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EEM 328

ELECTRONICS LABORATORY
EXPERIMENT 3
DIODE APPLICATIONS

PURPOSE
In this lab, several applications of the diode will be studied. These include clipping
clamping and power supply.

THEORY

Clipper circuits
Clipper circuits is one of the applications of diodes. This circuit limits an input
voltage to certain minimum and maximum values. In the circuit in Figure 1, one
can see that as long as V1 is less than VB1, then the diode will be reverse biased (an
open circuit). In this case, the output voltage will track the input voltage. If Vi
exceeds VB1 then the diode turns on and then Vo will beVB1 thus this circuit limits
the output voltage to less than VB1. By rearranging the components, variations on
this circuit can be achieved.

Figure 1

Power supply circuits


When dealing with electronic circuits, we have to meet the basic requirement of
providing electrical power for them to work. Without that power, your circuit is no
more useful than a single raindrop in a hurricane.The basic purpose of a power
supply is to provide a fixed voltage to the working circuit, with sufficient current-
handling capacity to maintain the operating conditions of the circuit (see Figure 4).
The power source doesn't have to be fancy; the typical hand-held transistor radio
uses a 9-volt battery as its power source. A flashlight uses cells that are physically
much larger, but provide a lower voltage. Major electronic appliances such as
television sets, VCRs, and microwave ovens have electronic circuits built in that
take power from a wall socket and convert it to the form and voltages required by
the other internal circuits of the appliance.Such an electronic power supply circuit
is imperative if you plan on doing long-term experimenting with electronic circuits.
The alternative is to spend a considerable amount of money on replacement
batteries at regular intervals.

PRE-LAB
a) Review clipper and clamper circuits. Explain the purpose of the circuits in
Figure 2 and Figure 3.
b) Design a clipper circuit which limits input signals to +1V and -1.5V. Use 1k
resistor to limit the current. (Remember you are using real diodes. There will be
diode turn on voltages.)
c) Using PSpice, simulate the circuit in Figure 4 (zener diode: Vzener=12v diode:
1N4007).
Determine the output DC voltage and current.
Determine the power dissipated by the zener diode and the load
resistor.
Analyze the amount of ripple entering the zener-regulated load (Vin
(ripple)) (at the first V-marker) for capacitor values of 10 F, 100 F,
and 1000 F.
Calculate the output ripple voltage using the equation:
Vout (ripple) = [(RL// RZ)/( RS + (RL// RZ))]* Vin (ripple);
where RS=1k and RL = 5k (capacitor value 1000 F only).
Determine the simulated Vout (ripple) (capacitor value 1000 F only).
Determine the simulated % voltage regulation using the equation:
%VR = [(VNo Load - VFull Load) / VFull Load]*100% (capacitor value 1000 F
only)

PROCEDURE
1) Diode Clipper Circuits
Diode clipper circuits can be used to limit a voltage to some maximum or minimum
value. This is useful for designing protection circuits.

Figure 2
Figure 3

a) Connect the circuits in Figure 3 (VB=3v, VB1=5v, VB2=3v, R=1K, diode:


1N4007).
For the input signal (V1), use 10 Vp-p, 1 kHz sine wave and use power supply to
provide the battery voltage. Measure and sketch the input and output waveforms
for each circuit.
b) Construct the clipper designed in the pre lab. Measure and sketch the input and
output waveforms.

Figure 4

2-) Power supply circuit.


a) Construct the circuit in Figure 4 (zener diode: Vzener=12v diode:
1N4007).
b) Measure the output DC voltage and current.
c) Determine the power dissipated by the zener diode and the load resistor.
d) Measure Vin (ripple) using capacitor values (10 F, 100 F, and 1000 F).
Measure Vout (ripple) for capacitor value 1000 F only. Measure the %VR.

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