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What is a protocol in computer networking?

A protocol is the special set of rules that describes how a message is to be transferred
from one node in the network to another node.


Define HAN in smart grid scenario?

A HAN is a network contained within a user's home that connects a person's digital
devices, from multiple computers and their peripheral devices to telephones, VCRs,
televisions, video games, home security systems, "smart" appliances, fax machines and
other digital devices that are wired into the network.


Name few communication technologies suitable for HAN.

Wireless: IEEE 802.11 (WLAN), IEEE 802.15 (WPAN), IEEE 802.15.4 (LR-WPAN)
Wired: Fiber optics, Power line communication


Give one example for connection oriented and connection less protocol.
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is a connection-oriented transport protocol, while
UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is a connectionless network protocol.


Give any two criteria for smart grid network design.

The network should be protected from cyber attacks.
Two way communication and communication between nodes should be possible


What is the unit of data rate in computer network?

Bits per second (kbps,mbps)


Give two examples for private IP address. - - -


What is the size of IP address v4? 32 bit


What is the size of IP address v6? 128 bit

10. What is the size of MAC address? 48 bits

11. What is NIC?

A network interface card (NIC) is a circuit board or card that is installed in a computer so that
it can be connected to a network.

12. What is Ethernet?

Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area
networks (LANs) and metropolitan area networks (MANs). Ethernet is a link layer protocol in
the TCP/IP stack, describing how networked devices can format data for transmission to
other network devices on the same network segment, and how to put that data out on the
network connection.

13. What is 802.11 in computer communication?

IEEE 802.11 is a set of media access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specifications
for implementing wireless local area network (WLAN) computer communication in the
900 MHz and 2.4, 3.6, 5, and 60 GHz frequency bands.

14. What is the difference between IP address and MAC address?

IP address changes when you change the network or location but MAC address remains
same for a device forever
15. Why is IPv6 preferred for IoT applications?
1. IPv6 offers a highly scalable address scheme. 3.4 1038 addresses.
2. Due to the limits of the IPv4 address space, the current Internet had to adopt a trick to
face its unplanned expansion: the Network Address Translation (NAT). It enables
several users and devices to share the same public IP address. This solution is
working but with two main trades-off:
3. IPv6 provides end-to-end connectivity, with a more distributed routing mechanism.

16. What is ARP? Mention its use.

The address resolution protocol (arp) is a protocol used by the Internet

Protocol (IP) [RFC826], specifically IPv4, to map IP network addresses to
the hardware addresses used by a data link protocol. The protocol
operates below the network layer as a part of the interface between the
OSI network and OSI link layer. It is used when IPv4 is used over

17. What is ISM band?

The industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands are radio bands (portions
of the radio spectrum) reserved internationally for the use of radio frequency (RF)
energy for industrial, scientific and medical purposes other than telecommunications.
The 2.54 GHz band

18. What is unlicensed band?

19. Give any two appliances making use of ISM band.

Microwave oven
Wireless microphones
Wifi modems

20. What is ad hoc mode in computer communication? Without router

An ad-hoc network is a local area network (LAN) that is built spontaneously as devices
connect. Instead of relying on a base station to coordinate the flow of messages to each
node in the network, the individual network nodes forward packets to and from each
other. In Latin, ad hoc literally means "for this," meaning "for this special purpose" and
also, by extension, improvised or impromptu.

21. What is CSMA?

Carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) is a probabilistic media access control (MAC)
protocol in which a node verifies the absence of other traffic before transmitting on a
shared transmission medium, such as an electrical bus, or a band of the electromagnetic
spectrum. CSMA is based on the principle "sense before transmit" or "listen before talk".

22. Give cyber security requirements for smart grid.

23. What do you understand from Denial of Service attack?

A denial of service (DoS) attack is an incident in which a user or

organization is deprived of the services of a resource they would
normally expect to have.

24. What are the components of a sensor node in HAN?

25. Write the expansion of 6LoWPAN.

IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks

26. What is cloud computing?

Cloud computing is a type of Internet-based computing that provides shared computer
processing resources and data to computers and other devices on demand.

27. Give any two applications of cloud computing in smart grid scenario.
Cloud Based Economic Power Dispatching
Cloud Applications for Energy Management

28. Give the service models of cloud computing.


29. What is web service?

A Web service is a software system designed to support interoperable machine-tomachine interaction over a network. A web service is a collection of open protocols and
standards used for exchanging data between applications or systems.
30. Define SOAP.
SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is a messaging protocol that allows programs
that run on disparate operating systems (such as Windows and Linux) to
communicate using Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and its Extensible Markup
Language (XML).