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Napdptnpa I FRIEDRICH ENGELS NEPIFPAMMA MIAE KPITIKHE THE OIKONOMIKHE ENIZTHMHE 844) H oikovowikh emiothyn? yewh@nke ws puaikh ouvénela tns enéKtagns to eunopiou, Kal He auth thv enéxtaan A”Be otn Béon tou anio¥, YN eniotn- HoviKod naZapépatos éva aventuypevo avotna Ins enitpendpevns anatns, hia nAfipns eniothpn tou nAoutispou [Bereicherungswissenschaft]. Auth n oikovopika emothyn A eniothyn tou nfouuopou, n onofa yewvi- @nke and tov apoiBaio PAdvo Kal thy anfnotia tov eyNdpwv, HépEI oto pétwno to anotwnwpa tns andiaouKétepns piautias. ZouoE Kavels KOHN be thv agen avtifinyn ou o xpUuGés Kal o GpyUPES Eival o NAoLtOs Kal GU- 1. Tithog nowrotérou: «Umrisse zu einer Kritik der Nationalikonomie». To xe(jevo you- rnxe tov Lavovdguo tov 1844 xa Spoor sone to (Sto étos om Fequavo-Tathud} Exe- rmoiba. Eixoot end yQ6wa per my medty SnHootevon, Stav o Wilhelm Liebknecht ct 790- reiver va avadquonevtel om cooahdnHoxgatwei epnpegida To Aaixs Kodros (Der Volksstaat), 0 Engels 8a. omavtfjoet we jue emotoks} ov1G 13 AngiAov 1871: «H avarézon, Tov naAW dQBQOv pov and ™ Pequavo-Taddun} Exergiba om Volksstaat eiva. ext; ovbfimons. To xeiyevo elvan evredais menahauruévo Hat yewiro cevarxoiBetes, ot onoles hbv0 TYAN wROQOdY vA MOXAKGOVY atOUs aVAgnOUS. EmTAéoV, efvaL YQU)BEVO EVIE we TOV EyeMcLv6 TQ6O, o aMDO(0s etvat ma MgTEQOS. ‘Exe OVO AEA «wg LTOOL- x6 &yyoahor. Aexarrola xg6wa agydtega Ba tovice o€ mio Emoto TOU ouIs 26 lovviov 1884 omy Evyevia Tiéagtts, n ool tov éxet ngoreivet m werédoacn tov xeyévou ora. Qwownd: «To exrapBave ws eEaigerixd Exawvo to dt Gewgelte xoRoYWO va weTa>oKoTEL 10 Megtygaupa x Ax. Av xan ovvexiGo va eiyat oMyov vnEghpavos ya auth thy xWTS- Deu KowwVmoEMOTHOVUR EQYEOL How, Ywwoibw TOMY xaKG Su ohpEoc elvan evtEhiis Eeneqaopévn xat dui dev elvan adic yepdren cand magahelrpers akhé xou and “ogpéhpeeca” PoPdqat du Ba mpoxahoer neowsodreges mugeEnyioers mg6 OE 2. O Engels xenoyionotei tov 690 Nationalkonomie, 0 onotog xa0" Sh ty Sudignetct tow 1900 aura ofpaive to TOVOLO Tw OROVOWXAY SidaOKAAIY MOV A>oDObTAY THY Ot- OVOMA! OQYEVWON pas xQALTUAG (EBvIXE) OYAVONEYNS XOQUS. TlQOs aNOgYYA AAQEO- pnveuby ov onotes Ba progovoay va mQORYOUY edv anodwérav «eBvixh o1MoVopiE”, O 6005 anodiderat ws omovowwnr emorryen. 606 FRIEDRICH ENGELS | NEPITPAMMA MIAE KPITIKHE THE OIKONOMIKHE ENIETHMHE vents ev Eixe Tinote mio Eneiyov va Kavel ané to va anayopevoe! Navtou Inv e€aywyh tov «euyeviov» perafifwv. Ta €8vn aAAnfoavuperwnizovtay s piflapyupor, o KaBEvas ex tov onoiwv ayKamlaze ye ta Su0 tou xépia tov 61K6 TOU GGKO HE xpUGS Kal KoitaZe HE PBEVO Ka! UNDOYia to yEitova tou. Kivntonoi€nkav 6fa ta yéoa yia va anoandoe! Kavels 600 nepicadtepo PEUGTS xphiya aNé tous AaoUs YE TOUS oNoioUS EXStaV GE ENOpIKA GU- variayn Kat yia va Siatnphoe! UNoxpewuKa to eUtUXés ANSKINpa EVvtds tns ouvopiakns ypaypns. Ev n apxh auth epappozorav pe andfutn ouvéneia, Ga eixe efovedoe! to eyinépio. Apxicav Aoindv o1 év8pwnol va UNEpBaivouv aUté to npGTO crdb10- avUAMPANKAV 6tI To KEPAAaIO GTOIBAZELAI VEKpS OtO GEVTOUKI, Eve [otav teGei] otnv KuKAopopia augaveral ouvexdds. Eyivav Aoindy giaiKére- 01 Npos tov Gv8peno, éotefivav ta GouKara tous ws BoA@pata ato ew- TepikO OUtwS ote aUTd va PEPOUV HAZ TOUS KI Gia, Kal avayvepiaay ou Sev BAdnte: Grav nfnpdver Kaveis ctov A nepiaadtepo yia to eyndpeupa TOU, EPSGOV LNOPOLGE aKOLN va to Eepoptade! ctov B YE akdyN UyNA6- tepn wpa. ¥’ uth tn Baan o1KoBopAOnke to EunopoKpatikd avotnya. H6n anoKaAu- ONkE KaNwS © NfovEKTIKés xapaKthpas tou EyNopiou: ta éOvn affinAo- Npoveyyiotnkay Kanws, cuvhyaV cULpUvies eynopiou Kal giflias, NpOXe- povoay jetai tous ge uvafaayés Kal, xApIv tou HeyaAUtepou KépGous, Napeixav to Eva oto GAio Kader! afiayannto Ka! Ka”. Kara Baan Spas ouvexige va undpxei n naiié pifoxpnyatia kar pifautia, Kai auth eonotoe and Kaipot e's Kaip6v GE NoAEjiOUs, oF onofo! eKeives tis NepI65ous Bacizo- Mrav 6flo! oe eunopika avutnilia. E autous tous nofléyous @avnke 6ui Ka! To ENdpio, énws n AnotE!a, Bacietal oto Sikaro tns 1oxUos- Sev Eixe Kaveis kavévav ev6o1aoH6 va anoondge! ow navoupyias f Bias cULpevies Us onoies Bewpouge EUvoiKdtEpEs. To KUpIo onjicio ge OM6K/Inpo to eynopoKpaTIK aUoTNHa eival n Bewpia TOU ELinopikOU Igozuyiou. KaBis SnAabh Bewpouvtay NAovitos o xpuads kal © Gpyupos, niteovexuxés Cewpouvtay HOvo Exeives o1 ouvaAiAayés oF onoies teflikG é—pepvay pevotd xphpia orn xdpa. fia va to avaKaruyel KavEls aur6, cuvéKpive us efaywyés He Us eloayeyés. Edv efxe eEayaye! nepioad- Tepo aNd aute nou eixe e1ayayel, nioteuE Sui n Siagopa eixe EVE! ws peu- ot6 xphya on xmpa Kal Bewpouae eaUtov nAouaidtepo Héoa aNd auth tn Biagops. H téxvn tv oikovoOA6yaV GUVicTato AoInév to va LEpIVOUV Gote ato téflos KBE étous 01 efaywyés va aNobi6ouv Eva EUvoIK6 1a0C4yIO anévave ous eoaywyés- kal e€artias autis ts yefloias yeubaio@nons apa- yidotnkav xiMG6es 4v8penol! To eyndpio éxel Kal GUtO va BeiEe! tis otaUpO- popies kai tnv lepd E€étaah tou. 0 1805 aidvas, 0 aiivas tns enavaotaons, enavactauKonoinae Kal thy orkovopia: Gia énws Sfles 01 enavactdcels aUTOU tou aldva ftav Hové- NAeupes Kal napépeivav ato enine6o ts avuiBeans, 6nws avunapatéOnke ‘oxnv agnpnpévn nveupatoKpatia o apnpnpiévos ulapds, otn Hovapxia n EnpoKpatia, oto Belo 6ikal0 to KOIVWVIKS GULBEAaIO, EtOr Kal N OIKOVOIKA enavaotagn Sev npoxpnoe népa and tnv aveideon. O1 npounobéoeis [tns FRIEDRICH ENGELS | MEPITPAMMA MIAE KPITIKHE THE OKONOMIKHE EMIETHMHE avtiBeons] BiatnphOnkav navtou- 0 uAlopés Bev enmtéOnke otn xpiotaViK nepippévnan Kal otov uNoBIBAGHS tou avepdnou, ev otn @éon tou xpI- cuavikod G0 avunapéBede th pUGN ws to ANdAUTO: n noArUKA [enIoth pn] Bev iavohOnke va eAéyEel Kad" eaurés Kar 61’ eautés Us NpouNoBécEIs TOU KPGTOUS: N OIKOVOLIKA enlothyn 6ev eixe tnv 16éa va pwriael yia tn 61 kaiofléynon tns atopixhs i610Ktnofas. fy’ aUt6 Kal n véa OIKOVOPIKh eniothyn Atav Lvo npItEAAs npSoGos: tay avayKagpévn va Npobdve! Kal va apyn- Gci us (61es us NpoUNoBECEIs tns, va KaLapUYE! GE GOpIOTEIA Kal GE UNOKPI- ofa yia va KaAuyel Us avUpGaEIS US Onoles Eixe EpNfaKei Kal yia va Kata- AAEel ota CULNEPGopara ota Onoia WAOUWLAY 6x! HEoW Tov NpOiiNBécEdY Ins afd Adyw tou avOpuniouKou Nvebpatos TOU aldva. Etat, N OIKOVOLIKA eniothyn npooéAaBe eva xapaKthpa @piaiK6 npos tov dvOpuno: anéoupe Inv eWvOId tns aNd tov Napaywyd Kal thy otPEWE CTO Katavamth: npo- nomOnke pia teph anoctpo@h yia us aIPatoBappEves pprKafedtntes tou ElinopoKpatikoU GuoTHHatos Kal SiaKhpuge to eyNdpio «ws Sepd piAias Kal Evwons pEtagU tov eBvibv, rus Kal PEtaEU Tov arOpav. Hrav 6a united Nofutéferas Ka! peyafeiou - afi o1 npotnoBéces GUvtoya éBeiEaV Ka NGA tnv 1oxd tous Kal yéwnoay, Ge avti8ean npos auth tn Aapneph @iAav- pania, tn paABousiavh nAn@uopiaKh Bewpia, to Mio dkeato BapBapIK6 auotnpa nou unApee noté, éva GUotNYa ts andyvwons, to oroio KaxéppI- Wye Ofles exefves Us OYopgES aepoAoyies nepi tns ayanns tou avOpanou Kal Tou KoGponoAtcpOU: [01 npotnoBéceIs autés] yevnoav Kal avébe\EaV tO Epyootasiaké Guotnya Kal tn abyxpovn Soufeia, n onoia Sev unoAeinetal 816AoU ws npos inv naflaié Ge anavépanid Kal ppIKw6ia. H véa oIKOVOLIKA eniothpn, to oGotnya tns efleuBepias tou eLNopiou to onofo eixe BepEMer- @ei oto Epyo tou Adam Smith Wealth of Nations, anoBevuetat ws n i610 unoxpioia, aouvénela Kat avn@iKétnta n onoia tpa avunapatiBetal atv eflebB_pn avOpumid [der freien Menschlichkeit] o¢ dia ta ne6ia. Aev auvitouce 6pWs to GpiBlavé avotNLa Kapia npdobo; - Lapis Kat ftav [npso6os], Ka! paAtota pia avayKaia npSobos. ‘Htav avayKaia yia va KGTANE9E! To ELNOpOKPAUKS BUOTNYG HE ta HOVONGAIa Ka! IS avaoxécEIs Tou npoxaflouae atnv KuKAo@opia, yia va pnopécoUV va avabelKXBoUV oF NpayyauKés ouvéneies ths atopiKAs ioKtnaias: Atav avayKaia yia va UNO- xwphaouv Oftes autés o1 pikponpeneis toniKés Kat eBviKés andyels, yia va Unopéce! o aydvas twv Kaipiv Yas va yivel évas yeviKés, avepanivos ayd>- Vos: Atay avaykaia yia va eyKatafeiyel n Gewpia tns atopiKhs 16ioKtnoias To Ka®apa ELNeIpIKO HovonGu pe tous aNAds avukeipevikOUs neipapau- oUOUs, Kal va npoaAdBer évav entotnpoviKd xapaKthpa o onofos thv Ka- téotnae unevOuvn enions Kal Yia ta enaK6Aouea, NpowBdvtas étaI to dito @éya oF Eva yeviKé avOpdnivo né6io- yia to Sui n avnOiKétNta nou UNApxE thy NaAid oIKOVOLIKN enlothyN wEAENKE Ge anoKopU~PwON Héoa aNd thy anéneipa tns andpynohs ts Kal Héoa ané tv uNoKpiaia - pla avayKaia ouvéneia auths tns anéneipas. Ofla auté Atav on gUaN ths Katéotagns. Euxapiows avayveapiCoupe oui ovo pe tn BeyeMliacn Kal tn 6iexnepaiwan ns efleudepias tou eynopiou BpeOAkape otn Béan va UNEpBoupE thy o1KO- VoHIKA eniotiyin tns atopiKhs 16ioKtnaias, afd Ga npéne! tautéxpova va 607 608 FRIEDRICH ENGELS | NEPITPAMMA MIAE KPITIKHE THE OIKONOMIKHE ENIETHMHE éxoupie to 6ikaiapa va napova\doupe auth tnv EfevBepla tou eynopiou ot cuvoaikh GewpnuKA Kal NpaKUKA yNdopivotnté tn H xpion pas 8a yivetal t600 nio akiinph, 6a0 nepiaadtepo 01 o1KovoHo- Aéyor tous onofous npénel va KpivoupE epnintouv otnv EnoxA pas. A1ou, ev 0 Smith Kal o Malthus Bphixav y6vo Lepoviaéva Opavopara [tou cu- othpatos] npiv and autots, o1 vedtepor eixav to GUVOAIKS Gata Ofo- KAinpayévo [inpooté tous: o1 ouvéneies Elkay Sfles EUpaVIGTE!, o1 avUpAGE!S eixav avaberxOel He capfvela, Kal evtoutols [autol] bev Katé/ngav Ge évav Efeyxo tov npoKeipevwv, Ka! nap’ 6fa aura 6ev avéflaBav tnv euavvn yia 10 QUVOAIK6 GUotNLA. Ovo EyyUTEpA Epxovta! o1 oIKOVOLOAyo! ato Napév, 1600 nepicaétepo anopakpuvovtal ané thy evupdtnta. Me Ka8_e npdobo Ins enoxhs augavetal avayKaotiKd N dopiotela Gote va Siatnpneei n o'- KOVOUIKA ENIOTHYN oto WYOS TeV KaIPGV. fi’ GUTS, yIa NapAbeIyya, evar © Ricardo mio évoxos ané tov Adam Smith kai 0 MacCulloch Kai o Mill nio Evoxo! ané tov Ricardo. H veétepn oikovopikA eniothyin Bev pnopel Kav va Kpivel cword to eyno- poKpAUKE avotN}a, 616UI Elval n (61a HovOnAeupN Kal emMBapUPEvn aKdpn ané us npotno®écels tou. Mévo ekeivn n okonié nou avopOdvetar naveo ané tnv avti8ean wv 640 auoTn ata, ekeivn n onoia UNOBAAAE! GE Kp UKA US KoIvés NpoUNOBECEIs KAI Tov 640 Ka! AaYBGveI ws a—etnpia ja Ka@apé av@pdnivn, yevikh Béon Oa pnopéae! va unoei€e! Kal ous 640 thv oh 6éon tous. Oa pave u o1 UNepaaniotés tou EAEVBEPOU eyNopiou Ek vat xeip6tepo! Hovonasfiotés AKON Kal Gné tous {610Us TOUS NaAIOUs ejino- poKpates. Oa pave Su niow and tov UNOKPITIKS aVOPaNIGHS twv vEtepwV KpUBetal pla BapBapétnta tnv onola Gev PavrdZoviay Kav o1 NaAaiStepor- 6u n ewolaxh obyxUN twv nafalstepwv eival akdpN anif Kal cuvenhs anévavu atn 6inpdaunn AoyIKA tw Enikprt@v TOUS, Ka! 6tI KaVEVa EK TOV U0 Koppatwv Bev UNopE! va Npocdyel KAt! oto G/”flo to ono! va yNV AATEE! Kal to (610. ~ ia to Aéyo GUX6 Bev Lnopei n vedtepn epieMtevOepn OlKoVOpIKA emiothyin va oUAAGBeI tnv naAivépAwon tou EyNopoKpatIKoN ouathpatos ané tov [Friedrich] List, ev to @épa eival yia epds aniovotato. H aouvéneia Kal n Sinpoownia tns @iMeAevGepns olKovopIKAs eniothyns npénet va 61a/luBel avaykacuKa Kal né7l ora Baoiké ouoTaTIKG tns. Onws n GeoAoyia npénel efte va nioBoxwphoe! otny TUpAA niotn Ete va Npoxw- phoe! otnv efleu@_pn @iAoco@ia, éto1 npéne! Kai n eAeuBEpia tou eynopiou va yewhael ané tn pia nfeups thv nafivép8wan twv Hovonafiwy Ka! and tnv GAAn thy dpon tns atopiKAs 16ioKtnalas. H povabikh GetiKh npdobos tnv onoia npowBnoe n gieAesBepn oIKOVO- HIKA eniothpn elvai n avantuEn tov vopwov tns atopIKAs 16IoKtnoias, Auto! BeBaiaos nepiéxovtar 0’ authy, av kal Bev eival aventuypevol Kat pnté 61a- tune@pévol HExp! thy Gotatn auvénelé tous. And e6%) énetai Ou Ge 6a ta onpiefa nou a@popobv tnv anégaan va yivel Kavels nfovalos pe tov GuVtO- pdtepo Buvaré tpono, 6nAaGh Ge dies ts aUoTNpG oIKoVOLIKEs (piAloviKies, 01 unepaoniotés tns efleuBepias tou EuNopiou ExOUV To Bikio HE to Epos TOUS. Enpelwtéov - GE Epi6Es HE tous OnaboUs twv HoveNWiAiwV, Ox! [HE tous avtnéfious tns atopikhs 1610Ktnolas, 616u to Yeyovés nws aUtoi eival GE FRIEDRICH ENGELS | NEPITPAMMA MIAE KPITIKHE THE OIKONOMIKHE ENIETHMHE @éon va ano@asiCouv Kal o1koVvoyiKd opObtEpa StaV NpékeItal ia OIKOVO- piKé Zntfpata to anéeifav npo NoAAOU NpaKtiKé Kal BewpntiKa o1 AyyAo! sooraiiarés. Eqn KpItIKA Tns oIKOVOpIKhs entothns Ga e€etGaoupe Aoindy us Bacikés katnyopies, 6a anoKaAdwoupe tnv avtipaan nou éxei npoe/Bel and to o6- ‘otnpa tns efteuBepias tou eunopiou kal 6a GuvayayoUpE tis UVEnEIES TOV 600 neupav tns avtipaons. H x@paon e@vikés nfowtos npoékuye apxika ané tn pavia yeviKeuons tov QIAeMEUOEPwv OIKOVOPOASYwv. Ooo UNdpxEI N atopiKh }61oKtNoia, aut Nn éxeppacn bev éxe! Kavéva Vonpia. O «eBviKés nAoutos» tov AyyAwv eival NOAU LEYGAos, wotbao Eival oO PtWXdtEPOS fads UNO tov Aflio. Ga npéne! Kavels efte va eykataielyel tefleleos tnv éx@pagn cite va anobexOe! npou- NOBEoEIS 01 ONoles tou aNobiouv KANoIo Vénya. To i610 1oxGel Kal yia US exppdaels eOVIKA OIKOVOPIA, NoATUKA oIKOVOHa, EnYdcIa OIKOVOpia. Yné Us MapouseEs ouveAKes n Eniothyn @a Enpene va OVOLAZEtaL ISIWTIKA OIKO- vopia, 61601 01 6nUSa101 GUGXEtIGHO! ths UNGpxoUV LOVO XApIV tns atopKAs Gioxtnolas. H endpevn ouvéneia tns atopikis 1GioKtnoias eival to eundpio, n avtaAiAayh TwV aporBaiwv avayKav, n ndiinan Ka! n ayopa. To Eyndpio GUTS, 6naws k€8e Gin Bpactnpiétnta, npénel uNd thv KUpIapxia tns atopIKAs 1G1oKtn- Glas va Katacte! [Ia Gon MnyA Nopiopou yia tov anaoxoAouPEVo ato euindpio: Snla6h Ka®évas npénel va eni6idKel va NoUAG dao to Suvatev Tio akpiB4 Kai va ayopdzer 600 to Suvatdv nio POnva. Le KaBe ayopa Kat ndinon avunapatiBevtar Aoinév 640 GvOpwnot pe anoAbtws avutiBEpE- va uppépovta: n auyKpoUON Eival capds ExOpIKh, 61du KaBEvas yrwpiZel Inv npéGean tou afifou, yvwpive! 6u auth eival aviiBetn otn BiKit tou. H Npdtn ouvéneia eivar Aoindy ané tn pia nAeupa apoBaia Suomictia, and tnv dfn n SikaloAdynan auths ins Buaniotias, n xphon avhBiKev HEowy Via thv eniteugn evs avi@iKoU oKoNOU. Etat, Yia napabelypa, o npdtos Baoikés Kavévas oto eundpio eivai n ciwnh, n andKpuyn KGBE npaypatos Nou 6a ynopouse va peice! tv aia tou UNd authtnan npoidvtos. H oUVE- Neila and auté: Exo eyndpio enitpénetal va avtAeital to peyaitepo Buvard SpEfos and thv Gyvoia, ané thy EpNIctoaEvN tou Etaipou, Kal Enions va enaiveital to eundpeupa yia 16i6tntes us onoies UTS Bev Katéxe!. Me pia AéEn, to epndpio eivar n vopiyn anatn. To yeyovés un npaén oupnintel p auth tn Gewpia nope; va pou to anobeige! KAGE Eynopos, epdov GEA! va anoSooe1 otny aflhGea tnv uA tns. To eunopoxpauké avotnpa efxe ak6pn pia Kano1a anpoKata"inntn, KaGo- AikA eu@Utnta Kar Bev anéKpunte 6i6flou inv avhGikn ougia tou eynopiou. EiGape nds eniGeikvue avorxta tv Kolvh @piflapyupia tou. H aporBaia exOpr- kh 6148eon tov eOviv tov 180 aldva, o an6iaouKés P@dvos Kar n epnopiKA avutniia Atav ta ouvenn enaxdilou8a tou eynopiou ev yével. H Kova yve>- 609 610 FRIEDRICH ENGELS | MEPITPAMMA MIAE KPITIKHE THE OIKONOMIKHE ENIETHMHE bn 6ev eixe aK6pn e€avOpeoniotei, ondte Bev xpelaZorav va anoKpUNtovta! Npaypara ta onoia npoéKuntav ané thy i61a thv andv@pann Kal ExOpIKA ouaia tou eynopiou. ‘Otav 6s 0 o1KovopofoyiKds AovOnpos, o Adam Smith, unéBafe ae KpI- UK th HEXPI TOE OIKOVOPIKA entothyn, ta Npaypata efxav aAAGEe! Kate NoAW. O ardvas eixe efavEpenicte’, o Adyos eixe eniBinGel, n nOiKornta eixe apxige! va a€\dvEI to advio Sikaiwpa tns. O1 exBlagpeves epnopiKés ouppevies, of epNopiKo! NéAepOI, n Gypia aNopSvwon wv EOviov Npo- oékpouav évtova athv npoobeupévn auvelnan. Ein an tns KaBoAiKAs evOUtntas ApBE Nn NpotestavuKh UNoKpIoia. O Smith anébelge Su Kal o aV- @pwniopds civa GepEMIwpévos atnv oUGia tou EyNopiou- 6u to ELNdpIO, avti va eivai «n poBepotepn nnyh tns 6x6volas Kal tns exOpdtntas», a npénel va yiver «évas Seoyés tns évwons Kal tns (pias HEraY twv eOveov Onws Kal HEtagY tov atdpwv» (npBA. Wealth of nations, BiBaio 4, KeQ. 3, nap. 2): eivar GAAwote otn PUGN tou NPayPatos Su GUVOAIIKG to ELNdpIO iva enwoefés yia dfous tous petéxovtes. O Smith eixe 6ikio Stav UpVvousE to eyndpio ws av@pdomivo. Aev uNGpxel Unote andfuta avAGiKo otoV K6aHO: enfans Kal to epnépio Exel iia nAeupa nou oéPetat thy niKOtNta Kal thy avepwnid. AAG U ceBaopds! To SiKalo Ins 1xGos, n ani Anoteia otn péan tou 6pdpou Kata to Megaiwva egav- Opaniotnke étav peréBn oto euNdpio, 6nws Kal to EuNdpio eEavEpaniotnKe 6tav petéBn oto npiro enine5s tou, ato eynopoKpauIKd aUaTNHG, to onoio xapaxtnpizetal ané tv anayépeuon tns efaywyhs xphyatos. Tapa éxel e€avOpwmictel kal aut6. BeBaiws, ivar npos to cUpKpépov tou epnopeUspe- Vou va eniéeikviel Kah oupnepipopa Ge Exeivov and tov onofo ayopazel ONVG, Srws Kal GE EKEivOV OtOV oNoio NoUAG aKpIBG. Eival Aomév NOAG ppov via éva €Bv0s va tpEgE! EXBpIKA 61GBEON yia TOUS NpoyNBeutés Kal TOUS nefates tou. O9O NiO MIAIKE t6a0 Mio enwgeniés. Auth cival n avepw- id tou epnopiou, Kal aUtés Eival o UNOKPITIKES tpdNOs va Kataxpatal tnv NOikOtnta yia avABIKOUS oKoNOUs, auth Eival N Nepngavia tou GUATAHATOS Ins efteu@epias tou eynopiou. Aev Katappiyape apaye tn BapBapétnta tov Hovonwiiwv, avapwvowv o1 unoKpités, bev pape tov NoAitopd ae and- hapa pépn ins yns, bev abefonorhaape tous AaoUs Kal HeIdoape tous nofépous; ~ Nat, dia Guta ta Kavare, AAG nds ta Kavate! A@avicate ta HIKPG PovondAia yia va a~phoete to éva [eyAAo BaciKd povondito, nv 1GioKtngia, va Spa ak6pa nio eflesBepn Kal anepidpiotn: eknofiticate ta népara tns yns yia va KepSiaete vées nepioxés date va eKSinAdaete thv no- tanh piapyupia cas: abeAponoinoate tous AaoUs, a”lAd Ge ji1a aBEApOtn- 1a inotiy, Kal perdoate tous nofépous yia va pNopeite va KepBiZete No/L Nepioodtepa GtHY Elphvn, yia va @tAGEte GtnV anoKOpU@waN tnv ExBpd- INta TOV HEHOVEPEVIOV GTOLWV, GTOV aVEVUO NdjeLO Tou avtaywvigHOU! = Mow Kavate ku and KaBaph avépeonid, and tn Guvei6nan tns ynBapivo- ‘ntas ths avtiBEans HEtaEU TOU YEVIKOU Kal TOU GTOPIKU GUppEpovtos; Mou Aoactav néiKol xopis va Elote GUL PEpOVToASYo!, KPIS va TpEpETE avABIKA Ey@IoKG Kivntpa oto napacKnvio; Agot n pifleflesBepn oiKovopIKh emothyn éxave 6,1 KaAUtepo pNopoUGE FRIEDRICH ENGELS | NEPITPAMMA MIAE KPITIKHE THE OIKONOMIKHE ENIETHMHE Via va yevikeugel tnv ex8potnta péga and tn 6idiuan twv evorhteny, yia va Heratpéyel thy avOpwndtnta Ge pia opbA apnaKuKdy Gov -u Gio ivat 1Gxa 01 avtaywviotés;- ta onofa aAnfocnapécovtar enei6n to KaBéva éxe! ta (61a cupgépovta pe ta GAifla, Gotepa and auth tv npoEpyacia ths épeive HOvo axépn éva Bhpia yia to Gt6xo, n SidAuan tns o1Koyévelas. Tia va thv eniBaiter, Bhixe BonGera oe j11a 61Kh ths 6yopgn Enivénan, to EpyootaciaKd aUotnya. To teAeutalo ixvos KoIVaV GULPEPSVTDV, N KOIVETNTA ayABEv tns orkoyévelas, unovopettnke and to epyootagiaKé aUatnya Kal ~ToUAGxictov 6a otnv Ayyilia- teflei Gn und GiGiuan. Npdxetar yia éva KaBnpEpIVS @aIVvéLEVo pIKpG Nai614, and tn ouyLA Nou eival Kava yia epyacia, SnAaéA Stav yivovtar 9 ery, va B1axeipiZovea! ta i610 to 1086 tous, va Bewpowv to NaXpIKO anit ws aNA6 KaTaAULG Kal Va GNoZNpIdVvoUV TOUS Yoveis YE Ka- NOIo NOGS yia thy tPOPh Kar th GtEyAOA tous. Mds pNopei va Eival aAANcs; Ti Ao pnopef va npoKUyel and thy anopdvwcn tov GULPEPOVLEDV, NOU anoteAei to Gepéito tou Guothpatos tns efleuBepias tou eynopiou; And tn ouyph nou pia apxh t@eta! Ge Kivnon, enevepye! abiaAena n i61a péoo and dies us ouvéneiés ths, eite aUt6 apéaei ctoUS OIKOVOHOASYOUS Eite Oxi. AAAG 0 o1kovopoAbyos Bev yvwpigel o (610s ola unéGeon unnpetel. Aev YwapiZer Ou LE flo tov eywiouK6 aUAAoYIOH6 tou anotefel anAds éva ye Alos otnv afluciba ins yeviKhs npodbou tns av@pwndtntas. Aev yvepiter 6U, He tN 6idAUON wv twv Enpépous GULPEPSVIWY Inv onoia NpowEEi, ands avoiye! to 6p6p0 yia tn peyaiin avarponh npos tnv onofa n”na1azer 0 aidvas, tn Guypiai@on ins av8pandtntas He th PUCN Kal HE Tov EAUTS ths. H endpevn katnyopia nou kaBopiZetal ané to eyndpio eivat n afia. I’ authy, nas Kal yia Sfles us Aes Katnyopies, Sev UNdpxel Kapia Siéveén petaEU TOV NAAAIStEPAV Kal TWV VESTEPwV OIKOVOHOASYUY, 616UI O1 ovonaMioTés, He tnv a6iayecoAGBntn yavia tous yia nAOUTIOHS, Bev Eixav EMtebBepo xp6- Vo yla va aoxofinBouv pe Katnyopies. Ofta ta 6iagifovioupeva Znthpata la této1ou €i60us onpeia yewh@nkav and tous vedtepous. 0 oikovopoiéyos, 0 onojos @péperal pe avtiBéaels, 6iaéte! BeBaleos eni- ons ia 6infif afja- thy agnpnyevn A npaypauKh agia Ka! thy avcaaaa- KukA aia. Tia thv ouoia ths npayyauKAs agfas unApxe pia pakpé 6iéveén Hetagd wv AyyMwv [apevés], 01 onofor SpiZav ta Kéatn Napaywynis ws tv éx@paon ts npaypyauiKhs afias, Kal tou [affou Say [apetépou], o onoios unootipie Ou petpoUae auth thy agfa cULgava LE th xpnoipétnta evés Tipaypatos. H Biévekn ekkpeel ané thv apxh auto’ tou atdva, Kar Exe ands Kataatydoe! xcopis va Exel KpIBE!. O1 o1KoVOHOA6Yo! BEV NopouV va anopacicouv tinote. 01 Ayo! -161aitepa o MacCulloch Kat 0 Ricardo- unootnpifouv Aoinév 6t1n a@pnpnyEvn aja evds npaypatos KaBopiZetar and ta Kéatn NapaywyAs tou. Ewoeital n agnpnyévn a€ia, 6xi n avtafifaKuKh a€ia- n exchangeable value, n aia oto eyndpio, auth eivai Kati Go. Tati efvat ta Kotn napa- YaoyAs to pétpo tns akjas; Aiéu ~akowoate, akoucate!-, 616u, und cuvAGels 611 612 FRIEDRICH ENGELS | NEPITPAMMA MIAE KPITIKHE THE OIKONOMIKHE ENIETHMHE ouvBhikes Kal aphvovtas é&w and to naixvi6i tn oxéon tou avtaywviopou, kaveis bev 8a nouilouce éva npdyyia yia Alyétepo an’ 6,11 tou Eixe KOOTIGE! N napaywyh tou - 8a nouAowse; Ti oxéon éxel €6< n «ndAnan», agou Bev Tpékertal yia tv eunopiKh aEia; Exa1, ExoUpE Kal NGAI to EpNdpio oto natxvi- 61, t0 onojo axpiis unoiBexal du Ba aphvape anéfw - Kat Ui epndpio! Eva eunépio oto onofo n KUpia uNdBEon, n avtaywviotiKh oxéon, Bev npénel va Angel undyn! Npdta pia a~pnpnyevn akfa, wpa Kar éva a~pnpnyévo eynd- plo, éva Eunépio xwpis avtaywvioud, 6nAa6h évav GvOpwno xupis adpa, iia oxéyn xeopis eyképaiio yia va napayer oKéyels. Kal Bev oxégretal Aoindv © o1KoVvopOAbyos KaB6AOU Su, aNd th GUY NOU Ga aphael tov avtaye- Vis €€w ané to naixvi6i, Sev uNapxe! Kapia eyyUnan du o napaywyés a NouAoE! to eNdpeupa aKpIBis oto KSOtOs Napaywy*is tou; Ti abyxuan! Napakato! As napaSextoupe yia pia ouryph ou 6Aa éxouv éta1 és Age! © olKovoPoOASYos. As NapabextoULE Ou KGNOIOs éptIAXVE HE tepdotIO Kono Kal He UNEPOYKO K6OTOS KGU Teflelas Gxpnato, KGU 10 onoio Gev eniBupel kavévas Gv@pwnos: rte Ga aki! Ka GUTS to K6GTOS Napaywyfs tou; Ka- @dAlou, Aéel 0 oIKovOOASYos: Nolos Ba BEM! va to ayopdcel; EtaI, ExoU- He HepIds 6x: ySvo tn 6uapNyIOLEVN xpnoIpdtta TOU Say, aAAG -yE hv «ayopé>— napaiiinia tn oxéon tou avtaywviouou. Aev civai uvatdv, o oiKovopoAyos Bev nope! va Eppeivel tv apaipech tou oute éva Aents. ‘Oxi p6vo auté nou Komi@bids Géfle! va anopaKpUvel, o avtaywviopés, aAAG Kal GUt6 oto onofo enitiBetar, n xpnoipomnta, pNAéKovtar KGBE CUYpA ota n661a tou. H apnpnyévn affa Kal o KaBopiopds tns ané to K6atos napaywo- Ys eival aKpiBds aparpéaels, atonies. AAAG as BdooupE Yia [la GUYYA GAN pla PopG Bikio ctov oIKOVOHO- Adyo — nas GéAel tére va pas KaBopice! to KSatOS Napaywyhs xwpIs va AGBer uNdyn tov avtaywviyd; Katé tnv e&Eraon tou KdatoUS Napaywyhs @a Soupe Su Kal auth n Katnyopia Bagifetal tov avtaywviops, Ka! NdAl £60 8a anoberxte! nao Aiyo nopei va ena”inBevoe! tous 1oxupIopous tou 0 o1KovopoAsyos. Zxpepopevol otov Say, Bpfoxoupe tnv (61a apaipeon. H xpnoipstnta Evds Npaypatos eivai Kau KaBaPG UNOKEINEViKG, En’ OUBEVi Kau KaBOPICTKO - capes Sev pnopel va KaBopictel 600 touAaxictov nepipéperal Kavels ev péow avuPécewv. ZUppeva pe auth tn Bewpia, Ga énpene o1 BaoiKés ava- ykes va éxouv nepiaaétepn afia ané ta e(6n noAlutefelas. H povabiKh 6uva- Th 0665 va KataflAger Kaveis GE pia, {pono tiv, AVUKEIHEVIKA, PalvoyEVIKG Yevikh anépaon yia th yeyatepn A piKPStepn xpnoIpStnta evds npdyya- 10s eival, uné thy KupIapxia ths atopikAs 16ioKtnoas, uéoa and th oxéon TOU avtayavioOU, aAAG aUté eival aKpIBds nou npénel va apeBel Kata [é- pos. Ev 6yws anobextovpe tn oxéan TOU avtaywvILOU, tote enavépxeral Kal to K60tOS napaywyhs- 616u Kavels Bev 8a noUAAoE! yia Alyotepo and auté nou Banévnse o (610s athv Napaywyh. Kal e6 Aoindv n pia nAleupd Ins avti8eons etoBaivel GeAd tns otnv afi”in nfeupa. As npoona®hooupe va anocapnvicoupe auth tn avyxuON. H agia evds Npdypatos nepiAayBaver 640 napdyovtes, o1 onofol SiaxwpiCoveal ané ta avti6ika pépn 614 tns Bias Kal, Snws eibape, xwpis enntuxia. H agja eival n FRIEDRICH ENGELS | MEPITPAMMA MIAE KPITIKHE THE OIKONOMIKHE EnIETHMHE ‘oxéon tou KOoTOUS NapaywyAs NpOs tn xpnoiLtnta. H Endpevn epappoyh ins affas éxe! va Kdver pe to av éva npdyya npénei va napaxei ev yével, EnAlabh ev n xpnaipornta avanAnpwvel to KGotos Napaywyhs. Tote 16vo nopei va yiver Aéyos yia thy EpappoyA tns agias atnv aviafayn. Eav te- @oUv ws foa ta Kéotn Napaywyhs 640 Npaypatwy, tore n onpavuKA ouypA @q cival n xpnaétnta, yia va KaBopiotE! n GUyKpIUKA agia TOUS. H Baon auth civai n povabiKh 6ikain Baon tns avtafayns. Eav oyes Eexivioe! Kaveis ané autiv, noios 6a anogacise! yia tn xpnaipornta evs Npayyatos; H anh yvoyn wv petexdvenv; Tote aiyoupa Kdnolos 6a efa- name. H phnws évas Ka®opioy6s Baciopevos otnv eyyevh xpnowpstnta TOU Npaypatos, aveEaprnta and ta Leréxovta épn Kal xwpis va Eival caghs Ge auta; Ev tolautn nepintioel, n avtaayh ynopel va npayyatonoineel Ovo pe efavayKaoyd, Kai KaBévas Ga Gewpel Ou eEanathOnke. Aev pnopel kaveis va dpe! auth tnv avtidecn petagt tns npaypauKhs eyyevous xpnoipd- INtas Tou NpAyHatOs Kal tou KaBOPIOHOU aUTHs ts xpnoiLdtntas, perau TOU KaBOPIOHOU ths xpnoTPStntas Kal tns EAeUBEpias tov aviaAAaosOvIwY, xepis va pel thy atopiki 16ioKtnofa- Kal and tn ouyPA nou éxel apOel auth, Bev pnopel nAéov va vive Aéyos yia avtaayh draws auth uNdpxe! tapa. H npaxuka epappoyn tns évwoias tns affas Ga nepiopiZetat tote dito Kal ne- ploadtepo otn “Ayn andgagns avagopiKé pe thy Napaywyn, Kal Exel Eival n Kadaurd Geaipa tns. Nos dps éxouv ta npaypata wpa; EiSape nds n Evora tns a€jas éxer otabiaKé Kataxeppauotel Kal n KG8E peHOveoEvn nieupd ths autoavaKn- pUagetai ws to Sflov. Ta Kéotn napaywyns, SiactpeBAwpEVG ASN eK TOV Npotépw Adyw tou avtaywvigHod, Gewpeita Su loxdouV ws n agia auth ka8' EqUTIV: to (610 Kal n ands UNoKEIPEVIKA xpnoIpOtNta - 616u Bev yNo- pei va undpxe! nféov Kano1a Gian. - Tia va Bon@hoe! Kaveis autous tous KouAlous opiopous va cta8ouv ata ndbia tous, npénel Ka cus 5UO Nepinted- GEIS va KaVeI EniKiinan Gtov avtaywvioLs: Kal to KaAUtEpO Elva! Su otoUS ‘Ayyfous 0 avtaywviopés anévavu oto KOoTOs napaywyns exnpoownel 1h xpnoipomta, eve avuotpdqws atov Say anévavu otn xpnaipstnta KopiZe! To K6GtS Napaywyhs. AAG u xpnaipotnta, t1 KOoTos Napaywyns Koel! H xpnoipétnta tou eaptatar and tn auykupia, and tn y66a, and tnv 161- otponia tev nAouGiav, To Kdatos NapaywyAs tou auEopeKveral pe THv twxaia oxéon tns Zhtnans kal tns npoapopas. H Biapopé petaEs npayyauKs a€ias Ka! avtaAaKuKAs agias éxe! ws Baon éva yeyovés - 6nAabh du n a€ia evds Npayyatos eival SiagopeuKA ané to AeyopEvo 1064vapO nou Givetar yia GUTS oto EpNdpio, 6nAaBA ou AUt6 to 106 Gvapo GeV Eival 10o6EvapO. AUté to AeySpevo 1o06UvapO Eival 1 Uh TOU NPayLALOS Kal, Ev o o1KovOHOASYos Atav évupOs, 8a xpnaIpo- Nolowge auth tn AéEN yia thy «eyNopiKA agian. Mpénel Oyws va Siatnpei navta éva ixvos enfpacns 6un uph BpioKetal Ge KGnoIoU eiSous cUVapEIA he tv a€ia, ote va nv anoKaAugtel NoAL KaBapa n avnGIKétnta TOU Eunopiou. To ou Oyws n uph KaBopieral and inv aAAnfeni6paan tou Ko- GLOUS Napaywyhs Kal Tou AVtaywvIGHOU, AUTO Eival OpBdrato Kal anotene! KUPIO VOpO ts atopIKhs IGioKtnGias. AUTO Ntav to NP@tO Nou avaKGiuyE 613 614 FRIEDRICH ENGELS | NEPITPAMMA MIAZ KPITIKHE THE OIKONOMIKHE EnIETHMHE 0 O1KOVOPOAGYos, aUTSs o KaBapA ELNEIPIKds VOLOS: Kal aNd E6W a~aipece akofov8us inv npaypauKA agia tou, 6nAla6A thy tip Katé tv nEpiobo 6nou icopponei n oxéon aviaywviouol, étav afinfoKxafintovtal n ZAcn- Gn Kal n npoo@opa — tore BeBalws Eve! Ovo to KGoTOs NapaywyAs, Ka! © oikovopOAéyos to ovopAte! GUTS NpayHaUKA aga, Eved elvar ants ja MpodBiopiouKérnta ths ups. Eto! Syws otéKoUV ta ndvta avénoda otnv OIKOVOWIKA eniothyn: n a€ja, n onoia Eival to NPwWrapXIKd OtoIxXE/o, n nnyh ins uphs, Ka@iotatal e€aptnpévn ané auth, and to (610 to npoiév tns. Os Wats, auth n avtictpogA eival n ouaia tns apalpeons, npdypa yia to onofo pnopei Kavefs va cupBouneusel tov Feuerbach. LOpeva PE tov o1KovopOAdyo, to KOTOS Napaywy*s evds eLNopEpatos anoteAeitar ané tpia ctorxefa: tn ya1onpéce6o yia to anapaitnto Koppau ns nou xpeldetat yia thy napaywyi ths npdtns ins, to KepGilato jE to Kép60s tou, Kal to yIG86 yia tv Epyagia, ta onoia Atav anapaitnta yia Thy napaywyh Kal thy ene€Epyacia. Daiverar Spws apéows du to KEpaAaIo Kal n epyagia eival taut6onpa, Ia Kat o1 oIKOVOHOAGyo! ONoAoyoUV 6u to KEpaaio eivar «owpeupEévn epyaoiar. Mas pévouv Aoinév U0 nAeupés, 1 QUOIKA, N avUKEIPEVIKA, to €6ap0s, Ka! n avOPGNIVN, n UNOKEIHEVIKA, n Epyagia, n onofa nepiapBavel to Kepailaio ~ Kal, EKTES aN6 to KEpAiaI0, eninféov éva tpito, to onoio Bev 1 GKEPLETAI 0 CIKOVOLOASYOS, EvvOw tO NVEULATIKS CtoIXeio ths EMEUpEONS, ins oKEyNs, Binfa cto gudIOACYIKS oxorxeio tns anflas epyagias. Ti oxéan éxel 0 o1KOVOLOASYOS HE to NvEbLa Ins e@eupeons; Aev tou éneoav ota xépia Giles o1 enivohaels xwpis tn BIKA Tou ovpNpagn; Tou KdouCE pia KGU; Fiati Aoinév va vordzetal yr’ autés Kaa Tov UNOAOYIOS tou KSatOUS NapAywy;s; M1’ aULEV to EBapOS, to KEpAAaIO, n epyagia eivai épo! tou nfoutoy, Kal bev xpeldZetar tinotE NEplodtEpO. H emiotiyn 6ev tov apopa KaBéAou. Edv auth tou éxave 6p péoa and tov Berthollet, tov Davy, tov Liebig, tov Watt, tov Cartwright x.An.,? ta onofa 3. O Claude Louis x6uing de Berthollet (1748-1822) frav and vous Siaonporegous Pah- ous xnnnxo%s omY xapLMh TOV 190v audva,, avayvngLaHEvos t6d0 a6 tov Naxtokéovea 600 2a a6 ™ povagyia. Or avaxakinpers tov Bev avvéBahay airs om debeuvon ts eotiing ts znHeiac, ahha Boreav xax epaguoyes oe mooxTind EyTHpaTa, SrmG N Hetc- 096 xan Suahihazy tov vegot ora hota. O Humphry Davy (1778-1829) fjrav xa@nyntiis Xnpisias oxo Royal Institution oto Aovbt- vo. Avaxdhuiye Budboga xnuixé ororyeta, Sams to VéTQW0 KaL TO HéhLO, UATOEE 0 e*peD- gems TOV AaymT}Qa aapahetas (nov IgE to 6vows tov) xax Fea ad TOUS MATOS MOY moodOnoay Thy ayoortAy xnpEia. (© Justus von Liebig (1803-1873) frrav évas ainb tous omHavaxdregous xmpxXOKS TOV 190y audva. Opyavace t0 npdto EmoTMHOVIXS EgyaaTHQLO ynHelas oro TavemothO tov 'xloev ous agyés ms Sexaerias tov 1820, cvvdudtoveas yia nodm Good Eoevver xa dibaoxahia. To égyo tov dev eviogvoe aMhihs mH AHURA EMOTHHM, CAG enépEgE aARayES xa ot0 190 Ms RaQaywyAs, xELWs oTY a-yeOXAKEOYELA. James Watt (1736-1819) Eextrnoe m oradi0bgopia toV we pnZawuxds nar toMoyodos. Ax6 10 1763 apoousOnxe aoxdewtxd om Bektioon jmavady eykaraotécee, xara FRIEDRICH ENGELS | MEPITPAMMA MIAZ KPITIKHE THE OIKONOMIKHE ENIETHMHE aVvGpwoav 1600 GUTV 60 Kal thv Napaywyn tou ateMEiwta - U Tov voId- @1; Aev pnopei va unofloyice! této1a npaypata: o1 npdodo1 tns enlothyns unepBaivouv tous api8yous tou. AAAS yia pia éAloyn Katéotaan, n onoia UNPXel Nv aNd TOV KATALEPIOLS Tav CULPEPSVIMV SnwS aUTSs anavtd IOV o1kOVOHOASYO, TO NVEUPATIK GtOIXE!o avAKE! GAMES TA GtOIXela ths napayays kai @a Bpel enians tn @éon tou and oiKovopofoyiKA énown pe- TaEU tou K6otOUS napayayis. Exel 6¢ civai BeBaiws euxapioto va yvepiZei Kavels nds avtapeiBetai Kal u7iké n @epaneia tns eniothyns, va yvopicer Kavels 6u évas Kal HovadiKés KapNés ths enlothyns, 6naws n atyounxavA tou James Watt, ota npdta nevivta xpdvia tns Unapéhs tns Exe! cuvelapé- PEI GtOV KOGHO neplaadtepa and aut nou EOBevE EEapxhs O KEGHOS yia th @epaneia ts eniothpns. ‘Exoupe Aloindv 640 ctorxeia tns napaywyhs, tn pan Kal tov GvOpwno, autév 6€ tov tefleutafo tov éxoupe kal NGM CwPATKG Kal nveUPaTIKG 6pa- ‘othpio, Kal pNopowUpE NAgov va ENlotpéWOULE OTOV CIKOVOHOAGYO Kal tO KO0TOs napaywyns tou. Ono1oBhnote npayya 6ev pnopel va povonwAnGel Bev Exel Kapia akfa, Aéet © o1koVvopOAéyos ~ [la Npétaon thy onofa Ba efetdcoupe apydtepa. Otav Aépe Ou bev xe! Kapia tph, tote N NPStaoN Eival woth yia thy Katdotaon N onofa Baoizetal ctnv atopikh 1610Ktnoia. EGv to €5apos pnopowoe va ano- Kin@ci t600 EUKoMa 60 0 aépas, t6te KavEvas dv@pwnos bev Ba nAApwve yaionpéc060. Ka®ts Sys auté Gev loxvel, Kar enei6h n éktaon evés €66- ous anapattntou yia pia 161K xphon efvar nepiopiopévn, éa1 NAnpdve- Tai ya1onp6a060s yia to xpnaiponoioUpevo, 6niaGh yia to Hovonw”nyévo é6aq05, fi tou anoGi6etar pia UPA ayopds. Eival Gps noAL nepiepyo Uote- pa ané auth iv ef6non yia tn yéwnan tns a€jas tou e64pous va akOUpE TOV o1KovoHOA6yo va Agel 6u n yaionpdoo6os anoteAel tn Sagopa pEtaky Tou e64poUS NOU anogépE! NPSdOGO Kal Tou XEIPSTEPOU YaIOTEPAXiOU to onofo afigei va KafalepynOel. As yvwotdy, aUtés efval o opIoyés tns YyaI0- N1poc66ou o onoios avantéx8nke yia npdtn Popa NAPs and tov Ricardo. 0 opiopiés autés cival npaKuKé op@és, Stav npounoteBel Su iia Ntdon ins Zrtnons eni6p4 avtootiypel arn yaionpdaobo Kar BEte! apéows exrds KaAAI- Epyeias juia avtiotonxn enipaveia tou xeipotepa KaAlepynévou e64qous. AAG Bev 1oxuel auth n nepintwon, Kal yi’ aUtév to A6yO 0 opiopds eivat avenapkfs: eninAéov, 6ev nepiayBavel thy artioAdynan tns yaionpooéSou kal A6n yr’ autév to Adyo npéne! va anoppipSel. O cuvtaypatapxns TP. Thompson, to péfos tns Evwans evava oto Népo nepi onnpiv, avavé- Ifyovtag oe Aya yoSwia Ge unaverés e*pevosoels TOV éuekhe var avatgéyouv to medio TIS ENKAvUEhS RaQAywyAs, dmg n EnéxtaON TS EVEQYELAS THs atHORNXaVAS oTHY dovEN héoo ad narahinhes mpooagHoyés, to oTeyvOHK UoAOHETINY He TH ZOHION aTHO %.4. (© Edmund Cartwright (1743-1824) Hrav 0 eevgéms tov unfavixod agyaheiod, 20065 xa1 Gov umzavioy ov noxdeoa enavactarinés addayés oro meb(o THs HaboeAg na ayers 615 616 FRIEDRICH ENGELS | NEPITPAMMA MIAE KPITIKHE THE OIKONOMIKHE ENIETHMHE woe Ge avtiGean npos autd tov opioyé exeivov tou Adam Smith Kai tov OcpeAiwoe. Edppwva pe autdv, n yaionpdaosos eivat n oxéon petagU tou aVtaywvicpou twv uNoYNeiv yia th xphon tou Eb4@ous [apevds] Kar ths NeplopiopEvns noaétntas tou 6iaBéaipjou e64agous [apetépou]. E6~ undp- X€l TOUMAXIGTOV Hla Enlotpogh otn yéwnan ths yalonpodd6ou: afd auth n e€Aynon anoxaeiel tn Siapopeukh anoBouKdtnta tou e64pous, énws n Nponyoupevn anoxieie! tov avtaywviopd. ‘Exoupe foindv Kar naat 60 povénieupous Kat yi" autdv to Adyo pIGOUs opiapots yia éva avuKeipievo. Ga npéne! Kal nail, 6nws Kal pe thy Evora ns a€fas, va cuvopicoupe autos tous 640 KaBopiapous via va Bpoupe tov award KaBopIops, o onofos npoKUNte! aNé tnv avantun tou Npaypatos Ka! YW" aUté nepiapBaver tn ouvofixh npaén. H ya1onpéao6os eival n oxéon petagy ins anobouKérntas tou e64pous, tns puaiKis nfeupas (n onoia pe 1n GEIpa tns anoteflefta! and tn PuTIKA KataBoAh Kal thy avOpanivn KaAlAl- épyeia, tnv epyaaia nou xpnoiponoteitar yia Beittion) - kal tns av@panivns niteupas, tou avtaywviopod. 01 oiKOvOHOAOYO! pNopow va apiBAAouV Yi" UTS tov «opiopé»: Ba Siamiot@couv HE TPO 6u nepIAapBavel dia doa apopouv to ev Adyw Bépa. 0 yaroxtipovas 6ev unopei va npooayer tinote otov éynopo. Anotede! Stay povonwAe! to éSapos. Anotever Stay expetaAeverar via Tov EGUt6 Tou tv avENGN tou NAN@UGHOU, n onofa aUgave! tov aviaywvi- U6 Kal Guvends tnv a€ia tou yalotepaxiou tou, KaBIGTHVTaS nyf tou Npo- ownikoU tou ogéfious KGui Nou Sev NPOEpXEta! aNd NpoGwnIKA NPAEn tou, KGU Nou Efval Kau TEflefeas tUxalo yi" aUTdv. AnotEvE! Stav WioBdver, Stav eveéfter Kapnibverat Eava o (610s us Befudoe!s nou éxel Enupépe! O aYpOPI- oBwtis tou. AUTO Eival to LUGTKE TOU 6iapKts auEavopeVvoU NAowtOU TOV peyafev yaroxtnpove. Ta a€iapata obppva pe ta onoia 0 tpénos nopicpou tou yaloKtAyova Siamiotdvetat ws Anoteia, 6nAabA du KaBEvas xe! 6iKaiwpG GLO Npoiév tns epyagias tou f ou Kaveis Gev entpénetal va Gepicel exei nou Sev éoneipe, auté ta a€idpata bev civai n 6iKA pas nenoi@nan. To NPwLo anoKAie! to KaBAKoV Siatpophs tv NaiGubv, to SeUtepo anoxieie! Kae Yevid aNd to Sikaiepa tns UnapEns, KaBds Ka8e yevid uNeIGEpxetal othY KANPOVOLG ths Nponyoupevns yevids. NloAG nepioadtepo, aura ta a€i@para eivar guvéneies Ins atopiKhs 16ioKtnoias. Eite epapydzel Kaveis US GUVENelES Eite tis eyKaTa- eines ws npoxeipeves. Majiota, n i614 n npwrapxiKh i6ionoinon Sikaiofloyeita! and thv nenoi- @non yia to nafaistepa KoIv6 Sikaiwpa yaloKtnoias. Onou Aoméy Ka! va tpApOUpE, N atopIKA BioKtnala pds CBnyel Ge avupécels. To tefleutaio Bhya yia va EenoufnBoupe Atav va EenouAhooupE tn yn, 1 onoja eivat to ev Ka! nav, o npdtos 6pos ts UnapEAs pas: ftav Kal Eivat Héxp! ohpepa pia avn@iKétnta thy onoia Eenepvd pdvo N avneiKétnta ths autoeknoinons. H 6 npwtapxikh i6ionoinan, n povondinan ts yns and évav [iKp6 api8Ls [avepdnwv], o anoKAeiauds tov UNOAoInwv and tov 6p0 tou Biou tous, bev unoAeinetal 6idflou Ge avnGiKétnta aNé to KatonIvé Eenovainya tou e64qous. FRIEDRICH ENGELS | TEPITPAMMA MIAE KPITIKHE THE OIKONOMIKHE ENIETHMHE Eav eykatafleiyoupe €6< thv atopiKh 6ioKtnofa, tote n yalonpsco6os avayetal otny afhdera tns, otnv éfoyn Gnoyn n onoia anoteAel to ouat- bes BcpEANd ths. H aia tou e66qous, n onoia Siaxaspiera and to 610 He Inv ovopaaia ts yalonpoadbou, enavépxetat ato [610 to é6apos. Auth n affa, n onoia petparar péow tns anobouKétntas fowv enipaveldv Ye ion epyacia nou xpnoiponoieitar o' autés, cuvunofoyietai BeBaiws ws tph- Ha Tou Kéatous napaywyns KaTG tov aglaK6 KABOPIOLS tov Npoiéviwy Kal Gnotefel, érus Kain yaionpéco6os, tn oxéon tns napaywyikAs kavérntas TpOs tov avtaywvions, GAG npos tov afinivd avtaywviop6, és 8a tov avanté€oupe Stay ép8e! n wpa. Ei6ape 6u to KepdAaio Kal n epyaoia eival apxiKG tautéonya: Baénoupe Nepartépw and us i6tes tis avantUEeIs tou o1KOvOHOAOYOU nds to KepAAaIO, To anotéfeopa tns epyagias, Karé tn Bia6iKaGia tns napaywyns KaBicta- Tal Kal NGAI UNdoTPILG, UKE ts Epyagias, nds EnAa6h o yia ya cuyLh UOEpEVOS XwpIOLOs tou Kepailaiou aNd tnv Epyagia aipetal Ka! NaAl ctv EvOtNtd TOUS: EVtOUTOIS, 0 o1KOVOHOASYoS Siaxcopie! to KepAflalo and thy Epyacia kar empévei 0’ autov to 6ixaopd, xwpis napafnaa va avayvupicer INV EvOINTG TOUS HE BIaOPEUKS TPdNO Napa [16VO LE tov OpIOLS tou Ke- Qafaiou ws «owpeupevns epyacias». O xwpiapds KE@ailaiou Kal epyacias, © onoios NpoKUNte! and tnv aroiKA 161oKtNGIG, Bev Eival tinote GAio and Tov i610 to 6ixagps ts Epyagias Ev EaUTh, o Onofos avUCTOIXE! oO” GUTH tn 61xaopevn KatGotaan Kal NpoKUNte! ané authv. AMOL Ge éxel EniteMleote! AUTOS 0 XWPIOLGs, to KEPAAaIO Giarpeita! Ek VEOU TO NPwLAPXIK KEpa- Aato kai oto Kép60s, otnv npooauénan tou Kepaftaiou, tnv onoia AapBaver orn Bia6ikagia tns napaywyis, av Kat n i61a n NpagN NpooBEtE! Ka! UTS to K€p60s Eava oto KEpailaio KaBIOTVLAS to KI GUTS peUTS. Maicta, aKoyN Kal to Kép60s Siaipeital GE tKOUS Kal GE KUBAUTS KEpBOS. tous TKOUS N avop8ofoyiKotnta autev twv BiaIpésewy KOPUpEVETAL. H avnBIKEtNTa TOU évtoxou Savelopou, tns anofaBis xwpis epyagia, xapiv tou aniou Saver oV0U, av Kal ASN uNapxe! otnv atopIKA 1610KtNGIG, Eiva! t6G0 NPoMavAs Ka! €xeI Npo NoAAOU avayvwpIote! aNé thy anpoKatéiinntn AdiKA oUveiSnon, N onofa oF autés us nepintdoels Exe! CUVHBWS Sikio. Cfo! auto! o1 Aento! Siaxepiopoi Kai oF 6iaipéceIs NPOKUMTOUV aNd Tov npwrapxIKd xwployd TOU Ke@afafou ané nv epyagia Kal ané thy oAloKApwoN aUTOL TOU XupI- YOU ato Sixagpd tns avepwndtntas ce KepafaioKpates Kal Epydtes, éva S1xaOp6 o onoios Kae Hépa Siayoppdveral pe Ao Kal EvtovotEpO tpsNO kal 0 onofos, énws 8a Soupe, npéne! va evtadel. AUtOs 0 xwployi6s, ons 0 AGN napatnpneels xwpioyds tou ebGpous and to Ke@aflaio Kal thv Epyacia, cival Oyws Ge teAliKh avaatuan a6uvatos. Eivar evteis a6uvato va KaBopI- Gtei to aKpiBés UEpi610 tou E6aQoUs, tou Kepaflaiou Kal ths Epyacias NOU oupBaAife oe éva cuyKeKpiLévo npoidv. Ta tpia peyéOn eivar aovppetpa To é5a0s napéxel thy npdtn WAN, Ox! dyws xepis KepAfalo Kal epyacia, 10 Kepaflaio npotinoBérel E6agos Kal Epyacia, Kal n Epyacia npounoBétel 617 618 FRIEDRICH ENGELS | MEPITPAMMA MIAE KPITIKHE THE OIKONOMIKHE ENIETHMHE toufldxiotov to éBapos, cuviBus 6e Kal KEpAAalo. O1 tponot enitéfleans tov Tpldv eival teMeiws iagopeuKhs UpHs Kal Sev yNopoLW va YEtpNBOL HE Eva tétapto KoIvé pétpo. Otav Aoinév pe Us NapoUGES GUVOAKEs NPOKUNTE! 10 Zitnpa ts Katavophs tou Npoidvtos PEtaEL tov TPIdV oToXEIwv, bev undpxe! Kavéva eyyevés pétpo o' auta, alla anopadiger éva tEMeiws EEvo Kal TUXa!o NpOS aUTG UEtpO: O avtaywvio}iés fi to EKAlentUGLEVO Gikalo tou loxupétepou. H yalonp6a060s UnovoE! tov avtaywviap6, to Kép60s and to Kepalaio KaBopiCetal anoKAEIOTIKG AN6 Tov avtaywVIGHS, Kal Nds ExoUV ta Mpaypara pe tov EpyauiK6 11086 @a to Soupe apéows. Eav anoppiyoupe tv atopiKh iSioKtngia, tte exnintouv Ka! GUtO! oF apuoikor Sixagpoi. Exninter n Siapopa perakU Kev Kat KépGOUS: tO KEpA- ato 6ev eivar tinote xwpis epyacia, xwpis Kivnon. H onpagia tou Képbous avayetar oto Bépos nou Géte! atn Zuyapid Kat tov KaBopIO} tou KéoToUS Napaywyns tou Kepafaiou, napapévovtas étol eyyevés Oto KEpGilato, dNws Kal to KepaAaio enavépxetal otny NPwrapxIKh EvotNtG tou HE thy Epyadia. H epyaoia, to Kupio @éya otnv napaywyn, n «nnyh tou nAoctou», n eAed- @epn avpanivn 6pagtnpiotnta, thy éxeI Goxnya HE tous o1KovoHOAeyous. ‘Onus to Kepafaio éxe! hn xwpiote! and tnv Epyacia, éo1 Siaxwpicerat pa Eava n epyaia yia 6evtepn Popa: to Npoidv tns epyagias tis avuna- pariBetar ws 1086s, civar xwplopEvo and authv Kar KaBopietal Kal GUTS, @s GUvAGws, aNd tov avtaywvioH.s, 4110 Kal, Srws (Saye, Bev UNdpxe! KavE- va ara8ep6 pétpo yia To HEpI6I0 tns Epyacias otnv napaywyn. Eav avaipé- SOULE thy GTOPIKA 16IOKtNGIa, TOLE EKniNtEI Kal GUTES 0 APUCIKOS xwpIOpds, 1 epyacia eivat o 1610s 0 1086s tns, Ka! n afin@lvh onpagia tou nponyoupE- vs eknoinyévou epyatiKol pi080U anoKailUnterar: n onpagia tns epyacias Via tov Ka@opicp6 tou K6otOUS Napaywyhs evds Npdypatos. Ei6aye u evtéel 6a KataAhyouv otov avtaywviops, Epscov uNGpxel n AXOpIKA 161oKtNoIa. Autés eival_n KUpI KatNyopia tou oIKovoHOASyoU, n nio ayannpévn Buyatépa tou, thv onofa SiapKds KaAlopaBaivel Kal xai6evE! ~ kal npogEEte U Syn yESoUGAs Ga NPOKLeE! aNd E6.. H npatn auvéneia tns atoyikhs ioKtnoias Atav o 6iaxwpiopés ts na- paywyhs oe Uo avuuPépeves nfeupés, tn puOIKA Kal thy avOpanivn- cto €6agp0s, to onofo xwpis tn yoviponoinan tou avpdnou eival veKpd Kal cteipo, kat ctnv avépanivn Spactnpidtnta, o npdtos dpos tns onofas eival axpiBas to 60s. Ei6ape enions nds n avpdnivn 6pactnpidtnta SiaAU- etal Kai nda Ge epyagia Ka! KEpAAAIO, Kai nds autés o1 NAeUpEs avuNapa- evtar Naat exOpiKG. Eixape doindv ABN tov aydva wv tidy otoIxeiov petag¥ tous, avti va éxoupe tv apoiBala UnoothpIEN tev tpldv- wpa Npo- atieta1 Kal to 6ti n atopikh StoKtnaia GuvEnipépel tov KaTaKEpyaTIOHO Ka- @evés and auta ta otorxefa. Eva ya1otepaxio avunapatiBerai ato afifo, éva KepaAaio oxo AAfo, pia EpyaoiaKh Suvayn [Arbeitskraft] otnv Gf”in. Me FRIEDRICH ENGELS | TEPITPAMMA MIAE KPITIKHE THE OIKONOMIKHE ENIETHMHE Gia Adyia: Enei6A n atopiKh ioKtndia anopovavel tov KaBEva otn BIKA TOU Wph HovabiKdtNta Kal EneI6h EvtouToIs KaBEVaS EXE! To 1610 GULGEPOV 6nws 0 yeitovés tou, éto1 avunapatietal évas ya1oKthyovas exBpIKa ané- vavt ctov GAifo, évas KepaflaioKpatns anévavu ctov GAifo, évas epyatns anévavu otov GAfo. £’ auth tnv Katéotaon exBpérntas tev iawv CUL@EPS- Viwv, axpiBas Adyw tns 106tntas tous ofloKAInpdvetal n avnOiKdtNta tns Exp! ofyepa Katéotaons ins av8pwndtntas: kal auth n ofloKAhpwon Eival 0 avtaywviopss. H avti®ean tou avraywviopod elvai to povondlo. To povondiio Atay n NoAepIkA 1axh TV ELNopoKPAtev, o avtayavIgds n NoAepIKA 1axh Tov QiMeAEUBepwv oIKOVOLOASYv. Elval EUKOMO va oUpE StI Kal aUTA N avti- @con cival teflelws Kevh. KA8e avtaywvioths npéne! va eUxetal thv KatOXA Tou Hovonwiiou, eite eival Epyatns eite KEPaAaloKpatns eite yaloKthpovas. KAGE pikpotepo avvoAO avtaywviotav npénel va EUXELaI va KATEXE! TO HO- vondftio evavua oe éflous tous difous. O avtayvioyés BaaiZeral ato GUp- EPOV, Kal to GUN@EPOV Yew Kal NAA! To HovondAlO: Ev OAiyoIs, © avtaya- Viop6s LEtaBaivel oto Hovondilo, Ané tnv Gin nAeupG, to povonditio bev Lnopel va uyKpathoe! to pevpA TOU avtaywvIoLOU, Kal ydAiota Yewvd tov {610 tov avtaywvioyd, énws, yia Napaberyya, 1a anayépeuan Eicaywydv A uynfoi Bagpol yewvouv aKpIBas tov avtaywvioys tou Aa@pepnopiou. - H avtigaon tou avtayevicpol eivar aKpIBas n i6ia Snes exeivn tns (610s ths aropikAs 1ioKtnoias. Eval oto cuppépov KGBE HELOVUpEVOU atoyoU va KaTéxel ta Ndvia, aAlAd Eival oto GuLPEpOV tns OAbtNtaS va KatExe! KaBEVaS fon 16ioxtnofa. Etor Aomév to YEVIKG Kal to GtOLIK6 GUWPépOV Eival EK 61a~- Hétpou avtiBeta. H avtipaon tou avtaywviopod eivar: 6u KaBEvas npénel va EUXELAI Vid TOV EGUTS TOU TO HOVONGAIO, eved N OAStNta ws této1a NpEne! va xG9EI aN6 to Wovondilo Ka! Guvends npénel va to anoyaKpuvel. MaAiota, © avtaywvioyés npotnoBéte! ABN to LovonsAtio, ENAaSA to Hovondiio Ans 110Ktnoias -Kal €6< eppavigerar Ka! Ndi N UNOKpIGIA tev giitEMEsBe- Pwv-, Kal 60 UNapxe! To [ovondilo tns 6ioKtnoias Ga Exe! {ao Sikalwpa 1 16ioKtnoia tou povonwiiou- 616u Kal to Gnag 6e6opévo povonaAtio eivat 16ioKtnola. Ti a€ic@phvnto nyiyetpo eival Aoinév va KataKpivel Kavels ta LIKpd Povondiia Kal va enrtpénel to Bacikd jovondilo. Otav Se cupnepl- AGBoupe eH tnv npoavagepBe!ca NPStagN tou o1KOvoPOAGyoU, Su TinotE bev éxe! aia Otav 6ev unopel va povonwiindei, 6u SnAabA tinote nou bev enitpénet auth tn povondnan Bev pnopei va e1céAGE! a auté tov ayaova TOU aVAYWVIGLOU, Téte eival NAApas 6ikaloAoynpévn n nenoiGnoh pas 6u 0 avtaywvioyés npotnoBétel to HovondAio. © vopos tou aviaywviopot eivai 6ui n Ztnon Kal n npoopops oupNAnpd- vovtal 61apKds Kal aKpiBds yi’ autdv to Adyo Sev cULNANpdvovtal noté. 01 60 nAeupés xeopiZovtar kal Ndi Kal petatpénovtal ctny o€btepn avtipa- 619 620 FRIEDRICH ENGELS | NEPITPAMMA MIAE KPITIKHE THE OIKONOMIKHE ENIETHMHE on. H npoo@ops eivar navta niow ané tn Zitnan, afd Gev ta Katagépvel Noté va thy KaAUWEr aKPIBGSs: Eival Eite NOAL pEyG"in efte NOAL yiKpA, Sev avuotorxe! otn ZAtnan, 6161 a’ auth tny aouvelbntn Kataotaan tns avépw- nomtas Kaveis GvOpwnos Sev yvwpivet ndco peyaiin cival auth A exeivn. Eav n Zitnon eival peyaAétepn and tnv npoo@ops, tote augaveral n up, Kal HE Tov Tpéno GUTS peyeBUvEtaI n Npoa~PoPA: aNd tn cUYHA NOU EUpa- vigetat otnv ayopé, néptouv oF upés, Ka! Otav yiveta! peyaAtepn and thv Gian, n maon tov UPGv Elva! too GNAvUKA, BOE HE tov tpéno autS heyeOGverar Kal naif n Gitnon. Etat ouvexiverar SapKws, Sev uNGpxel Nore hia uyihs Katéotan, afd pia SiapKhs evaiayh 6i€yepons Kai xaMGper- ‘ons, n onoja anoKAeiel K48e npdo66, p10 aidvia SiaKUpavan, xwpis noté va Katailye! oto ot6xo. Autév to vopo pe th SiapKh e€lcoppénnah tou, énou aUut6 nou xavetar 26% KepbiZetai Eavé Exel, 0 1KoVOHOASYOS tov BplaKe! unépoxo. Eivai n kupia 66Ea tou, Sev unopei va tov xoptace! Kal tov napa- Inpei und dies us Suvatés Kal aSUvates oxéoeis. EvtoUToIs, eivai npopavés 6Ui aUtés 0 Vopios efval évas KaBapA PuaIKds Vépos Kal GeV Eival évas VopOS TOU NvEGpatos. Eival évas Vos nou yew Inv Enavactaon. O o1Kovopo- Adyos Katap@dvel pe thv wpaia Gewpia TOU nepi ZAtans Kal Npoo@opés, as anoberxvuel 6u «bev pnopel noté va undpeel nleovézouca napaywyi», kal n npdgn anavtd pe us epnopiKés Kpioels, 01 onoies enavaKdyntouv tooo TAKUKG ONwS OF KOLAtES Ka! aNd Us ONoIes ExoUHE THA KATH EGO dpo bia Ke névte pe enté étn. Autés 01 eynopikés Kpioels enavaKdyntouv ca kal oy66vta xpévia téG0 TaKUKG Gnas nafaidtepa oF peydites eniinpies - kal emigépouv nepicodtepn abAlétnta, nepioodtepn avnBiKétNta an’ 6,0 exeives (npBA. Wade, History of the Middle and Working Classes, Aov6ivo 1835, 0. 211). BeBaiws, autés o1 eyinopikés enavactacels eniBeBaldvouv to VOHO, tov emiBeBardvouv nAApws, aid LE tpdno SiapopeuKé an’ 6,u1 a AGEAe © CIKOVOHOASYOS Va Las KGvel va MotéyouE. Ti npénel va okEptel Kaveis yia éva Vopo 0 onoios ynopei va eniBAnBe! Lovo péow neplobiKeV eNavactacewy; Mpéxertar aKpiBs yia Evav PUGIKS vopO o onoios Baci- Zar otny aouveinoia wv eunfeKopevev. Eav 01 napaywyo! ws TEtOI0! YOpifav névo xpelaZovtar 01 Katavaflwtés, opyavuwvay tnv napaywyh Kal Inv KaTéVELOV HETGEL TOUS, TétE OF SIaKUPGvoEIS TOU AvtayWVIGHO KaI_N téan tous npos Kpion Ga Atav a6uvates. Edv napayete He GUvEiéNaN, ws GvOpuno1, Kat 6x1 ws KataKepyatigHEva Gtopa xwpis guveiBnan yévous, 6a eiote népa and Ofes autés us texvntés Ka! aBaaipEs avtBECEIs. Go Spws e€axofoubeite va napayete pe tov napovta aouveiEnto, aotoxacto tpéno, © onoios eivar eykatafefeippévos otnv Kuplapxia tns tHxns, tooo 8a napa- pévouv o1 epnopikés Kpicels: Ka! Kae endyevn Kpion Ga npénel va Eival m0 KaBoMiKh, SnAla6n xeipdtepn and thv nponyoupevn, Ga npénet va eaBAL- Vel peyaAtepo apIeys wIKpdv KepaflaloKpaLHv Kar va NoAAanAaddce! LE augavouca availoyia tov apiOpd tns tans n onoia Zer ans and tv epya- Gia - 6nAash Oa auEdver aicOntd th ydza ths Npos anaoxé/inan epyacias, To KUPIO NPOBANLG tav oIKOVOLOASYw Jas, KAI TEAIKG Ga Eni@épel pia KolveviKh enavactaon énws Sev pnopel va th pavtagtel n oxoAiKh Gopia Twv o1KovopOAdyav. FRIEDRICH ENGELS | NEPITPAMMA MIAE KPITIKHE THE OIKONOMIKHE ENIETHMHE H atdvia Biaxdpavon wv updv, 6nws ouyKpotefta! péoa ané tn oxéon avtayeoviauou, apaipel eveéflet and to eyndpio to tefleutalo ixvos NBIK6tn- tas. Mepi ins afias Bev yivetai nféov Kavévas Aéyos- to i610 auatnya Nou gaiverat va ano6i6e1 600 Bdpos otnv aja, ote tns nepinoiet thy UPA was \Giaitepns UnapEns uNoctacionolmvtas apaipEuKG thv agia oto xphya - UTS To i610 GUOTNYA KataOTPEME! HEOW TOU avLaywvIGHOU KAGE EYYEVA agia Kai aAAaer tnv agiaKh oxéon 6Awv wv npaypatwv KAGE pépa Ka! KG8e pa. Nov anopéver o' auté tov KuKedva n Suvatétnta pas aviaa- ays n onoia Bacierai ce nOiK6 GepéAio; F’ auth tn SiapKA augopEiwon npéner Kaévas va Eni6xo€E! va EnitUxe! thy euvoikétepn ouyh yia ayopa kal n@finan, KaBévas npéne! va yivel KepSooK6nos, 6nAabh va Gepicel Exel nou Bev éxe! oneipel, va nioutice! and tn Znynd GAwv, va unoAoyice! otnv atuxia tov Gfiwv A va aphoel thv wWxn va tov weeihael. O KepSooKdnos unofoyiZer SiapKis pe atuxhpata, 6iaitepa He oMtoGeles, xpnoijonole! ta navia, nas, yia napG6erypa, thv nupKayia tns Néas Yépxns [1776], eve To anoKopUpapa ts avnBiKétMs Eival N xpnyatiotnplaKA KepSooKonia he xpedypaga, [gow tns onoias n iotopia, Kal evtés tns n avépwndinta, unoBiBé%eta! G€ UEdov, yia va iKaVonorhoel tn @piapyupia tou UNoMoy!- ath A tuxobidKxn KepSoaKénou. O Ge Evupos, o «pepéyyuos» éynopos, as nv e€eyeipeta: papioaixd evavua own xpnyauotnpiaKh Kep6ooKonia - Océ hou, a’ euxapiotti k.fin. Eival tooo KaK6s 600 Kal 01 KEPSOGKONO! WV xPEO- Ypapuv, KepSooKonel to (S10 6nws aUtO!, NpENel va to KAVEI, Tov avayKazel © avtaywvigpds npos aut, Kal to EyNdpI6 tou uNo6NAdvel tnv ‘61a avn- @iKétNta Enews to iK6 tous. H aAAGeIa ths aXéans tou avtaywvioHol Elvar 1 oxéon tns KatavafwuKis 6UvayNs npos tnv napaywyiKA Svan. Ze pia katdotaon endgia tns av@pundtntas Sev a undpxel Kavévas dAitos avta- Yoovioyds eKt6s and aurdv. H KoIvomnta Ga npéne! va UNOAoyi~el u pNopel va napdyel pe ta iéoa nou éxel otn S14GeCh ths, Kal GUpeva He thy ava- Aoyia autis ns napaywyikhs BUvapNs npos tn YA%a Tov KatavaAwrov va KaBopie! néao npénet va aughcel A va peKGoe! thv Napaywyh, ndgo npéne! va unoxwphoe! anévavei otnv noflutéfeia f va thy nepiopicel. Tia va pno- péoouv 6p1ws 01 avayvibates j1OU va KpivoUV op84 YI’ aUTA tn oxéon Kal tv avgnon tns napaywyikhs 66vayns n onoia pnopei va npoGBoKatar ané pia Efloyn Katéotaan tns KoIvétNtas, as GuyKpivouV ta KEipEVa tov Ayyiwv cooiafictbv Kal ev pépel enfons tou Fourier. O unokeipevikés avtaywviopds, 0 cuvaywviopds tou Kepaftaiou evavua oto Ke@pailaio, tns epyaaias evavua otnv epyaoia x.Ain. Ga pe1wGel un’ autés us ouvOhikes otnv ayia n onoia eivai @eyeAwpevn ony avepdnivn pon Kal péxpt tpa éxel avantuxdel enapKds Udvo ané tov Fourier, ya ayia n onofa petd thv Gpon twv aviuBéyEveov GULGEPSVIwV Ba NepIOpIOTE! otNV KaGaur6 Kar éAfoyn opaipa ins. 0 aydvas tou Kepaiaiou evavua oto Kepaialo, ins epyacias evavua otnv epyacia, tou e6apous evavuia ato é6apos we! inv napaywyn gE pla nU- petd6n éayn, otnv onoia avactpépovtal dies 01 puciKEs Kal Efifloyes Oxé- 621 622 FRIEDRICH ENGELS | NEPITPAMMA MIAE KPITIKHE THE OKONOMIKHE EnETHMHE ois. Kavéva Kepaflaio Bev pnopel va avtéEe! tov avtaywvion6 tou Gifiou eGv Bev PLAGE GTO avitato eninebo Spactnpltntas. Kavéva yaloteyxio 6ev nope: va Ka‘iAlepynGel eniepbts edv 6ev auEdvel b1apKes thv napa- yayikh 6Uvayh tou. Kavévas epydtns Bev unopel va avtéEe! anévavu otous avtayeviotés tou eGv Bev apiepdoel des us Suvapels tou otnv epyagia. Ev yével Onol0s avaxateveta! otov ayva tou avtaywviyoU Sev unopel va tov avtéfer xeopis tv unéptatn évtacn tov SUvapEdv tou, xwpis thy EyKa- TéAayn SAwv tov aAneiva avOpenivev oKondv. Auth n UNgptatn évta- on €xe! wot6oo ws avaykafa ouvéneia thy atovia, Otav n 6iaKGpavon tou avtay@viovod evar pIKpA, Stav n ZAtnon Kal n NpodpopG, n KaTavé"won Kal n napaywyn eivar oxeB6v foes, tote npénel va enéAGe! otnv avantuen Ins napaywyfis éva enine6o oto onoio va eival 6e6opevn toon unepapieyn napaywyikh 6Uvapn, ote n weydfin yAZa tou €Bvous va pnv éxel tinote yia va ZhvE!- ote 01 GvOpeno! va AipoKtovouv ané tv nAn@Gpa ayaBav. E” auth thv napagpova Géon, of auth tn Zovtavh avonoia Bpioxetai n Ayala £60) Ka! OPKES KaIps. EGv n napaywyh napouardte! evtovorepes BiaKU- Hdvoeis, Snws npénel va to Kavel ws OUvEnela [las tetOlas KaTaOTUGNs, tore enépxetat n evafifayh dvénons kat Kpfons, unepnapaywyfs kal avaoxeons. 0 oikovopoiéyos Bev Karégepe noté va efnyfoel auth tnv wen Béan- via va tnv e€nyhoel, enivénge thy nAn@uaplaKh Bewpia, n onofa eival e€icou avéntn A nepiaétepo avéntn an’ 6,1 aut n avtipaon Heras nowtou Kat év6e1as tnv (61a nepio60. O o1kovopoAéyos Bev énpene va 61 tnv aAhGeia- 6ev Enpene va 6e! 6u auth n avtipacn eivat éva anAé enaKéAouso tou avta- YwvigHOU, 616u a”Al&s dio to avoTNUG tou Ba avarpendtav. Tia eyds n Katéotaon efnyefta: e6KoAa. H napaywyikh 6UvapN nou eval tn 6168e0n tns avepwndrntas efvai Gneipn. H anoBouKétnta tou E64qous unopef va auéndei en’ Gneipov yéow tns xphons Kepaiaiou, epyacias Ka! eniothpns. H «unepnfnas» Meydiin Bpetavia ynopei, cbugava pe tov unofoyioys tou SeIvétepou o1KOVoHOASyoU Kal otatIoTKOASyoU (npBA. Alison, Principle of population, top. 1, Kep. 1 kat 2), va €A@e1 o¢ 6éka xpévia € rét01a KatéotGON Snou Ga pNopE! va Napaye! apKErO onGp! yia N”NBU- U6 e€anAdaIo ané tov UpIOTEpEVO. To KepaAaio aUEAvetal KaBnyEpIVa: n epyaciakh Sévayn aufdverar pe tov nAn@uops, kai n entothyn unovdaoel kG8¢ Uépa Gio Kal nepicadtepo tn BuvayN tns ~PUons otov dv8p~no. AutA 1 apétpntn napaywyikh iKaVvoINtG, E4v UNéKEIto Ge EvouvEléntn 6iaxelpI- Gn Npos to GuL@EpoV Siwy, Ba LElwve GUVTOLA thy Epyadia nou Npéne! va enitefe! n avepanérnta oe éva efGxioto Nocoat6: Stav enagietal ctov avtaywvioy6, enituyxavel to (610, aAAG evtés tou NAlaisiou wv avubécewv. ‘Eva thpa ths xopas KaAAlepyeitar ye tov KaALTEpO tpéNo, eve Eva GAO -otn Meyé"in Bpetavia Kal thy Ipav6ia 30 exatoppupia extapia KaAou e64—0US- Keltai xépoo. Eva tihyia tou KepaAaioU KUKAo@opE! UE TpOLE- pf taxdtnta, éva Gio Keftal veKpd otO GevtoUKi. Eva THAYG tov epyatev epyazetal 14, 16 apes inv nyépa, ev éva GAO otéKel OKVO Kal Gnpayo Kal @ipoxtovel. ‘H [6yws] n Katavoph Eenepva auth tn auyxpovia: EAyepa née! KaAG to eundpio, n Ztnon eival onpavuKh, tore Epyazovtar éfo1, to Kepdflaio nepiotpépeta pe BaUpaoTA taxctnta, n aypoKaAilépyeia avOei, FRIEDRICH ENGELS | NEPITPAMMA MIAE KPITIKHE THE OIKONOMIKHE ENIETHMHE 01 epyates epydZovral yéxpis onpelou appdatias - avpio npoKEntel ta ava- oxean, n aypoKaAAlépyeia Gev a€iZel tov KENo, OASKANpES ExtdaEIs EBAQOUS Napapévouv aKaAépyntes, to KepAAalo Nayavel KaTAPETAs otn POA TOU, 01 epyates Bev ExoUV Kapia anaox6Anon, Kal n xd@pa oto auVOAS ins UNO- €pel and nAeovazovta nfouto Kal ané nfeovaZovta nAnBuoLS. Auth tnv e€€fign tou npdypatos o o1kovopoAéyos Bev enitpénetal va thv avayvapiel ws opOA- aflaids, Snws cinape, 8a Enpene va eyKatafelye to uvoAIK6 avoTNYA TOU avtaywvioHou Nou UNoatnpier- Ba npene va avu- AnopOei thv Kevomnta ths avtiBeons Yetags Napaywyfs Ka! KatavéAwons, HEtaEU nAeovaZovtos nAn@uopoU Kai Neovazovtos NAowtou. AAAG, Ep6- Gov to 6eb0pEvo Sev UNopovTE va aypIoBntNeEl, Kar yia va evappoViote! enions auté to 6e6opévo je th Bewpla, enivohOnxe n nAN@uopIaKh Bewpia. © Malthus, 0 npwtaitios autod tou 66yyatos, unooinpiZel du o n”neU- Us niger 6lapKGs ta yéoa SiaBiwons ote, 6o0 auEavetai n Napaywyn, augGvetat ctnv (61a avaioyia kat o N”ANGUOLSs Kal tin eyyeviis ctov n”InBu- ‘ou6 téon va auEdvetar népa ané ta 61aéaipa pé0a 6iaBiwons anotefel thv artfa KaGe abAl6tNtas Kal K€ SeIvOU. Albu, Stav UNépxouV Ndpa noAfol 4vOpeono}, tére npénel va Byouv and tn Ean pe tov Evav f tov dAlo tpén0, cite va oKotwOoUv Biala Eite va AlpoKtovigouv. Oav 6pws cupBel Utd, undpxei Eava éva Kev6 to onofo n”npottal ayéows ané aiflous nofanfia- oraotés tou niin@uopou kai Eto! apxiver naAl n nad aBAlétnta. MéAicta, AUTO 1oXUE! GE Ges Us KataTTOGEIS, Ox! Udvo oUIS NoAitIgLEvEs GAAS Kal xn QuaIKA Katéotaon- 01 Gypio! ths Néas Ofavéias [Auatpaiias], énou ava- crorxel évas ava tetpayevie pif, unlo@épouv e€icou ané unepniAn@uopo 600 kai n Ayyftia. Ev ofliyors, e4v Béfoupe va eijacte ouveneis, a énpene va opofoyhoupe éu n yn ftav fién unepnitipns étav untipxe évas j16vo dvOpwnos. O1 ouvéneies auths ths avantuEns tou enmxeiphyatos eival ou, EQSOOV 01 PLXO! Eival o1 UNEPAPIOLOI, Sev xpEIaCeta Kavels va Kéve! TiNOTE Yt aUTOUs Napa va Kataoticel tn AipoKtovia 60 to Suvatév no EUKOAN, Va TOUS neice! 6u aUté to Npayya Bev ynopel va GAAGEEI Kal 6u yia th oUVO- Akh t6En tous Bev UNdpxe! Kapia owtnpia Napa Udvo Ia 600 to 6uvatev Tio nepiopioyévn avanapaywyh, Ki Stav 6ev ynopel va yivel aUt6, tore eivat KaAUtepo va CepeMiwOel éva KpatKé (pupa yia thy avé6uvN Bavatwon Twv Nai6iGv tev aNépav, énws to Npételve 0 «MapKos»* - [éva avatN- Ha] Gypova pe to onoio ce K4be EpyaUIKA oIKoyévela Ba avtICTOIKOUOAV SuSpio naiBiG- 6,11 6yws nAeovazer Oa npénel va Cavardverai avedbuva. H eflenpoouvn @a fav éva éyKiinya, Ka8~s Unootnpiel thv avEnon tou unepapi8pou nAinBuopou- Ga Atay Sua i6ialtepa enwgenés va Katactouv n év6e1a éyK/inya Kal o1 ofko! andépwv cwppoviouKé 1pupara, énws Exe! yivel A6n otnv Ayyalia uéoa ané tov véo «@pifeMtebBepo» NOLO nepi anépav [1834]. Eivar BéBaia aAndés Ou auth n Bewpia Bev taIpld%et Ka! NAW pe th 616aoKaAia tns BiBAou nepi tns teAle\otntas tou GeoU Kal tns Enyloupyias 4, O Engels avadpégetar ed oe gukhdbia nov xvxhopéonoay omy Ayyhia. ova tékn mS Sexaeriac tov 1830, ta. onota ftav vROYEyOaHEVa HE TO GvowA Marcus xeu vmocThotbay ‘TH MahBovaravy Bewola tov mAnBvopor. 623 624 FRIEDRICH ENGELS | NEPIPAMMA MIAE KPITIKHE THE OIKONOMIKHE ENIETHMHE Tou, afd «npéxertar yia a6éE1a avtippnon étav Kavels enikafteitar tn BiBAO evavua o€ 6e60péva»! Npéne: Gpaye va avantiEw nepiodstepo aUt6 to Guo, notané 6éyya, auth tnv anotpénara Baas@npia evaveia otn @uaN Kal Gtov évepuno, npé- Nel va avantEw ét1 nepartépw ous duvéneiés tns; E6d gréoape enitéous thy anoKopUpwon tns avnBiKdtNtas tou ciKovoHOASYOU. TI Efval 6é”oI oF NOAELO! Kal OF PPIKWBIEs TOU PoOVONwAIAaKOU GUCTAHATOS GE GUyKpION H auth tn Gewpia; I6iaitepa 6e auth Eival o aKpoywviaios AiBos tou piae- AeUGepou ouatatos tns efeUBEpias TOU ELNopiou, n NtGon tou onoiou upNapaguper Kai OASKANPO to oIKOBSyNG. Aidu, Eav anobemtel €60 0 avtayevioués «ws n artia tns a@Aidtntas, tns évBelas, tou eyKAApatos, no1os @a toflphael va tov unepaonivetal aKépn; © Alison xatéppiye tn HaACoucIavh Gewpia oto npoavapepbEv Epyo Tou, enikaMoupevos thy napaywyikh 6Uvapn ts yns Kal avunapaGétovtas ain aABousiavA apxh to yeyovés Su KAGE Evifikos Gv@p~nos pnopel va napaye! nepicodtepo an’ 6,11 0 (610s Katavareve, éva yeyoves xwpis To onoio n avOpwndtnta 6ev 8a pNopouoe va noAAanAaciactel Ka! OUtE Kav va undpEer- 61611 ané u Oa énpene va Zouv o1 aviiikor; AAAG o Alison Sev eyBabdvel Kar ouvends KataMhyel evtéAer ato i610 anovéAeopa Snes 0 Malthus. Ano6erviel ev 6u n apxh tou Malthus eivat eopafpévn, afd 6ev pnopel va apvndei ta yeyovéta nou tov @Enoav a! auth tnv apxA. E4v 0 Malthus 6ev eixe avupetonicei thy und8ean t6a0 povonieupa, tore Ga énpene va éxe! e1 6u 0 UNEpApIOYos NAN@UOLés A n EpyaoIaKA 6uva- un ouvééetal névia Ye UnEpApIeyo NAowTO, HE UNEpspIBHO KepAAaIO Kal He unepapiOyn yaioxtnofa. O n/n@uopds evar uNEPBOAIKG LEyGios L6vo exe/ Oniou eival ev yével peyafin n napaywyikA Suvapn. H KatGataan KAGE unepnindous xapas, i6iaitepa tns Ayyitias, and thy nepiobo nou éypage © Malthus, to befxver aut capéotata. Auté ftav ta yeyovéra nou énpene va pefetiae! otny oflétnté tous o Malthus, Kai n fétaon tev onofwv 8a Enpene va tov obnyfcel ato opO6 anotéAeaya- avti yi’ aut6, enéflefe éva yeyovés, napéBAeye to Gio kai Katéfinge Eto! oto napafoyo oupnépacys tou. To 6eUtEpo G—AALG nou Gienpage Atav Ou Bev ouvéAaBe tn 61aKpIon pera péowv SiaBiwons Kai anaoxdfnans. To 6u o nfnOuapds miéZer nd- Via ta Lega anaoxéAnans, to 6u ynopodv va anaoxofowvtal 6001 avepw- No! 60! ;Nopowv kal va YevvIOUVtal, EV Ofifyols to Sun yéwnon ths epya- alakis 6Uvans puBpIZotav Exp! TGpa aN6 to VOLO Tou avtay~wvIaHOU Kal GuVENGs tay exteBeIpévn GUS NEpIObIKés KpioEIS Kal SlaKUPAVGEIS, GUTS eivai éva yeyovés n ianiowwon tou onoiou anoteiiel to endéio Epyo tou Malthus. Aaé ta yéoa tns anaoxéAnons 6ev eivat ta yéoa tns 6iaBiwons. Ta yéoa tns anaoxéfnons augavovtal ws npos to te/lIK6 anotéeops tous h6vo péoa ané tov nofanfaciaop6 ins unxaviKis 6UvapNs Kar tou KE@a- Aaiou: ta péca tns 61aBiwons noAAanAaciazovtal ané tn cuyph nou au- EGvetar KatG Un NapaywyiKA 6UvayN ev yével. E6d EpXETa! cto Mus pla véq avtipaan tns oikovopikhs entothns. H ZAtnan tou oiKkovoyoAéyou Bev eivai n npaypaukh ZAtnon, n KatavéAwoh tou eival pia texvnth Katavarw- an. Tia tov o1koVOLOASYO [L6vo Exeivos Eival NpayHaUKés Popéas Zhtnons, FRIEDRICH ENGELS | NEPITPAMMA MIAE KPITIKHE THE OIKONOMIKHE ENIETHMHE NpaypyauKds Katavarwrhs, o onoios éxe va npoogépel Eva 1G05UvaHO YI" aut6 nou AapBavel. Otav dpus eival 6e6opEvo oti K4Be evnaikas napaye! Nepigadtepo and aut6 Nou pNopel va KatavaAdeer, 6ui ta NaI6id ivan dros ta 6évtpa, ta onoia eniotpépouv nouiondpoxa us Sandves nou éxouv anoppophoe! -Kai auté eival ovtes SeBopeva, h phnws Oxt;-, tore Ba Enpe- ne va unootnpi€e! Kavels Gu KaGe epydtns Oa énpene va pnopel va napayer Nepioostepa ané aura nou xpElaZetar, Kal n KoIvétnta Oa énpene ouvends va Géfler euxapiowws va tov npoynevoe! pe dia doa xpeld~etar- tore Oa énpene va motevel Kaveis 6u pia peyaiin o1koyévela Ga énpene va anotene! Eva noOnt6 6dpo yia thy Kolvérnta. AAAG o o1KovoPOA6yos othV wpStNta 1s enlonteias tou bev ywwpicer Kavéva AAlflo 1coSUVapO and eKeivo NOU tou KataBaaAetal Ge ant6 petpntd xphya. Eivar tooo KanAwpEvos otis avuBE- GEIS TOU, GOTE Ta MO tpavtaxta 6eBopéva tov aPopowv t6a0 Aliyo 6G0 Ka! 01 NAéov emotnpovixés apxés. Axupdvoupe nod ania thv avtipaon aipovtds tn. Me tn ouvtngn tov HEXPI Tpa avuTIBELEvoV GUNPEPOVIwN EEAMavigeral_N avtiBeon pETagY unepnAn@uopou 6c Kai unepnAoutou exei, efapavizerar to akionepiepyo Se6opEvo, mio aionepiepyo and dia ta Batata dAwv paz tov Opnoxetdv, 6u1 Eva €8vos npénet va AipoKtoviicel Ayes paTaIdGoEou nAowtou Kat nAn- @dpas npoidviav: efapavizerai n napagpwv nenoiBnon 6u n yn Gev é&xel tn Buvapn va Opéyer tous avOpdnous. Auth n nenoi@non eiva! n aveoratn KOpUG/ TNS XPIGUAVIKAs OIKOVOLIKNs ENIOTHYNS - Kal to OU N OIKOVOUIKN ent- OtALN jas Eiva! oUGIDBds xpioTaviKh Ba ;NopowCG va to aNobeiEw LE KAGE Nipétaan, ye K48e KatnyOpIG, Kal Ba To Kav Stav épBei n cpa: n paABou- olavh Bewpla eivar ands n o1KovoIKA éxppaon yia to BpnoKeUUK 66yHa epi tns avtipaons [EtakY TOU NVEGPATOS Kal ths MUONS Kal ths ané GUTS ouvenayépevns 6iap@opas Kal wv 640. Th undapivointa auvis ts avtipa- ons, n onoia 6cov apopa tn Bpnokela Exe! npo NoAAOL SiafuBe! Wad tns, efini@w va tnv éxw anodeigel enions Kat oto OIKOVOpIKs nebio: GAwote Bev NpOxertar va 6x8 ws enapKh Kapia UNEpGonian tns yaABouaiavhs BEwpi- as n onoia 6ev Hou éxel eEnyhoel ex wv npotépwy pe Baan tnv 61a thv apxi ns nds évas fads pnopet va AipoKtovhge! anAds Kal p6vo Adyw nAnedpas Npoidvtwy, Kal va to evappovice! aUt6 LE to Adyo Kal HE ta 6e6opéva. H pafouciavh Gewpia Atay wordao Eva evteds anapaitnto onpeio pe tABaons, to onoio pas BohEnoe va nape NOAL paKpI4. Méca and autiy, Kal ev Yével Hé0a an6 thy oIKoVoPIKA Enlothyn, GtPa~pNKE Nn Npodoxh Has othv NapayeyiKkh SUvapn ths yns kal ths av8pwnétntas, Kal peta thv unépBacn auths ts o1kovopofoyikhs anefinigias éxoupe 6iaopamiotel Banaveds and 10 P6Bo tou UNEpNANGuoPOU. AvtAOUPE aN6 auth tn Bewpia ta 1oxUpote- fa olKovopoAoyikd entxeiphyata yia pla KoIVavIKA avadiaypwon: 61du, aK6pn kai av o Malthus eixe evtefds 6ikio, @a énpene kal nai va Eexivhoe! ayéows auth n avabiapéppwon, 616u pOvo auth, HOvo n péow autis S1a- Se6opEvn ySpqwon Twv [AGov KaBI0rG SuVvats ExEIvo tov NOIKO nepIopI- OVO tns opps tns avanapaywyis tov onoio 0 1610s 0 Malthus napouciacet Ws to SpacuKétepo Kal EUKOASTEPO avtiBOtO GtoV UNEpNAN@UGLS. Méca ané auth tn Gewpia ywpicape tov BabUtato UNoBiBacpS tns avepundtn- 625 626 FRIEDRICH ENGELS | NEPITPAMMA MIAE KPITIKHE THE OIKONOMIKHE ENIZTHMHE as, inv e€aptnoh tns and tn oxéon tou avtaywviopou yas éBeiGe nds, oe TefliKA avaAUON, n atopKh 16\oKtnGia éxave tov GvOpwno Eva EuNdpeup, N Napaywyh Kal o apavioyiés tou onoiou efaptdveal Hovo an6 th Zitnan- Ns LE AUTO TOV TpENO to GUaTHUA Tou avtaywvicLOU éxel KaTaOPAEE! KAI Kataopazel KaBnpEpIva ExatoppUpIa avOpdnous: da auté ta EibapE, Kat 6fa auté pas wBowv otnv dpon tou UNoPIBaapoU tns avOpwnérntas 61a- HEOOU ths pans ins atopiKhs ISioKtnoias, tou avtay@viopoU Kal Kov avtl- uOELEvav oUEpdvtv. Tia va AGBoupE Syws ws Baan tov yeviK6 PéBo nepi UNepninBuapON, as eniotpéyoupe GAAn pla Popa otn oxéon ins napaywyiKhs 6UvapNs npos Tov niin@uops. O Malthus 61atundver évav UNoAoyions oxov onofo Bagi! To GUVOAIIK6 GUTH Tou. O ni”nBUOLds aUEdveral YE YEwpETpIKA npdo- 60: 1424448 +16 + 32 K.An., n napaywyiKh 6Uvapn tou EbGqouS HE api®unuKh npéo6o: 1 +2+3 +445 +6. H biapopa eivai npogavis, i- val tpopaKuKi: aAAd iva! dpaye opOh; And now npoKUntel n andéeln ou N anoSouKétnta tou e6aqous auEAvetal pe apIByNuKA NpSobo; H éxtaon Tou e64goUS Eival Neplopiopévn, Kailds. H epyaciaKh SUvayn nou xpnor- Honoteital oe auth Inv enipavela auEdverat HE tov n”NGuoYO- aK6yN Ka! av Sextoupe 6 n avEnan tns and6oons péow tns avENons tns epyacias bev ‘augaverar navta Kat’ avaftoyia npos tnv epyacia, t6te Evel Eva tpito ator X€i0, 10 onofo BeBaiws Sev 1oxUe! NOtE yia Tov CIKOVOLOASYO, n EnlothuN, kal n 61Kh tns 1p6060s eivat téc0 GneIpn Kal toUAaxiatov 1600 yopyh 600 Kal exeivn tou NANGuapOU. No1a npo6o GeV ogeife! n aypoKaAAlépyeIa auto tou atdva otn xnpeia Ka! Ydvo, Kal HGiiota anoKAeicUKG Ge 540 Gv6pes - tov Zep Humphrey Davy kat tov Justus Liebig; H eniothyn opus augavetar touRaxiotov énws o nfin6uopds: autds augdvetat Ge oxéon npos Tov apiOy6 ns teleutaias yevids: n eniothyn npoobeve! Ge oxéon npos tn HaZa tns yveons n onofa tns K”inpoBothOnke and tnv nponyoupevn yevid, 4pa, und us nov ouvnBiopéves ouvOAKEs, enions Ye YEWHETPIKA P6oBO - Kal U ivai a6Uvato via thy eniothyin; Eival oyas yeflofo va wiAape via unep- NAN@UGLS 6o0 «n KoIAGSa TOU Miaiainh xe! apKErd xépoo Ebapos wate va bnopei va @iflofeviael tov uvoAliKé NAN@uGpS tns Eupdnns» (Alison, The Principles of Population, top. 1, 0. 548, Aov6ivo 1840), 600 ev yével to éva Ypito tns yns pnopei va Bewpeital Ka‘iMlepynpévo Kal n napaywyh autod Tou evds tpitou Nopei va auEnGe! Ei Kal Nepiaadtepes Popes and tn xphan Beftudcewv o1 onoies eivai Abn yvwotés. 0 avtaywviopiés Béte! Aoindv KepaAaio evavua cE KEpAAalo, epyacia eva- ua otny epyagia, yaloxtnofa evavua otn yaroxtnoia, kal enions KaBéva e& aUtev tov atorxeiav evavud ota GAfa 60. Etov aydva viKd 0 1oxupotepos kat @a npénel, yia va unopécoupe va npoBAeyoupe to anotéfegya autou Tou ayava, va epeuvnooupe tn 6Uvayn twv aywvidopévev. Ev npdrors, n yaloxtnoia Kal to KEpdAaio Elva! to KaBEva tous loxUpStepa aNd Inv Ep- yaoia, 616u 0 epyatns npénel va epyactel via va Zhoel, eve 0 YaloKthLovas FRIEDRICH ENGELS | NEPIPAMMA MIAE KPITIKHE THE OIKONOMIKHE ENIETHMHE unopei va Ze1 and us npoadSous tou Kal o KEpaflaioKpatns and tous toKoUS Tou, GE nepintwon Ge avayKns and to KEpaiaI6 tou A aNd tnv KEpaiaio- Noinpévn yaoxtngia. To enaK6Aou8o eivai ou ctnv epyacia napéxeral ovo Yo anoAttws avayKaio, ta anf yésa eniBiwons, eve to HeyaALTEPO hyo Twv Npoidviw KatavépEtal HEtaEL KEpaAaiou Kal ya!oKtnoias. Eniniéov, o loxupdtepos epydtns anwOei and tnv ayopd tov nio abUvapo, to peyaA- Tepo KEpAAaIO to [IKPStEpO, n HeyaAUtEpN yaloKtnaia tn pIKA. H npaEN eniBeBatdver aut6 to cupnépagya. Eval yvword ta neovexthpata nou éxe! © [EYGilos epyootaa\dpxns Kal Eynopos anévavu Gtov pIKPStEpO, o HEyaAL- TEpos YaIOKtHOvas aNévaVvU GtOV KGtOXO Evds KAI HOVABIKOU oTpELPATOS. H ouvéneia eivai 6u Aén und ouvaGels cuveAKEs to YeEyGio KEpafaio Kal Nn heyain yaioxtnoia KataBpox8iZouv to pIkpS KepGflaio Kal tn pIKPA yatoKtn- Gia CbppwvG HE to Bikalo tou 1oxupotépoU - NPSKEItar YIa tn GUYKEVTpO- Noinan ts vos. H ouyKevtponoinon auth Baiver taxvtepa oe EynopiKés kal aypouxés Kpigels. - H peyaiin voph augaveral ev yével Noy mio yopya ané tn yikph, 616u ané thv npdoobo agaipeitai éva NoAG piKPStEpO TAA yi us 6andves tns vopis. Auth n cuykevtponoinan tns vous ival évas VOHOS EYYEVAS othY GTOLIKA I610KtnoIa, 6nws dior o1 Aor: o1 pEoGies LAEEIS npénel va eEapaviZovta 6Ao Kal nepiacdtepo, Ews StOU 0 KGOLOS XwpICTE! GE EKTOLUPIOUXOUS Kal aNépous, aE LEYGiloUS YaIOKtHYOveS Kal GE EvbE- els wepoKapauaphées. OAo1 01 Vépor, Glos o KatapEpIOpés tns yaloKtnofas, Oflos 0 evbexdpievos KataKEpHatIOLds tou Kepaflaiou bev BonGa oe tinote - To anotéfeopa auté npénel va épGe1 Kai Oa épGe1, edv Sev to Npogtéoe! pia ofoKANPwUKA avablaLSppwaN TV KoIVeviIKdY OXEsEWY, JIG GUVINEN Tov AVUTIBELEVeV GULPEPSVIDY, [Ia Gpan Ins atoPIKAs 16IOKtNGIas. 0 efleBepos avtaywvioy6s, to KUpIO GUVENLA tov ONEpIViov o1KOVOHO- Aéyav, eivar Kdu to a6Uvato. To HovondMto Eixe touaxiotov tnv npéBECN, av Kal Sev pnopouse va thy NpayyatonoInoE!, va NpootateLioe! tov Kata- Vafwth ané tv anétn. H Katépynon tou povonwiiou avoiyer 6yws otnv natn éfes us ndptes. Aéte oui 0 avtaywviopds epneptéxet to avtiboto evd- vua otnv andtn, kaveis Sev 6a ayopdce! oxapta npdypata ~6nila6h KaBévas npénel va cival ei6hywv yia KaBE NpOISv, Ka! GUTS Eivar aBUvatO-, aNd ec kal n avaykalétnta tou Hovonwiiou, n onoia paivetal ce noid ei6n. Ta pappaKeia, yia napaberypa, npéner va éxouv éva povondio. Kat to onya- VuKétepo e/60s, to xphyia, xpEldetar nepicadtepo and éfta to povondiio. To péoo KuKAogopias, ané tn ouyph nou navel va iva KpauIK6 HovoNdAIo, NpoKaAel eunopixh Kpfan, Kat ot AYYAO! oKovoHOASYO!, WETGEL GAAwv Ka! © 6p Wade, napabéxovtar e6< tnv avaykalétnta tou povonwiiou. AAG to povonditio Bev npootatevie! and to napaxapayyEvo xphya. As ctade; Kavels G€ 6noia nieupa tou Znthpatos Béfe!, n pia Elva! t600 6UoKoAN 600 Kal N GAifin, to hovonditio yew4 tov eAeUBEpO avtay~oviays Kat aUTds Fava to Ho- VonéAtio: yi" aut6 npénel va Katanédouy Kal ta 640, Kal autés o1 6uoKoAies npénei va apGouv péow tns dpans ts apxhs nou us yewvd. 627 628 FRIEDRICH ENGELS | NEPICPAMMA MIAE KPITIKHE THE OIKONOMIKHE ENIETHMHE O avraywviopds éxe! 6ie1o6Uce! oF dfs ts BlouKEs oxécels [as Kat Exe! ofo- Kfinpdoal thy apoiBaia SouAlefa otnv onofa SiateAouv wpa o1 AvOpwnor. 0 avtaywviopés civar to peyaito efatipio, to onoio Kevtpive! 5iapKws oe Spactnpiéinta tnv naflaid Kai vwOph KoIVeVIKA B1dtagA pas, A WaiAov thy atagja pas, afd ye KaGe véa évtagn avaidvel akéyn éva TAHA Tov Her OUHEVeV Buvapewv. O avtaywviopés KUPIapxel othV apIBYNUKA Npdobo Ins av@pwndtntas, Kupiapxei enions Kai otnv nOiKA tns npdo6o. Onoios éxe1 KGNOIG Yvon ths GtaTTTIKAs tov EyKANYateV Ba Npénel va éxel Siant- aoe! tnv 16i6yopON KavoviKStNta HE thy Onofa NpooBEvE! KAGE XP6vO tO éykAinyia, thy KavoviKétnta pe thy onofa opiopeves aities yevwouv opioyé- va eykAfpata. H enéKtaon tou epyootaciakow cuothyatos éxel Navtod ws enaKéfouBo avignon wv eyKAnHatwv. Mnopet Kavels va unofoyice! ex tov Nporépw HE OXEUKA aKPiBela Go to xpdvo Tov ApIOLS twv OUAANYEwY, TwV EYKANLGTODV, GKSUN Kal TOV GpIOLS tov over, Lov SiappAEEwY, TaV uikpoxflonav k.An. yia pla peyiin néfin A yia éva [EnpouKé] 6iayépioya, ‘Onas éxel oupBel apKerd oUxva otnv Ayyilia. Auth n KavoviKétnta ano- SeikvUer Su Kal to yK”nya KUBepvatal ané tov avtaywvioyé, 6u Nn KOI vovia yew pia Gitnon yia eyKAhpata, otnv onofa avuctorxel ia KGno1a npoagopd, 6U to Kevé NOU NpoKaAeta! ané tn GUAANYN, th HEtaywyh A Inv extéfleon evs GUYKEKPILEVOU apIeLOU NAnpowta! ayéows and Giflov ApiUd, aKpIBds Snws Exeivo to KEv6 GtOV niinGuopS NAnpouta! apEéows he veoyévwntous avépanous, ye dfia Aéyia éu to éyKiinya miéZer e€iGou ta héoa tns upapias, énus o1 Aaoi niéZouv ta péoa ns anaoxéAnons. To néco Sixaio eivar, un’ aurés us dUVeNKes, népa ané 6fa ta AAG, va twpouVAI 01 EyK/inyaties to aphvw otny Kpion twv avayvwotdy YoU. AUTO Nou HE evbiapépel £6 anids eival va anobeiEw tnv Enéxtaon tou avtaywviopou Enions Kal Gt n@IK6 ne6lo Kal va 6eiEw oe dao BabIé UNOBAByION exer épel tov GvOpano n atoiKA 16ioKtnoKa. Etov ayava tou Kepaitaiou Kal tou e64qous evavua otnv epyaoia, ta np 1a 600 ctoxxeia éxouv Eva i6iaitepo nAeovéxtnya anévavu otnv epyagia ~ tn Bof@e1a tns eniothyns, 616u und ts napoUTES oxéoEIs Elva Kal GUTH GtpaL- evn evavua athv epyaoia, Exe66v dies 01 unxaviKés epeupécels, yia no- pGBeryya, éxouv npoKAnGel Adyw tns EAAeiyns epyaoiaxhs 6uvapns, onws \6iaitepa o1 apyafeioi BapBakiow tou Hargreaves, tou Crompton Kai tou Arkwright. H epyaoia bev éxaipe noté peydfins Zhtnons xwpis va npoKUWye! and £64 ju1a epepeon n onoia noAanAadiaze onyavuKé tv EpyaciaKh Suvapn, 6nAabh anétpene tn Gtnan yia avepdnivn epyagia. AiapKAs and- Sei€n yi’ aut6 eivai n 1oxopia tns Ayyflias an6 to 1770 wéxpl ohpepa. H te- Aeutafa peyiin epevpean orn BapBaKoupyia, n selfacting mule, yevvh@nke anoxAelouKa yéoa ané tn Ztnan yia epyaoia Kal Aéyw tou auEavopevou Hto800 - 6inAaoiace tn unxaviKh epyacia nepiopiovtas éta1 tn xEIpotexvi- KA O10 p06, Epiee tous [IGOUs Epyates Ektés anaoxéilnans oupniéoveas E01 10 [1086 tov GAAwv oto p06: BiéAUGE thy opyavwon THY EpyaTv FRIEDRICH ENGELS | NEPITPAMMA MIAE KPITIKHE THE OIKONOMIKHE ENIETHMHE EVGVUG OLOUS EPYOOTACIAPXES Ka! KATEOTPEWE TO tefleUTa‘o UNdAeIYa 6U- Vauins He thv onofa n epyagia eixe Katagépel va avtége! atov Gvico aydova Evavua oto Kepdiaio (npBA. 6p. Ure, Philosophy of Manufactures, top. 2). 0 oiKovopoiéyos BéBaia tépa Age! Su oto teAIK6 GnotéfeoLA to GUoTNG WV LNxavéov Eival euvoiKd yia TOUS Epyates, KaBdS KaBIOTG PENvotepN thy Napaywyh, 6nyloupydvtas étor pia véa peyaiiétepn ayopa yia ta npoiévta Tous, anaoxofdvtas éto1 evtéAel Kar NGAI TOUS Epyates NOU éxOUV pEIVEI xw- pis epyacia. Auté eivar op86tato- afd phnws Eexvd o o1KoVoOASyos E56 6u n yéwnan tns epyaciaxhs Suvayns puBpiZerar and tov avtaywvion6, out 1 epyaoiakh Suvayn méZer BiapKGs ta wéoa tns anaoxéAnons, 6u SnAaéh, eGV npoKGyouv aUté ta Neovexthpata, UNdpxer A6n éva UNEpGpIBpo nAh- @os avtaywviotav yia epyagia to onoio ta nepijével Kal HE Tov tpONIO GUTS KaBIotd anatnA6 autd to NAEovEKtNHG, eve to elovextnya, n Ea~pviKh ano- otépnon twv péowv S1aBiwons yia to éva pIG6 Ka! N Non tou pIoBOU yia To GAMO p06 Gev Eivar anatnAn; Eexvd Gpaye o o1KovopoAéyos 6u n npdo- 6os tns epevpeons Bev avaKénteral Noté, Su GUVENGS GUTS to pEIOveKtNHG SiaiwviZetar; Zexvd Ou pEow tou KatapeEpicpOU ths Epyagias, o onoios Exe! autnGei ce dneipo Babys and tov nofruap6 pas, évas epyatns ynopel yovo 16te va Ghge! Stay pope; va xpnoIPoNOINGei GE [Ia GUYKEKPILEvN yNxavi Via 11a oUyKeKpiyevn piKponpenn epyagia; Eexva Ou n yetGBaon and pia anaoxéfnon oe pia aAl”n, véa, efvar oxe66v Névia Ku to aBuvato yia tov evnaiKo epyatn; E€etdZovtas us eni6pdgels tou CUCTAHATOS wv UNxavev, Npéne! va otpPA- 96 08 Eva Gio Gépa, Aryétepo OXEUKG, tO EpyootacIAaKd auotNHG, AAG Bev Exe E66 ove th 6148eoN ObtE to XPSVO va to NpaypateuTd. EAni%wo us va éxw oUVvtoLa thy cuKaipia va avantEw ie€o5ixG thv anotpénaia avnOiK6tnta aUTOU Tou GUOTAPALOS Kal va EEoKENdow xwpis evbo1aqHOUs Inv unoxpigia tou o1KovopoAéyou, n onoia eypavicerar 6 otnv nApn AGuyn ins. To xahoxaigt tov 1844 o Karl Marx dua 1.10 xeiyevo tou Friedrich E Blyoauyuee pus xQUTL AIS THS OLMOVO[DE}S EMOTHUNS HAL KaTEEyOdupeL pevdoeic: Atopikh iioxtnoia. H Gyeon ouvéneld tns: To eundpio: nds KaB_e 6paotn- pidtnta [yivetal] duen nopiouKh nnyf yia to Spdvta, H endpevn Katnyo- pia nou KaBopigetai ané to eyndpio: H aia. Apnpnyévn npaypauKA Kal avtaffakuxh agia [Abstrakter Real- und Tauschwerth], Say xpnaiotnta = Apodbiopiopés ths npayyauiKhs agjas, Ricardo Ka! Mill to Kgtos napayw- yfis. Exous Ayyfous 0 avtaywviopés avunpoownevel anévaver oto K6atS Napayayhs tn xpnoipdtnta, ctov Say to datos napaywyis. H aéia eivat n oxéon tou KéatoUS Napaywyhs Npos tn xpnarpstnta. H eyyUtepn Epappoyi ns eivat n anépagn edv Ba npénel ev yéve va npaypatonoinGel napaywyn, 629 630 FRIEDRICH ENGELS | MEPITPAMMA MIAE KPITIKHE THE OIKONOMIKHE ENIETHMHE GV n xpnoIp6tnta avucta®piCe! to K6otOs Napaywyns. H NpaKUKA Epap- hoyn tns éwolas tns agjas nepiopizetal atnv and@agn via thy napaywyh. H Siapopa petakY tns npaypauKris Kal tns avtafAaKuKris agias BaciZetal oro 6U1 to 1005Gvapo Nou Biveral oto Epndpio dev Eivar oodUvapo. H uh, oxéon HEtagU KéotoUS Napaywys Kal avtaywviaHOU. Mévo to Npayya nou yNo- pei va povonwndel éxe1 tun. O oployés tns yalonpoodéou ané tov Ricardo Eq@paaipévos, 6161 npouNo8Ete! Su pla Maan tns ZAtnons avubpa cuypiaia ain yalonpéaobo, Bétovtas apéows ektés KaAAlépyeias iia avtiotorxn nol- nt Tob xeIpstepa KaAAlEpynHEvoU Eb4QOUS. AUTO Elva! eo@aayévo. O opiop6s autés napaBiéne! tov avtaywviop.6, [eve] exeivos tou Smith napa- Baéner tnv anoSouKétnta. Faronpdcodos: n oxéon peta€U tns anodouKétn- Tas tou e6dpous Kal tou avtaywvigpou. Hagia tou e6dpous petparai uéca ané thv napaywyikétnta fowy enipaverdy pe fon epyacia. Xwpioy6s Kepaiaiou Kai epyagias. Xwpiopds Kepaiaiou Kal Kép6ous. Xwplopds tou KepBous GE KEPGOS Kal TOKOUS... KEPHOS, to B4pos nou Géte! atn @uyapid to Kepaiaio Kata tov KaBopiopS tou KéotOUS Napaywyns na- Papével eyyevés ato KEpAAaIO, Kal GUTS avteni6pA otnv Epyacia. Xepiopss Epyacias kal i080. Znpacia tou pio80U: H onyagia tns Epyagias yia tov KaBopiop6 tou KéatOUS Napaywy;s. AiKaopds HELA EbaqoUS Kal avOpd- Nou. H av@pdanivn epyacia xwplapévn oe epyacia Kar KEpanaio.