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CHAPTER - 1

INTRODUCTION

Employees health safety and welfare at work are protected by law Employer has a
duty to protect employees and keep informed about health and safety employees have a
responsibility to look after yourself and others. If there is a problem, discuss it with
employer or safety representative if there is one. This leaflet is a brief guide to health and
safety law. It does not describe the law in detail, but it does list the key points. Employer
has a duty under the law to ensure so far as is reasonably practicable employees health,
safety and welfare at work. Employer must consult with employer or employees safety
representative on matters relating to your health and safety at work. Including any change
which may substantially affect employees health and safety at work, eg. in procedures
equipment or ways of working the employers arrangements for getting competent people
to help employees safety health and safety laws. The information employees have to be
given on the likely risks and dangers arising from your work measures to reduce or get rid
of these risks and what employee should do if employees have to deal with a risk or
danger. The planning of health and safety and the health and safety consequences of
introducing new technology. In general employers duties include making employees
workplace safe and without risks to health ensuring plant and machinery are safe and that
safe systems of work are set and followed ensuring articles and substances are moved,
stored and used safety providing adequate welfare facilities giving employees
information, instruction, training and supervision necessary for employees health and
safety in particular employer must assess the risks to employees health and safety makes
arrangement for implementing the health and safety measures identified as being
necessary by the assessment. If there are five or more employees record the significant
findings of the risk assessment and the arrangements for health and safety measures. If
there are five or more employees draw up a health and safety policy statement including
the health and safety organization and arrangements in force and bring it to your attention

appoint someone competent to assist with health and safety responsibilities and consult
employee or employees safety representative about this appointment co-operate on health
and safety with other employers sharing the same workplace setup emergency procedures
provide adequate first aid facilities make sure that the workplace satisfies health, safety
and welfare requirements eg. for ventilation, temperature, lighting and sanitary, washing
and rest facilities make sure that work equipment is suitable for its intended use so far as
health and safety is concerned, and that it is
properly maintained and used prevent or adequately control exposure to substances which
may damage your health take precautions against danger from flammable or explosive
hazards electrical equipment noise and radiator avoid hazarders manual handling
operations and where they cannot be avoided reduce the risk of injury provide health
surveillance as appropriate provide free and protective clothing or equipment where risks
are not adequately controlled by other means ensure that appropriate safety signs are
provided and maintained report certain injuries, diseases and dangerous occurrences to the
appropriate health and safety enforcing authority. [see box below for who this is]. So this
study entitled as a study on Health & Safety measure with reference to tanfac(pvt) ltd
cuddalore.

CHAPTER - 3
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Health and Safety:
INTRODUCTION:
Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the
absence of disease. It is the out come of the interaction between the individual and his
environment. He is healthy who is well adjusted.

Health Meaning:
The term health is a positive and dynamic concept. In common parlance health implies
absence of disease.

However, that industrial health implies much more than more

absence of disease is clear from Health.

Definition [Health]:
The worker who is healthy is always cheerful confident working and strength well being
in any time that is called health.

Safety Meaning:
Before discussing other issues relating to safety, it is useful to understand the nature of
safety. Safety, in simple terms, means freedom from the occurrence of risk of injury or
loss. Industrial safety or employee safety refers to the protection of workers from the
danger of industrial accidents. An accident, then is an unplanned and un-controlled event
in which an action or reaction of an object a substance, a person, or a radiation result in
personal injury.

Definition [Safety]:

Safety means prevention to danger or risk injury or loss. Industrial safety or employee
safety to protection of workers from the danger of Industrial accidents.

Working conditions affecting health:


1. Cleanliness:
Hygiene is essential of health dirt should be removed daily from the workplace,
furniture, staircases etc. properly cleaned and his infected spittoons must be provided
at convenient places.

2. Lighting:
Adequate and proper lighting is essential for higher efficiency and good quality of
work. Poor lighting on the other hand causes eye strain mental fatigue, accidents and
spoilage of materials.

3. Temperature and Ventilation:


Flow of fresh air with right temperature and humidity is necessary for protection of
health in hat and humid climate employees feel tired and sleepy ventilation fans
coolers, heaters, air conditioners help to maintain right temperature and humidity.
4. Freedom from Noise:
Too much noise inside and outside the work place causes disturbance. It does not
allow workers to concentrate on the work and their efficiency declines.

5. Working space and Seating arrangements: Adequate space should be provided for free
movement of persons machines etc. over crowding should be avoided as it spoils health
and efficiency.

OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS AND DISEASES:

1. Chemical substances:
Carbon di oxide, sulphuric acid, limes and alkalise cause injury when they are
absorbed through skin and inhaling.

2. Biological Hazards:
Bacteria, fungi, viruses, insects malnutrition excessive drinking and job stress affect
employer health.

3. Environmental records :
These include radiation, noise, vibrations shocks etc. X-rays are radio active
exposure may cause eye train genetic disorders and cancer.

4.Atmospheric conditions :Ventilation improper lighting extrane temperature etc., effect health and
efficiency of employees.
Under the factories act 1948. hazardous process to defined as any process or
activity in relation to are industry specified in the first schedule. Where unless special
care taken raw material used there in or the intermediate are finished products.

Protection against health hazards :The types of measure can be taken to protect employee health against
occupational hazards.
1.Preventive measures
2.Curative measures

The former category includes


a) Pre-employment

and

periodic

examination.
b)Removal of health hazards to the maximum possible extent.
c)Check over women and alter workers exposed to especial risks.
d)Training of first aid staff.
e)Education workers in health and hygiene etc...

medical

The curative measures consist of treatment for the effect workers. Use of less
toxic materials, providing protecting devices, controlling dust, fumes gases etc.. are
some of the convenient and inexpensive measures that can be taken by the employers
to prevent health hazards to employees.
Statutory provisions concerning health:
The factories act 1948 says down the following provisions concerning
employees health.

1. Cleanliness :a) Every factory shall be kept clean and free from effluvia arising from any drain.
b) Privy are other nuisance. The flavour of every work room shall be cleaned at
least once in every week by washing.
c) Where a flavour is likely to become wet increase of any manufacturing process
to such an extent as is capable of being drained effective means of drainage shall
be provided.
d) Walls partitions ceiling doors, windows etc... shall be painted varnished, white
colour washed in the prescribed manner.
2. Disposal of waste and Effluents:Effective arrangement shall be made in every factory for the treatment of
wastes and effluents due to manufacturing process carried on there in, so as to render
them innocueres and for their disposal.

3. Ventilation and Temperature :a. The every factory for securing and maintaining in every work room the circulation
of fresh air and such a temperature as will secure to workers there in
reasonable conditions of comfort and prevent injury to health.
b) The process which provides high temperature shall be separated from the work
room by insulating the hot parts or by alter effective means.

4. Artificial Humidification :-

In any factory in which the humidity of the air is artificially increased, the
water use for the purpose shall be taken from a public supply are other source
of drinking water or shall be effectively purified before it is so used.

5. Over Crowding :There shall be in every work room of a factory at least 9.9 cubic metres [for the
factories existing before this act] and 14.2 cubic metres [for factories built after this
act] of space for every worker. In calculating such space, no account shall be taken of
any space which is more than 4.2 metres above the level of the rooms floor.

6. Lighting :a) In every part of the factory where workers are working are passing there shall
be provided and maintained sufficient and suitable lighting material are
artificial or bath.
b) All glazed windows and sky lights used for lighting shall be kept clean and
free from obstructions.

7. Drinking :a) In every factory effective arrangement shall be made so provided and maintain
at suitable points conveniently situated for all workers.
b) All such points shall be marked drinking water in a language understand by
a majority of workers employed in the factory.

8. Latrines and urinals :a) In every factory :- Sufficient latrine accommodation of prescribed type shall be
provided conveniently situated and accessible to workers at the time while they
are at the factory.
b) In every factory where in more than two hundred and fifty workers are
ordinarily employed. All latrine accommodation shall be of prescribed sanitary
types
9. Spittoons :a) In every factory there shall be provided a sufficient number of spittoons at
convenient places and they shall be maintains in a clean and hygienic
condition.
b) No person shall spit within the premises of a factory except in the spittoon
provided for the purpose.

Types of Accidents
Accidents are of different types. They may be classified as major and minor
ones, depending upon the severity of the injury. An accident which ends in a death, or
which results in a prolonged disability to the injured is a major one. A scratch or a cut
which does not seriously disable him/her is a minor accident.
An accident may be internal or external. If a worker falls, or an object falls on
him/her, it is possible he or she may show no external signs of injury, but he or she
may have fractured a bone or strained a muscle or nerve --- which is an internal injury.
A worker may be disabled by an injury for an hour, half a day, a day, a week, a month,
or a few months. If he or she recovers from such a disability, his or her disability is
temporary, If the injury is such that he or she will never recover fully, his or her
disability is permanent.

Accidents

Internal

External

Major

Minor

Fatal

Disability

Temporary

Partial

Permanent

Total

Total

Partial

Need for Safety Eliminate the causes for accidents and industrial safety is ensured.
Why safety?
An accident-free plant enjoys certain benefits.
Major ones are substantial
1. Savings in costs
2. Increased productivity 3. And moral and legal grounds.

Cost Saving :
Two types of costs are incurred by the management when an accident occurs.
There are the direct costs, in the form of compensation payable to the dependents of
the victim if the accident is fatal, and medical expenses incurred in treating the patient
if the accident is non-fatal, the management, however, is not liable to meet the direct
costs if the victim is insured under the ESI scheme. When the victim is uninsured,
compensation and medical expenses are the responsibility of the management. There is
the cost of risk management, which the management must bear.

More serious than the direct costs are the indirect or hidden costs which the
management cannot avoid. In fact, the indirect costs are three to four times higher than
the direct costs. Hidden costs include loss on account of down-time of operators,
slowed-up production rate of other workers, materials spoiled and labour for cleaning,
and damages to equipment.

When an injured worker returns (if he/she is lucky to do so), he/she may
operate at less than his/her normal efficiency for sometime. Co-workers, too, may
become emotionally upset for some time and consequently turnout fewer and inferior
goods. Finally, customers may be lost because of the nonexecution of orders on time.
A safety plant, by avoiding accidents, eliminates these direct and indirect costs.
Increased productivity :
Safety plants are efficient plants. To a large extent, safety promotes productivity,
employees in safe plants can be devote more time to improving the quality and
quantity of their output and spend less time worrying about their safety and wellbeing.

Moral :

Safety is important on humane grounds too. Managers must undertake accident


prevention measures to minimise the pain and suffering the injured worker and his/her
family are often exposed to as a result of the accident. An employee is a worker in the
factory and the bread-winner for his/her family. The happiness of his/her family
depends upon the health and well-being of the worker. It is no secret that the
dependents of a worker look forward to his/her reaching home safe everyday. Imagine
their agony when they receive the news that the fingers, legs, eyes, hands or the life
itself of their breadwinner has been in jeopardy. True, a fatal or non-fatal injury
entitles his/her dependents or him to monetary a compensation, as per the workmens
compensation act, 1923. But is monetary compensation a substitute for the person?

Legal :
There are legal reasons too for undertaking safety measures. There are laws covering
occupational health and safety, and penalties for non-compliance have become quite
serve. The responsibility extends to the safety and health of the surrounding
community, too. The Supreme Court held:
An enterprise which is engaged in a hazardous or inherently dangerous
industry which poses a potential threat to the health and safety of the persons working
in the factory and industry in the surrounding areas, owes an absolute and nondelegable duty to the community to ensure that no harm result to anyone on account of
the hazardous or inherently dangerous nature. This implies unlimited liability.
The civil law established the extent of damages or compensation. Under the
criminal law, sentences are prescribed under the pollution control laws. There is no
legal ceiling on the extent of liability.

Finally, financial losses which accompany accidents can be avoided if the plant
is accident free. Financial losses can be considerable as revealed in table.

Safety programme
Safety programme deals with the prevention of accidents and with minimising
the resulting loss and damage to persons and property. Five basic principles

must govern the safety programme of an organisation. The five principles are:
1. Industrial accidents result from a multiplicity of factors. But these have to be
traced to their root causes, which are usually faults in the management system
arising from poor leadership from the top, inadequate supervision, insufficient
attention to the design of safety into the system, an unsystematic approach to
the identification, analysis and elimination of hazards, and poor training
facilities.
2.The most important function of safety programmes is to identify potential
hazards, provide effective safety facilities and equipment and to take prompt
remedial action. This is possible only if there are:
Comprehensive and effective systems for reporting all accidents
causing damage or injury;
Adequate accident records and statistics;
Systematic procedures for carrying out safety checks, inspections and
investigations;
Methods of ensuring that safety equipment is maintained and used; and
Proper means available for persuading managers, supervisors and
workers to pay more attention to safety matters.
3. The safety policies of the organisation should be determined by the top
management and it must be continuously involved in monitoring safety
performance and in ensuring that corrective action is taken when necessary.
4.The management and the supervision must be made fully accountable for safety
performance in the working areas they control.
5.All employees should be given thorough training in safe methods of work and
they should receive continuing education and guidance on eliminating safety
hazards and prevention of accidents.

A safety programme generally contains six elements, namely


1.Making strategic choices.
2.Development of policies, procedures and training systems.
3.Organisation for safety.
4.Analysis of the caused and occurrence of accidents.

5.Implementation of the programme.


6.Evaluation of the effectiveness of the programme.
Strategic Choices
The first step in a safety programme is for managements to make decisions
regarding safety of their workers. Many of the decisions made are based on strategic
choices available to the organisation. Some of these strategic choices are;

1. Managers must determine the level of protection the organisation will provide
for employees. Some companies, for financial or liability reasons, prefer a
minimum level of protection, while other organisations choose a maximum
level of protection, while other organisations choose a maximum level of
protection.
2. Managers can decide whether a safety programme will be formal or informal.
Formal programmers will have return regulations and are carefully monitored.
Informal regulations are enforced through peer pressure or good training.
3.Managers can also be proactive or reactive in developing procedures or plans
with respect to employee safety. Proactive managers seek to improve the
safety of employees prior to a need to do so, while reactive managers fix safety
problems after they occur.
4. Managers can decide to use the safety of workers as a marketing tool for the
organisation.

This type of strategy would involve publicising what the

company has done to promote safety and how safe the plant is to work with.

The four strategic choices listed above will also apply to issues relating to health of
workers.

Safety Policy
The second step in evolving a safety programme is to have a safety policy. A
policy specifies the companys goals and designates the responsibilities and authority
for their achievement. It may also provide caveats and sanctions for failing to fulfil
them. There are differences in the form and content of corporate policies. Their style,

however, is not as important as the clarity with which they identify functional
responsibilities and authority.

Specifically, a safety policy must contain a declaration of the organisations


intent and the means by which the intent is to be realised. As a part of the intent, the
statement should emphasise four fundamental points4 (i) the safety of employees and
the public is of paramount importance; (ii) safety will take precedence over
expediency; (iii) every effort will be made to involve all managers, supervisors and
employees in the development and implementation of safety procedures; and (iv)
safety legislation will be complied with, in the spirit as well as the letter of the law.
The means to realise the intent part of a policy refers to the organisation for safety.

Organisation for safety


The third step in evolving a safety programme is to constitute an organisation
for safety. Companies constitute safety committees which are, composed of employees
from across the organisation. Typically, safety committees serve in advisory capacities
and are responsible for such tasks as reviewing safety procedures, making
recommendations for eliminating specific safety and health hazards, investigating
accidents, fielding safety related complaints from employees and monitoring statutory
compliance.

Most companies employ safety specialists to design and handle the day-to day
activities of the safety programme. Responsibility of employee safety devolves upon
the HR department whose task is to co-ordinate the activities of all those concerned
with safety.
The top management cannot absolve itself of the responsibility of ensuring
employee safety. In fact, the managing director of the company is held responsible for
an accident and is punished with fine, imprisonment or both.

Risk management is becoming very common these days. A typical modern


corporation carries a portfolio of risks. They include risks associated with industrial
safety, process technology, hazard insurance, materials management and environment
degradation. The simplest way of safeguarding oneself is insurance. But insurance to
cover all risks may not be available or will be expensive, if available. Industrial risk
management is the answer to
the

problem.

The

job

of

risk

management is to assess all risks for frequency, probability and severity, and to take
necessary steps to avoid or reduce the impact of potential losses, besides monitoring
the results.

The trend nowadays is to constitute a separate department for risk


management. Essar, for example, has a 22-member department which is called the
department of environment, risk and insurance management. The team comprises
experts in insurance and risk management, chemicals, electronics, mechanical and
electrical engineering, and environmental science.

Consortium approach is spreading to safety, too. In Mumbai, a handful of


companies have taken the initiative in setting up a mutual aid programme. They have
written a ready reckoner called the Mutual Aid Response Group (MARG). In the even
of a hazard, expertise is pooled in by the companies to ward off or control the hazard.

Extent and Remedies for Accidents


Causes for accidents are many and various. Broadly speaking, these causes
may be classified into two groups 1. Human failure and
2. Machine failure

Human failure leads to an accident when the employee ignores safety precautions and
commits an unsafe act. Majority of accidents occur because of human failure. Machine
failure refers to faulty mechanical or physical conditions leading to accidents.

They are:
1. Lack of adequate inspection adds to the problem of industrial accidents. We
have the factories act, the boiler act, the Indian explosives act, the Indian
electricity act, the pesticides act, the water
(Prevention and control of pollution) act, the air (Prevention and control of
pollution) act, and the environment protection act. All these contain elaborate
provisions to ensure employee and public safety, and also punishment for
noncompliance. Things usually go wrong in the implementation of the laws.
Here comes the need for stringent inspection which is not forthcoming. Partly,
the problem lies with the inadequate strength of inspectors.

CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS

Unsafe Mechanical or
Unsafe Acts of Persons
Physical
Operating without
1
Inadequately
.
clearance, failure to
heed warning.

2
.

Conditions

guarded, guards of
improper height, strength, mesh, etc.

Operating or working at an unsafe 2


speed.
.

Unguarded, absence of required


guards.

3
.

Making safety devices inoperative.

4
.

Using unsafe equipment,


equipment unsafely.

5
.

Unsafe loading,
combining, etc.

6
.

Taking an unsafe position or posture.

7
.

Working on moving
equipment.
.

8
.

Distracting, teasing, 8 abusing, startling, etc.Unsafely clothed, no goggles, glares


.
or masks, high heels, etc.

9
.

Failure to use safe


protective devices.

placing,

or

3
.

Defective, rough, sharp, slippery,


decayed, cracked, etc.

using 4
.

Unsafely designed machines, tools,


etc.

mixing, 5
.

Unsafely
arranged,
poor
housekeeping, congestion, blocked
exits, etc.

or

6
.

Inadequately lighted, sources of


glare, etc.

dangerousInadequately ventilated, impure oil


source, etc.

9 attire or personal

. Unsafe
processes,
chemical, electrical,

mechanical,

nuclear, etc.
Abrol of the delhi science forum observes that Indian plants are not designed
with enough backup safety systems. Others in the industry point to corruption
in the factories inspectorate, the government arm that is supposed to check on
safety at the factory level. A manufacturer confesses that he bribed a boiler
inspector with Rs 5000 after the inspector said that the boilers tube outlet for
steam should have been stamped boiler quality tested. The newly set-up

plant could not go on stream because the boiler had not been certified by the
factories inspectorate.

In the name of the nature of industry, workers are crushed to death. Child
labour in diamond cutting industry is common. Workers are often locked from outside
to prevent them from smuggling out diamonds. The latter custom killed 127 workers
as they stampeded against bolted doors when the January quake struck polishing units
in Ahmedabad.
Because of their arduous calling, most workers, including children, end up with failed
eyesight early in life.
As companies globalise. And projects especially, large ones involving greater
complexities increase, new risks emerge. Technological advancement has brought in
threats of obsolescence, which itself is a big risk.

Accident Rates
Accidents are described in terms of frequency, severity and incidence.
Organisations generally maintain frequency, severity and incidence records.
Mathematical formulae are used to calculate accident rates. Thus ,for calculating the
incidence rate the formula is:

Number of recordable
injuries*1 million
Incidence rate=

Number of employee exposure hours

Suppose an organisation had 10 recorded injuries and 500 employees. To get the
number of exposure hours, it would multiply the number of employees by 40 hours
and 50 work weeks, that is 500 *40*50=1 million. In this case, the incidence rate
would be 10, that is there were 10 recorded injuries for every 100 employees.
The severity rate reflects the hours actually lost due to injury. It recognises that
not all injuries are equal. As was mentioned earlier, injuries may be fatal or non-fatal,
total or partial, and permanent or temporary. Specific hours may be charged against an

organisation for each category of injuries. The formula for calculating the severity
rate is:

Total hours charged *1 million


severity rate= Number of employee
hours worked

Obviously, an organisation with the same number of injuries as another but with more
deaths would have a higher severity rate. The problem with severity rate is allotting
hours for each injury. Allotment, at the most, can be arbitrary. Hence, severity rate is
not generally calculated.
The frequency rate is similar to the incidence rate except that it reflects the number of
injuries per million hours worked rather than per year:9
Number of disabling
injuries*1 million
Frequency rate=

Number of

employee hours worked


The supervisor or the foreman is the key person in industrial accident
prevention. His/her application of the art of supervision to the control of worker
performance is a factor which exerts the greatest influence in successful accident
prevention.
The humanitarian incentive for preventing accidental injury is supplemented
by a realisation of two powerful economic factors, namely:
(i) A safe establishment is efficient productively, and an unsafe establishment is
inefficient.
(ii) The direct employer costs of industrial injuries for compensation claims
medical treatment are but one-fourth of the total which the

and for

employer must bear.

Safety should be driven internally, not externally.


Do not count on common sense for safety improvement.
Safety incentive programs should focus on processes rather than outcomes.
Behaviour is dictated by activators and motivated by consequences.
When people feel empowered, their safe behaviour spreads to other situation.

These axioms give us an idea of various safety measures to be implemented by


the management. However, we discuss here certain important safety measures. The
measures are applicable to all industrial establishments, irrespective of their size and
age.

Training in safety
Systematic training of industrial employees is necessary if they are to do their jobs
efficiently and safely. This is an inescapable requirement, regardless of how carefully
employees are selected or how much aptitude and experience they may have for the
jobs to which they are assigned. Training practices in the industry will be found to
vary widely with respect to method, content, quality, quantity, and source of
instruction. The differences are influenced, strongly by the size of the company, the
types of jobs performed, and the awareness of the management regarding

the

importance of training.
Example: Electrical Safety Training:
It is not enough if workers are trained on the methods of avoiding accidents.
They must be trained on the ways of minimising damage, should an accident occur.
For example, high-voltage line repairs must be given thorough indoctrination in
correct work methods before they are permitted to undertake more hazardous phases
of their work. Additionally, the employees must be given instructions in first-aid
procedures, including specialised techniques for resuscitation, using prescribed
methods that can be applied while the victim is still at the top of a high-voltage line

pole. A similar problem might occur in a chemical plant. Employees may be working
with compounds that, if accidentally released or spilled in large volumes, would cause
sever injury upon contact with the skin or body tissues. In such situations, a common
safety device is the installation of emergency showers that provide a deluge of water to
thoroughly flush the dangerous compound off the skin of a victim. Training for such
workers requires, therefore, not only what to do and what not to do in performing the
job properly, but also thorough instructions on the use of special devices and
procedures, in the event an emergency occurs.
Training may be given by the foreman or supervisor responsible for the job.
However, nowadays, the management is finding it worthwhile to use specialists in
training to supplement the work of the supervisor, as in the case of job analysis and
injury prevention. Training specialists do not necessarily do the job for which the
supervisor is responsible. The function of the specialist is to set up the procedure so
that the training can be imparted by qualified persons in the plant or; individual
departments. The specialist will prepare the instructional manuals and other details for
conducting the training programme, and supervise the activity.
The National Organic Chemical Industries (NOCIL) has unique training
programmes on safety. The company has a risk management team comprising medical
officers, nursing and pathological staff and safety officers-all numbering 20. The
teams agenda includes safety, health and environment protection. NOCILs training
programmes consist of mandatory training programmes like mock safety drills (every
week) and evacuation drills (at least once in a year). In addition, the company has
organised a modular approach to step up safety measure.
There is the departmental module in which all departments at the plant are in
an integrated safety programme. A regular duty system enables every department to
participate. This team is led by the particular department head assisted by a fire
marshall, an operations expert, four engineers (mechanical, electrical, inspection and
instrumentation) and a product transport specialist to take accountability of in-transit
cargo.

The second module extends itself beyond the plant.

NOCILs sales and

marketing teams at Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi and Chennai have been geared to take

charge in the event of any perilous occurrence. About 50 sales persons have been
trained to respond to any mishap.
At Burroughs Wellcome India seminars, training programmes and workshops
are a regular feature. In fact, these programmes have yielded good results to the
company.

Physical and Mechanical Conditions:


Safety measures should be kept in mind while planning a layout and constructing a
building. Workers must be provided with safe tools and equipment to work with. All
machinery must be fended, and mechanically and physically unsafe conditions should
be eliminated.
No new machine should be installed without being sufficiently guarded and
fenced. The practice of supply of safety accessories by the manufacturers on request at an
extra cost must be discontinued. Machines must be designed, manufactured, priced, and
supplied with necessary built-in safety measures. The safest way would be to install
machines as in industrially advanced countries which would automatically stop
working as soon as the workers hand crosses the danger zone.
Protective equipment of good quality and proper size, goggles, gloves, ear
muffs, safety belts and shoes, helmets, and so forth, should, be supplied to workers,
who must be educated to wear them while on duty.
Aisles and passages should be free to permit easy movement of workers and
materials. Proper storage facilities should be provided for materials and workinprogress so as to prevent collision and stumbling, and to facilitate escape in
emergencies.
There is a need for periodic inspection to ensure safety of workers and
machines. Defective tools and equipment must be discarded. Safe electrical wiring
adds to the safety of a plant.
In this context, it is useful to recollect the provisions of the Factories Act, 1948
relating to safety. Sections 21 to 41 of the Act deal with safety. The safety provisions
are absolute and obligatory and the occupier of every factory is bound to follow them.
HEALTH

The well-being of the employee in an industrial establishment is affected by


accidents and by ill health-physical as well as mental. In this section, we shall discuss
the need for healthy workers and health services to be provided by the management to
ensure the continuing good health of their employees.
We propose to examine employee health from the following angles-physical
health, mental health, noise control, stress management, AIDS, alcoholism, and drug
abuse, and violence in work place.

i. Physical Health
III health of employees results in reduced productivity, higher unsafe acts, and
increased absenteeism. A healthy worker, on the other hand, produces results opposite
to these.

In other words, healthy employees are more productive, more safety

conscious, and are more regular to work. The worker who is healthy is always
cheerful, confident looking, and is an invaluable asset to the organisation.
But the physical health of an employee can be adversely affected by several
causes as shown in the below Table.

Health Hazards:
Health Hazards

Causes

Lung cancer

Coke oven emissions, asbestos, active or passive


cigarette smoke

White lung disease

Asbestos

Black lung disease

Coal dust

Brown lung disease

Cotton dust

Leukaemia

Benzene, radiation

Cancer of other Asbestos, radiation, vinyl


organs
chloride, coke oven emissions
Sterility/reproductive Radiation
problems
Deteriorating eye- Chemical
fumes,
sight
equipment
Hearing impairment
High noise levels

office

A realisation of the advantages which flow from a healthy workforce has


impelled many managements to provide health services to their employees, which vary
from the simple provision of first-aid equipment to complete medical care. Many
progressive organisations maintain well-equipped dispensaries with full-time or parttime doctors and full-time compounders/nurses.

Unlike his/her counterpart of

yesteryears, who would take every precaution to protect his horses against diseases but
felt that the health of the human worker was his own business, the manager of today is
fully aware of the advantages of having a healthy workforce.
The protection of the health of the workers is a legal requirement too. Sections
11 to 20 of the Factories Act, 1948 deal with the health of workers.

Health Services: A typical organisation renders the following health services to its
employees. It may be stated that these services, at best, offer first-aid treatment to
the victims. For any major ailment, employees are advised to go to ESI or
authorised clinics/nursing homes.
1.Pre-hiring medical check-up for all employees.
2.Periodical physical, check-up of all employees. Regular medical check-up of
executive to detect early signs of tension, ulcers, diabetes and the like.
3.First-aid treatment following an accident training in first-aid to all employees.
4. Treatment of minor complaints, such as cold, cough, fever and headaches.
5.Rehabilitation and job placement of seriously injured workers who have been
cured but suffer from some disability.
6.Control of occupational health hazards.
7. Provision of healthy sanitary facilities, such as supply of portable water,
disposal of waste and effluents; provision of healthy food; elimination
of insects and rodents; provision of personal services; good housekeeping and
the like.
8.Special examination of eyes, teeth and ears, when needed.

9.Co-operation with family physicians, local hospitals, clinics, as well as with


specialists.
10. Special care of employees working in painting, welding and foundry sections
where the risk of their health is greater.
11. Maternity and child welfare, including family planning.
12. Adequate ventilation, good lighting, tree planting and good residential
quarters.

II. Mental Health


In recent years, mental health of employees, particularly that of executives, has
engaged the attention of employers. Three reasons may be given for this development.
First, mental breakdowns are common in modern days because of pressures and
tensions. Second, mental disturbances of various types result in reduced productivity
and lower profits for the organisation. Third, mental illness takes its toll through
alcoholism, high employee turnover, and poor human relationships.

A mental health service is generally rendered in the following ways:


1. Psychiatric counselling,
2. Co-operation and consultation with outside psychiatrists and specialists.
3. Education of company personnel in the nature and the importance of mental
health.
4. Development and maintenance of an effective human relations programme.
CHAPTER - 4

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Introduction:
Research methodology is way to systematically solve the research problem in
this study. The research adopted various steps for collecting the data.

Sampling Plan:
The sampling plan is having three parts (or) division are as follows.
Sampling method
Sampling unit
Sample size

1. Sample method:Simple random sampling was the sampling techniques used for collecting the
data.
2. Sample unit :The sample unit selected for the study was the employees. The employees of
tanfac(pvt) ltd., in cuddalore is being selected for this sample unit study.

3. Sample size:25 employees were selected for the survey in the various department of
employees.

Method of data collection


Datas are collected through survey method by using a structured
questionnaire.
Source of data Collection:The research has used both the primary data & Secondary data.

Primary data :Data are being collected from the employees directly from the work field for
the first time by the researcher is called primary data.

Secondary data :The secondary data is collected from various books, magazines and company
records. It is also used in this project.

Tools used:The main tool used for data analysis is percentage analysis.

1. Percentage analysis:The percentage method was extensively used for finding various details as
mentioned in the chapter analysis and interpretation. It can be calculated as follows.

No of respondents favourableX100
Total No. of respondents

CHAPTER 5

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

Primary Objectives
1.To know the satisfactory level of employees and employer health &
Safety.
2.To study the employees awareness about the health and safety provisions.

Secondary Objectives
1.To study the effectiveness of the health and safety measures provides by
the company
2.To study the employees expectation towards various health and safety
measures.
3.To find the satisfactory level of employees with regard to welfare
provisions that binds the health and safety.
4.To know the medical availability in the company.
5. To know the ambulance and other emergency facilities available in the
company.

CHAPTER 6

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

i. Hesitation on the part of the employee and employer to come out with their
opinion
regarding the present position.
ii. Some of the employees and employer contacted were reluctant to another
some questions iii.Tea employees and management staff are not willing to
answer properly. iv.
v.

Sampling is done randomly.


The data has been collected using

questionnaire which has the known problem of respondent not sizing factual
information an many occasions.

CHAPTER - 7

DATA ANALYSIS AND


INTERPRETATION

Table - 1

AGE WISE CLASSIFICATION

S.NO
.

AGE
GROU
P

Betwee n 3140
years
15

60

Betwee n 4150
years
5

20

3
4

Above
50 years

NO. OF
RESPONDEN TS

Betwee n 20- 2
30

PERCENTAG E

12
8

years
TOTA L
25

100

INTERPRETATION:

From the above table it is observed that 60% of the respondents belong to 3140 age group and 20% of the respondents belong to 40-50 age group and 12% of the
respondents belong to bath above
50 years.
FIGURE 1

AGE WISE CLASSIFICATION

AGE
Table - 2

GENDER WISE CLASSIFICATION

S.N
O.
1
2

GENDE R
Male
Female
TOTAL

NO. OF
RESPONDEN TS

25

100

25

100

INTERPRETATION:
From the above table it is inferred that the
100%
respondents are male.

PERCENTA GE

of

FIGURE 2

GENDER WISE CLASSIFICATION

GE

100%

Table - 3

MARITAL STATUS CLASSIFICATION

S.N
O.
1

MARIT
AL
STATUS
Married

NO. OF
RESPONDEN TS

PERCENTA GE

23

92

25

100

Unmarried
2
TOTAL
INTERPRETATION:
From the above table it is inferred that the 92% of respondents says in married
and 8% of respondents says in un-married.

FIGURE 3

MARITAL STATUS
CLASSIFICATION

MAR

100%
Table 4

EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION

EDUCATIO NAL
QUALIFICA TION
S.N
O.

NO. OF
RESPONDE NTS

PERCENT AGE

14

56

Diploma / Graduate
1
2

Below S.S.L.C

16

P.G

16

HSC

12

TOTAL

25

100

INTERPRETATION:
From the above table it is inferred that 56% of respondents were having
diploma / graduation, 16% of respondents were below S.S.L.C and P.G respectively
remaining 12% of respondents were H.S.C.

FIGURE 4

E
G
A
T
N
E

EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION

ED

60%

56%

50%
Table 5

YEARS OF EXPERIENCE

S.N
O.

YEARS OF
EXPERIEN CE

NO. OF
RESPONDE NTS

PERCENTA GE

Above 15 years

11-15 years

11

44

32

5-10 years

12

12

25

100

Below 5 years
4
TOTAL
INTERPRETATION:
From the above table shows that 44% of respondents are having above 15
years experience and 32% of respondents are having 11-15 years experience and 12%
of respondents are having between 5-10 years experience and 12% of respondents
having above below 5 years
experience.

E
C
N
EI
R

FIGURE 5

YEARS OF EXPERIENCE

S.NO.

SAFETY
BUDGET &
SAFETY
DEPARTMENT
BEING
ARRANGED

NO. OF
RESPONDENTS

Yes

22

No

TOTAL

25

PERCE

12%
Table - 6

8
1

SAFETY BUDGET & SAFETY DEPARTMENT

INTERPRETATION:

From the above table it is inferred that 88% of respondents were having safety

budget & safety department and 12% of respondents exposed are not have safety
budget & safety department and in our company.

12%

FIGURE 6

SAFETY BUDGET & SAFETY DEPARTMENT

SAFET
Table - 7

HEALTH & SAFETY POLICY

HEALTH
&
SAFETY
POLICY
IS
AVAILAB LE

NO. OF
RESPONDE NTS

PERCENTA GE

Yes

25

100

No

S.N
O.

TOTAL

25

100

INTERPRETATION:
From the above table it is inferred that 100% respondents says that have health
& safety policy in our company.

FIGURE 7

HEALTH & SAFETY POLICY

H
Table - 8

WORK PERMIT SYSTEM

S.N
O.

WORK
PERMIT
SYSTEM
IS
PROVID ED

NO. OF
RESPONDE NTS

PERCENTA GE

Yes

25

100

No

TOTAL

25

100

INTERPRETATION:
From the above table is shows they are 100% respondents were exposed work
permit system in our company.

FIGURE 8

WORK PERMIT SYSTEM

W
Table - 9

FACTORY SAFETY COMMITTEE

FACTORY
SAFETY
COMMITT
EE
IS
AVAILAB LE

NO. OF
RESPONDE NTS

PERCENTA GE

Yes

25

100

No

25

100

S.N
O.

TOTAL
INTERPRETATION:

From the table it shows that all the respondent says the safety committee more
arranged in our company properly.

FIGURE 9

FACTORY SAFETY COMMITTEE

S.NO.

SAFETY
COMMITTE
E MEETING
IS
CONDUCTED

NO. OF
RESPONDENTS

PERCEN

Weekly once

Two week once

Monthly once

25

Yearly once

TOTAL

25

FA

Table - 10

SAFETY COMMITTEE MEETING

100

100

INTERPRETATION:
Above the table shows that 100% employees are respected that the safety
committee meeting is being conducted in any month of EID parry.

FIGURE 10

E
SAFETY COMMITTEE MEETING

SA

100%
90%
Table - 11

ON-SITE EMERGENCY PLAN

S.N
O.

ON-SITE
EMERGEN
CY PLAN ARE
PREPARE
IN OUR
COMPAN Y

NO. OF
RESPONDE NTS

PERCENTA GE

Yes

24

96

No

25

100

TOTAL
INTERPRETATION:

If is found that 96% of respondents expressed that the on site emergency plan
is durable. A remaining 4% respondents are expressed that on site emergency plan is
not available.

FIGURE 11

ON-SITE EMERGENCY PLAN

ONTable - 12

FIRE EXTINGUISHERS & FIRE HYDRANT SYSTEM PROVIDED

S.N
O.

FIRE
EXTINGUIS
&
HYDRANT
SYSTEM
PROVIDED

HERS
NO. OF
RESPOND ENTS

PERCENT AGE

Yes

25

100

No

TOTAL

25

100

INTERPRETATION:

From the table it is observed that 100% of respondents are having adequate fire
extinguishers in our company.

FIGURE 12

FIRE-EXTINGUISHERS &
FIRE HYDRANT SYSTEM PROVIDED

FIRE EXTINGU
Table - 13

SAFETY TRAINING PROGRAMME

S.N
O.

SAFETY
TRAINING
PROGRAM ME
CONDUCT ED

Yes

NO. OF
RESPONDE NTS

PERCENT AGE

20

80

No
TOTAL

20

25

100

INTERPRETATION:
From the above table it is inferred that 80% of respondents were facilitated
with safety training program at work place and 20% respondents were not provided
with safety training program.

FIGURE 13

E
G
SAFETY TRAINING PROGRAMME

SAF
100%
90% 80%

Table 14

PRESSURE VESSELS CRANES & CHAIN

A
BLOCKS

INTERPRETATION:
From the above table it is inferred that the 100% of respondents are says
pressure vessels cranes & chain blocks are at all times inspected periodically well

S.NO.

PRESSURE
VESSELS
CRANES &
CHAIN
BLOCKS
IS BEING
DONE

NO. OF
RESPONDENTS

Yes

25

No

TOTAL

done.

25

PERCENTA

100
100

FIGURE 14

PRESSURE VESSELS CRANES &


CHAIN BLOCKS

PRESSURE

Table - 15

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

S.N
O.

PERSONA
L
PROTECT
IVE
EQUIPME
NT IS
BEING
USED

NO. OF
RESPONDE NTS

PERCENTA GE

Yes

25

100

No

25

100

TOTAL
INTERPRETATION:

From the above the table obtained about result that 100% of respondents are
says that are using protective equipment to all employees.

FIGURE 15

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE
EQUIPMENT

PERSO

Table - 16

SAFETY SHOE & SAFETY HELMET

SAFETY
SHOE &
SAFETY
HELMET
IS BEING
PROVID ED

NO. OF
RESPONDE NTS

PERCENTA GE

Yes

25

100

No

25

100

S.N
O.

TOTAL
INTERPRETATION:

From the above table it is inferred that the 100% of respondents says that
safety shoe & safety helmet is being provided.

FIGURE 16

E
SAFETY SHOE & SAFETY HELMET

S.NO.

NEAR MISS
REPORTING
SYSTEM IS
AVAILABLE

NO. OF
RESPONDENTS

Yes

20

80

No

20

TOTAL

25

SAF

100%
Table - 17

NEAR MISS REPORTING SYSTEM

INTERPRETATION:

PERCENT

100

G
From the above table it is inferred that the 80% of respondents says that has
near miss reporting system in our company.

FIGURE 17

NEAR MISS REPORTING SYSTEM

NEA

M
E

Table - 18

RECOMMENDATION GIVEN BY THE


SAFETY COMMITTEE IS IMPLEMENTED

S.N
O.

RECOMMENDA
TION GIVEN BY
SAFETY
COMMITTEE IS
IMPLEMENTED

THE
NO. OF
RESPOND ENTS

PERCENT AGE

Always

15

60

Some times

16

Never

24

TOTAL

25

100

INTERPRETATION:
From the above table it is inferred that 60% of respondent are always and 24% of
respondents are never and 16% of respondents are sometimes.

FIGURE 18

RECOMMENDATION GIVEN BY THE


SAFETY
COMMITTEE IS IMPLEMENTED

RECOMM CO

24%
Table - 19

NATURAL VENTILATION

S.N
O.

NATURAL
VENTILAT
ION IN
WORK
SPOT

NO. OF
RESPONDE NTS

PERCENT AGE

Yes

18

75

No

25

25

100

TOTAL
INTERPRETATION:

Above the table shows that the 72% of respondents says that are having adequate
ventilation facility and 25% of respondents are says have not ventilation facility in the
work spot.

FIGURE 19

NATURAL VENTILATION

NATURAL

Table - 20

WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEM

WASTE
DISPOSA
L
SYSTEM
IS
AVAILAB LE

NO. OF
RESPONDE NTS

PERCENTA GE

Yes

22

88

No

12

25

100

S.N
O.

TOTAL
INTERPRETATION:

From the above table it is inferred that the 88% of respondents says that are
satisfied in the waste disposal system and 12% respondents says are not do the waste
disposal system.

FIGURE 20

2
%
WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEM

W
Table - 21

AMBULANCE VAN IS AVAILABLE

S.N
O.

AMBULAN
CE VAN IS
AVAILAB
LE IN
EACH
SHIFT

NO. OF
RESPONDE NTS

Yes

23

92

No

25

100

TOTAL
INTERPRETATION:

PERCENTA GE

From the above table it is classified that 92% of respondents also says that are
opinion were having ambulance van facility and 8% of respondents says that are not have
ambulance
facility.

FIGURE 21

AMBULANCE VAN IS AVAILABLE

100%
90%

Table 22

AMBULANCE

MEDICAL ATTENDENTS / DOCTOR AVAILABLE

S.N
O.

MEDICAL
ATTENDE
NTS /
DOCTOR
AVAILABL E IN
YOUR FACTORY
NO. OF
?
RESPONDE NTS

PERCENT AGE

Yes

25

100

No

25

100

TOTAL
INTERPRETATION:

From the above table it is inferred that the 100% of employees says that are have
in sufficient medical attendants / doctor available in our factory.

FIGURE 22

MEDICAL ATTENDENTS / DOCTOR


AVAILABLE

Table - 23

OPINION / SUGGESTION REGARDING


HEALTH AND SAFETY MEASURE OF COMPANY

S.N
O.

OPINION /
SUGGESTION
FOR HEALTH
AND SAFETY
MEASURE OF COMPANY

NO. OF
RESPOND ENTS

PERCEN TAGE

Yes

23

92

No

TOTAL

25

100

INTERPRETATION:
Most of the respondents says health & safety facility is enough but some of the
respondents says are not have the sufficient health & safety measure in the company.

FIGURE 23

OPINION / SUGGESTION REGARDING


HEALTH
AND SAFETY MEASURES OF COMPANY

O P IN IO N
ANDS
CHAPTER - 8

FINDINGS

60% of respondents were belong of the age group 31-40 years.

Fully 100% respondents were male.


Mostly 92% of respondents were married.
About 56% diploma / graduate.
Majority 44% of respondents were having above 15 years experient.
Almost 88% of the respondents to give the opinion for yes about safety budget &
safety department.
Almost 88% of respondents says that safety budget & safety department is having
in our company.


Fully 100% of respondents were satisfied with health & safety policy.
Mostly respondent were satisfied give with work permit system in our company.
Mostly respondent were satisfied with work permit system in the organisation.
Mostly 100% of respondents are fully satisfied for factory safety committee.
All respondents says that the company arranged in factory safety committee.
The 100% of respondents were satisfied with the monthly once safety committee
meeting conducted by the company.
It is that new employees not inducted about o & EP.
The 96% of respondents were satisfied with the fire fighting facilities for fire
extinguishers & fire hydrant system are available in the factory.
The 80% of respondents to have attend safety training programme in last one year.
Fully 100% of respondents says that periodic inspection for company like
pressure vessels cranes & chain blocks.
Fully 100% of respondents are using personal Protective equipment during the
working hours.
Fully 100% of respondent says that company provide with adequate personal
protective equipment like safety shoe & safety helmet.
The 80% of respondents says that plan is having near miss reporting system in
working area.
The 60% of respondents says were recommendation given by the safety
committee is implemented in a company.
About the 72% of respondents were satisfied with natural ventilation in a work
spot.
About 88% of respondents were satisfied with waste disposal system.
Mostly 92% of respondents are says that ambulance van id available in each shift.
Fully 100% of respondents were satisfied with medical attendants 1 doctor
available in a factory.

The study under stand the over all health and safety measure of company about
92% of respondents opinion suggestion were says really good.

CHAPTER - 9

SUGGESTION AND
RECOMMENDATION

Safety training programme to be participated by all employees. [Note :- With


out Absent]
Personal protective equipment to be fallowed strictly by all workers at working
place.
To give the recommendation in proper way about safety oriented.
Fresh air facilities to be improved in the company.
[Note :- Concentrate on ventilation facilities] Wastage disposal system
to be improved.
Health and safety measures to be improved for effectively.

CHAPTER 10

CONCLUSION

The study on Employee health and safety measures of tanfac (pvt)

Ltd.,

cuddalore, reveals that there is a satisfactory level regarding health and safety measure.

Through this study. I got some findings and also I have to give some suggestion
based on the findings. I hope that my suggestion will help to improve the health & safety
measures in future.
APPENDIX
A STUDY ON HEALTH AND SAFETY MEASURES OF TANFAC (PVT)
LTD.,
CUDDALORE

1. Name

2. Age :

Between 20-30 years Between 31-40 years

Between 41-50 years Above 50 years


3. Gender
Male
4. Marital Status

Female

Married
Unmarried

5. Educational Qualification
Below S.S.L.C.

HSC

Diploma / Graduate P.G.


6. Years of Experience
Below 5 years

5-10 years

11-15 yearsAbove 15 years


7. Does your department is having safety budget and safety department?
Yes

No

8. Does the organization have a health & safety policy?


Yes

No

9. Does your plant is having work permit system?


Yes

No

10. Does the factory has safety committee?


Yes
No

11. How frequently the safety committee is meeting?


Weekly

onceTwo

Monthly onceYearly once

weeks once
12. Does your plant is having On-site

Emergency Plan?
Yes

No

13. The Fire Fighting facilities like FireExtinguishers & Fire Hydrant system
are
available?
Yes

No

14. Do you have attended any safety training programme in last one year?
Yes

No

15. Does your plant is doing periodic inspection for pressure vessels cranes
& chain blocks?
Yes

No

16. Are you using all Personal Protective


Equipment during the working hours?
Yes

No

17. Do you have provided with adequate


Personal Protective Equipment like Safety Shoe
& Safety Helmet?
Yes

No

18. Are your Plant is having Near miss reporting system?


Yes

No

19. Do you think the recommendation given by the safety committee is


implemented?
Always

Sometimes

Never

20. Whether natural ventilation in your work spot is adequate?


Yes

No

21. Are you satisfied with waste disposal system?


Yes

No

22. Is Ambulance van is available in each shift?


Yes

No

23. Are the Medical attendants / Doctor available in your factory?


Yes

No

24. Mention you opinion / suggestion regarding health and safety measure
of company?
Yes

No

BIBLIOPGRAPHY

1. Human Resource Management

C.B.

Gupta [1996]
Sultanchand & Sons Publications. NewDelhi 110002

2. Marketing Research, New Delhi.

D.D.

Sharma [1999]
Sultanchad & Sons Publications
New Delhi 110002

3. Human Resource and Personnel


Management
Tata Mcgraw Hll Publishing.
New Delhi 110002

4. Published by the health and safety executive