Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 22

DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE FLOW METERS

INTRODUCTION
The measurement of flow using differential pressure is still the
most widely used traditional metering technology.
Head loss meters or head flow meters or differential pressure
flow meters have a wide variety of meter types that includes:
(1) Orifice plates
(2) V-cone
(3) Venturi tubes
(4) Nozzles
(5) Lo-Loss tubes (or) Dall tube
(6) Target meters
(7) Pitot tubes and
(8) Variable area meters.

DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE FLOW METERS


Advantages
(1) The measurement is based on the accurately measurable
dimensions of the primary device and they do not
necessarily require direct flow calibration.
(2) They offer excellent reliability, reasonable performance
and modest cost.
(3) Can be used on liquid or gas applications with modification
in expansion factor.

DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE FLOW METERS


Disadvantages
(1) High permanent pressure head loss.
(2) Poor accuracy typically 2 to 3% at best.

(3) Low turndown ratio typically from 3:1.to 5:1


(4) Accuracy is affected by fluctuations in the density, pressure and
viscosity and by erosion and physical damage to the restriction.
(5) Long straight pipe runs are required.

(6) The output is not linearly related to flow rate thus entailing square
root extraction.
(7) There are a large number of potential leakage points.

DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE FLOW METERS


The construction of the primary element (eg orifice plate) is relatively
simple and relatively inexpensive.
However, there is a lot of ancillary equipment associated with the
primary element are :
(a) Isolation valves
(b) Impulse tubing
(c) 3- or 5-way valve manifold valve (d) DPT itself.
For an eg a relatively small pipelines, of 100 mm diameter (DN 100) or
less, these costs, taken together as a system (primary + ancillary
components) highly greater than the cost of New technology FMs such
as a magnetic or vortex metering

DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE FLOW METERS


Companies including
Honeywell , Emerson (Rosemount) , and ABB
have introduced Multivariable Pressure Transmitters that
provide direct, simultaneous measurement of not only of the

(1) Differential pressure(DP) but also


(2) Static pressure and
(3) Temperature.
Built-in processing provides direct calculation of mass flow.

Extends the turndown ratio to 10:1.

Another feature introduced by Emerson, is the Conditioning


Orifice Plate.
This arrangement reduces swirl and irregular flow profiles
and removes the requirement for a flow conditioner.
Furthermore, the discharge coefficient (Cd) uncertainty,
a major factor in determining accuracy, is in many
cases reduced to 0.5% from a typical value of
1.0%.

DP FLOW METERS BASIC THEORY


(LIQUIDS)
Differential pressure flow rate meters are based on a physical
phenomenon in which a restriction in the flow line creates a
pressure drop that pressure drop is related to the flow rate

This physical phenomenon is based on two well-known equations:


(a) The equation of continuity
(b) Bernoullis equation

Equation of continuity:

Consider the pipe shown in figure that rapidly converges from its
nominal size to a smaller size followed by a short parallel sided
throat before slowly expanding to its full size again.
Also assume that a fluid of density flowing in the pipe of area
A1, has a mean velocity v1 at a line pressure P1.
When the fluid flows through the restriction of area A2, where
the mean velocity increases to v2 and the pressure falls to P2.

The equation of continuity states that for an incompressible fluid, the volume flow
rate ( Q) must be constant.

This indicates that when a liquid flows through a restriction, then in order to
allow the same amount of liquid to pass (to achieve a constant flow rate) the
velocity must increase (Figure 5.2).
Mathematically: Q = v1A1 = v2A2 .(2)
where:
v1 and v2 -Velocities fluid of the pipe at points 1 and 2 .

A1 and A2 -Cross-sectional areas of the pipe at points 1 and 2.

Bernoullis equation
Bernoulli's equation states that under steady flow conditions,
The total energy (kinetic +pressure + gravitational) per unit mass of
an ideal incompressible fluid (i.e. one having a constant density and
zero viscosity) remains constant along a flow line.

Where
v = the velocity at a point in the streamline
P = the pressure at that point
= the fluid density
g = the acceleration due to gravity
z = the level of the point above some arbitrary horizontal reference
plane with the positive z-direction in the direction opposite to the
gravitational acceleration.
k = constant

In the restricted section of the flow,


the kinetic energy (dynamic pressure) increases due to the
increase in velocity and the potential energy (static pressure)
decreases.
Relating this to the conservation of energy at two points in the
fluid flow, then

12
2

Multiplying with

22
2

21

P = (P1 - P2) =

22
2

12
2

From Continuity Equation

1 = 1 and 2 = 2
The solving for Q

1 2
1
2

Q=

2
4

where The velocity of approach factor Ev is given as

E =

1
1

1
1 2

The equation for Q is applicable only to IDEAL LAMINAR flow only.


To include the effects of viscosity and turbulence the term

Discharge coeeficent (Cd ) is included in the above equation.

=
=

Where k is the lumped constant

Discharge Coefficient Cd
Discharge Coefficient Cd is the function
Cd = f { Re, , design of restriction, location of taps, friction due to pipe
roughness}
Reference texts and standards are available that list typical values and
tolerances for Cd under certain flows in standard installations.
The discharge coefficient may also be calculated using the following (ISO)
equation.

LIMITATIONS OF DP FLOW METERS


The three major limitations that are applicable to all differential pressure
systems.
1.The square root relationship between differential pressure (P)
and flow (Q) severely limits the turn-down ratio of such techniques to
a maximum of 5:1 or less.
2. If density ( ) is not constant, it must be known or measured.

In practice the effect of density changes is not significant in the majority of


liquid flow applications and needs only to be taken into account in the
measurement of gas flow.
3. They create a permanent pressure loss. This head loss
depends on the type of meter and on the square of the volume flow

DEFINING THE HEAD LOSS

The point at which the minimum cross sectional area


of the flow stream reaches a minimum is known as
the vena contracta and occurs at downstream or
the narrowest point of the venturi.
The vena contracta (L., literally, contracted vein) is
characterized by high velocity, laminar flow.

THE PERMANENT HEAD LOSS FOR VARIOUS


MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES. (COURTESY
EMERSON)

DP FLOW METERS BASIC THEORY


(GAS)
Vapour or gas flow through a restriction differs from
liquid flow in that the pressure decrease in the throat is
accompanied by a decrease in density.
Thus, for the mass flow to remain constant, the velocity
must increase to compensate for the lower density.
As a result , the formula for gas flow is slightly
modified by the addition of the term Y1 gas expansion
factor (Y1 = 1 for liquid).

= 1

The gas expansion factor (Y1) is based on the determination of density


at the upstream of the restriction.
Tables and graphs are available for the expansion factor as a function of
the pressure ratio across the restriction and the specific heat of the gas
(BS 1042).
OR
The expansion factor may be calculated by standard equations listed in
BS 1042.
The mass flow rate for both liquids and gases is found by multiplying
the theoretical mass flow equation by the expansion factor and the
appropriate discharge coefficient.