus, by G. EMSØY

Münzen des Moskauer Grossfürstentums. Das Geld von Dmitrij Ivanowitsch Donskoj (1359-1389) (über die Veröffentlichung der ersten Ausgabe des ‘Korpus der russischen M ü nzen des 14-15. Jhs.’), by P. GAIDUKOV & I. GRISHIN

1323

1334

1344

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1392

1401

1408

1411

1418

1426

1431

1436

1441

12

CONTENTS

Brakteatenprägungen in Mähren in der zweiten Hälfte des dreizehnten Jahrhunderts, by Dagmar GROSSMANNOVÁ

Monetisation in medieval Scandinavia, by Svein H. GULLBEKK

A mancus apparently marked on behalf of King Offa: genuine or fake?, by Wolfgang HAHN

Among farmers and city people: coin use in early medieval Denmark, c. 1000- 1250, by Gitte Tarnow INGVARDSON

Was pseudo-Byzantine coinage primarily of municipal origin?, by Charlie KARUKSTIS

Interpreting single nds in medieval England – the secondary lives of coins, by Richard KELLEHER

Byzantine coins from the area of Belarus, by Krystyna LAVYSH & Marcin WOŁOSZYN

Die früheste Darstellung des Richters auf einer mittelalterlicher Münze?, by Ivar LEIMUS

Coinage and money in the ‘years of insecurity’: the case of late Byzantine Chalkidiki (thirteenth - fourteenth century), by Vangelis MALADAKIS

Nota sulla circolazione monetaria tardoantica nel Lazio meridionale: i reperti di S. Ilario ad bivium, by Flavia MARANI

The money of the First Crusade: the evidence of a new parcel and its implications, by Michael MATZKE

Überlegungen zum ‘Habsburger Urbar’ als Quelle für Währungsgeschichte, by Samuel NUSSBAUM

Schilling Kennisbergisch slages of Grand Master Louis of Ehrlichshausen, by Borys PASZKIEWICZ

Un diner de Jaime I el conquistador en el Mar Menor: evidencias de presencia aragonesa en el Campo de Cartagena durante la Baja Edad Media, by Alfredo PORRÚA MARTÍNEZ & Alfonso ROBLES FERNÁNDEZ

L’atelier de faux-monnayeur de Rovray (VD, Suisse), by Carine RAEMY TOURNELLE

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1492

1500

1509

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1564

1570

CONTENTS

13

La ubicación de las casas de moneda en le Europa medieval. El caso del reino de León, by Antonio ROMA VALDÉS

New perspectives on Norwegian Viking-age hoards c. 1000: the Bore hoard revisited, by Elina SCREEN

The discovery of a hoard of coins dated to the fth and sixth centuries in Klapavice in the hinterland of ancient Salona, by Tomislav ŠEPAROVIĆ

A model for the analysis of coins lost in Norwegian churches, by Christian J.

SIMENSEN

A clippe from Femern, by Jørgen SØMOD

The convergence of coinages in the late medieval Low Countries, by Peter

SPUFFORD

A perplexing hoard of Lusignan coins from Polis, Cyprus, by Alan M. STAHL,

Gerald POIRIER & Nan YAO

OTTO / ODDO and ADELHEIDA / ATHALHET - onomatological aspects of German coin types of the tenth and eleventh centuries, by Sebastian

STEINBACH

Bulles de plomb et les monnaies en Pologne au XII e siècle, by Stanislaw

SUCHODOLSKI

Palaeologian coin ndings of Kusadasi, Kadikalesi/Anaia and their reections. by Ceren ÜNAL

The hoard of Tetín (Czech Republic) in the light of currency conditions in thirteenth-century Bohemia, by Roman ZAORAL & Jiři MILITKÝ

The circulation of foreign coins in Poland in the fteenth century, by Michal

ZAWADZKI

Mediaeval and modern Western (modern)

Die neuzeitliche Münzstätte im Schloss Haldenstein bei Chur Gr, Schweiz, by Rahel C. ACKERMANN

The money box system for savings in Amsterdam, 1907-1935, by G.N. BORST

Four ducats coins of Franz Joseph I (1848-1916) of Austria: their use in jewellery and some hitherto unpublished imitations, by Aleksandar N. BRZIC

1580

1591

1597

1605

1614

1620

1625

1633

1640

1649

1664

1671

1679

1687

1693

14

CONTENTS

A king as Hercules in the modern Polish coinage, by Witold GARBAZCEWSKI

The monetary areas in Piedmont during the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries: a starting point for new investigations, by Luca GIANAZZA

Coin hoards in the United States, by John M. KLEEBERG

The transfer of minting techniques to Denmark in the nineteenth century, by Michael MÄRCHER

Patrimonio Numismático Iberoamericano: un proyecto del Museo Arqueológico Nacional, by Carmen MARCOS ALONSO & Paloma OTERO MORÁN

Moneda local durante la guerra civil española: billete emitido por el ayuntamiento de San Pedro del Pinatar, Murcia, by Federico MARTÍNEZ PASTOR & Alfredo PORRÚA MARTÍNEZ

Coins and monetary circulation in the Legnica-Brzeg duchy: rudimentary problems, by Robert PIEŃKOWSKI

Representaciones del café en el acervo de numismática del Museu Paulista - USP, by Angela Maria Gianeze RIBEIRO

Freiburg im Üechtland und die Münzreformen der französischen Könige (1689- 1726), by Nicole SCHACHER

La aparición de la marca de valor en la moneda valenciana, ¿1618 o 1640? Una nueva hipótesis de trabajo, by Juan Antonio SENDRA IBÁÑEZ

Devotion and coin-relics in early modern Italy, by Lucia TRAVAINI

The political context of the origin and the exportation of thaler-coins from Jáchymov (Joachimsthal) in the rst half of the sixteenth century, by Petr VOREL

The late sixteenth-century Russian forged kopecks, which were ascribed to the English Muscovy Company, by Serguei ZVEREV

Oriental and African coinages

The meaning of the character bao in the legends of Chinese cash coins, by Vladimir A. BELYAEV & Sergey V. SIDOROVICH

Three unpublished Indo-Sasanian coin hoards, Government Museum, Mathura, by Pratipal BHATIA

1704

1713

1719

1725

1734

1744

1748

1752

1758

1765

1774

1778

1783

1789

1796

CONTENTS

15

Oriental coins in the Capitoline Museums (Rome): further researches on Stanzani Collection history, by Arianna D’OTTONE

The king, the princes and the Raj, by Sanjay GARG

The rst evidence of a mint at Miknāsa: two unpublished Almoravid coins, a dirham and a dinar, of the year 494H/1100, by Taw q IBRAHIM

L’âge d’or de la numismatique en Chine: l’exemple du Catalogue des Monnaies Anciennes de Li Zuoxian, by Lyce JANKOWSKI

Numismatic research in Japan today: coins, paper monies and patterns of usage. Paper money in early modern Japan: economic and folkloristic aspects, by Keiichiro KATO

The gold reform of Ghazan Khan, by Judith KOLBAS

A study of medieval Chinese coins from Karur and Madurai in Tamil Nadu, by

KRISHNAMURTHY RAMASUBBAIYER

Latest contributions to the numismatic history of Central Asia (late eighteenth – nineteenth century), by Vladimir NASTICH

Silver fragments of unique Būyid and amdānid coins and their role in the Kelč hoard (Czech Republic), by Vlastimil NOVÁK

Numismatic evidence for the location of Saray, the capital of the Golden Horde, by A.V. PACHKALOV

Le regard des voyageurs sur les monnaies africaines du XVI e au XIX e siècles, by Josette RIVALLAIN

Les imitations des dirhems carrés almohades: apport des analyses élémentaires, by A. TEBOULBI, M. BOMPAIRE & M. BLET-LEMARQUAND

À propos du monnayage de Kiến Phúc (1883-1884), by François THIERRY

Glass jetons from Sicily: new nd evidence from the excavations at Monte Iato, by Christian WEISS

Medals

Joseph Kowarzik (1860-1911): ein Medailleur der Jahrhundertwende, by Kathleen ADLER

1807

1813

1821

1826

1832

1841

1847

1852

1862

1869

1874

1884

1890

1897

1907

16

CONTENTS

Numismatic memorials of breeding trotting horses (based on the collection of the numismatic department of the Hermitage), by L.I. DOBROVOLSKAYA

De retrato a arquetipo: anotaciones sobre la difusión de la egie de Juan VIII Paleólogo en la peninsula Ibérica, by Albert ESTRADA-RIUS

Titon du Tillet e le medaglie del Parnasse François, by Paola GIOVETTI

Bedrohung und Schutz der Erde: Positionen zur Umweltproblematik in der deutschen Medaillenkunst der Gegenwart, by Rainer GRUND

The rediscovery of the oldest private medal collection of the Netherlands, by Jan PELSDONK

Twentieth-century British campaign medals: a continuation of the nineteenth century?, by Phyllis STODDART and Keith SUGDEN

‘Shines with unblemished honour’: some thoughts on an early nineteenth- century medal, by Tuukka TALVIO

General numismatics

Dall’iconograa delle monete antiche all’ideologia della nazione future. Proiezioni della numismatica grecista di D’Annunzio sulla nuova monetazione Sabauda, by Giuseppe ALONZO

Didaktisch-methodische Aspekte der Numismatik in der Schule, by Szymon BERESKA

The Count of Caylus (1692-1765) and the study of ancient coins, by François de CALLATAŸ

Le monete di Lorenzo il Magnico in un manoscritto di Angelo Poliziano, by Fiorenzo CATALLI

Coinage and mapping, by Thomas FAUCHER

Classicism and coin collections in Brazil, by Maria Beatriz Borba FLORENZANO

A prosopography of the mint ofcials: the Eligivs database and its evolution, by Luca GIANAZZA

Elementary statistical methods in numismatic metrology, by Dagmar GROSSMANNOVÁ & Jan T. STEFAN

1920

1931

1937

1945

1959

1965

1978

1985

1993

1999

2004

2012

2017

2022

2027

CONTENTS

17

Les collections numismatiques du Musée archéologique de Dijon (France), by Jacques MEISSONNIER

Bank of Greece: the numismatic collections, by Eleni PAPAEFTHYMIOU

Foundation of the Hellenic World. A new private collection open to the public, by Eleni PAPAEFTHYMIOU

Re-discovering coins: publication of the numismatic collections in Bulgarian museums – a new project, by Evgeni PAUNOV, Ilya PROKOPOV & Svetoslava FILIPOVA

„Census of Ancient Coins Known in the Renaissance“, by Ulrike PETER

Le sel a servi de moyen d’échange, by J.A. SCHOONHEYT

The international numismatic library situation and the foundation of the International Numismatic Libraries’ Network (INLN), by Ans TER WOERDS

The Golden Fleece in Britain, by R.H. THOMPSON

Das Museum August Kestner in Hannover: Neues aus der Münzsammlung, by Simone VOGT

From the electrum to the Euro: a journey into the history of coins. A multimedia presentation by the Bank of Cyprus Cultural Foundation, by Eleni ZAPITI

Highlights from the Museum of the George and Nefeli Giabra Pierides Collection, donated by Clio and Solon Triantafyllides: coins and artefacts, by Eleni ZAPITI & Evangeline MARKOU

Index of Contributors

2036

2044

2046

2047

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2072

2082

2089

2100

2102

2112

2118

THE ‘ROYAL ARCHER’ AND APOLLO IN THE EAST: GRECO-PERSIAN ICONOGRAPHY IN THE SELEUKID EMPIRE

KYLE ERICKSON AND NICHOLAS L. WRIGHT

The ‘Apollo seated on the omphalos’ coin type served as the dominant Seleukid silver reverse image from the reign of Antiochos I until that of Seleukos IV (Pl. I, 1-2). Furthermore, the mints among the Iranian populations east of the Tigris - Susa, Antioch-on-the-Persian Gulf, Ekbatana and a further as yet unidentied mint - maintained a strict continuation of the ‘Apollo on the omphalos’ type for their silver issues under Antiochos IV and V, Demetrios I and Alexander I. Apollo continued to dominate in this area until the Parthian conquest in the late 140s BC despite the iconographic reforms undertaken by both Antiochos IV and Demetrios I in the west. 1 Indeed, early Parthian issues adapted the seated Apollo type for their own use – modied only slightly to take the form of a bearded, diademed archer seated on the omphalos. The coinage of the rst two Parthian kings, Arsakes I and Arsakes II (c.238-191 BC) depicted a royal archer seated on a throne or diphros. However, in the period following their renewed independence from the Seleu- kids – under Mithridates I (171-138 BC), Phraates II (138-127 BC), Artabanos I (127-124 BC) and Mithridates II (123-88 BC) – the archer on the reverse of Parthian silver coinage appropriated Apollo’s omphalos as his seat of choice. 2 The Parthian adaption of the seated Apollo type may help to elucidate the continued use of Apollo as the sole Seleukid silver coin type in the east. There seems to have been a broad tradition in the east which saw a depiction of the ‘archer’ as the preferred iconography for coinage – from the sigloi and darics of the Achaemenids and Alexander, through the ‘Apollo on the omphalos’ of the Seleukids to the ‘bearded archer on the omphalos’ under the Parthians. Under the Achae- menids, a massive quantity of silver (sigloi) and gold (darics) was struck at the mint of Sardes bearing the royal Achaemenid type of the running archer wearing the tiara (Pl. 1, 3-4). Compared to the extensive nds of sigloi hoards in Anatolia, nds east of the Taurus mountains are limited, and Carradice’s suggestion that Achaemenid regal coinage was orientated towards the coin-using populations of the Hellenised west is well founded. 3 However, these coins did travel beyond Ana- tolia with a number of published hoards, including from Egypt, the Levant, Mesopotamia and even east of the Tigris. 4 South of the Taurus, along the Mediterranean coast and as far inland as Manbog, semi-autonomous silver ‘satrapal’ issues were struck depicting a variety of themes, but these do not seem to have been produced in quantities comparable to sigloi, nor do they seem to have travelled as extensively.

Acknowledgements:

The authors wish to thank the following for their assistance in the completion of this paper: Vesta Curtis and Amelia Dowler of the British Museum, Ken Sheedy of the Australian Centre for Ancient Numismatic Studies (ACANS), Daniel Ogden of University of Exeter and Laura Wright. All errors remain our own. Images were kindly provided by ACANS, the British Museum, Classical Numismatic Group Inc. and Numismatik Lanz München. 1 The continued use of the Apollo type in Iran may be connected with an understanding of Apollo as the Hellenised Mithras as shown at Nemrud Dağ (Sanders 1996, pp. 184-7, 197-9, 225-6, 237-40; Moormann and Versluys 2002, p. 87). However, there is no record of any earlier syncretic

association between Apollo and Mithras and it is unclear to what extent the Nemrud Dağ gures represented established deities and how much was the personal innovation of Antiochos I of Kommagene.

2 Shore 1993, nos. 5-20, 24-7, 29 (Mithridates I), 40-55 (Phraates II), 57-65 (Artabanos I), 66-76 (Mithridates II).

3 Carradice 1987, pp. 92-3.

4 Egypt: IGCH 1654, 1656; CH VIII 44*, 57. The Levant: IGCH 1481, 1482, 1483; CH I 14, 21; CH VI 4; CH VII 28*; CH VIII 45, 126, 143*, 153*; CH IX 363. Mesopotamia: IGCH 1747*, 1748; CH VIII 90*, 188. The upper satrapies: IGCH 1791*, 1792, 1822*, 1830*, 1831; CH IX 343. Only those entries marked with an asterisk contained more than ve sigloi.

164 KYLE ERICKSON AND NICHOLAS L. WRIGHT

It is almost certain that the crowned archer depicted on sigloi and darics was intended to be understood as an image of the king. 5 Following Alexander the Great’s occupation of Babylon, he established a workshop that continued the output of darics and double darics with only a more naturalised style and the introduction of Greek letters or monograms to distinguish the Babylonian issues from their Sardiote forebears (Pl. I, 5). 6 The Macedonian king was depicted on the darics in the guise of the royal Achaemenid archer, regardless of the fact that he did not physically conform to the image in reality. Alexander produced his own usual tetradrachms as an imperial series in parallel with the daric issues in Babylon and it may be in the eastern satrapies that we can also trace the initial misunderstanding of Alexander’s favoured Herakles obverse type as a depiction of the king himself. The continuity of the Alexander type under Seleukos I and briey under An- tiochos I played into the traditions established under the Achaemenids of a constant ‘royal’ image as the main coin type. In this case, it was the continued usage of the Herakles head that was un-

derstood to be the ‘portrait’ of the king. 7 From the reign of Antiochos I, the reverse Apollo/archer imagery provided a continuity of royal ideology through six generations of Seleukid rule in Iran. While the Achaemenid royal coinage does not present an exact parallel to the ‘Apollo on the omphalos’ type, it may form a lens through which to view this image in Seleukid Iran. However,

a series of satrapal coins produced in Kilikia during the period of the Satrap’s Revolt (369-361

BC) 8 provide a clear antecedent. While the obverse type conformed to the Kilikian satrapal type of the bearded Ba’altars enthroned on a diphros, the reverse featured a bearded archer similarly enthroned to right. The gure wears typical Median/Persian dress with tiara, trousers, a sleeved- cloak and arm guards. The gure examines an arrow held in both hands. A bow stands in the lower

right eld while the upper eld is lled with the winged disc of Ahura Mazda. 9 The Aramaic re- verse legend reads Trkmw or Tarkumuwa, a Luwian name of some antiquity (Pl. I, 6). 10 As this coinage clearly draws on the Iranian elements of the winged-disk and the royal archer,

it reects and interprets Achaemenid propaganda to further the issuer’s message. 11 The presence of

Ahura Mazda precludes the identication of the archer as a deity and he must, therefore, represent Persian power in the form of the king or of a revolting satrap. In this instance, the latter is perhaps a

more favourable conclusion owing to the accompanying legend which identies the reverse gure just as the obverse legend identies Ba’altars. Moysey argues that the imagery attempts to legiti- mate Datames’ [sic] revolt from the Persian King in terms of Persian iconography. 12 By usurping the image of the royal archer and associating himself with Ahura Mazda, Datames/Tarkumuwa could portray his part in the satraps’ revolt (whatever it may have been) as legitimate activity. The established timeframe places the coins approximately eighty years before the introduction of the Seleukid Apollo type. Kilikia was a long distance from the Persian heartland and although the Tarkumua coins were clearly minted to demonstrate Persian royal power, it is difcult to deter- mine how the iconography would have been received in Persia itself. Tarkumuwa’s archer can be taken to represent a Persian king owing to the accompanying Zoroastrian sub-type, the common representation of the king as archer and the adoption of a similar type by the Parthian royal house after 238 BC. It seems likely that if the Seleukid court came across this imagery they would have

5 For comparative material see the king at prayer in the Persepolis reliefs and the many Achaemenid seals depicting the archer-hero/king in battle (eg. St Petersburg 19499, British Museum ANE129571 and ANE1932-10-8,192).

6 Carradice 1987, pp. 86-8.

7 Smith 1988, p. 1; Sheedy 2007, pp. 15-6.

8 Comparative obverse types issued by Pharnabazos in the 370s and Mazaios sometime before 350 conrm a date within that timeframe (Harrison 1982, pp. 321-336).

9 SNG vol. 3, 3050 Lockett Collection; SNG vol. 1, 335 Newnham Davis Coins.

10 Houwink Ten Cate 1965, pp. 126-8, 166-9; Moran 1987, EA 31. The identity of the issuer has proved controversial, see Nöldeke 1884, p. 298; Six 1884, pp. 114-7; Harrison 1982, pp. 321-36; Bing 1998, n.55; Casabonne 2001.

11 Root 1979, pp. 116-118.

12 Moysey 1986, p. 20.

THE ‘ROYAL ARCHER’ AND APOLLO IN THE EAST: GRECO-PERSIAN ICONOGRAPHY IN THE SELEUKID EMPIRE

understood it in a similar fashion and may have adapted it for their own purposes. The similarities between the Tarkumuwa archer and the Seleukid ‘Apollo on the omphalos’ are striking and although there are signicant differences between the coin types, these are not so great as to prevent a similar interpretation for both. The most important difference is that the Seleukid Apollo is either nude or lightly draped whereas the Tarkumuwa archer is dressed in Persian attire. The difference of dress in the two images poses a signicant barrier in identifying their ideologi- cal messages in the same way. The nudity of Apollo might inhibit any Iranian from identifying the image as the Persian royal archer because of their negative views on nudity and its associations with Greece. However, if the Iranian audience understood that the archer image was a reection of the abstract concept of royal power while accepting the rule of a ‘Greek’ king, it should have been possible to make the connection between the two image types. The ‘Apollo on the omphalos’ coins were issued by a Seleukid administration which consistently chose a Greek manner of representa- tion, but this should not have precluded Iranians from viewing the iconography as the interpretatio graeca of an established royal type. A second distinct difference is the object upon which the archer sits. The Seleukid Apollo gen- erally sits on an omphalos while the Tarkumuwa archer sits on a diphros. The omphalos is impor- tant in reecting Apollo’s mantic qualities for the Greek audience. However, it seems to have lost this importance in the eastern interpretation of the image. In fact the Parthian coinage which at rst featured the image of an archer seated on a diphros ultimately replaced the stool with the Seleukid omphalos. This suggests that the two images had become interchangeable in Iran by the Parthian period. That during the Parthian period the gure’s seat was an insignicant factor in the iconog- raphy and could be replaced without changing the central meaning of the type is further evidence that the Seleukid Apollo is the likely antecedent for the Parthian archer type. Further signicant differences between the coin types which might interfere with our hypothesis include the lack of the Zoroastrian winged disk sub-type and the position of the archer’s bow. The winged-disk has clear signicance as it identies Ahura Mazda’s support for the seated gure. As the Seleukids did not claim their right to rule from Ahura Mazda, it is not surprising that the winged-disk does not appear on any of their coinage. 13 However, the lack of the winged-disk should not prevent the identication of the seated gure as royal. There is ample Parthian evidence that suggests that the seated archer can be identied with a king without the presence of the winged-disk. Where the bow of the Tarkumuwa archer appears to have been placed in the eld at the foot of the gure, the Seleukid Apollo rests his left hand in a naturalistic manner on the bow which stands upright behind him. This manner is reminiscent of Persian iconographic traditions in which the king holds the bow by the end with the string turned towards him rather than away from him. 14 The link between the ‘Apollo on the omphalos’ coinage and the Tarkumuwa archer coin- age is reinforced by the appearance of comparative iconography on Parthian coinage from the reign of Arsakes I (c.238-211 BC). The Parthian kings established their legitimacy based on their perceived connection to the Achaemenids, and one method for advertising this claim was the re- creation of Achaemenid satrapal type coinage. This is an interesting choice if the Tarkumuwa coin- age was minted as an act of rebellion from the Achaemenid king. However, any original intention behind the production of this coinage as an expression of rebellion appears to have been lost by the Parthian period, perhaps through Seleukid interpretations of the coinage as representations of

165

13 This may also reect a desire by the Seleukids not to encroach on the religious territory of the Zoroastrian priests, who appear to have been largely left alone to develop their religion without interference or state sponsorship, cf. Hjerrild 1990, pp. 144-147.

14 For a comparison between Persian and Assyrian bows, see Root 1979, pp. 167-168. Under Antiochos II a variant of the ‘Apollo on the Omphalos’ type appears in which Apollo holds a bow instead of an arrow see Pl. I, 2.

166 KYLE ERICKSON AND NICHOLAS L. WRIGHT

the reigning king. Therefore, it seems highly likely that the Parthian numismatic iconography was not directly descended from the Tarkumuwa type, issued briey in Kilikia more than a hundred years previously, but rather that the image was ltered through a Seleukid lens of the Apollo on the omphalos iconography. As the Parthian empire emerged at the expense of Seleukid territory, it is certain that they were acquainted with Seleukid coin types in circulation during the mid-third through second centuries BC. 15 The most prominent type during this period was the ‘Apollo on the omphalos’ image pro- duced under Antiochos I and II. The rst Parthian king, Arsakes I, began to issue coinage after he defeated the rebellious Seleukid satrap Andragoras around the beginning of the reign of Seleukos II. As discussed, the coins that Arsakes I minted were similar to both the Tarkumuwa coinage and the Seleukid ‘Apollo on the omphalos’ type. 16 The similarities between the Parthian and Seleukid coin types is noteworthy given that the coinage of the independent Greco-Bactrian kings departed radically from the Seleukid model even during periods of vassalage. 17 Perhaps, because during the reign of Seleukos II Apollo on the omphalos was replaced by a standing Apollo, the Parthians felt able to create a distinctive coinage that drew on Seleukid models and royal iconography without appearing too closely aligned to the coinage of the reigning Seleukid king. Moreover, the familiar- ity of type would have aided the acceptance of the new Parthian coinage by a wider audience. If the coinage was accepted among the Iranian populations as representative of a seated king then a Persianised version of this king would t more neatly with Parthian royal ideology. The reverse of the Arsakes I coinage featured a gure seated on a diphros wearing a tiara with cheek aps, a long-sleeved cloak and trousers (Pl. I, 7). Curtis suggests that the closest parallel for the long-sleeved coat was the Tarkumuwa seated archer, as the cloak is not a typical feature of Par- thian dress. 18 She views the adoption of trousers as a signicant departure from Hellenistic prac- tice, specically citing Alexander’s refusal to adopt Persian trousers in Plutarch’s Vita Alexandri (45.1-3). 19 The royal tiara which is worn by both the Parthian king on the obverse and the archer on the reverse identies the two gures as the same individual. The clothing on the gure empha- sises its eastern attributes, clearly marking a difference between the Irano-Parthians and Greco- Seleukid nudity. The clothing on the Parthian gure marks a return to Iranian rule. An interesting development of the Parthian manifestation of this type was the replacement of the diphros with an omphalos during the reign of Mithridates I (c.171-138), 20 which suggests an awareness of the similarities between the Parthian and Seleukid counterpart types (Pl. I, 8). Another early Arsakid departure from the Tarkumuwa coinage saw the Parthian archer un-bearded. This feature may be related to the early Hellenistic preference for un-bearded royal imagery instigated by Alexander. Indeed Arsakes I himself is clean shaven on the obverse, which illustrates a signicant inheritance from a Seleukid rather than Achaemenid prototype. A further similarity between the Parthian and Seleukid types is the positioning of the feet of the seated gure. On the Tarkumuwa coinage, the archer’s feet are parallel as if seated stify on the diphros. The Seleukid Apollo pulls his right leg back so that his foot rests against the omphalos in a more naturalistic fashion, a posture adopted by the Parthian archer whether on diphros or omphalos. The seated archer on Parthian coinage is often interpreted as the image of the king or of royal power in the manner as the running archer on Achaemenid sigloi and darics and the seated archer produced by Tarkumuwa. It is plausible to interpret the Seleukid use of Apollo in the same man-

15 For example, see the use of the title Θεοπάτωρ on Parthian coinage as a deliberate echo of the coinage of Alexander I Balas, see: Gariboldi 2004. 16 Shaw 1993, nos. 1-3. 17 Holt 1999, pp. 94-106; Houghton and Lorber 2002, nos. 628-37.

18 Curtis 1998, p. 66. 19 Curtis 1998, pp. 66-67. 20 Shore 1993, nos. 5-20, 24-7, 29.

THE ‘ROYAL ARCHER’ AND APOLLO IN THE EAST: GRECO-PERSIAN ICONOGRAPHY IN THE SELEUKID EMPIRE

ner. This suggestion demonstrates the broad potential for the understanding of the Seleukid Apollo outside of a restrictive Greek interpretation. Under Antiochos I the Seleukids created an image of royal authority that could be broadly recognised across the entire empire, thereby implying that the Seleukid court was aware of the various iconographic traditions of the empire’s subjects. Fur- thermore, this shows that the ‘Apollo on the omphalos’ image was not part of an attempt to impose an entirely Greek image on the empire, but rather it presented a message that the subjects of the kingdom were under the rule of a Greek king who was aware of local traditions and ideologies.

167

BIBLIOGRAPHY

CH I-X = Coin Hoards, vols. 1-10 (1975-2008), London.

IGCH = Thompson, M. / Mørkholm, O / Kraay, C.M. (1973), An Inventory of Greek Coin Hoards, New York.

Bing, J.D. (1998), ‘Datames and Mazaeus: The iconography of revolt and restoration in Cilicia’, Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte 47(1), pp. 41-76.

Carradice, I. (1987), ‘The “regal” coinage of the Persian empire’, in: Carrdaice, I. (ed.), Coinage and Administration in the Athenian and Persian Empires: the Ninth Oxford Symposium on Coin- age and Monetary History, Oxford, pp. 73-95.

Casabonne, O. (2001), ‘De Tarse à Mazaka et de Tarkumuwa à Datâmes: D’une Cilicie à l’autre?’, in: Jean, É. / Dinçol, A.M. / Durugönül, S. (eds.), La Cilicie. Espaces et pouvoirs locaux (2 e millénaire av. J.-C. – 4 e siècle ap. J.-C.): Actes de la Table ronde internationale d’Istanbul, 2-5 novembre 1999, Paris, pp. 243-63.

Curtis, V.S. (1998), ‘The Parthian Costume and Headdress’, in: Wiesehöfer, J. (ed.), Das Parther- reich und seine Zeugnisse: Beiträge des internationalen Colloquiums, Eutin (27.- 30. Juni 1996), Stuttgart, pp. 61-74.

Gariboldi, A. (2004), ‘Royal ideological patterns between Seleucid and Parthian coins: the case of Θεοπάτωρ’, in: Rollinger, R. / Ulf, C. (eds.), Commerce and Monetary Systems in the Ancient World: Means of Transmission and Cultural Interaction, Munich, pp. 366-84.

Harrison, C.M. (1982), Coins of the Persian Satraps, PhD diss. University of Pennsylvania.

Hjerrild, B. (1990), ‘The survival and modication of Zoroastriansim in Seleucid times’, in: Bilde, P. / Engberg-Pedersen, T. / Hannestad, L. /Zahle, J. (eds.), Religion and Religious Practice in the Seleucid Kingdom, Aarhus, pp. 140-50.

Holt, F.L. (1999), Thundering Zeus: the Making of Hellenistic Bactria, Berkeley.

Houghton, A. / Lorber, C. (2002), Seleucid Coins: a Comprehensive Catalogue: Part I: Seleucus I through Antiochus III, New York.

Moormann, E.M. / Verslyus, M.J. (2002), ‘The Nemrud Dağ Project: rst interim report’, Bulletin Antieke Beschaving 77, pp. 73-111.

Moysey, R.A. (1986), ‘The silver stater issues of Pharnabazos and Datames from the mint of Tar-

168 KYLE ERICKSON AND NICHOLAS L. WRIGHT

sus in Cilica’, American Numismatic Society Museum Notes 31, pp. 7-62, plates 1-5.

Nöldeke, T. (1884), ‘Review of P. Krumbholz, De Asiae minoris satrapis persicis’, Göttingische gelehrte Anzeiger 8, pp. 290-300.

Root, M.C. (1979), The King and Kingship in Achaemenid Art: Essays on the Creation of an Ico- nography of Empire, Leiden.

Sanders, D.H. (1996), Nemrud Daği: the Hierothesion of Antiochos I of Commagene (2 vols.), Winona Lake.

Sheedy, K.A. (2007), ‘Magically back to life: some thoughts on ancient coins and the study of Hel- lenistic royal portraits’, in: Sheedy, K.A. (ed.), Alexander and the Hellenistic Kingdoms: Coins, Image and the Creation of Identity, Sydney, pp. 11-16.

Shore, F.B. (1993), Parthian Coins & History: Ten Dragons against Rome, Quarryville.

Six, J.P. (1884), ‘Le satrap Mazaios’, Numismatic Chronicle 4, pp. 97-159.

Smith, R.R.R. (1988), Hellenistic Royal Portraits, Oxford.

PLATE I

PLATE I 1 2 1. Seleukid AR tetradrachm – Antiochos I, Seleukeia-on-the-Tigris mint (CNG electronic auc-

1

PLATE I 1 2 1. Seleukid AR tetradrachm – Antiochos I, Seleukeia-on-the-Tigris mint (CNG electronic auc-

2

1. Seleukid AR tetradrachm – Antiochos I, Seleukeia-on-the-Tigris mint (CNG electronic auc- tion 204, 11 th Feb. 2009, lot 18).

2. Seleukid AR tetradrachm – Antiochos II, Magnesia-on-the-Meander mint (CNG MBS 79, 17 th Sept. 2008, lot 415).

mint (CNG MBS 79, 17 t h Sept. 2008, lot 415). 3 4 5 3. Achaemenid

3

mint (CNG MBS 79, 17 t h Sept. 2008, lot 415). 3 4 5 3. Achaemenid

4

mint (CNG MBS 79, 17 t h Sept. 2008, lot 415). 3 4 5 3. Achaemenid

5

3. Achaemenid AR siglos, Sardes mint (Numismatik Lanz München Auction 144, 24 th Nov. 2008, lot 327).

4. Achaemenid AV daric, Sardes mint (ACANS Westmorland coll. no.32).

5. Macedonian AV double daric, Babylon mint (ACANS Westmorland coll. no.26).

double daric, Babylon mint (ACANS Westmorland coll. no.26). 6 7 8 6. Kilikian AR stater –

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daric, Babylon mint (ACANS Westmorland coll. no.26). 6 7 8 6. Kilikian AR stater – Tarkumuwa,

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daric, Babylon mint (ACANS Westmorland coll. no.26). 6 7 8 6. Kilikian AR stater – Tarkumuwa,

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6. Kilikian AR stater – Tarkumuwa, Kilikian mint (British Museum 1888,1208.6).

7. Arsakid AR drachm – Arsakes I, Rhagai-Arsakeia or Nisa mint (CNG Electronic auction 113, 11 th May 2005, lot 54).

8. Arsakid AR tetradrachm – Mithridates II, Seleukeia-on-the-Tigris mint, (CNG Triton XII, 6 th Jan. 2009, lot 395.