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SW Hydrostatic Pressure Testing Water Mains


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Introduction and Background


The purpose of this hydrostatic pressure testing procedure is to ensure that all hydrostatic
pressure tests undertaken on all new mains installed within Scottish Water are conducted
safely and effectively.
The purpose of pressure testing any new water main or service connection is primarily to
identify its structural integrity for any leakage and also for verifying the performance of the
new main or service laid for adoption and acceptability.
Hydrostatic pressure testing is used to identify if there are any faults, leaks or defects from,
1 Poor pipe laying procedures or workmanship during the construction of the main or pipe.
2 Damaged to any pipework, materials or fittings during construction.
3 Non- conforming fusion joints or tapping bands or saddles, flange sets, or mechanical joint.
4 Any manufacturing defects of Mains, Pipe, Materials or Fittings.

Hydrostatic Pressure Test


(General Criteria)
SW requires that hydrostatic pressure testing of all PE mains & pipe work must be tested
using a TYPE 2 test and is carried out in strict accordance with
IGN-4-01-03 Issue 2 Pressure Testing of Pressure Pipes and Fittings for Use by Public
Water Suppliers.
Ductile Iron & Steel mains shall be Pressure tested using the Volume of added Water &
Volume of Water Loss methods.
There are a number key factors which must be consider below which will affect both the
choice of test section and its length and also the results of a hydrostatic pressure test these
include but are not limited to,

The length and diameter of main being tested and the number of joints and fittings.

The availability of a suitable potable water supply to fill and pressure test the main.

The location of a suitable discharge point for the water used after testing.
To prevent an Environmental Pollution Incident (EPI)

Any difference in elevation to meet the System Test Pressure (STP) and or the % of
trapped Air within the main.

Any temperature variations on site especially for PE pipelines and creep factors.

The size of pump and its capacity including its maximum pressure and flow.

Mains Rehabilitation i.e. (Pipe Bursting / Slip Lining / Roll Down)


The above mains rehabilitation techniques require a separate type of hydrostatic pressure
test to be undertaken which is a 10 minute test which is suitable for mains up to 180mm
outside
diameterand
andMAINTENANCE
200mtrs in length
with a low number of joints.
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SW Hydrostatic Pressure Testing Water Mains


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Anywhere a new main is being inserted into a host main as the new main can be damaged
by existing services or where the existing main has been cut out for new service to be
reinstalled or from shards from pipe bursting etc.
Larger diameters mains or longer section of mains shall be undertaken using the type 2
pressure test. Any new mains laid as part of mains rehabilitation program using the Open
Cut method shall be pressure tested using a type 2 pressure test.

Safety Note
This document sets out the requirements for undertaking, checking and validating
pressure tests in Scottish Water using industry best practice. It also provides the basic
guidelines for the safety and protection of personnel on site and the general public
during pressure the hydrostatic test. It is the responsibility of the individual hydrostatic
pressure testing company and its staff to further develop its own appropriate generic
and or site specific safety plans and control measures and with their implementation to
safely carry out hydrostatic pressure testing of Water Mains & Fittings in Scotland as
well as complying with any other appropriate legislation or documentation relating to
hydrostatic pressure testing in the UK.
I.e. The Health Safety Executive, Safety requirements for pressure testing Guidance
Note GS4

Hydrostatic Pressure Test


(Proforma & Documentation)
Scottish Water requires its new Pressure Test proforma to be completed to allow SW to
standardise testing, improve, validate and reduce the need for SW staff to be onsite for all
witness testing and to give quicker authorisation for connection to the live distribution
network .
SW requires a more robust process with either supplementary Video or Photographic
evidence provided for each of the various elements of a hydrostatic pressure test that
includes full analysis in both an electronic format and PDF and to check and confirm the
results in compliance with this procedure for SW authorising a Pass to any pressure testing
that is undertaken.
Any pressure test submitted without the new SW Pressure test proforma and either No
Video or Photographic evidence will result in SW being unable to confirm compliance and
validation of the pressure test and will deem the pressure test as having failed and will be
required to be undertaken again with an onsite witness test by SW staff.
SW requires its new pressure test proforma DOMS DOC XXXXXX to be completed for all
pressure test undertaken which requires site specific information recorded by the company
carrying out the pressure test.
The profoma can and should be used as a check list for all staff on site to correctly check
and implement the control measures required to mitigate any issues which will affect and
prevent a pressure test being undertaken successfully.
The company carrying out the hydrostatic pressure test is also required to submit and
confirm all the recorded measurements, Data of the pressure and water flow and volumes
used during the pressure rise phase (Ramp Up).
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SW Hydrostatic Pressure Testing Water Mains


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Electronic copies of the hydrostatic pressure test submitted must include the pressure tests
Incremental readings (i.e. print outs 20sec), Pressure Decay Graphs, Flow meter readings
with the relevant supporting video or photographic evidence for validation.
SW also requires a site drawing with the highlighted section of main / mains being tested.
Geo tagged Photographic & or Video evidence Must now be provided with all hydrostatic
pressure test submission and include the following:
Hydrostatic Pressure test set up.
SW Licenced stand pipe and serial number.
Bored & Tapped Blank Plates used with additional valves to allow the safe removal of air.
Electronic Data Logger with serial number & the calibration date.

200mm Pressure Gauges or calibrated digital gauges.

Flow Meter.
Dual Functional Logger if applicable with serial number & the calibration date.
GEO TAGGING Photos
Geo tagging is the process of adding a location, date and time to your photos and is now
required by SW as part of the validation process to confirm compliance with the various
elements of the hydrostatic pressure has been correctly undertaken on each site.
Here's how to do it: (Example for SW Samsung phones)
Open up the stock Samsung Camera app on the phone.
Look for the Settings 'Gear' icon and tap on it.
On the grid of settings that presents itself scroll down a little until you see "Location tags"
Tap to enable/disable as desired!
IPhones by default are already set to record the location information on photos and videos
taken using the camera app.
Photo editing apps and services, such as Lightroom, Aperture, iPhoto, Picasa, and Flickr,
also support geotagged images.

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SW Hydrostatic Pressure Testing Water Mains


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Pressure Test Proforma Page 1

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SW Hydrostatic Pressure Testing Water Mains


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Pressure Test Proforma Page 2

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Hydrostatic Pressure Test Criteria


(Test Pressures)
Testing of Polyethylene Pressure Pipelines & Testing of Ductile Iron, PVC, GRP & Steel
Pressure Pipelines.
Scottish Water has now standardised its approach to hydrostatic pressure testing and has
now included simple charts below and within the New Pressure test proforma and its
Standards & Specification documents to use & confirm the correct limits of pressure testing
requirements for the various pipe materials and pipe ratings.
For SDR 17 Pipe Systems the Pressure Test will be 1.5 times Rated Pressure of the pipe.
15 Bar.
For SDR 11 Pipe Systems the Pressure Test will be the working pressure + 5 Bar with a
minimum test pressure of 15 Bar.
Testing of Ductile Iron, PVC, GRP & Steel Pressure Pipelines
(SURGE HAS BEEN CALCULATED) STP + MDPs + 1 Bar
Testing of Ductile Iron, PVC, GRP & Steel Pressure Pipelines (SURGE Has NOT been
Calculated) STP = MDPa X 1.5 or STP = MDPa + 5 Bar (whichever is the least)

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SW Hydrostatic Pressure Testing Water Mains


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Hydrostatic Pressure Test Criteria


(Lengths & Diameters)
Scottish Water requires that separate hydrostatic pressure testing must be undertaken for
separate pressure rated pipes and fittings.
(i.e. SDR17 pipework shall be tested separately from SDR11).
Separate pressure testing must be also undertaken where there is any change in pipe
material is required. I.e. MDPE / Ductile Iron mains etc must be tested separately.
Note: Barrier Pipe & HPPE / MDPE Mains can be pressure tested at the same time within
the same test only if the pipe is the same SDR rating.
Pressure testing of various pipe lengths and pipe diameters is permissible within SW only if
the mains being pressure tested are all of the same pipe material and SDR rating and the
total length of all mains within the pressure test does not exceed 1 km,
I.e. 63mm up to 200mm diameter mains should be no greater than 1km in length.
Diameters 200mm and above should be no greater than 200m in length.
Any testing of mains 200mm and above with a length greater than 200m shall require a
wavier by Scottish Water.
SW wavier process requires a full method statement and risk assessment with confirmation
on the pump type being used include size and capacity (Pressure & Flow rates) to meet the
maximum 30 min Ramp up time.
Is should also be noted that the longer the hydrostatic pressure test section is the more
difficult it becomes in general to successful achieve a pass test result.
Especially to check all joints and or to locate any leakage or to identify if it is the test has
failed as a result of an actual leak or the result of trapped air in the main or pipeline.
The minimum length of Hydrostatic pressure test section shall be 11m. I.e. 2 x 5.5m lengths

Hydrostatic Pressure Test Criteria


(Ramp up Time, Incremental readings & Test Duration)
The ramp up time and the type of pump, size of pump used for a hydrostatic pressure test is
critical to achieving successful test & pass.
It is critical that the data logger used is set up correctly & configured to accurately record
enough readings at the correct intervals during the ramp up time and also throughout the
duration of the test.
All pressure tests should have the data logger set and configured to take incremental
readings at 20 second intervals.
Note: Some loggers require the ramp up time to be divided by between 6 -10 for a test with a
ramp up time, up to 1 minute.
All tests shall have a graph(s) showing the time line with suitable increments and time period
to validate the pressure decline throughout the test duration.
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SW Hydrostatic Pressure Testing Water Mains


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All pressure tests should have a minimum of 1 minute Ramp Up time & Maximum Ramp up
time of 30 minutes.
The minimum Pressure test duration for SW is 1 hour.
The maximum Test Pressure duration for SW is 10 hours. I.e. 30min Ramp up Time.
Any Pressure Test that requires being longer than 10 Hours in duration due to excessive
lengths of the main being tested or as a result of trapped air content etc should be notified to
SW and follow the SW waiver process in advance of the test.
Note: There is a higher likelihood of a pressure test failing when using incorrect pumps
(Undersized or Oversized) and ramp up times.
Short lengths of pipe work wherever possible should be undertaken using a hand
Pump.
The use of the hand pump will be based on the volume of water required to be added for
pipe pressurisation to STP and calculation of the Ramp Up / Load times effecting the
duration of the pressure test.
Litre / Minute (Pump out put) affect the Ramp Up time.
Note: There is No requirement to use a Flow meter if using a hand Pump. However the
volume of water used must still be physically recorded.
Any test that is not undertaken with a hand pump requires a Flow meter to be used.
A calibrated flow meter, with a resolution of 1 litre or better must be used to accurately
measure the volume of water added during the pressure rise phase to STP.
SW preference is for dual functional data loggers to be fitted to record Flow & Pressure.

Hydrostatic Pressure Test Criteria


(Ramp up Time, Incremental readings & Test Duration)
All hydrostatic pressure tests shall have the following calculation which are required to
accurately asses and validate a hydrostatic pressure test.
t2 = x 8 times the ramp up time.
t3 = x 20 times the ramp up time.
An added value for t4 is required for any test with air content between 4% < 6% requires
30 x times the ramp up time.
An added value for t4 is required for any test with air content between 6% < 8% requires
45 x times the ramp up time.
The removal of Air is a critical factor to a successful pressure test as the presence of air in a
main will have a number of effects especially in relation to the rise time to STP being
increased and also as Air will distort the interpretation of pressure decay results.
Please Note. If the air content cannot be reduced to 4% or less, the test must be either
extended or abandoned. Any hydrostatic pressure test with Air content above 8% must
be aborted and air removed before restarting the test.
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SW Hydrostatic Pressure Testing Water Mains


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Hydrostatic Pressure Test


(Pump Selection)
Scottish Water New Pressure test proforma includes supporting documentation for pressure
testing companies to use regarding calculation for the correct size of pump required to
achieve an adequate ramp up time.
Populating the relevant blue cells with the volume of water required to achieve STP will
automatically calculate the size of pump and also calculate the ramp up time and test
duration.
All pumps should be adequate to smoothly raise the main to the correct System Test
Pressure of the pipe work being tested.
The pump must be able to pump to the both the correct System Test Pressure STP of the
main being pressure tested and with the flows required to get to the System Test Pressure
within 30min.
Note: Using an Undersized or Oversized pump will affect the ramp up time and pressure test
duration and the test results.
Too small a pump will extend the test duration and too big a pump will prevent accurate
control of the test pressure and affect the ramp up time.
(See attached table / chart as guidance for selecting a suitable size pump for the length and
alternatively the contractor can calculate their own pump size using the relevant pipe
material and or SDR rating as per IGN 4-01-03 pages 16, 17)

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SW Hydrostatic Pressure Testing Water Mains


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New Mains Pressure Testing & Commissioning


Prior to pressure testing, each length /section and branch of the main should be individually
swabbed with the correct size / diameter of foam swabs pushed through the entire length of
main by water fed into the main by an approved system of temporary pipework which must
incorporate a double check valve to ensure there is no possibility of back siphonage into the
existing main.

When to Pressure Test the new main?


Pressure testing should be undertaken preferably immediately after the main has been
flushed and swabbed. (Provided the swab is clean and the main if free of debris)
Water used for pressure testing must always be drawn from a clean source of treated water.
Raw, untreated water (burns, rivers, surface water reservoirs) must never be used to charge
and pressure test a new main even prior to flushing and disinfection.
All water to be used for Flushing Swabbing and Pressure testing must be potable water
(clean, treated water) and disposed of with due care to the environment.
Under NO circumstance should any Swab be inserted and left in the main by the main
laying team prior to the physical testing and commissioning of any new main.

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SW Hydrostatic Pressure Testing Water Mains


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Swabs must only be inserted into the main on the actual day when physically carrying
out either swabbing or disinfecting the main using swabs with the correct amount of
chlorine tablets.
Swabs shall be used once only unless otherwise approved by SW & all swabs must be
accounted and recovered from the main.
Any work that does not follow this sequence of stages will be considered non-compliant with
respect to application of this Scottish Water DOMS procedures and Hygiene Code of
Practice.

SW Licensed Stand Pipes


The filling of new mains for Flushing, Swabbing, Pressure Testing & Commissioning mains
should only be done through a SW Licenced 25mm hydrant standpipes fitted with double
check valve to prevent back flow siphonage into the live distribution network.
SW may allow the use of 2 standpipes in exceptional circumstance for only filling long
sections
of
mains
&
or
larger
diameters
prior
to
Pressure
testing,
However THESE MUST be authorised by SW Operational staff in advance to protect
and prevent any Water Quality issues or Interruption to supplies to our Existing Customers.
For more information on our standpipe licensing scheme contact our Standpipe Service
Desk on 0845 601 8855 or email standpipeservicedesk@scottishwater.co.uk or refer to
SW DOM-WN-PRC-0000031 Hydrant Standpipe Hire Procedure.
Unauthorised use of fire hydrants and taking water without permission are criminal acts.
Continued use of non-approved standpipes may lead to prosecution.

Preliminary Conditioning Mains


There is no requirement for preliminary conditioning PE Mains prior to pressure testing.
Ductile iron, Steel pipes with epoxy linings or GRP pipes with socket and spigot joints,
require the main to be raised to the System Test Pressure (STP) and allowed to settle for at
least 15 min prior to the hydrostatic pressure test.
Ductile iron & steel pipes with cement linings should be allowed to settle overnight.

Pressure test Set up


The pressure test should be set up at the lowest elevation of the section of main being
tested. Any pressure test not installed at the lowest elevation must be notified to SW and be
recorded on the proforma when submitting the test.
The main should be slowly filled with potable water from the lowest point of the main to vent
and remove all the air from the highest point of main through an open valve on the blank
plate at the end of the main or at highest elevation with any air valves open to prevent any
trapped air in the main or dissolved air which will affect the pressure test and potentially
disguise a leak.
Any Air valve on the test section should be left opened unless it is a non-self-sealing type.
Any test section of main with a volume of static head must also be calculated and the total
static head recorded on the test report and on SW Pressure test proforma.

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SW Hydrostatic Pressure Testing Water Mains


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Starting Pressures
The starting pressure for any hydrostatic pressure test should preferably be zero to
accurately check and validate the ramp up time of the pressure test being undertaken.
The starting pressure within the main should not exceed 1 bar or the natural static head
within the main being tested whichever is the greater.
Any pre-pressurisation within the main must be recorded on the SW proforma to
accurately validate the pressure test.
Any attempt to shorten the pumping phase by increasing the initial pressure to local mains
pressure (pre-pressurisation) using an adjacent main is not allowed and will result in the test
being classed as invalid.
Only once the main has been slowly filled with potable water (prior to pressurisation), MUST
the data logger be connected and all information logged. (Unless using a dual functional
logger)
The pressure should then be raised to the correct level of System Test Pressure (STP) by
pumping in a controlled manner.
Any hydrostatic pressure test with the data logger fitted after ramping up the main
and reaching System Test Pressure (STP) will be an automatic fail.
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SW Hydrostatic Pressure Testing Water Mains


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Pressure Test Set Up


Pressure Testing using Squeeze Offs, valve to valve or hydrant to hydrant is not be
permitted within SW.
Bored and Tapped blank plates must be fitted and used when pressure testing mains.
As per IGN 4-01-03 Oct 2015 page 5.

Note: There is a Health & Safety risk to the person or persons undertaking the pressure
test especially with any air trapped within the main and the hydrostatic pressure test set
up detailed in the diagrams above and below.
SW Preference is to have Bored & Tapped blank plates fitted to the top flange of Duckfoot
bends at each end of the pressure test section to aid the removal of air and protect the main
from ground water entering the main.
This will facilitate and allow for the removal of as much air as possible from the test section.

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SW Hydrostatic Pressure Testing Water Mains


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Pressure Test Set Up (Thrust Bocks & Anchorage)


Thrust Blocks & or Suitable anchorage is required for pressure testing water mains due to
excessive higher pressures being required for pressure testing.
Any thrust blocks or other anchorages used must be sufficient to withstand the forces
generated by the pressure test with any concrete used being adequately cured.
Note: Pressure testing is a high-risk activity due to applying stored energy to any main being
tested, especially with excessive levels of Air trapped within the test section.
Pressure testing mains especially with excessive air content only increases the risk to the
Health and Safety to the individuals carrying out the test or any other persons within or near
the test area.
SW requires geo tagged photographic evidence to be provided of either of the above set ups

Pressure Test Set Up


Prior to hydrostatic pressure testing the main being tested, it should be adequately
backfilled to prevent any potential movement either lateral or from axial contraction of
the pipeline with all joints preferably exposed to visually check for leaks during the test.

Pressure Test Set Up (Service Connection)


It is good practice that No service connections are fitted onto the main prior to the
hydrostatic pressure test. Service Connection(s) must Not be tapped & bored prior to
pressure testing as this is essential element for a successful pressure test.
Any Service connection found to be tapped & bored prior to pressure testing will
invalidate the test.
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Pressure Test Set Equipment (Flow

Meter & Data Loggers)

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SW Hydrostatic Pressure Testing Water Mains


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All Pressure tests require either a Flow Meter & Pressure Gauge or Dual Functional Logger
to capture the volumes of water required and used for the ramp up to STP
(System Test pressure).
Note: Where short lengths of small bore main are being tested where a hand pump is being
used and volume of water added during ramp up can be measured in the pump reservoir, it
will not be required to use a flow meter.
SW preference is for data loggers to be fitted with GPS capabilities or requires Geo Tagged
Photographic evidence to be submitted with the test report for each hydrostatic test.
All Pressure test loggers must have UKAS Calibration Certifications & be traceable through
UKAS standards.
It is critical that the data logger is calibrated and set correctly to accurately record enough
readings at the correct intervals during both the ramp up time to check for the presence of
Air and to measure the rate of decay throughout the duration of the test.
SW now requires all pressure tests to be submitted in both PDF and in an electronic format
to check, interrogate and validate the test data.

Pressure Testing Ductile Iron & Steel Mains in SW

When applying either the Water Loss or Water Added method to a hydrostatic
pressure test for pressure testing Ductile Iron and Steel Mains in Scottish Water
the pump being used must be adequate to raise the pressure in a controlled
manner and be able achieve the correct STP required.
Any hydrostatic pressure test that is using the Water Added method requires a
separate, specialised pump.
This pump must also be able to maintain and pump continuously in a controlled
manner at the required test pressure of the main / pipe being tested while
measuring the volume of water being pumped into the main to maintain the test
pressure.
This pump should also have data logging capabilities to accurately measure the
volumes of water being used.
This pump can if required also be used with the Water Loss method to accurately
measure the water required to bring the pipeline back to STP.
Alternatively, a hand pump could be used for the Water Loss method.
After preliminary condition of the main, the main must be raised to its
STP and measurement the amount of water required to maintain STP
using either of the methods must be accurately recorded.
The following is the basic principal and steps required to set up to
undertake either a Water Added or a Water Loss Test.

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Water Added Pressure Testing Method

Water Added Test


Step 1 Requires the main to be Preliminary soaked & conditioned for a period of
time prior to pressure testing (I.e. Overnight for Cement lined pipe).
Step 2 Take the new main up to its System Test Pressure STD and record the time
taken to achieve STP and also record the actual STP i.e. 15 BAR. (Is it necessary
to record the time to reach STP?)
Step 3 Maintain the STP, by pumping and adding water into the main / pipe as
necessary.
Step 4 Record the volume of water used to maintain STP for a period of one hour
by using a volumetric container and accurately measuring the volume of water it
takes to achieve this.
Step 5 If the volumes of water recorded are in excess of the permissible /
allowable water loss i.e. table 2 on IGN page 11 the test is a fail.
Step 6 If test fails, Check main / pipe for leaks for leakage and re do the test.

Water Loss Pressure Testing Method

Water Loss Test


A water Loss test is the calculation of the water lost within a section main after it
has been raised to it STP and left for 1 hour
A volumetric container must be used and be a calibrated container, which is
suitable to accurately measure the expected volume loss in the main being
tested.
Typically a 200 ml measuring cylinder would be suitable for smaller volumes.
Step 1 Requires the main to be Preliminary soaked & conditioned for a period of
time prior to pressure testing (I.e. Overnight for Cement lined pipe).
Step 2 Take the new main up to its required System Test Pressure STD and record
both the time taken to achieve STP and also record the actual STP i.e. 15 BAR
Step 3 Isolate the pump and leave the main to stand for 1 hour
Step 4 Then after one hour (no less) measure how much pressure has been lost
in that period
i.e. 14.5 Bar
Step 5 After 1 hour reconnect the pump and take the main / pipe back to up to
the STP at the beginning of the test (no less)i.e. 15 BAR
Step 5 At STP Isolate the pump and then draw off the pressure that was lost in
the initial hour and measure that volume of water using a volumetric container
accurately measure the volume of water required to be removed to get the main
to test pressure recorded after 1 hour i.e. 14.5 Bar .
Step 6 If the volumes of water recorded are in excess of the permissible /
allowable water loss i.e. table 2 on IGN page 11 the test is a fail.
Step 7 If test fails, Check main / pipe for leaks for leakage and re do the test.
If the volume of Water Added or the volume of Water Lost (i.e. removed and
drawn off) is less than the ALLOWABLE volumes in the table below the test s is a
PASS.
If the volume is greater than the allowable volumes the test is a fail.
These are small volumes measure and record and require a pressure gauge to be
0.01 bar or less accuracy to accurately measure the System Test Pressure.
Small errors in the pressures recorded will affect the volumes of water added or
drawn off and will ultimately affect the test result.

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Standard Allowable Volumes of leakage by diameter (Litres / Per


Kilometre / Per Hour )

Please Note
If the volume of water loss is calculated to be less than 0.025 Litres, then a
pressure loss test of 0.2 bar per hour should be used over the 1 hour test period.

Validation & Authorisation


The companies who are carrying out hydrostatic pressure testing are required to
calculate their own volumes of water required and used as well as the calculation of Air
content using the table and charts within IGN 4-01-03.

Scottish Water Hydrostatic Pressure Test Proforma


(Validation & Authorisation)
Scottish Water new proforma as per below will be used for checking and providing
validation of a hydrostatic pressure test Pass result using the information provided from
both the electronic data submission and the information record on the new proforma.
This section of the proforma will only be available and used only by SW staff to check
and validate a test result. By confirming and populating the Start Time / Ramp Up time
and the relevant pressures recorded at t1, t2, and t3. (t4 if applicable.)

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Note: SW Customer Connection staffs are required to send back confirmation and acceptance of
test results submitted for contractors to proceed to the next stage of commission mains
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Pressure Test Volumes Calculation


As part of the validation of a hydrostatic pressure test SW staff will use the new
proforma and following tables and charts below for checking and confirmation of the
volumes of water required against those used to achieve System Test pressure STP.
This shall be cross reference with the data provided from the Flow meter to confirm any
Air content which may / will affect the pressure test graph and test result

SDR 17 Pressure Test Volumes Calculation

Ductile Iron

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Hydrostatic Pressure Test (Air Content Volume Calculation)


It is possible to calculate the volume percentage of air present from the actual volume of
water pumped into a pipeline when the pressure is raised to its test pressure (STP) using
equation below

Initial air content (%) = (Vw Ex) / Av1


Scottish Waters new pressure test profoma has the facility to carry out confirmation on
the volumes of Air content present within a Hydrostatic Pressure test.
SW will use this section of the proforma as part of validation process for authorising a
successful hydrostatic pressure test result.

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Test
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A secure pipeline that is free of leakage etc should have a graph that displays the
pressure decay with a constant logarithmic slope and graph.
If there is either a dramatic or a consistent increase in slope during the test this would
indicate leakage.
If n2/n1 values are 1.25, then the test is a pass.
Or alternatively if t4 calculation are used then,
If n3/n1 values are 1.25, then the test is a pass.
There are a number of factors that can affect a pressure test and the result which
include the following examples,

The type of pipe material being tested to its incorrect pressure rating.
Pressure testing different pipe materials at the same time.
Excessive lengths of mains being tested.
The number of sections of mains being tested at the one time.
The height difference in the pipeline elevation and or the location of the pressure test
set up.
Static Head or Pre pressurisation of mains.
The size of pump and the maximum test pressure of the pump used its flow rate for
pressurisation.
The presence and % of air in the system.
The accuracy of the testing equipment especially if not calibrated.
When the test starts and finishes and the correct t1, t2, t3 and t4 values are taken.
Any actual leakage.
The length of time the pressure test is required to be completed.
The number of joint and fittings including Air valve or service connections if bored &
tapped.

Any ground movement or movement with any mechanical fittings etc


Weather condition especially regarding temperature fluctuation and its effect on the
creep factor of HPPE / MDPE mains
No, Poor and or Inadequate pipe bedding or backfill and compaction etc.

Pre Pressure Test Check List


The following check list is the basic safety guidelines and the generic minimum requirements
to be applied within SW that any company carrying out hydrostatic pressure testing should
apply for protecting the environment and the safety of any site personnel and the general
public if applicable prior to and during the hydrostatic pressure test.
The Hydrostatic pressure testing company should apply their own comprehensive checks in
conjunction with any other site specific requirements.
Has the main being fully constructed and the main and all fittings checked, inspected and
signed off ready for pressure testing?
Complete a site specific Health & Safety Risk Assessment for

Slips, trips and falls.

Flooding.

Freezing over depending on weather conditions.

Traffic and pedestrian access and egress.


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Complete Onsite environmental assessment.
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If an onsite assessment confirms a risk of causing either environmental damage to an


ecosystem or an environmental Impact to aquatic life in the water course, the local SEPA
office should be contacted to determine what control measures may be required prior to
SEPA allowing the task to proceed; thereafter the SW EPI Team must be notified.
Contact SW Environmental Pollution Incident (EPI) Team.
Update SW EPI admin team (planned / confirmed start dates and when work is
complete)
EPI Helpline: 0845 600 8495 remember to report, update & close all EPI events.
If applicable set up appropriate environmental protection.
Has an assessment been carried out on both the duration and volumes of water required
for the flushing, swabbing, filling and pressure testing activities to be undertaken and the
Impact to the existing water distribution network from both a water supply and water quality
perspective?
Do you have a SW Licenced stand pipe for filling and pressure testing?
Note: The hydrant stand pipe must be fitted with a double check valve.
Has the main been suitably flushed, swabbed and confirmed as being clean and free from
construction debris and any other foreign matter?
Does the main require preliminary conditioning?
Is the test area adequately signed & barricaded to keep unauthorized personnel out of the
test area and at a safe distance that is sufficient to protect both site personnel and the
general public if applicable from unanticipated pressure release or equipment failure.
During the pressure test distinct warning signs, should be erected such as DANGER
PRESSURE TESTING IN PROGRESS should be posted at the each end of the pressure
test and additional locations identified in the site specific safety plan.
When pressure testing in a populated area, i.e. Main rehabilitation work etc additional
requirements may be required to inform and protect the public from hazards associated with
pressure testing operations.
Has the pressure test equipment and the main and or any pipe materials and fittings been
checked and verified that they are correctly rated to withstand the test pressures. I.e. is all
temporary equipment such as any hoses, connection fittings, blank flanges, isolation valves,
etc, rated higher than the maximum hydrostatic pressure?
Has the main been suitably back filled and the test area (blank flanges and valves etc)
secured and suitably anchored to prevent either any lateral movement or axial contraction
during the test.
Has the pipeline elevation profile been checked and analysed, Is additional swabbing
required to remove and prevent entrapped pockets of air within the test section?
Are all joints left exposed for visual inspection and possible re-torqueing during or after
testing?
Are all Air Valves checked and left open for testing. Note: ONLY Non self-sealing should be
closed.
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Pressure testing should preferably be undertaken during dry weather as pressure testing in
wet weather or if the main is in water filled trenches it may mean that leaks are not identified
or detected.
Are all inline valves open to allow the passing and venting entrapped air?
Has the pump to pressurise the main to STP been correctly sized?
Too small of a pump will extend the test duration, and too large of a pump may prevent the
control of the test pressure.
Is all pressure test equipment calibrated and within date.
I.e. data logger, pressure gauges, Flow Meters, temperature recorders etc
Pipe material pressure test checked and confirmed i.e. SDR 17 tested to15 Bar test.

Pre Pressure Test Failure


During the pressure test No staff or site employees etc must ever tamper with or tighten any
bolts, fittings , joints connections, hoses etc while the main or any component are under
pressure.
If a leak does occur the main must be depressurize to a safe level and a repair carried out.
Always check that complete depressurization in the main has occurred through the use of
both pressure gauges and with visible checks before any repair is carried out.
After the leak on the main has been found and repaired should the pressure test be
repeated, only after a time period 4 times greater than the original pressure test duration
has elapsed to allow the main to fully recover from creep deformation.

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