Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 6



8-7. Compressors\;r4~1!P-~entpv~e~e fluids through the
use of compressors, fans, blo~~~~~jectl5r~J;~~,vac~~ pgmB~is an inte
gral part of the unit aper~tH)If'otJWb~)
S'tich eqti'lpme~t is used
ind~-striallg .in/la number of witYs: (1) to provide the proper pressure
(~h~Jro*D.1"er:t~fo~ chemical reactions, (2) to transport gases, and (3) to
I.ransfer mechanical encrgy to a fluid far the purpose of operating instru
rncnts, solids transport, agitation, etc.
Fans, blowers, and centrifugal and axial-fiow compressors operate on
t hn principle of transferring kinetic energy to the fluid from a rotating
hilft equipped with blades, or impellers. In con'lpressors thiti kinetic
IP'rgy is converted partially into fluid pressure (p V energy) as is done in
1111' diffusing section of a subsonic nozzle. Reciprocating compressors
11.1 vacuum pumps, by contrast, compress a fixed volume of ga::> enelosed
t, i' IIl\cmtarily in a cylinder.
'('ntrifugal and axial-flow compressors can efficiently liindle/J.arge vol
1"\ of fluid 1n a mllllInum of space.
IIeQcEl, these units are generally
IIll' economical than reciprocatingco~~rlarge installations,
111\\ 0,1' mo erate ISC argc ~-res~s
04000 pSla). Typical apprr:'
tt. eth-l
:.=/lLa.. ;;.;.;uu::;.;. """g""as ~(.~~~.
_ r~ In bu t~rene;
y ene, an dmtnc
01 lind in catalytic cracking and re-forming operations in the petro~
" 11IUust+- For sman compressors (less than '500rP/min at the dis
pressure) and for high pressures, the reciprocating type is s~ill
,,ollomical. The design of centrifugal and axial-flow equipmen"t ....
'he study af fluid flo againstP ~oving and stationary solid sur
'-d mec 4'"
.-fll.A>h r<'>-h
IIl'lll:C mqre fi Ul.
~mcs t an t ermo ynamlcs IS lI1volved. 2
, '. (,],('r~odynamicanaly~is of recipro~ating.comp.ressors do~s yield L~L()
d lId'll'matlOnd.l6t lea;;t for Ideal (reversible) operatIOn. The lm~r':.
\41 YSlS
~ . ~c,
. t h e rcmam
. d er 0 f
f r'.iclt ana
are conSl. d eredb'
ne fl y m
li;:," '~~*~ion of ejectors is.descri~ed in ~,\~.
l!ll'()f:atmg compressor the gas IS admitted t~rough an lllt~
I l'y 11l1der equipped witli:"apiston.
'l'he--eylinde;-may be single
I)" " Ill. one ena, and ~ e of only one compression SV.oWel'
I 11111,)' be closed at b,c;,HJ 'en s and means provided to sU'p\lply gas
With the
arrangement two compression strokes are
I" , "yl'le (double acting).
During one cycle the following proc
, (,,) Low-pressure gas is admitted to the cylinder as the pis
i 1IIIIIII12:h its stroke (represented ideally in Fig. 8-10 as line
'II" l'it'Lon reverses its travel and compresses the gas to the




If the process were not rov'"


= -K(f'.H)s


whcre the constAnt, K ,,1I0Wio\ for nonisentropic conditions (fricl.ion). The method of
solnt,ion using (e) would be ex:tctly the same, although the velocities obtained would
be less than thoHo of the irleftlnozzl(), since J( is always less t,han unity.

Pressure, psia


Spccific volume,
ft'/lb m





u, ft/sec

o 103


Example 8-6. Cousider again the nozzle of Example 8-4, assuming tho<t. "I.
behaves as an ideal gas. Calculate:
(a) The eritical pressure ratio and the velocity at the throat
(b) The discharge pressure if a Mach number of 2.0 is required at t,hc no~z',"
Sollttion. (a) The ratio of the specific heats for steam is about 1.~. 8,,1,,1,1'
in Eq. (8-38)

PI -


p, _ (



- 0.55

The velocity at the throat, which is equal to tIml. of sound, cn.n be fOllnd t","

Eq. (8-35) or (8-37). The former expression docs not require a knnll'l,,lv'
specific volume at the throat and, hence, is easier to use when entmll'" "",.\
only arc known.

tl., -

_ (J()O')'


+ 2(32.2)(1.3)(100

X 144)(6.09) [1 _ (0 r.r.)"



+ 3.18 X 10 6
l7()0 H/sec

1<;h = (laO)'


+ (2)(32.2) (U) (100

( _p,

'\ "\' t.he operat.ing characteristics and applications of equipment for

X H4) (6.00) \

1 I" "II"" may be mil-de to a series of articles under the geneml title

1.3 - 1

"'l tV


These results compare favombly with the valucs obtained in I':~""'I'I

8-1) because steam closely approximates an ideal gas at these (... ",,101'""
(b) For a Mach number of 2.0 (based upon conditions Itt t h.. "'"''
discharge vc!ocit,y will be 3580 H/sec. If this value is utilizr:d ill 1':'\ I
sure rat,io cftn bc computed.


p, = (0.012)(100)

Chem. Eng., June, J956, pp. 178-238.

II I. Daugherty and A. C. Ingersoll, "Fluid Mechanics," 5th cd.,
011 (''''''I':Uly, Inc., New York, 1954.
iI .I" ','\uids,








In practice the compression dtep is more nearly

adiabatic than isothermal. (c) The
high-pressure gas is exhausted (3-4)
by opening the exhaust valve and
maintaining the inlet valve closed.
At the ~ld of the exhaust process,
l.~ ,.,LLvO
the clea ance volume (V 4) of the

cylinder still t2~s gas .. . 111) As

i 1

the piston retqaces' its pft"I1~ the
pressure drops until the intake
value is reached, at which point
the intake valve opens and the cycle
is repeated. The valves are nor
mally operated by the pressU!',
differences between the exhaust allli
FIG. 8-10. Single-stage compre~so1' cycle

inlet lines and the gas within tlll'

with clearance.

Reciprocating compressors, ~e~des b>~Vo either single- or doul.J,
acting, may be single- or n,uti$e-ge~l.li:fiefic srngle-stage type the clll.ill
compression occurs in one cp, while in multistage compression two III
more cylinders Ltre involv d and the
. total pressure increase is obtained ,in
a series of steps, with cooling of the

gas between each in order to reduce

the total work requirement. In the

following paragraphs equations are :0
presented for calculating the minimum a: 14
(reversible) work of compression for
~- and ,multistage units.
~c;Ll) Po 0etr
1, gte-stagf.
Compressors. In the

hypothetical case of negligible c&~~~l.w

ance, the compression cycle will be

FIG. 8-11. Single-stap;C'

as shown in Fig. 8-1.1. The total cycle with no c]earan('('.

work of the cycle is the sum of the

individual work terms for each of the three steps and is giveJI I

following equations:

exhaust pressure (2-3).


W. =


W. = -

+ j, "' P dv


- P2V 2

v dp


where ,is the work er mole or unit mass of fluid. t\ I:\()

equivalent to the area 1-2-3-4 in Fig. 8-11.
may be 1\AII' d I"

the expression for flow work obtained from the exte~l<lt'd





tion [Eq. (8-5)] when changes in potential energy and kinetic energy and
the friction can be neglected.
The evaluation of Eq. (8-40) depends upon the path followed during
the compression process. If it is isothermal and the ideal-gas law applies,
integration yields


-Rl' In P2

(8-41 )


H the pressures are high enough so that the gas is not ideal, but follows
Ihe law of corresponding states, Eq. (8-40) can be integrated graphically
hy ~valuating v at a series of points between the initial and final values
Illld plotti.1lg v vs. p. This graphic integration can be carried out once
Illd for all through use of Fig. 4-4. Then the results may be plotted as
I function of reduced temperature and reduced pressure as in Fig. 12-2.
l'lli~ figure introduces the term fugacity,! which will be given the symbol
I The ratio of the fugacities in the final and initial states h/II can be
I, rillcd for an isothermal process in terms of the same integral, (P'v dp,

Iii iI. is equal to the work [Eq. (8-40)].

In f2
- = - 1



The exact defining expression is


v dp = - .-



''''l,j.he work may be determined by evaluatingh and h from Fig. 12-2

111111111 graphical integration. If the gas does not follow the ~aw of
" I'llllding states but p-v-T data in the form of graphs or tables are
lid ,I,', the integrations can be carried out by plotting the specific
Ill'" V:>. pressure for a series of pressures between the limits PI and P2
I 1!lII'~rnting graphically. However, if complete thermodynamic data
"hille, it is simpler to use the following equation:


W. = T AS - AH

Ii i"II,"vs from the first-law flow equation Q - W.

111 ""ulld law Q = T AS.


AH [Eq. (2-10)]

(8-41) to (8-43) are for the minimum isothermal work of

For example, in the develop
1';'1 (X-4:3) it was possible to make the substitution Q = T AS
.111' il. was postulated that the process was reversible. Actual
l"IIl'IIiI'It!,R are larger than the minimum values in accordance
1, .'11'1' !II' irreversibility.
! ill' 1'1 II II prcssioll is adiabatic and the gas follows ideal behavior,
II, "'ill Ill' illt.cgrated using the relationship


lelil. i.e., for reversible operation.

pV'Y =

i \' I


a const

1111011",1' thermodynamic property like temperature and pressure.

1lilliI'M" will be considered in detail in Chap. 12.




provided that 'Y = C,,fC,, and this quantity is assumed to be constant

over the pressure range from PI to P'l. The result in terms of the work
per unit mass of gas compressed is

. w_- -'Y-PIV1
- [(P2)("(-1)/"r

.2.- 1 PI


where Vl is the specifie volume of the gas at compressor-inlet conditions.

If the-gas does 'not follow IdearDeliavlOl~ but obeys tIle principle of
corresponding states, the work can be evaluated by using Figs, 7-7 and 7~8.
These charts show the effect of pressure on the enthalpy and entropy of
gases. Since the total change in entropy must Le zero (adiabatic and
reversible compression) and since !'!.S if; a state function,
!'!.8 = 0 = 118,,,,,., p

+ 118'00"


where the terms reprcsent the changes in 8 per mole for a two-step prOC(~SH
(one at constant temperature, followed by another at constant pressure')
for accomplishing the same change in state as occurs in the comprel'SOI
The first term is given by the equation
118.on, , "

fT' Cp dT

)1', -']'

(8 \til

The second, !'!.8con " 1', is obtainable from Fig. 7-8 and the expression fol' 1111
change in entropy of an ideal gl1S with pressure. If C" vs. tempc'l'atm
data arc available at the compressor inlet pressure, !'!.8."""" can bc~ C" ,II"
ated from (8-46) for any assumed compressor discharge temperaLIII'l' "
This assumption may be cheeked by obtaining 118,,,,,,,1' from Fig. 7 Sill
applying Eq. (8-45). By this trial-and-error procedure the final it'lIq"
ature is evaluated. Then 11H and the work can be computet! I,v 'I
dividing the actual change in state into two processes and com I'll I 01
for each.
!'!.H = 11H.",,,, I' + 11H con.'1'
The separate r.ontributions may be obtained from the equal 100


fT~' C dT

and from Fig. 7-7. This total change in enthalpy is equal 1.0 I h.
work, since Eq. (2-10) applied to an adiabatic process Weill""
-W.=MI=H 2 -H 1

If a complete thermodynamic chart is available, tilt' "010,110

adiabatic compressor problem is very simple, since th,' 1110 ,I
H 2 in Eq. (8-48) can be evaluated directly at the filial I"' I~,O
constant-entropy line from the initial state.





If the cxpansion is neither isothermal nor adiabatic, the path of thr.

process frequently can be represented adequately by the polytropic~
pv 6 = const
where 0 is dr.termined by experiment and assumed to be constant through
out the process. Equation (8-4\) may be used in exactly the same way
M the adiabatic relationship between the pres::mre and the volume to
integrate (8-40). It should be noted that 'Y is equal to the ratio of the
heat capacity at constant pressure to that at constant volume, while 0
hIlS no theoretical significance.
The E.Decl of Cleamnce. The compressor cycle with clearance is shown
ill Fig. 8-10. The volume V 4 of gas remaining in the cylinder at the enu
til' the exhaust proccss is termed the clearallr.e volume. The displace
II "'lit V D is the volume corresponding to the complete stroke of the pi::;ton;
I I, the intake volume, is the volume of gas taken into the cylinder per
'Fle. The effcct of elearance i~ to decrease the capacity of a compressor.
I\y Iluding up the work terms for each step in the cycle an expression can
I" IlPvoloped for the work per cycle. If the ideal-gas law is followed
did t he expansion is adiabatic, the equation obtn.inecl will be exactly
II", "111110 as (8-44) provided that the actual volume of the gas taken into
III ",vlinder, VI, is used in the equation in place of VI (the specific volume
"dd, conditions). It is apparent that the only effect of clearance under
1.1'0' t'ircumstances is to decrease the capacity of the compressor.
i II 111l~ event that the gas does not follow ideal behavior, development
j I 'jlllI1,inns for the work, including the effect of clearance, becomes more
qd!<'ld,ed. However, the same general procedure of evaluating the
I illl'llIrled on the p-v plot, either by graphic integration or through the
,iI 1~1'lIeralized tables of thermodynamic properties, is applicable.
II ,I it l\1S of these methods are given in the problems at the end of the
orten used in connection ..." ith the discussion of compressors is
This is defined as the ratio of the intako vol
I', Che displacement volume V D. The clearance C is normally
I , Che ratio of the clearance volume V 4 to the displacement
!II I I,
With these definitions, the volume of the intake gas can be
I I'lj It om the pressure ratio, the clearance, and the di::;placement
!t,' 1.11(' following equation (provided that the expansion is adia
101 11'\'('l'sihlc):

1I11/,.ic e.tJiciency.

VI = V D


[1 +-C - C(~:Y!"(J


i~ t,he result of setting VI = V D - (V 1 - V 4) and utiliz

1)[ C to replace V 4 in terms of V D
The displacement





volume corresponds to the total volume traversed by the piston in one

direction (the volume corresponding to the stroke).
Multistage Compression. For several reasons the ratio of the discharge
pressure to the suction pressure for a single-stage compressor is limited.
One reason is related to the efficiency
of operation. Figure 8-12 illustrat.es
the compression process for adiabatic
(1-2) and isothermal (1-3) paths.
The isothermal process requires less
work by an amount equivalent to
--the area 1-2-3. Actually the com
pression step is more nearly.adiabatic
than isothermal, since it is impossible
to transfer a large quantity of heat.
through the cylinder walls in t.h(~
short time accompanying the strok('
of the piston. ~ evertheless, till'
benefits of i~othermal operation 1':111
FIG. 8-12, Compa.rison of single- and
be partly achieved by dividing !.III'
two-stage comprcssor operation.
process into two steps, that i~, 1'1'
limiting the discharge pressure from the first compressor cylinder to I""
cooling the gas to the original temperature t 1 in an intercooler (a 1'1"
cess occurring at essentially constant pressure, path 4-5), ami fillnl"
completing the compression to Pc in a second cylinder. In this two-"II'II,1
system a reduction of work equal to the area 2-4-5-6 has beCl! :\("',,,"
plished. A further decrease in the work requirement would be obl.:'III1'01
by increasing the number of stages to three or more. However, till' 11111' I
mum reduction in work is limited to the area 1-2-3; hence a POilll. ill '" 'I
reached at which the decrease in power costs is balanced by the i!IlTI'II ,ql
first cost of the equipment. The number of stages employed ill 1'1:" II
depends primarily upon the over-all pressure differential and tlw (':qt,,, 'I
In large machines the pressure ratio per stage is seldom more LIt:11I III
and may be less. In small compressors, where power cost~ nr,' "I I
importance, this ratio may be considerably higher.
Very-high-pressurc machines operating with discharge prp~"I1I'" "I
order of 10,000 psia are usually built with five or more sta/.',""
pressure is increased, the specific volume of the gas deen'a ,I' 111111
cylinder size necessary for a given capacity decreases. Thi,~ i" :111 Inil
:tnt. rC~lson why high compression ratios arc not justified wil.It : 1i11\1
ll1adlin('s; large cylinders would be required to handle t.Il1' 1,,1\ iii
illl;lkl' ~:I~, :Llld the entire cylinder would have to be of 1''.1'''(1 I
:,11'11("1 iOIl 1.0 willl~I.:t.nd the high pressure existing at the (~II(I ,,J t I"
Tit, l'IlII'i('II('il'~ Ill' reciprocating compressors generally :111 I" I




and 90 pel' cent. This means that the actual work required is 11 to .1:\
per cent greater than computed on the basis of reversible adiabitti"


Methane is to be compressed from 40F, 20 psia to 80 psia in a

If the compressor operates adiabatically, estimate the minimum
power requiremcnt to handle 100 ft'/min (at 60F and 1 atm pressure) by the follow
ing methods:
(a) Assuming idcal-gas behavior
(b) Using thc thermodynamic properties of methane
Solution. (a) If methane is assumcd to behave as an ideal gas under these condi
tions, Eq. (8-44) is applicable. From Chap. 3, -y at 60F and 1 atm pressure is 1.31.
The :variation in -y for an adiabatic compression to 80 psia will be small (-y increases
II ilh the pre:;sure and decreases with temperaturc), and a. constant va.lue may be
IW~cl without introducing an error greater than that involved in assuming ideal-gas

1.3JR7' [(~)O.237

W, = - 1.3,1 - 1
Example 8-6.

~ingle-stage unit.

(1.31)(1.98)(500)(0,389) = -1630 Btu/lb mole of gas

(100)(492)(778) _ -326000 ft-lbJlmin
Power = - (1630)
(359)(53()) ,
1'1", work reqU1:red would h'lve the opposite sign, and hence the power requi,.ement
,dol he 326,000 ft-Jl)J /min, or 9,9 hp.

'" Tlie minimum work would correspond to an isentropic process. Reading the
"f the enthalpy from Fig, 7-5 for methane at .!OF and 20 psia and at 80 psia,
II, 101 tlie same entropy, and using Eq. (8-48),




-(H. - H,)

-(488 - 389)

-99 Btu/Ibm

requirement for 100 ft"/min would be

I IIwer

(99) (16) (100) (492) (778)


= 319,000 ft-lbJlmm, or 9.7 hp

a , 'Ult' the assumption of ideal-gas behavior (and use of a constant value of


,,,"Ilee a significant error in the results. This would not necessarily be

, Ii", I"'f pressures.
1,10' II- 7. Show that in multistage compressor operation the total work
" 'il "' II tninimum when the work in each stage is the same, provided that the
,I,", II' Lhe initial temperature between each stage.
II Lh" a~sll1l}ption of ideal-gas behavior is justified, a simple analytical
I ''I'''" 1';1']. (8-4-1) is possible,
For a two-stage unit with an interstage
",", "olllme v, the total work is

Ii ,,01


- J



] + --,
-yRTlt [(P,)('Y-Il/'Y
- 1]
-y - 1

-yR1\ [( _
P) ('Y-1J/'Y + (P')
._---P ('Y-I)/'Y
-y - 1
n< I"~'"~


-2 ]

1':'1. (8-44) may be replaced by RT I provided thnt the work

I,d Illd \.hfl gas is essentially ideal at inlet conditions.




The work of compression is the sum of these enthalpy changes, or

t.H,. = 5930 - 930 = 5000 Btu/lb mole

8-8. Ejectors. Ejectors are used to compress vapors to a small posi

tive pressure or to discharge them from a vacuum chamber into atmos
pheric surroundings. Where mixing of the vapors with the driving fluid
is allowable, ejectors are usually
lower in first cost and maintenance
costs than other types of compres
sors. The equipment (Fig. 8-13)
consists of a converging-diverging
nozzle, through which the driving
fluid (commonly steam) is fed, and
which is inside a second, larger
FIG. 8-13. Single-stage ejector.
nozzle, through which both th{~
vapors and driving fluid pass. The thermodynamics of the inside no;r,
zle have already been considered. The momentum of the high-velocity
fluid leaving the driving nozzle is partly utilized to increase the velocity
of the vapors to be compressed, and the mixture passes into the thrllat.
of the large nozzle at a velocity less than that of the driving fluid lea.\'
ing the small nozzle. In the diverging section, the mixture is ('11111
pressed to the discharge pressure at the expense of the kinetic ener/!:.v III
the stream by increasing the cross-sectional area. The velocity of III
mixture in the converging section of the large nozzle must be aboVl' III
velocity of sound, for otherwise the pressure would decrease goill/-'; 1111
the throat of the nozzle, defeating the purpose of the sonic ejector. 'III
How equations for nozzles apply. Although the actual mixing 11I'(II"
itself is complicated when handled analytically, the maximum thelln'fI,
performance can be determined by assuming that momentum i~, ",
served. Comparison of the actual performance with the ideal will
an efficiency value for the apparatus.
8-9. Temperature Measurements at High Velocities. If an IIIIJ",'1
placed in a flowing stream, the velocity at the surface will approllt'l.
because of friction. The slowing down of the stream results in a 111111
of kinetic energy of the fluid to internal energy of the obj()(:1.. II
object is a thermometer or thermocouple, it will read a temperatlln' II
than that of the flowing stream,
The quantitative relationships are given by applying the ('Ill"
tion. For example, if Eq. (2-10) is applied to two nearby So"'I'"I'
in the free stream and the other in the stream next to the SII ri II'"
object, there results




2g c

+ Ho




where the subscript 0 repres~~ts, ~tc section at the surface. If the flow
is completely stopped at the J~e, UO = 0 and Eq. (8-51) becomes

lI o - I! =

2g c

Since the pressure is constant, thi:" expression may be written, with little
error, in the form
C p ('1'o -







2y cC


The temperature To, defined by Eq. (8-52), is termed the stagnation

"I' total temperature.
For low velocities To is essentially the same as
IIII' free-stream, or true, temperature T.
However, at Mach numbers
iI'pl'oaching unity the stagnation temperature will be significantly higher
1\ 1easurement ,of temperatures in high-speed flow is complicated by
1111, phenomenon.
If a thermocouple is placed in the stream, part of its
"111.1,'0 will be oriented so that it completely absorbs the kinetic energy
Ii t Ill' fluid.
At this point the temperature will be close to the stagnation
Ii it'. At other parts of the surface, particularly those parallel to the
il"'llIlll of flow, all the kinetic energy will not be transferred to the sur
, oI"d the temperatl1l'e will be less than To. The thermocouple will
"I' u.n average value which may be designated T ob ,' The recovery
, 11:\.s been used to relate the three temperatures To, T,and T oh ,'
111!"\IIIr.d as
Tob , - '1'

= To - '1'


iX-52) and (8-53) are combined to eliminate '1'0, there is obtained


T ob


2- C
gc p
11,,11 (K-!'i,n may he used to calculate the free-stream temperature
1111 1'I'(:ovcry fattor may be estimated.
The ~lue of f depends
"I'" 11'1ll'tioll of the thermocouple probe and the heat-transfer
I t, is between 0.9 and 1.0 in most instances. l


!.I I"


11I111Iped at the rate of 100 gal/min to the top of a storage

The discharge line emptying into the tank is 50 ft


'i", "" ,




in high-speed flow are considered in detail by E. R. G.

(I H5G),