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PETRONAS TECHNICAL STANDARDS

DESIGN AND ENGINEERING PRACTICE

MANUAL

INSTALLATIONS AND DEPOTS PART 6 - PLANT AND EQUIPMENT

PTS 20.158F JUNE 1993

DESIGN AND ENGINEERING PRACTICE MANUAL INSTALLATIONS AND DEPOTS PART 6 - PLANT AND EQUIPMENT PTS 20.158F

PREFACE

PETRONAS Technical Standards (PTS) publications reflect the views, at the time of publication, of PETRONAS OPUs/Divisions.

They are based on the experience acquired during the involvement with the design, construction, operation and maintenance of processing units and facilities. Where appropriate they are based on, or reference is made to, national and international standards and codes of practice.

The objective is to set the recommended standard for good technical practice to be applied by PETRONAS' OPUs in oil and gas production facilities, refineries, gas processing plants, chemical plants, marketing facilities or any other such facility, and thereby to achieve maximum technical and economic benefit from standardisation.

The information set forth in these publications is provided to users for their consideration and decision to implement. This is of particular importance where PTS may not cover every requirement or diversity of condition at each locality. The system of PTS is expected to be sufficiently flexible to allow individual operating units to adapt the information set forth in PTS to their own environment and requirements.

When Contractors or Manufacturers/Suppliers use PTS they shall be solely responsible for the quality of work and the attainment of the required design and engineering standards. In particular, for those requirements not specifically covered, the Principal will expect them to follow those design and engineering practices which will achieve the same level of integrity as reflected in the PTS. If in doubt, the Contractor or Manufacturer/Supplier shall, without detracting from his own responsibility, consult the Principal or its technical advisor.

The right to use PTS rests with three categories of users :

1)

PETRONAS and its affiliates.

2)

Other parties who are authorised to use PTS subject to appropriate contractual

3)

arrangements. Contractors/subcontractors and Manufacturers/Suppliers under a contract with users referred to under 1) and 2) which requires that tenders for projects, materials supplied or - generally - work performed on behalf of the said users comply with the relevant standards.

Subject to any particular terms and conditions as may be set forth in specific agreements with users, PETRONAS disclaims any liability of whatsoever nature for any damage (including injury or death) suffered by any company or person whomsoever as a result of or in connection with the use, application or implementation of any PTS, combination of PTS or any part thereof. The benefit of this disclaimer shall inure in all respects to PETRONAS and/or any company affiliated to PETRONAS that may issue PTS or require the use of PTS.

Without prejudice to any specific terms in respect of confidentiality under relevant contractual arrangements, PTS shall not, without the prior written consent of PETRONAS, be disclosed by users to any company or person whomsoever and the PTS shall be used exclusively for the purpose they have been provided to the user. They shall be returned after use, including any copies which shall only be made by users with the express prior written consent of PETRONAS. The copyright of PTS vests in PETRONAS. Users shall arrange for PTS to be held in safe custody and PETRONAS may at any time require information satisfactory to PETRONAS in order to ascertain how users implement this requirement.

INSTALLATIONS AND DEPOTS

Part 6

SECTION 09.00.00 - PLANT AND EQUIPMENT

INSTALLATIONS AND DEPOTS MANUAL

Section List

Part 1

Section 00.00.00

Introduction

Section 01.00.00

Master Development Planning

Section 02.00.00

Construction Projects

Part 2

Section 03.00.00

Sites and Layouts

Part 3

Section 04.00.00

Building and Civil Engineering

Section 05.00.00

Tanks and Pressure Vessels

Part 4

Section 06.00.00

Pipelines

Part 5

Section 07.00.00

The Design Of Berthing Facilities for Tankers and Small Craft

Section 08.00.00

Heating and Insulation

Part 6

Section 09.00.00

Plant and Equipment

Part 7

Section 10.00.00

Utilities

Section 11.00.00

Mechanical Handling

Part 8

Section 12.00.00

Maintenance and Workshops

Section 13.00.00

General Services

Section 14.00.00

Chemicals Handling

Part 9

Section 15.00.00

Fire Protection

Part 10

Section 16.00.00

Section 17.00.00

Electrical and Static Electricity Hazards Bibliography

INSTALLATIONS AND DEPOTS

CONTENTS

09.00.00.

PLANT AND EQUIPMENT

09.01.00

PRODUCT PUMPS

09.01.01

General Considerations

09.01.02

Selection and Design Features of Pumps

(a)

Centrifugal Pumps (for use with products or water):

(b)

Rotary Pumps (for use with products only):

(c)

Special Products and Purposes

(d)

Design Data References

09.01.03.

Pump Suction/Inlet Conditions

(i)

Effect of Temperature

(ii)

Cavitation

(iii)

Nett Positive Suction Head (NPSH)

09.01.04.

Characteristic Curves of Centrifugal Pumps

09.01.05.

Pump Power Requirements and Flow Rate Relationship

09.01.06.

Pump Location

(a)

Electric Motor-driven Pumps:

(b)

Compression-ignition (CI) Engine-driven pump sets: Fixed and portable

09.01.07.

Pump Installation

09.01.08

Pump Control

09.01.09

Individual Pump Capacities

09.01.10

Pump and Motor Specification

09.02.00

LOADING AND UNLOADING FACILITIES FOR ROAD AND RAIL VEHICLES

09.02.01

Introduction

09.02.02

Rail Tank Wagons

09.02.03

Bulk Road Vehicles

09.02.04

Loading by Weight

09.03.00

DRUM/CONTAINER FILLING

09.03.01

References

09.03.02

Handling of Drums and Packages

09.03.03

Drum Filling: Black and White Oils

(a)

Metal Drums

(b)

Plastic Drums

(c)

Filling by Positive Displacement Meters

(d)

Filling by Weight

09.03.04

Small Packages Filling

(a)

Metal Containers

(b)

Plastic Containers

09.03.05

Re-use of Second-hand Containers

09.04.00

DRUM CLEANING AND RECONDITIONING

09.04.01

Introduction

09.04.02

Types of Drum

(a)

All-welded heavy-gauge steel drums

(b)

Light-gauge steel drums

(c)

Special lightweight drums

09.04.04

Internal Washing

09.04.05

Washing Equipment

09.04.06

Rumbling

09.04.07

Dent Removal

09.04.08

Chimb Straightening

09.04.09

Repairs

(a)

Metal Containers

(b)

Plastic Drums

09.04.10.

Testing for Leaks

09.04.11

Cleaning, Repainting and Stencilling

09.04.12

Re-use of Second-hand Containers and Disposal

09.05.00.

STEAM PLANT AND DISTRIBUTION

09.05.01

General Considerations

09.05.02

Types of Steam Boiler

(a)

Fire-tube Boiler

(b)

Water-tube Boiler

(c)

The 'Package' Boiler

09.05.03

Hot Water Boilers

09.05.04

Boiler Capacity

09.05.05

Boiler Feed-water Treatment

09.05.06

Boiler Fuel Supply

(a)

Fuel Oil

(b)

Gas, or Oil/Gas, Fuel

09.05.07

Steam Distribution

(a)

Pipework Costs

(b)

Expansion of Pipework (see also 06.04.06)

(c)

Condensate and Drainage

(d)

Steam Velocity

(e)

Steam Traps

09.05.08

Instruments and Controls

(a)

Measurement Equipment

(b)

Control Equipment

(c)

Testing and Maintenance

09.05.09

Safety Equipment and Procedures

09.05.10

Efficiency of Boilers

09.05.11

Boiler Replacement Considerations

09.06.00

AUTOMATED CONTROL OF LOADING

09.06.01

Introduction

09.06.02

Objectives of Automated Loading Systems

(a)

Security

(b)

Safety

(c)

Date Capture

(d)

Productivity

09.06.03

Scope and Methods of Operation

09.06.04

Loading Controls

(a)

Security

(b)

Grade and Quantity Control

(c)

Safety

09.06.06

Computer Equipment

 

(a)

Control PCs

(b)

Supervisory PC

(c)

Electric Cabling

09.07.00

BLENDING AND MIXING EQUIPMENT

09.07.01

References

09.07.02

In-tank Blending

09.07.03

In-line Blending

(a)

Blending Fuel Oils

(b)

Blending White Oils

(c)

Gasoline

09.07.04

Mixing Systems

(a)

Compressed Air

(b)

Jet Recirculation

(c)

Pump Recirculation

(d)

Mechanical Mixing

09.07.05

Additive Injection

09.08.00

PRIME MOVERS

09.08.01

Engine Selection

09.08.02

Engine Rating

(a)

Altitude

(b)

Air Temperature

(c)

Humidity

09.08.03

Engine Location

09.00.00.

PLANT AND EQUIPMENT

09.01.00

PRODUCT PUMPS

09.01.01

General Considerations

Pumps are devices for raising the pressure of liquids and are used for the transport of liquids through pipes. Pumps are classified in three main groups, as follows:

(i)

Reciprocating: These pumps are of the positive displacement type and will deliver a certain volume against pressure determined by the pipe system, etc. They are used for delivering small quantities at high pressure.

(ii)

Rotary: These pumps, e.g. gear and vane types, are also positive displacement types but generally have a greater clearance leakage than reciprocating pumps and have lower inertia forces. Rotary pumps are used for small/medium quantities and in view of the need for lubrication, are particularly suited to oil product duties.

(iii)

Centrifugal: These pumps are entirely dynamic and therefore generate a head, the volume passing depending upon the pipe system, associated pressure vessels, etc. Centrifugal and axial flow pumps are used for almost all flow rates and pressures but in view of their dynamic nature the choice is limited to duties such that the combination of pressure, quantity and speed results in favourable proportions in the pump. In consequence single-stage centrifugal pumps are used for the largest quantities against low and medium heads, and multistage for smaller quantities against high heads.

The forms of energy affecting the flow of liquids are:

- Potential head (or positive static head), e.g. height of liquid above the centreline of the pump;

- Pressure head, i.e. the upstream pressure induced in the product by a pump;

- Kinetic head, i.e. energy due to velocity.

The main properties of liquids affecting flow and the selection of appropriate pumps, are density, temperature, vapour pressure, pour point and viscosity. Appendix 09.01.01 summarises average properties of products for quick reference; figures for precise calculations applying to local products must be obtained from local sales technical departments.

The flow of fluids in pipelines is the subject of Appendix 06.01.09.

In regard to discharge of tankers into shore tanks, the head-flow relationship for ship and shore is dealt with in the Plant Operating Manual, Volume 1, Section 02.01.02 (Tanker Port Performance).

09.01.02.

Selection and Design Features of Pumps

For most installation and depot duties centrifugal or rotary positive-displacement pumps are recommended because they have smooth flow characteristics, are reliable and easy to operate.

Centrifugal pumps can be used to pump liquids with viscosities up to 350 centistokes (mm²/s) at the pumping temperature. At viscosities greater than 350 centistokes (mm²/s) rotary positive displacement pumps should be used. Rotary pumps are more efficient on viscous liquids and require less power for equal performance.

As viscosities increase so do power requirements, until eventually a stage is reached at which it is more economical to reduce the viscosity of the liquid by heating than to increase the power supply to the pump, or to reduce the resistance to pumping by increasing the size of the pipelines. In general this stage is reached at viscosities of about 900- 1 000 centistokes (mm²/s).

The main factors to be considered at the selection stage are duties; type of pump; pump drive; reliability; standardisation; availability of spare parts; manufacturers and service arrangements.

(a)

Centrifugal Pumps (for use with products or water):

Figure 09.01.02(1) shows types of centrifugal pump and Appendix 09.01.04 gives the main items involved in estimating the performance of centrifugal pumps.

A

typical data/requisition form is given in Appendix 09.01.08A; recommended

features are as follows:

(i)

Direct drive from electric motor or CI engine; see Appendix 09.01.09 for electric motor order and Appendix 09.08.02 for CI engine order form.

(ii)

Cast iron pump casing. Note: Cast steel casings are available at considerably higher cost, if required, for greater mechanical strength (particularly in fire risk situations).

(iii)

Cast iron impeller unless product service requires different material. Note: If copper alloys are used, the copper content should be less than 35 per cent for Jet A-1 handling systems.

(iv)

High-tensile steel shaft.

(v)

No relief valve. Note: A centrifugal pump need not be provided with a bypass to ensure cooling unless it is to be operated against a closed discharge valve for periods exceeding two minutes. In the latter case, the outlet of the relief valve should be connected to the suction pipeline approximately 3 m from the suction connection. A flow rate equivalent to approximately 5 per cent of maximum flow will ensure adequate cooling.

(vi)

Mechanical seals for petroleum products but conventional stuffing box type seals for water pumps.

(vii)

When pumping conditions allow, single-stage horizontal split-case or end- suction, depending on the flow rate required, should be selected.

(b)

Rotary Pumps (for use with products only):

Figure 09.01.02(2) shows two types (gear and vane) of positive displacement PUMP.

A

typical data/order form is given in Appendix 09.01.09B.

(i)

Direct drive or gear drive from electric motor or CI engine.

(ii)

Cast-iron pump casing (see note under Centrifugal pumps (a)(ii))

(iii)

Mild-steel impeller or cast-iron gears.

(iv)

High-tensile steel shaft.

(v)

Fitted with a relief valve to pass full flow and preferably back to storage. (Note: a relief valve integral with the pump is not permitted.)

(vi)

Mechanical seals.

(c)

(d)

Special Products and Purposes

(i)

'Teepol': positive displacement pumps are required, constructed of materials such as stainless steels to avoid corrosion; see 14.02.04.

Solvents: centrifugal pumps are normally used; the specification should allow for PTFE joints and gaskets.

Bitumen: low-speed positive-displacement pumps fitted with heating jackets are recommended for pumping bitumen and viscous cutbacks; see Bitumen Manual.

Heavy fuel oils: rotary positive-displacement pumps are normally used; the viscosities of the fuel oils are reduced, as required, by heating.

Fire water pumps: Centrifugal pumps: up to 100 m 3 /h capacity - end suction type: up to 250 m /h - horizontal split casing type. A typical pump specification is given in Figure 09.01.03. Such pumps are not self-priming and hence, suction conditions from sea or inland waters need to be carefully considered. The suction intake should be sized for the maximum designed flow rate, positioned so as to be always below lowest water/tide level, and protected from clogging with vegetation or other matter by a cage-type screen. A foot valve (non-return valve) should be fitted at the intake but, to ensure a flooded suction, a priming tank may be necessary in the suction system. To avoid corrosion problems with salt/brackish water in the hydrant system, consideration should be given to flushing the system with sweet water after fire exercises and tests. This may be obtained either from the fresh water supply system or from a water storage tank.

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

3

Design Data References

For general pump design purposes reference may be made to national or international standards such as BS 5257, DIN, NFPA 20, etc.

09.01.03. Pump Suction/Inlet Conditions

The pressure difference between the absolute pressure of the atmosphere 10.3 m head

of water at sea level and the partial vacuum induced in the pump is available to lift

product a certain height, to overcome frictional losses in the suction pipe and to provide velocity energy in the inlet passage. The permissible suction lift is limited by vapour pressure, by gases in the liquid, and the speed of the pump.

Certain pumps may require an inlet pressure greater than atmosphere in order to permit

operation at the designed speed. Suction lift is reduced approximately 1 m for each 1000

m of altitude because of reduced atmospheric pressure.

Inlet problems are more readily solved by referring all pressures and levels to metres absolute of the liquid handled. Except on very viscous liquids the pressure drop necessary to induce the designed quantity into the pump (Nett Positive Suction Head, see (iii) below) may be assumed to have the same value of metres head of liquid as on the same pump operating on water - see also 09.01.04.

In this context the question of discharge of multi-compartment bulk vehicles needs to be

considered when large capacity pumps in the depot are used for off-loading the vehicles and plugs of air are induced into the pump system. For operational reasons there is a

good case for installing self-priming pumps (or de-aerating equipment) for discharging aviation bridging vehicles particularly at airfield depots.

(i) Effect of Temperature

Increase of temperature reduces the suction lift by the increase of vapour pressure requiring an inlet pressure above atmospheric pressure in some cases. It is therefore essential to know the vapour pressure, density and viscosity at the pumping temperature. Inlet/suction problems are more readily solved by referring all pressure and levels to metres absolute of the liquid handled.

(ii)

Cavitation

Cavitation is caused by the reduction of pressure below the saturation pressure of the liquid handled. The subsequent recondensation of the vapour while passing through the impeller causes mechanical impact with adverse effects on the metal. To prevent cavitation, suction conditions (head in the storage vessel, pipeline design, atmospheric pressure, etc) must be such as to ensure sufficient residual head at the pump suction flange to overcome the problems mentioned above. Pipeline planning (including changes in diameter) is discussed in

06.03.02.

(Note: Water generally contains dissolved air and when subjected to a partial vacuum, the oxygen in the air tends to come out of solution and causes direct metal corrosion.)

(iii) Nett Positive Suction Head (NPSH)

A reduction of pressure occurs between the suction branch of the pump and the

impeller inlet, because of:

- friction loss in the passage,

- change of velocity, the impeller inlet velocity being very much greater than the pump suction branch velocity.

The head required at the pump suction to offset the internal head loss in the pump and to maintain sufficient pressure to avoid cavitation problems mentioned under (ii) above, is known as the Nett Positive Suction Head (NPSH). This figure can vary considerably with the type of pump, speed, duty, etc. Actual data should be obtained from the pump supplier.

To determine the NPSH available (in absolute terms) the following information is required: it is called for in the data/requisition sheets given in Appendices 09.01.08A and B, and is represented diagrammatically in Figure 09.01.07.

'a'

Head of liquid in metres equal to the atmospheric pressure (1.013 bar at sea level and correspondingly less at higher altitudes, see Figure 09.01.05) acting on the liquid surface. Alternatively, this may be the absolute pressure in the suction vessel expressed in height of liquid column. Note: the pressure acting on the liquid surface may be atmospheric in the case of an open tank, or vacuum as in the case of a condenser, or above atmospheric as is the case of a de-aerator.

'b'

Head of liquid in metres equal to the vapour pressure of the product at the pumping temperature, see Figure 09.01.05.

'c'

Head of liquid in metres equal to the friction loss in the suction pipeline system at full pumping speed.

'd'

Head of liquid in metres above pump suction, or

'e'

Head of liquid in metres below pump suction

Using the above symbols the NPSH available to overcome the NPSH required is calculated as follows:

Head in metres = (a + d) - (b + c) when the liquid level is above the pump suction

OR = (a - e) - (b - c) when the liquid level is below the pump suction.

In order to ensure trouble-free operation of pumps there should be at least 1 metre difference between the theoretical NPSH available and the NPSH required.

A diagrammatic illustration of differential head and NPSH for liquefied petroleum

gases is given in Figure 02.06.01 of the LPG Manual.

09.01.04.

Characteristic Curves of Centrifugal Pumps

Centrifugal pumps work by imparting energy to liquid in the form of high velocity and this can be converted to pressure by slowing it down in a suitably shaped casing. If the back pressure on the pump is high, each particle of liquid requires more energy than if the back pressure is low; consequently less liquid passes through the pump when back pressure is high. This characteristic of the centrifugal pumps is important and, for one given pump speed, the relationship between flow rate and head generated is fixed, as shown in the diagram (known as the QH curve) below:

as shown in the diagram (known as the QH curve) below: When describing a pump, one

When describing a pump, one point - called the specified duty point - is nominated and the pump capacity given as the flow and head at that point. However, this is only one point; the pump works equally well at any point along the curve from 'closed valve' condition on the left to 'very low head' on the right. Such a curve, if drawn on the basis of volume and head units, applies to all liquids irrespective of densities, provided their viscosities are roughly the same. The curves are usually drawn for water which is a convenient test fluid, and are then applicable to most white oils. For example if the pump is handling 500 m 3 /h against a head of 100 m, it will be moving 500 tonnes of sweet water per hour against 9.8 bar, but if it is pumping gasoline at 0.75 density it will move only 375 tonnes against 7.3 bar though its performance is unchanged. In this example the head remains the same at 100 m; for this reason the volume and head units are preferred in pumping work.

The method of calculating performance of centrifugal pumps is given in Appendix 09.01.04. This includes theoretical considerations of the variation of head, capacity and power consumption with speed, from which expressions QH curves can be derived from the original curve, showing the output at other speeds.

09.01.05.

Pump Power Requirements and Flow Rate Relationship

Pump efficiency is determined for various operating considerations and plotted as a curve showing the pump efficiency at varying flow rates. The point of maximum efficiency should coincide with the specified duty point of the pump.

The graphs shown in Figure 09.01.06 indicate the power (kW) required at a pump coupling for pumping liquids of different viscosities using pumps of different overall efficiencies. The true relationship between viscosity and pumping efficiency is complex and varies from one pump to another, so a simple approximation for estimating purposes is given below. The quoted viscosities of 370 centistokes (mm²/s) and 1000 centistokes (mm²/s) respectively, should not be exceeded for general service pumps.

Types of Pump

Rotary Positive displacement e.g. gear, vane types, etc.

Centrifugal

Overall Pumping Efficiency

Above 80% for white oils, falling uniformly to 60/65% at a viscosity of 1000 centistokes (mm²/s)

Above 70% for water and white oils, falling

uniformly

centistokes (mm²/s)

to

40/45%

at

a

viscosity

of

370

The power required (brake power) for pumping can be determined from the equation given in Appendix 09.01.04 under 'Power Consumption'. As discussed in 09.01.04, the specified duty point of a pump is not necessarily the theoretical maximum output of the pump and hence, it may be desirable for the power output of the driving unit to be able to accommodate the whole range of the pump flow curve. For example, in cases where there is no method of flow control or flow limiters downstream of the pump, the output will follow the curve until a hydraulic balance is achieved. With a centrifugal pump this could mean an output of anything up to 150% of the duty flow rate with a corresponding increase in power requirement. Therefore to accommodate possible overload conditions and to avoid burnt-out motors, it is advisable to select motors which are suitable for the whole range of the pump flow curve.

When a reliable electricity supply is available, pumps driven by electric motors are recommended. Power ratings for standard electric motors is given in the Electrical Engineering Guidelines for Marketing Facilities, Section 5.5. The types of starting for electric motors, e.g. direct-online, auto-transformer, etc, are discussed in Appendix VIII of the same manual.

In general, for marketing installations and depots, direct-online (DOL) starting of motors should be the first choice. The reason is that the initial cost of the motor is less than for other systems, and so are the costs of installation. Subsequent maintenance costs are also less. However, some electricity supply authorities do not permit DOL, or they restrict its use to small size motors. Usually it depends on the capacity of the source of supply of the electricity since a direct-online starter may impose a starting current of up to 7 times the full-load current of the motor.

The alternative system is to use star-delta motors which have a much lower starting current requirement. This type of motor can be readily converted to DOL starting if required. It is impractical to convert a DOL motor to star-delta. It is essential that PETRONAS verify with the local electricity authority the mode of starting that is acceptable before ordering electrical motors.

Engine-driven pumps should only be used when it is uneconomical or impossible to use electric motors, subject to the provisos in 09.01.06 below. As a general rule, the pump and driving unit should be on a combined bed plate; this form of construction is easier to install and there is less likelihood of misalignment. However, if space is limited vertical close-coupled (in line) pumps should be used.

09.01.06.

Pump Location

Pump suction pipelines should be as short as practicable and arranged in accordance with Section 06.03.04. Pump delivery pipelines are discussed in 06.03.05.

(a)

Electric Motor-driven Pumps:

(i)

Fixed installations

 

The type of electric motor is governed by the classification of the area where a pump is positioned. Open-sided pump houses are preferable and would normally be classified Zone 2 (see Section 03.04.00) provided product leakage - for instance from seals - or escape of vapour does not occur under normal operation.

If pumps are in a closed pumphouse there must be adequate ventilation, and either motors are separated from pumps by a vapour- tight wall (including shaft seals) from floor to floor, or the motor and associated electrics must be flame/explosion proof, i.e. suitable for Zone 1. Starters should preferably be located in safe areas; if this is not possible flame/explosion proof equipment must be provided. Remote start/stop buttons must be of a design suitable for the classification of the area of location.

 

(ii)

Portable pumps

 

These pumps should not be located inside tank bunds since they are a potential hazard, see Section 03.09.01.

(b)

Compression-ignition (CI) Engine-driven pump sets: Fixed and portable

The requirements for protecting CI engines in hazardous areas are given in Section 03.09.01. Similarly to (a) portable CI engine pump sets should not be used in tank bunds.

09.01.07. Pump Installation

Pumping units should be set on a concrete foundation prepared in accordance with the maker's foundation plan. Steel wedges should be used to set the unit in position, and a spirit level should be used to check that the pump is level before the foundation bolts are grouted in. When the grout has set, the foundation bolts should be provisionally tightened and the level rechecked. Alignment of the pump and motor shafts should also be checked by means of a dial gauge and adjusted as required.

The suction and delivery connections must be properly supported to prevent distortion of the pump frame or casing. The effects of thermal expansion in the piping should be taken into account as this can also exert sufficient force to distort the casing and disturb shaft alignment, see 06.01.03. Stainless steel bellows should be used as joints in order to prevent undue stress on the pump connections; in normal circumstances this should not be necessary unless the piping layout is restricted.

09.01.08. Pump Control

The different systems and equipment available for the operation of pump drives are as follows:

(a)

Push-button remote control for starting and stopping.

(b)

Automatic control.

(c)

Grouped and coordinated control.

Each control system is confined to the method of switching on and switching off the pump machinery; see Electrical Engineering Guidelines for Marketing Facilities.

The most commonly used and recommended system for large loading facilities requires the product lines to be pressurised. As soon as the demand for product is made (a valve is opened at the delivery point) pressure in the line falls and a pressure switch - sensing the pressure drop - signals the motor starter to start the pump. When flow is stopped the pump drive is switched off. A leak-tight non-return valve must be fitted at the pump outlet to maintain pressure in the line.

The operation of a pump emergency shut-down button at the pump platform, vehicle loading bay or at other locations should trip the main contactor/isolator/breaker on the pump starter board, stopping all pumps immediately. When flow is stopped the pump drive is switched off. Re-engagement of the main contactor/isolator/breaker after the emergency stop should be possible only by an authorised person, using a key, and only after an investigation into the reason for the shut-down.

09.01.09.

Individual Pump Capacities

Pumping requirements in the form of numbers of pumps, and their performances (output/head) for loading, unloading, inter-tank transfer, etc, should be determined from the analysis of the total workloads established by the Master Development Plan (see 01.00.03). General guidelines for the capacity of individual pumping units are given in the following table.

Reference should also be made to Section 16.04.00 for possible restrictions on loading rates, e.g. switch loading.

Service

Capacity

 

l/min

m 3 /h

Bulk loading, road (4-inch diameter system)

2330*

140*

Bulk loading, rail (small demand)

2500

150

Drum filling

500

30

Marine Bunkers - fuel oils

8300

500

Marine Bunkers - diesel fuel

5000

300

Marine Bunkers - gas oil

2500

150

* where no static restrictions apply: normal loading rates; maximum 7 m/s through 4-inch system, i.e. 205 m 3 /h.

In systems where a pump supplies product through more than one meter, metering equipment must be protected by flow control valves; for details of meters and ancillary equipment see the Oil Measurement and Product Conservation Manual.

For higher loading rates, pumps operating in parallel are recommended. When centrifugal pumps are required for parallel operation the suitability of the pumps for this duty should be checked with the suppliers and non-return valves should be installed on the delivery side of each pump. Such pumping systems should use the same type and make of pump.

09.01.10. Pump and Motor Specification

Typical PETRONAS data/order forms are shown in the following references:

Appendix 09.01.08A: Centrifugal pumps

Appendix 09.01.08B : Rotary pumps

Appendix 09.01.09 : Electric motors

Appendix 09.08.02 : Compression Ignition engines

Order forms should be completed with as much data as is available locally so that the company buyer (or local agent) will have adequate information on the material required. It is important to note that selection of standard equipment is advantageous in respect of cost, spare parts availability, delivery time, and maintenance. Variations to standard equipment specifications - for example positioning of suction and discharge connections on pumps - which may appear to be desirable but which are not strictly necessary, may inhibit the buyer's choice of equipment and, in most cases, results in a higher purchase price.

APPENDIX 09.01.01

PROPERTIES OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS (excluding lubricants)

APPENDIX 09.01.01 PROPERTIES OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS (excluding lubricants)

FIGURE 09.01.02

CENTRIFUGAL AND POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

FIGURE 09.01.02 CENTRIFUGAL AND POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
FIGURE 09.01.02 CENTRIFUGAL AND POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

FIGURE 09.01.03

TYPICAL HORIZONTAL SPLIT CASING CENTRIFUGAL PUMP SPECIFICATION FOR FIRE WATER SUPPLY (WORTHINGTON SIMPSON)

FIGURE 09.01.03 TYPICAL HORIZONTAL SPLIT CASING CENTRIFUGAL PUMP SPECIFICATION FOR FIRE WATER SUPPLY (WORTHINGTON SIMPSON)

APPENDIX 09.01.04

CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS: PERFORMANCE ESTIMATES

Centrifugal pumps are usually operated at constant speed, and they deliver a constant smooth flow of liquid at a certain head in equilibrium with the resistance to flow in the pipeline.

The height to which the liquid is raised depends mainly on the acceleration imparted by the rotating impeller. This acceleration is expressed by the relation

 

V

2

a

=

where

 

r

a

= acceleration (m/s²)

V

= linear velocity at the periphery of the impeller (m/s)

r = radius of the impeller (m)

The head developed by the pump is therefore independent of the liquid density although differential pressure is directly proportional to the density. Consequently, a centrifugal pump will deliver liquid butane with a density of about 0.5 at the same head as a very viscous liquid with a density of say, 1.5, but in the latter case the differential pressure - expressed in bar is 1.5/0.5 = 3 times as high. It follows that in this case the power required is also 3 times as high.

The performance curve of a pump shows the variation of differential head with discharge capacity at a constant speed. From theoretical considerations of the variation of head, capacity and power consumption with speed the following rules apply:

(i)

Discharge Capacity Q (m³/h) varies directly with speed n (rev/min):

Q 1 n

2

1

=

Q

2

n

2

(ii)

(iii)

Differential Head H (m) varies directly with the square of the speed n:

2

H 1 1

n

H

2

=

n

2

2

Power Consumption N (kW) varies directly with the cube of the speed n (rev/min):

N

1

N

2

=

n

3

1

n

3

2

These rules apply exactly for conditions of optimum efficiency and by approximation for other working points.

The derivation of the Nett Positive Suction Head (NPSH) is given in 09.01.03.

The NPSH available should always be greater than the NPSH stated as being required by the pump manufacturer. The NPSH required is a function of the physical dimensions of the pump chamber and of the speed and type of impeller.

Example 1

A cooling-water self-priming pump for sea water with a capacity of 300 m 3 /h is placed in such a way that

at low tide the water level is 4 m below the centreline of the pump. The density of the sea water is 1.03, and the vapour pressure under the prevailing conditions 0.05 bar absolute. If the friction loss in the suction line is 0.4 m, then the NPSH available is :

(a - e) – (b + c) (see 09.01.03)

OR

OR
È Ê 1

È Ê 1

Í

Î

Á

Ë

x

10 3 ˆ

.

103

.

˜ -

¯

˘ È Ê 0 05

4 ˙

˚

-

.

x

Á

Ë

Î Í 103

.

10 3 ˆ

.

˜ ¯ + 0 4

.

˘

˙ =

˚

6

-

0 9

.

=

51 m of sea water

.

Power Consumption

The power consumption N is determined from the relation N= Q H

.

.

C e

.

.

N is determined from the relation N= Q H . . C e . . Where

Where :

N

=

kW

Q

=

m 3 /h

H

=

m

(rho)= relative density of liquid

(rho)=

relative density of liquid

e

=

efficiency of pump

C

=

362 the constant for flow in m 3 /h

Example 2

The example shown in Figure 09.01.06 can be calculated as follows :

N

=

180

x

50

x

0 8

.

362

x

0 8

.

= say 25 kW

= 24.86 kW

FIGURE 09.01.05

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE - ALTITUDE AND TRUE VAPOUR PRESSURE - TEMPERATURE

FIGURE 09.01.05 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE - ALTITUDE AND TRUE VAPOUR PRESSURE - TEMPERATURE

FIGURE 09.01.06

POWER REQUIREMENTS FOR PUMPING

FIGURE 09.01.06 POWER REQUIREMENTS FOR PUMPING

FIGURE 09.01.07

DIAGRAMMATIC ILLUSTRATION OF NPSH

FIGURE 09.01.07 DIAGRAMMATIC ILLUSTRATION OF NPSH

APPENDIX 09.01.08A

APPENDIX 09.01.08A

APPENDIX 09.01.8B

APPENDIX 09.01.8B

APPENDIX 09.01.09

APPENDIX 09.01.09

09.02.00.

LOADING AND UNLOADING FACILITIES FOR ROAD AND RAIL VEHICLES

09.02.01

Introduction

This Section concerns loading and unloading of bulk road and rail transport units; it comprises in the main, references to complementary manuals. The workload in the form of requirements for loading of road and rail vehicles - by product - should be established from the plant master development plan, see 01.01.02.

Facilities for special products are dealt with as follows:

Lubricating Oil

-

Specific Lubricating Oil Blending Plant Operations Manuals

Bitumen

-

Bitumen Manual and Volume 4 of the Plant Operating Manual

Liquefied Petroleum Gases

-

LPG Manual and Volume 3 of the Plant Operating Manual

Chemicals

-

Section 14.00.00 of this manual, and SICC/SICM manuals (see Bibliography 17.00.00).

Features which require consideration are:

(i)

In all cases, and irrespective of product and activity (loading/unloading), facilities must include a readily accessible means of stopping product flow quickly in emergency. This is a mandatory safety requirement.

(ii)

Vapour recovery systems for volatile products are dealt with in a comprehensive joint MF/MK study (MOR 860) entitled 'Hydrocarbon Vapour Retention in Product Distribution'.

(iii)

All meters on loading systems should be protected by a strainer. Air eliminators need not be provided if the liquid in the tank is above the pump suction. Meters and metering installations are dealt with in the Oil Measurement and Product Conservation Manual.

(iv)

Where provision is (or is likely to be) required for automated loading control, or simply data capture from flow meters, arrangements must be made for appropriate cable conduits, see Section 10.01.04.

09.02.02.

Rail Tank Waggons

Information concerning the selection and design of facilities for rail tank waggon (RTW) loading and discharging is given in the Loading and Discharging Manual - Rail. The precautions and procedures to be observed when loading products in RTWs is dealt with in Section 02.06.00 of the Plant Operation Manual, Volume 1. The following comments summarise some of the main items to be considered:

(i)

When planning facilities for loading/unloading rail tank waggons consideration should be given to providing either sufficient bays for the maximum number to be accommodated, or a few bays with facilities for moving waggons.

(ii)

The economic loading rate will depend upon local conditions and solutions should be based on consideration of all the factors involved as shown in Section 01.01.02 of the Loading and Discharging Manual-Rail.

(iii)

Discharging flow rates and manning assessment should be established from data given in Section 01.02.02 of the Loading and Discharging Manual - Rail.

(iv)

The choice between top and bottom filling will depend upon local conditions, loading demand, area available, etc, as discussed in 01.01.02 of the Loading and Discharging Manual - Rail.

(v)

Measurement arrangements and equipment are discussed in Section 02.01.03 bottom loading and Sections 02.02.04/02.03.05 top loading, respectively, of the Loading and Discharging Manual - Rail.

Where the number of rail tank waggons to be filled per day is small, a trolley- mounted meter, as shown in Figure 09.02.01, may be used to reduce capital expenditure on meters and to cut down the movement of waggons at filling points.

(vii)

When filling from the top the fill pipe must extend to the bottom of the tank for Class I and Class II products to ensure sub-surface filling. This is a safety requirement to minimise the hazard of static charging, see Section 16.04.00. Sub-surface filling also reduces vapour loss when loading volatile products.

(viii)

Loading pumps should be controlled by remote start/stop buttons at the loading points.

(ix)

Discharging systems are discussed in Section 03.00.00 of the Loading and Discharging Manual - Rail.

Sight-flow glasses installed in the system at each discharge point will clearly indicate when RTWs are empty (not for black oils).

In some areas consideration may have to be given to making provision for preventing movement of RTWs while loading or unloading lines are connected; any system may include a 'Breakaway' feature such as a special intermediate coupling.

09.02.03. Bulk Road Vehicles

Information concerning facilities for top and bottom loading of bulk road vehicles is given in the Loading and Discharging - Road Manual Loading Facilities for Bulk Road Vehicles; the relative merits of top and bottom loading systems are discussed in Section 06.00.06 therein. Drive-through type loading bays are recommended. Care must be exercised in allocating adequate area for arrival, waiting, safety distances, and departure of the largest (foreseen) types of bulk vehicle, see Figures 10.01.04 and 15.01.05 of the Loading and Discharge - Road.

For loading bulk vehicles a 4-inch (100 mm) diameter pipework system should be used in the loading bays, as follows:

(a)

Top Loading

4-inch (100 mm) articulated counter-balanced arms are recommended.

(b)

Bottom Loading

Hoses suspended from overhead product lines and fitted with self-sealing couplings, are recommended. However, as these hoses are kept full of products they become unwieldy or too heavy to handle in any size over 3 inches (75 mm). To offset this problem, it is acceptable to reduce the diameter of the final short length of hose or pipe by one size without affecting the calculated safe loading rates, provided that the total length of the reduced diameter (including piping on the vehicle) is not more than 10 metres. For example, if a 4-inch product handling system (pipeline, meters, etc) was installed it would be acceptable for a 3-inch hose to be used provided the length of 3-inch equipment (hose and any vehicle piping) is not greater than 10 metres. In these circumstances, the safe loading rate - as defined in Section 16.04.00 - may still be calculated based on the 4- inch diameter line system.

The reduced diameter acceptable for the loading hose facilitates the bottom loading operation by permitting the use of smaller, lighter and easier-to-handle equipment which, in turn, facilitates simultaneous loading through two or three separate lines into separate compartments and reduces the total time the vehicle spends in the loading bay, see Section 06.00.03 of the procedures of the Loading and Discharge Manual - Road.

Bottom loading is recommended when a vapour recovery system is installed.

Discharge procedures for road bridging vehicles are discussed in 02.01.04 of the Plant Operating Manual, Volume 1.

09.02.04.

Loading by Weight

Bulk products such as chemicals, lubricating oils, fuel oils, bitumen and LPG are usually sold by weight.

Where the majority of loads are of one product only it is possible to use a single weigh bridge at the depot entrance/exit. The procedure is tare weighing on arrival, loading of product to ullage indicator(s) in the compartment(s) or through positive displacement meters, and total vehicle weighing (which establishes the payload) before departure.

Where traffic flow is high, twin weigh bridges - one at the entrance (tare weight) and the other at the exit (gross weight and therefore load) - can be used, but they must be checked frequently to ensure there is no discrepancy between them.

Where the majority of road tank vehicles (e.g. chemicals and luboils) load more than one product/grade - by compartment it is desirable to have a separate weigh bridge at each loading bay. Similarly for RTWs dedicated weigh bridges can be used in loading bays but in this case, the tank waggons are invariably of a single compartment type.

Traditional designs of weigh bridge have used mechanical linkages which require deep, pits and careful maintenance. Load cells are now supplied by most weighbridge manufacturers and have the advantages of a shallower pit, consistent performance, low maintenance, long life, and (if required) direct electronic linkage with digital signals to control operations and/or record data.

Existing mechanical weighbridges can sometimes be converted to load cell operation by the manufacturers.

FIGURE 09.02.01

TYPICAL TROLLEY MOUNTED METER

FIGURE 09.02.01 TYPICAL TROLLEY MOUNTED METER

09.03.00.

DRUM/CONTAINER FILLING

09.03.01

References

Detailed information on receipt, handling, storage and loading of all packed products and containers, whether full or empty, is given in the following manuals:

- Plant Operating Manual, Volume 1, Section 03.00.00 Packed Products.

- Shell Aviation Quality Control Manual, Sections IV and VI.

- Bitumen Manual and Plant Operating Manual, Volume 4, Section 04.00.00.

- Chemicals : Packaging Manual and Warehousing for Packed Products.

09.03.02.

Handling of Drums and Packages

A

large proportion of petroleum and chemical products is marketed in decorated metal

and plastic drums and packages. The condition of these packages when delivered to the

customer is important from a competitive point of view and hence care must be exercised at all stages of filling and handling in order to avoid damage.

As recommended in 01.01.03 and 04 the detailed planning of each operation should precede the installation of newly acquired filling equipment, i.e. planning at the design stage, since bad siting of material, incorrect flow arrangements, or unsuitable equipment will reduce output and increase manpower requirements.

Recommendations on manual and mechanical handling equipment are given in Section

 

11.00.00.

09.03.03.

Drum Filling: Black and White Oils

The requirements of drum filling - by product - should be established from the plant master plan [see 01.01.02(s)], and provides the basis for the selection and layout of suitable filling, measuring and handling equipment. Some of the design and handling features which must be taken into account in the selection process are discussed below.

Information on filling of lubricants into drums is given in Specific Lubricating Oil Blending Plant Operations Manual.

Note: If secondhand drums have to be used for aviation products, (or aviation drums to be re-used for other purposes), then existing markings must be removed completely before filling, see also Shell Aviation Quality Control Manual Section IV 5.

A filling time of approximately 45 seconds per drum is within the operating range of

preset repeating meters which are recommended for all products, including fuel oils. This rate will permit the filling of gas oil/diesel and fuel oils without excess frothing. If more rapid filling is required with oils liable to froth, it is necessary to extend the filling nozzle to the bottom of the drum.

(a)

Metal Drums

Safety requirements do not demand sub-surface filling for metal drums, but it is essential to keep the drum and filling facilities at the same electric potential. This can be achieved by standing the drums on a metal base which is bonded to the earthed filling facilities, see Section 16.04.00. However, where such a base cannot be provided, for example on a packed vehicle body, bonding must be accomplished by means of a wire and earthing clip or by ensuring that the metal nozzle, itself bonded to the filling facilities, is in firm and constant contact with the drum.

(b)

Plastic Drums

If drums made from suitable petroleum-resistant plastic material are to be filled with white oils, the following additional precautions should be taken to prevent hazards from static electricity:

(i)

The maximum filling speed should not exceed 100 litres per minute.

(ii)

A metal filling pipe should extend to the bottom of the drum, and should be electrically continuous with the nozzle and filling facilities.

(c)

Filling by Positive Displacement Meters

Typical drum-filling arrangements using preset meters are shown in Figure 09.03.01. An alternative arrangement using meters with trigger-operated hose nozzles is shown in Figure 09.03.02.

Drum-filling meters should be protected by a line strainer.

Air eliminators are unnecessary if static head conditions in the tanks ensure full pipelines.

Flow-rate control valves are recommended for drum-filling points when two or more meters are fed from the same line.

(d)

Filling by Weight

For more viscous products, weight-filling machines are recommended as an alternative to a meter.

To avoid excessive wear and tear on the mechanism of weight-filling machines the platform should be set level with the floor or incorporate a short length of gravity-roller conveyor in conjunction with feed-on and feed-off conveyors.

09.03.04. Small Package Filling

The requirements of package filling (similarly to drums) - by product - should be established from the plant master plan [see 01.01.02(s)].

(a)

Metal Containers

The following general recommendations apply to the filling of white and black oils into metal containers:

(i)

For 20/25-litre drums, jerricans or tins where throughputs are small, preset repeating meters capable of filling at a rate of approximately 120/150 container units per hour should be used.

(ii)

For 20/25-litre tins where throughputs are large, rotary volumetric filling machines with a filling rate of 1500/1600 tins per hour should be used.

(b)

Plastic Containers

The same precautions against static electricity hazards as are specified for drum filling in 09.03.03 (a) and (b) above, should be taken when filling metal or plastic containers with white oils.

Contact with petroleum products and exposure to sunlight (ultra-violet rays) can lead to some weakening of some plastic materials. Therefore plastic containers should be of an approved design and material specification - refer to PETRONAS for further details.

09.03.05. Re-use of Second-hand Containers

When second-hand containers which originally contained petroleum products, lubricants, etc, are re-used the brand markings must be correct and clear. If a new product is filled into the container, the old markings must be removed (before the container is filled) and the new brand markings added.

Containers which have been used for pesticides, herbicides and other toxic chemicals should never be re-used. They should be rendered unusable by puncturing, incineration or by other means and should be disposed of in a manner which does not permit them to reach the general public.

Other precautions which must be observed when considering the re-use of second-hand containers are given in Section 09.04.12.

FIGURE 09.03.01

TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF SINGLE-LINE TWO-FILLING POINTS FOR DRUM

FIGURE 09.03.01 TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF SINGLE-LINE TWO-FILLING POINTS FOR DRUM

FIGURE 09.03.02

ALTERNATIVE ARRANGEMENT OF DRUM FILLING USING POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT METERS AND TRIGGER-OPERATED HOSE NOZZLES

09.03.02 ALTERNATIVE ARRANGEMENT OF DRUM FILLING USING POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT METERS AND TRIGGER-OPERATED HOSE NOZZLES

09.04.00.

DRUM CLEANING AND RECONDITIONING

09.04.01

Introduction

All drums should be clean internally, of sound structure and good appearance. Therefore, both new and secondhand drums should be inspected and where necessary washed internally before filling with product.

Whether or not reconditioning of drums should be undertaken by an operating company or allocated to contractors depends upon local conditions, the number of drums to be handled, the amount of machinery needed, the degree of mechanisation of the process, and relative costs. This section considers the main features of the reconditioning process which must be taken into account in any study of existing methods and future plans.

09.04.02.

Types of Drum

The types of drum most commonly reconditioned are the standard 200-litre and 210-litre capacity steel drums described below:

(a)

All-welded heavy-gauge steel drums

 

These are standard heavy gauge drums with all welded seams, usually constructed from 2.0 mm (14 BG) steel and employed as returnable packages for gasoline, kerosine and fuel oils. The drums may be lined internally and painted externally in accordance with the specifications contained in the PETRONAS Painting and Coating Manual Section 9.4 page 48. For aviation use see: Shell Aviation Quality Control Manual Section (IV) page iv:4.

 

(b)

Light-gauge steel drums

 

These are standard light-gauge drums with double-seamed ends and a welded body seam. They are usually manufactured for 1.25 mm thickness (18 BG) steel and are known as 'one trip' or 'non-returnable' drums for lubricating oils and chemicals; in practice, however, a number of trips can be obtained from these containers. The number of times drums can be used again depends on local service conditions, but a planned reconditioning programme and care in handling will greatly extend their useful life.

 

(c)

Special lightweight drums

 

When repurchase and reconditioning is uneconomical and new drums have to be used, standard thin steel plate or special lightweight drums should be considered.

09.04.03.

Stocks of Empty Drums

Stocks of new or reconditioned empty drums should be kept to a minimum consistent with security of supply, and must be used in strict rotation to prevent deterioration. Both bungs on empty drums must be screwed in tightly for transport or storage. Loose bungs may result in accumulation of moisture in the drum and internal rusting, caused by 'breathing'. Empty drums received in the plant can often by unloaded directly into the drum filling conveyor system, thereby avoiding double handling, but conveyors, structures and a building to carry all empty drums can seldom be justified. Empty drums are usually stacked horizontally to form a pyramid, each drum resting between the two drums below to provide stability in a high wind. The bottom row of drums should be secured by removable or fixed wooden wedges, not stones or bricks.

All drums should undergo a visual examination in order to segregate those which are in obvious need of repair by welding or are unsuitable for further use, from those which require cleaning and reconditioning. When drums are returned to a central point for reconditioning it is recommended that those known to leak are suitable marked at the point of leakage.

09.04.04.

Internal Washing

The washing medium for internal cleaning varies with the product to be filled into the drum; the main recommendations are as follows:

PRODUCT

MEDIUM

Aviation gasoline (Avgas)

Gasoline

Aviation turbine fuels, kerosine, motor gasoline and white spirits

Kerosine

Gas oil, diesel and fuel oils

Gas oil

Lubricating oil

Hot spindle oils

09.04.05.

Washing Equipment

Drum washing equipment based on the eductor spray system is recommended. The drum is positioned on a tilted stand with the large bung at the highest point, and a combined spray and eductor tube assembly is inserted downwards into the tilted drum. The washing fluid is sprayed over the whole internal surface at high pressure and then falls to the lowest point of the drum, where the eductor pipe picks up the fluid together with any dirt or foreign matter.

A compact single drum washing unit is available to meet the requirements of depots with

a small throughput. By installing a battery of these single units a large throughput may be

allowed for, with the added advantage that the number of units can be increased or decreased if the volume or throughput changes. The unit is illustrated in Figure 09.04.01 from which it will be seen that in addition to the main eductor spray pipe, a small drain probe is provided to remove the last drainings from the drum. It is recommended that an inspection torch (flame proof) should be attached to the drain probe to enable draining and inspection to be carried out in one operation. The pump for this unit is rated at 135 litres per minute at a pressure of 4 bar; it is driven by 1.5 kW flameproof electric motor.

For single point applications when the unit is used intermittently, a tank of about 450 litres capacity, or two 210-litre drums connected together, is adequate for the washing fluid. However, for continuous use, a separator tank is recommended. For one or two units a tank having a capacity of 4 000 litres is suitable, and a tank of 8 000 litres capacity for three or four units. When separator tanks are employed a coarse screen should be used in the filter. This allows most of the dirt to pass through the separator tank, but retains in the filter chamber any large particles which might block the eductor.

For cleaning lubricating oil drums internally, hot spindle oil is a suitable washing medium, but to maintain a high standard of external finish it is usually necessary to repaint drums for each trip; for this reason machines in which drums are stripped of old paint and simultaneously washed internally are frequently employed. A number of machines of this type are available but all these utilise hot caustic solution for internal and external cleaning, as described in the PETRONAS Painting and Coating Manual. The cleaning medium

is followed by a wash with clean hot water and the drum is finally air dried. When using

this type of equipment the steam consumption is fairly high; however, as machines are usually installed as part of the lubricating oil blending plant, sufficient steam is normally

available.

A 4-station steam/vacuum drying unit is shown in Figure 09.04.03.

09.04.06. Rumbling

When internal scale or other extraneous matter cannot be removed satisfactorily by the action of the washing machine, the drum can be subjected to a rumbling process. Rumbling machines are available for handling from one to twelve drums at a time. The rumbling time required depends on the internal condition of the drum, but with four lengths of cutting chain, each about 1.2 m long, and a small quantity of kerosine to assist the chain action, the rumbling time should not exceed 10 minutes.

Figure 09.04.04. shows a 12-station chaining machine.

09.04.07. Dent Removal

Dents in the body of both light and heavy gauge drums can be removed by water pressure applied internally, and simple de-denting machines of various designs are

available; an example is shown in Figure 09.04.05A. Basically, these machines consist

of a suitable steel frame into which the drum is clamped in order to restrain the ends and

resist the thrust caused by the water pressure. The maximum pressure required for this operation is about 7 bar. When this type of equipment is used it may not be necessary to carry out an air test for leaks at any later stage, as any leaks in the drum will be seen

during the process of dent removal.

A semi-automatic air operated de-denting machine is shown in Figure 09.04.05B.

09.04.08.

Chimb Straightening

Dents and leaks in the chimbs of light gauge drums having double-seamed ends can be rectified by means of a chimb straightening and sealing machine. It is usually sufficient to re-roll only those chimbs which are dented or leaking, either one end at a time or both ends simultaneously; an example of a single-end unit is shown in Figure 09.04.06A. A type of machine which is fully automatic in operation and requires no operators can be installed in the line and all light gauge drums pass through it, regardless of the condition of their chimbs; this machine operates on both ends of the drum simultaneously and ejects it on completion. An automatic double-end chimb straightening and resealing machine is shown in Figure 09.04.06.B.

09.04.09. Repairs

(a) Metal Containers

Many accidents have occurred because welding, brazing, soldering or cutting operations, involving the application of heat, have been attempted on containers - particularly drums - known to have contained flammable liquids, but which have not been safe for such work. Therefore before any operation involving the application of heat to any drum or similar vessel is undertaken, it must be ensured either that no flammable material is present within the vessel, or that any such material is completely removed by steaming or boiling out before heat is applied. Steaming is normally carried out by inverting the drum over a low- pressure steam nozzle inserted into the large bung hole. The drum should be supported in a manner which allows the condensate to drain from the bung hole.

For scrap metal it is often economically impossible to make drums whose contents are uncertain, adequately 'gas-free', and hence it is much safer to cut off the ends of the drums by cold cutting.

Other means of repair not involving heat are sometimes possible. For example,emergency repairs of small leaks can sometimes be carried out with the aid of cold plastic metal compositions. In certain instances similar types of repair can be carried out by the use of cold-curing synthetic resins. These are temporary repairs pending decanting of the liquid.

(b) Plastic Drums

If reconditioning/cleaning of plastic drums is necessary special precautions must be taken to prevent a hazardous accumulation of static electricity caused by pressure jets. Such charges do not dissipate in the nominal way because of the high resistivity of the plastic material.

09.04.10. Testing for Leaks

In principle, drums should be tested for leaks before filling them rather than to fill and afterwards decant faulty drums.

The incidence of leakage is greatest with secondhand light-gauge steel drums and it is sound practice to test these drums for leaks at the stage of reconditioning immediately preceding repainting, unless they have been through the dent removal process. The test is carried out by applying compressed air at a pressure of 0.35 to 0.5 bar to the inside of the drum while the drum is rotated in a water bath. It is seldom necessary to test new light-gauge drums, bought-in reconditioned drums, or returned heavy-gauge drums, except when there is evidence of damage in transit or when drums have been under repair. Figure 09.04.02 shows a typical connection for air-testing of drums.

09.04.11.

Cleaning, Repainting and Stencilling

The ends of heavy-gauge and other returnable drums should be painted a distinctive colour to denote the product carried; it is generally necessary to repaint the ends after each trip. The bodies require repainting only when this is justified by a deterioration in appearance. The drums should be scrubbed with a wire brush to remove dirt and rust and must be clean and dry when painted. If spray painting equipment is available a single coat of quick-drying drum paint should be used, see Paints and Paint Manuals Section 9; if not, a coat of brushing quality drum paint should be used.

Before repainting a light-gauge lubricating oil drum it is necessary to strip off the existing paint using a hot caustic soda solution. A method of stripping the paint is to rotate the drum within a totally enclosed cabinet while the external surfaces are sprayed with the hot solution for approximately 10 minutes. The spraying is then followed by a hot water rinse to ensure that all traces of solution for approximately five minutes and then fed into a wire-brushing machine, which brushes the external surfaces and simultaneously rinses them with fresh water. Such machines have a capacity of about 60 drums per hour and the finish obtained is usually better than that achieved from only spraying with hot caustic solution.

Painting of lubricating oil drums should be carried out by spray application methods, using quick-drying paint for the work, see Paints and Paint Materials Section 9, so that stoving plant is not required.

Paint spraying cabinets into which the drum is fed in a horizontal position are available for throughputs of from 500 to 1000 drums per day. The drum is automatically located on four conical rollers which rotate at the required speed for paint spraying operations. On completion of spraying, the drum is ejected in the vertical position onto a gravity roller conveyor. The conveyor should be long enough to allow the paint to dry sufficiently before handling.

When the paint is dry, drums should be passed to the stencilling and marking bay. For drum head markings, silk screen stencils are normally employed.

Information on cleaning and repainting drums, the use off paint spraying equipment an silk screen stencilling is included in the PETRONAS Painting and Coating Manual.

09.04.12.

Re-use of Secondhand Containers and Disposal

Because of the serious potential consequences of product contamination (e.g. a very small amount of gasoline can make kerosine lethally explosive) the filling of secondhand containers must be carefully supervised and controlled. Secondhand containers must not be filled until it has been ascertained that they are empty. This must be done by means of inspection probe lamps. Any product remaining in containers must be removed by an air operated/flameproof eductor system.

Note: Drums/containers to be filled with Class I or Class II (2) Products must not be filled on the vehicle which is to transport them. They must be removed from vehicles before filling in order that any leaking containers can be identified and removed, and to prevent the risk of any product spillage on sub-standard vehicle electrics, exhausts, etc, being ignited.

When secondhand containers which originally contained petroleum products, lubricants, etc, are re-used the brand markings must be correct and clear. If a new product is filled, the old markings must be removed and the new brand markings added.

If plastic containers are refilled, it should be ensured that:

(a)

The brand markings for the new products are clear.

(b)

The container material or its lining is suitable and safe for use with new the product. (For example polyethylene is permeable by gasoline and therefore unsuitable for this product.)

(c)

Suitable precautions against generation of static electricity are taken to avoid any possibility of hazards from a flammable air-vapour mixture, see Section

16.04.00.

Containers which have been used for pesticides, herbicides and other toxic chemicals should never be re-used. They should be rendered unusable by puncturing, incineration or by other means and should be disposed of in a manner which does not permit them to reach the general public, see section 14.05.00 and SICC Handling and Safety Manual.

Other containers should be decontaminated (refer PETRONAS for details if required and all markings removed before selling. Containers which have not yet been decontaminated should only be disposed of to a recognised reconditioner known to employ effective and safe processes for the removal or obliteration of labels, decontamination, cleaning and refurbishing, see Shell Safety Committee publication 'The Secondary Use of Containers'.

FIGURE 09.04.01

DRUM WASHING AND DRAINAGE UNIT

FIGURE 09.04.01 DRUM WASHING AND DRAINAGE UNIT

FIGURE 09.04.02

TYPICAL CONNECTION FOR AIR-TESTING DRUMS

FIGURE 09.04.02 TYPICAL CONNECTION FOR AIR-TESTING DRUMS

FIGURE 09.04.03

DRUM CLEANING : RHEEM BLAGEN 4-STATION STEAM/VACUUM DRYING EQUIPMENT

FIGURE 09.04.03 DRUM CLEANING : RHEEM BLAGEN 4-STATION STEAM/VACUUM DRYING EQUIPMENT

FIGURE 09.04.04

RHEEM BLAGEN 12-STATION CHAINING MACHINE FOR REMOVING LIGHT RUST AND SCALE FROM SURFACES INSIDE DRUMS

FIGURE 09.04.04 RHEEM BLAGEN 12-STATION CHAINING MACHINE FOR REMOVING LIGHT RUST AND SCALE FROM SURFACES INSIDE

FIGURE 09.04.05

A. WATER PRESSURE DRUM DE-DENTING MACHINE

FIGURE 09.04.05 A. WATER PRESSURE DRUM DE-DENTING MACHINE B. SEMI AUTOMATIC AIR-OPERATED DRUM DE-DENTING MACHINE

B. SEMI AUTOMATIC AIR-OPERATED DRUM DE-DENTING MACHINE

FIGURE 09.04.05 A. WATER PRESSURE DRUM DE-DENTING MACHINE B. SEMI AUTOMATIC AIR-OPERATED DRUM DE-DENTING MACHINE

FIGURE 09.04.06

A. SINGLE-END CHIMB STRAIGHTENING AND RE-SEALING MACHINE

A. SINGLE-END CHIMB STRAIGHTENING AND RE-SEALING MACHINE B. AUTOMATIC DOUBLE-END CHIMB STARIGHTENING AND RE-SEALING

B. AUTOMATIC DOUBLE-END CHIMB STARIGHTENING AND RE-SEALING MACHINE RHEEM BLAGEN DRUM CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT

MACHINE B. AUTOMATIC DOUBLE-END CHIMB STARIGHTENING AND RE-SEALING MACHINE RHEEM BLAGEN DRUM CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT

09.05.00.

STEAM PLANT AND DISTRIBUTION

09.05.01

General Considerations

The main requirements for steam at installations and depots are for heating heavy fuel- oil tankage, and for lubricating-oil blends. However, as 'hot-oil' heating is recommended for bitumen plants, the advantage of standardising on this form of heating for products must be evaluated and the conclusions on boiler plant - now and in the future - included in the plant master development plan.

Local and/or national regulations usually control the design, fabrication, inspection and testing of boilers. In cases where these do not exist (or are considered to be inadequate), the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section I or BS5500 should be applied. The design of boilers must ensure that there is sufficient space and access for inspection, cleaning, removal and maintenance of fittings.

When there is a danger of freezing during operation or drainage of any part, protection against such freezing must be provided.

Adequate protection against the hazard of persons touching surfaces hotter than 70 °C must be provided.

Boiler attendants, for either manually or automatically controlled (steam and hot water) boilers, must be properly trained in the safe operation of such plant, the action to be taken in emergencies, maintenance, and testing of controls. In some countries they are required to be certified by and registered with the local Factory Inspectorate.

Recommended operating procedures for Boilers and Heating Plant are given in Section 05.00.00 of the Plant Operating Manual Volume 1. Guidance notes on operation, testing and maintenance of automatically controlled steam and hot water boilers are given in Appendix 09.05.02.

09.05.02.

Types of Steam Boiler

Boilers are divided into three types, as follows:

(a)

Fire-tube Boiler

A

boiler in which the fluid to be heated is contained in a vessel which may be

directly heated and/or contain tubes in which combustion takes place or through which products of combustion flow.

(b)

Water-tube Boiler

A

boiler in which the heat transfer takes place through the wall of tubes inside

which the fluid to be heated flows or circulates and which are exposed externally

to

combustion or products of combustion.

(c)

The 'Package' Boiler

The evolution of modern package boilers has resulted in considerable savings in space and fitting cost, also in improved efficiency and running costs. The package boiler is a multitubular shell boiler mounted on a box frame complete with accessories such as combustion appliances, control panel, feed pump etc, the whole being factory assembled and easily transportable. On site, all that needs to be done it to connect the boiler to the services and it can be commissioned immediately. It is widely used for steam heating requirements.

09.05.03.

Hot Water Boilers

Hot water boilers may be required as a means of ensuring limited heat input for certain products such as additives and 'Teepol' see 14.02.02.

Water heaters are classified as either low-temperature/low-pressure (up to about 100 °C and 4.5 bar) or high-temperature/high-pressure (say 200 °C and 17 bar). The main advantages of hot water compared with steam are:

(i)

For certain applications the temperature range is more suitable for process.

(ii)

Return condensate lines and their attendant troubles are absent.

(iii)

Being virtually in a closed system there is no evaporation and water treatment costs are reduced.

(iv)

For a given thermal output the boilers are somewhat smaller.

These boilers have fully flooded systems and normally operate without continuous

supervision; therefore, automatic controls must be provided to ensure safe operation. For the purpose of detailing standards for automatic controls, the boiler systems can be

divided into four categories, as follows:

A Static Head Systems open to atmosphere

B Closed Pressurised Systems with separate pressurising vessels and provision for make-up water

C Sealed Pressurised Systems with separate pressurising vessels and no provision for make-up water

D System Pressurised by a feed pump and/or static head with provision for make- up water.

The boiler controls and guidance on operating procedures are discussed under 'Hot Water Boilers' in Appendix 09.05.02.

09.05.04. Boiler Capacity

The heat requirement of the plant should be determined from the procedures recommended in 08.00.00.

The boiler plant should have sufficient capacity (when steaming at its most economical rate) to make good the heat loss from storage tanks and to cover additional requirements such as raising the temperature of stored oil, supply to suction heaters, space heating,

etc

As a general guide, if the boiler plant has the capacity to make a good full day's heat loss in a working day, there will normally be sufficient capacity to cover peak-load requirements.

09.05.05.

Boiler Feed-water Treatment

Water from different sources show wide variations in behaviour when used in boilers. It is seldom that the water available is suitable for boiler feed without some form of treatment to counteract the effects of dissolved salts or organic matter which may cause corrosion, formation of scale, and the deposition of sludge.

The function of a boiler is to transfer heat produced by the combustion of fuel to the water confined within the boiler in order to generate clean, dry steam under pressure. A boiler can function efficiently only if the heat transfer surfaces and the other waterways within the boiler are maintained in a clean and intact condition by proper control of the quality of the feed water and boiler water.

Virtually all natural waters contain impurities in solution and suspension. When introduced into the boiler with the make-up water some of these impurities can produce scale or other deposits which may restrict water circulation or retard the transfer of heat from the tube wall to the water. In consequence, the metal of the heat transfer surface may be inadequately cooled and if steps are not taken to remedy this condition the metal may finally become so hot and weakened that it can no longer withstand the operating pressure.

Impurities in the feed water and boiler water may also cause corrosion of the metal in contact with the water unless the quality of the water is adjusted to counteract this effect.

The prevention of scale or deposit requires that all water entering the boiler plant, via the feed system, must be free from suspended solids, or any substance in solution which may precipitate as solid by concentration or be formed by reaction with other constituents in the boiler water. The prevention of corrosion requires that where possible the aggressive constituents be removed or neutralised before the water enters the feed system.

In the case of 'once-through' boilers where all of the water entering the boiler is evaporated and there is no reservoir of water in which dissolved solids may concentrate, it is essential that the feed water should be completely free from both suspended solids and dissolved solids.

It is beneficial to recover as much steam condensate as possible from process equipment provided that it is a suitable quality for re-use as feed water, e.g. contamination with oils can cause excessive foaming in addition to local overheating and tube burnout. Filtration of the condensate, or other treatment methods may be required.

Having regard for the significance of the foregoing notes, specialist advice on water treatment should always be obtained.

09.05.06.

Boiler Fuel Supply

The relative costs and environmental considerations of different fuels, e.g. oil, gas, oil/gas, etc. must be evaluated when considering selection and design of boiler equipment at the planning, or replacement of equipment, stage.

(a)

Fuel Oil The boiler fuel supply should be taken from a small tank located outside the boiler house and preferably above-ground to ensure gravity flow to the fuel pump or burner. The capacity of this tank, which can be filled from storage, should be sufficient for a minimum of three days' steaming. Fuels which must be heated before burning should not be heated above 60 °C in the feed tank. Any additional heat required to produce the desired velocity at the burner should be done under pressure in a heater at the boiler. This is important if the temperature required is near, or above, the flash-point of the oil. Filters must be installed to protect fuel feed pumps, and burner makers' recommendations for mesh size should be followed.

(b)

Gas, or Oil/Gas, Fuel Availability of gas locally will determine whether this form of fuel, independently or in conjunction with oil fuel, is a viable proposition. The main advantage of multi-fuel systems, e.g. oil/gas, is the flexibility afforded to the operator in balancing his fuel usage economically in times of uncertain supply and varying tariffs. Recommendations on fuels for heating plant, and fuel economy measures, are available from PETRONAS. Information is also available in:

MOR.807: Storage, Handling, Preparation and Combustion of heavy residual fuel oil in West Germany. MOR.817: Industrial fuel oils and LPG: Properties and useful data.

09.05.07. Steam Distribution

The ultimate uses of the heat contained in the steam, i.e. heating of products in pipes and tanks, together with energy conservation considerations, condensate return and steam traps are discussed in 08.00.00.

The steam mains will normally operate at boiler pressure. Pressures will be reduced where necessary at the offtake points, e.g. the points of entry to tank heating coils.

The major factors governing the layout of a pipework system are:

(i)

The disposition of other plant to be inter-connected;

(ii)

The relative costs of accommodating and supporting pipework including anchoring where necessary.

(iii)

Access to valves, pressure-reducing and other equipment which may require access for operation or maintenance;

(iv)

Whether provision is to be made for expansion;

(v)

Acceptable loading on plant arising from thermal movement of pipework;

(vi)

Provision for drainage;

(vii)

Avoidance of air or vapour locks;

(viii)

Access to pipework joints to ensure their integrity against leakage;

(ix)

Safe design and erection.

Codes of good practice, e.g. BS 3974, give information on typical methods of supporting steam pipework.

Comments on some of the above factors are as follows:

(a)

Pipework Costs

As a contributor to the total cost of any steam heating installation, the pipework should be designed so as to keep an economic balance between installation and operating costs. Whilst there are often major factors governing the location of the major sections of any plant, one consideration should be the arrangement of the interconnecting pipework. Erection costs for pipework are often a disproportionate portion of the pipework total costs compared with those for the major sections of the plant, therefore ease of erection should be taken into consideration when determining the pipework arrangement.

(b)

Expansion of Pipework (see also 06.04.06)

Pipework carrying steam or other high-temperature fluids must include provision for expansion. Carbon and low-alloy steel tubing will expand by approximately 0.13 mm per metre of length for each 10 °C temperature increase. In addition, movement of plant due to temperature changes or other causes may increase the pipe movement which has to be accommodated.

Provision for expansion is provided to limit the bending and torsional stresses in the pipework and also the loads and movements imposed by the pipework on adjoining plant and buildings. Pipework expansion can be accommodated by the following means:

- Expansion loops or offset bends formed from the same tubing as used for the pipework;

- Bellows expansion pieces;

- Swivel joints; or

- Stuffing box expansion pieces.

The first two methods are not subject to any wear and do not normally require any further attention after installation. The last two methods are based on one part being allowed to slide over the other, some form of packing being provided to seal against leaks; provision for the adjustment of the seals must be made.

Once the expansion of the steam pipes has been calculated it should be decided where the movement is to take place. Fixed anchorage must then be placed so as to compel the pipe to move in the direction desired. Details of typical pipe anchorage and guides are shown in Figures 06.04.02 and 06.04.03.

(c)

Condensate and Drainage

It is essential to ensure adequate drainage of steam mains to avoid:

(i)

The effects of water hammer and erosion by water accelerated to a high velocity by the steam;

(ii)

The effects of corrosion fatigue due to the water draining back onto surfaces where the metal temperature is substantially higher than the saturation temperature at the operating pressure;

(iii)

The reduction in heating effect in heat transfer systems by the reduced area of contact between the steam and the heating surfaces.

It is usual where possible to arrange steam mains with a continuous fall in the direction of the steam flow. This ensures that drainage is adequate during the warming-up of the pipework and plant when the steam flow will be low and when the drainage rate is usually greatest.

Where condensation of the steam occurs during operation, it is necessary to provide means for the continuous removal of drainage water by automatic mean such as traps, orifices, etc.

(d)

Steam Velocity

Excessive steam velocity should be avoided as this can cause erosion of the pipe walls, noisy operation and varying steam pressure at the far end of the line. Taking account of these considerations, the following table gives a range of velocities normally used:

Fluid

Service

Velocity (m/s)

Water

Space Heating

2-4

Water

Boiler Feed

3-6

Saturated Steam

30-50

(e) Steam Traps

These are defined as automatic valves capable of distinguishing between condensate and live steam, opening to discharge the former but closing to trap the latter. The difference between condensate and steam is sensed in three ways: by detecting the difference in density; by reacting to a difference in temperature; and by relying on the difference in flow characteristics.

The type shown in Figure 09.05.01 is a mechanical steam trap of the bucket type which operates on the difference in density between condensate and steam.

Liquid-expansion steam traps (also shown in Figure 09.05.01) are simple and satisfactory where steam pressures are reasonably steady. They operate over a temperature range which can be set to suit any given steam pressure, but variations of steam pressures, and hence temperature, beyond the set range

will result in steam leakage at low pressures, or water-logging at high pressures.

A

strainer for trapping pipe scale is required in the inlet line to each steam trap.

If

the condensate is being fed back to the boiler house through a closed system,

a

sight glass in the outlet is useful.

Traps used in cold climates require protection against frost during shut-down periods.

09.05.08. Instruments and Controls

(a)

Measurement Equipment

The safe and efficient use of steam-generating and steam utilising plant requires accurate and reliable measurement and display equipment; preferably coupled with some form of automatic control. The main items to be considered are:

(i)

Flow measurement, e.g. direct actuation of an in-line mechanism.

(ii)

Water level: this may be indicated by visual, mechanical float gauge, hydrostatic head, or differential pressure means.

(iii)

Pressure: The ultimate control factor in a boiler is the final steam pressure and hence the measuring equipment must be accurate, safe and reliable. Pressure is measured as gauge, absolute or differential. Means of pressure measurement are based on the Bourdon tube or bellows operated gauge, etc.

(iv)

Temperature: this may be obtained from expansion of fluid in a closed tube, change in resistance of a metal wire, or a thermocouple.

(b)

Control Equipment

There are several common types of control, e.g. on/off (or two position control) for smaller boilers or where conditions are stable; proportional or modulating control, proportional plus integral control, etc. The basic requirements for boiler automatic control are to control firing to meet the load and to feed in water to match the steam output. The master signal for control is the pressure. A change in pressure is used to signal for a change of firing rate calling for fuel and air changes.

The advent of micro-processors will enable more complex and intelligent action

to

be taken in response to the changes; and adaptive control will be more readily

achieved.

(c)

Testing and Maintenance

Regular servicing and maintenance by competent personnel are essential to ensure that controls are kept in good working order, see Appendix 09.05.02 items 10 and 11.

09.05.09.

Safety Equipment and Procedures

Guidance notes regarding operation, testing and maintenance of automatically controlled steam and hot water boilers are given in Appendix 09.05.02. Item 13 stresses the need for ensuring that boiler attendants are properly trained in the operation of such plant.

It is necessary to install between a supply boiler and low-pressure vessels, suitable reducing valves or other appliances. In particular, it is essential that suitable safety valve equipment is fitted; this must conform with local industrial regulations. Safety valves must be sized to meet the maximum flow conditions whilst not exceeding a permitted rise above the working pressure.

All automatic controls incorporate alarms of one form or another, e.g. thermostatic control with visual/audible warning. Such alarms must be so situated that personnel are in the vicinity at all times. The controls require testing every day and there must be some person with sufficient training to carry out the tests; also to attend to the feedwater treatment, and to keep the boiler and its surroundings clean. Cleanliness is necessary in all boiler houses, but more particularly with oil or gas firing, in order to minimise the danger of fire or explosion.

Electrostatic charging can be experienced with steam; in particular, wet steam, or steam entraining water droplets produces a high rate of charge generation. The risk can be virtually eliminated by the earthing of all conductors (metal plant and personnel) and, wherever possible, the use of dry steam.

Starting up from cold must be done systematically and slowly in order to avoid damaging equipment. It is essential therefore that the start-up and shut-down procedures recommended by the manufacturer must be carefully followed.

09.05.10. Efficiency of Boilers

The efficiency of boilers of all types depends upon their combustion performance. Heat is lost from boilers in several ways:

- Incomplete combustion

- High excess air for combustion

- High flue gas temperatures

- Heat losses from the boiler shell.

These losses will be minimised by maintaining the equipment in good order and operating it correctly. Effective boiler maintenance will be ensured by checking the combustion efficiency frequently by means of portable automatic flue gas analysers.

Means of heat recovery, use of economisers, etc, should only be undertaken after study and expert advice.

09.05.11. Boiler Replacement Considerations

An example of the factors involved in boiler replacement proposals is given in Appendix

09.05.03.

FIGURE 09.05.01

TYPICAL STEAM TRAPPING ARRANGEMENTS AND EXPANSION BENDS

FIGURE 09.05.01 TYPICAL STEAM TRAPPING ARRANGEMENTS AND EXPANSION BENDS

APPENDIX 09.05.02

AUTOMATICALLY CONTROLLED STEAM AND HOT WATER BOILERS

(Extract from UK Health and Safety Executive Guidance note PM5)

STEAM BOILERS

Overheating caused by low water level is the most frequent cause of boiler explosions and other damage. In many cases this has been caused by lack of adequate supervision or control. Controls were initially provided as an automatic aid to boiler attendants, but in recent years sophisticated automatic controls have been provided on industrial boilers to increase boiler efficiency and reduce the amount of attendance required. Most new industrial boilers are fitted with automatic water level and firing controls.

Experience has shown that the incidence of damage or explosion caused by low water conditions has been higher pro rata with boilers having fully automatic water level and firing controls than those which are manually controlled. Analysis of these incidents shows the main causes to be:

'Lack of testing and maintenance of controls an alarms, leading to malfunction; isolation of control chambers; and occasion inadequate standard of controls'

This Note is intended to draw attention to the causes of damage and explosions and to make recommendations designed to prevent such occurrences. The recommendations apply to industrial boilers of the shell and water tube type with a perceptible water level; they may now be wholly applicable to electrode boilers, coil boilers, boilers which are continually attended or highly rated water tube boilers.

The most common form of water level and firing controls are float operated controls situated outside the boiler. The floats are housed in chambers which are connected to the steam and water spaces in the boiler so that the water level in the chambers will be approximately the same as that in the boiler. Water level controls, low water alarms and fuel firing controls may be incorporated in the same chamber but an additional chamber, with an independent electrical control circuit and independently connected to the boiler, is required for an overriding low water alarm and fuel cut-off in the case of full automatically controlled steam boilers. Float controls can also be of the internally mounted type and the following recommendations, where applicable, relate equally to this type of control.

1)

Standards for Automatic Controls

Automatic water level controls are of two basic types:

- controls intended to assist the boiler attendant who constantly supervises the boiler, and

- controls intended to replace continuous supervision with occasion supervision.

2)

Isolation of Control Chambers

The isolation of the control chambers caused by the attendant closing and leaving closed, either the water or steam isolating valves or both, after closing the drain, has resulted in many cases of damage and explosion from overheating of the boiler brought about by the resulting low water level.

To prevent isolation of control chambers it is therefore essential that the water isolating valve cannot be closed unless the drain valve is open. This ensures that, with the drain valve open, the float will be at the bottom of the chamber thereby cutting off the fuel supply to the boiler. It will not be possible to relight the boiler under these conditions. Valves are available which perform this function and allow steam and water connections to be blown independently. They are usually known as 'sequencing blow down valves' and unless this type of valve is used it will not be possible to blow independently through the water connection to the control chamber without the use of a steam isolating valve in the steam line to the control chamber. The sequencing type of blow down valve, by closing the bottom of the chamber while blowing through the water connection, averts the damage which may be caused to a float by water violently entering the chamber when blowing through a water connection with the steam isolating valve closed.

Isolating valves in steam pipes to control chambers are not always fitted by boiler manufacturers. When boilers cannot be shut down to enable maintenance to be carried out to control chambers it is necessary to fit such valves. When they are fitted, they should either be locked in the open position and the keys kept with a responsible person, or they should be of a type which cannot be accidentally left closed. When a locked valve is used, a duplicate key should be kept in a glass fronted cabinet in the boiler house for emergency use.

3)

Pipe Connections

To reduce the possibility of pipe connections to chambers becoming blocked the internal diameter should be as large as practicable, and in no case less than 25 mm.

4)

Drains

Drains from control chambers should be conveyed to waste through prominently placed tundishes wherever practicable.

5)

Water Level Gauges

 

At least one, and preferably two water level gauges should be fitted directly to the boiler shell.

The practice of fitting both water gauges to control chambers has, in the past, contributed to boiler explosions because of low water. If in such circumstances the control chamber is inadvertently isolated, the boiler attendant has no means of ascertaining the true water level in the boiler. This matter should be clarified by the manufacturer.

The minimum recommended requirements for automatic controls for boilers not continuously supervised are as follows:

(a)

Automatic water level controls. So arranged that they positively control the boiler feed pumps or regulate the water supply to the boilers and effectively maintain the level of water in the boiler between certain predetermined limits.

(b)

Automatic firing controls. So arranged that they effectively control the supply of fuel to the burners of oil or gas fired boilers, or air (and possibly fuel) to solid fuel fired boilers, and effectively shut off the supply in the event of any one or more of the following circumstances:

 

(i)

Flame/pilot flame failure on oil or gas fired boilers. The control should be of the lock- out type requiring manual resetting.

(ii)

Failure to ignite the fuel on oil or gas fired boilers within a predetermined time. The control should be of the lock-out type requiring manual resetting.

(iii)

When a predetermined high pressure at or below the safety valve set pressure is reached.

(iv)

When the water level falls to a predetermined point below the normal operating level. This control should also cause an audible alarm to sound.

(v)

Failure of forced or induced draught fans, or any automatic flue damper, when these are provided.

 

(c)

Independent overriding control. This control should cut off the fuel supply to oil or gas fired boilers or air (and possibly fuel) to the stokers of solid fuel fire boilers and cause an audible alarm to sound when the water level in the boiler falls to a predetermined low water level. The control or its electrical circuit should be so arranged that it has to be reset by hand before the boiler can be brought back into operation.

(d)

Electrical failure to safety. All electrical equipment for water level and firing controls should be so designed that faults in the circuits cause the fuel and air supply to the boiler to be automatically shut-off. Positive means requiring manual resetting should be provided to cut off the fuel and air supplies to be boiler and should there be a failure of electrical supply to water level and firing control equipment. All electrical conductors and equipment in connection with water level and firing controls should be of adequate size, and be properly insulated and protected to prevent danger including, where necessary, adequate protection against the ingress of moisture or the effects of high temperature.

6)

Water Supply

 

To ensure a sufficient feed water supply at all times, an adequately sized pipeline (which should not be used for any other services) should be fitted direct from the water supply main to the boiler feed water treatment plant or tank.

7)

Water Treatment

 

It is essential for the safe operation of a boiler with automatic controls that proper quality feed water is used. Scale and sludge can cause failure of controls. The recommendations under 'testing of controls' below should ensure, under normal circumstances of good water supply (see Item 9 of this Appendix), that this does not happen, but regular blowing down will not prevent scale formation if the feed water comes from a hard untreated supply.

8)

Blowing Down Control Chambers and Water Gauges

The steam and water legs of water gauges should be blown through separately at least once every eight hours of normal steaming in the case of continuously supervised boilers to ensure that they are clear and that water gauges are indicating the actual level of water in the boiler. In other cases at least once a day or once a shift. Similarly, control chamber connections should be blown through separately at least once a day or once a shift. This is done when the daily test detailed below is carried out. (Blowing down procedures may differ on high-pressure boilers and the advice of the manufacturer should be strictly followed.)

9)

Testing of Controls

It is strongly emphasised that the safe operation of an automatically controlled boiler depends on

the correct functioning of its water level and firing controls. Such controls should be regularly

tested to ensure this.

A suitable test procedure for externally mounted float controls fitted with sequencing blow-down

valves is given below. Where controls are not of this type the procedure will have to be modified, and the advice of the competent person carrying out the statutory examination of the boiler

should be sought on this point.

10)

Daily Operating Test

 

The following tests should be carried out at least once a day or once a shift under normal operating conditions by a trained boiler attendant or technician familiar with boiler controls.

(i)

Water level control Close the water isolating valve to the control chamber and drain the chamber. Check that the feed water is being automatically supplied to the boiler. Return valve to operating position.

(ii)

Firing Controls With the burner operating, close the water isolating valve to the control chamber and to the control chamber and drain the chamber. This should automatically cause the alarm to sound and the fuel and/or air supply to be cut off. Return valve to operating position.

(iii)

Independent Overriding Control

 

With the burner operating, close the water isolating valve to the independent overriding control and drain the chamber. This should automatically cause the alarm to sound and the fuel and/or air supply to be cut off and locked out to safety. Return valve to operating position.

Note:

The water level control and the firing controls are often in the same chamber and if so, the two will be checked simultaneously.

11)

Weekly Test

At least once a week the water control should be checked by manually interrupting the feed supply and lowering the level of water in the boiler by evaporation until the alarm sounds and the fuel and/or air supply is cut off.

The independent overriding low water control should be checked separately by continuing to lower the level by gradual blowing down of the boiler until the alarm sounds and the fuel and/or air supply locks out. After carrying out the daily and weekly tests the person making them should ensure that the water level is restored and all valves are in the operating position. He should not leave the boiler until he is satisfied that it is operating normally, remaining at least a further 20 minutes.

(a)

Records It is strongly recommended that a record be kept of all periodic tests and quarterly servicing and maintenance of controls. Advice on a suitable record for the daily and weekly tests of water gauges and controls can usually be obtained from the boiler maker or competent person. An example is given at the end of these notes.

(b)

Maintenance Automatic controls should be regularly serviced and maintained by persons having the necessary competence and facilities for maintaining the particular type of control. Regular maintenance should be carried out, at least at quarterly intervals. Manufacturers of automatic control equipment usually provide maintenance contracts for this purpose.

12)

Siting of Alarms

 

Many cases have occurred where low-water alarms have sounded a warning but have been so situated that they were not heard, or had only been heard by a person (such as the watchman) who did not understand the implication or know of the necessary action. When a boiler is not continuously supervised it is usually not enough to have an alarm on the boiler. Alarms should be provided at points where they can be heard by persons who are competent to take appropriate action, see also 09.05.09.

13)

Training of Boiler Attendants

Many cases of damage arising from low-water conditions have been caused by lack of knowledge of controls on the part of the boiler attendants. Attendants with experience limited to manually controlled boiler may be unfamiliar with modern automatic boiler controls. Before they take charge of such boilers it is essential that they should be properly trained in the safe operation of such plant, the action to be taken in emergencies and to carry out the tests set out under 'Testing of Controls' above. Most boiler manufacturers provide suitable training facilities.

APPENDIX 09.05.02

HOT WATER BOILERS

Hot water boilers operating without continuous supervision require automatic controls to ensure safe operation. Minimum standards for such controls are given below. For the purpose of detailing these standards, fully-flooded boiler systems can be divided into four basic categories:

A

Static Head systems open to pressure

B

Closed Pressurised systems with separate pressurising vessels and provision for make-up water

C

Sealed Pressurised systems with separate pressurising vessels and no provision for make-up water

D

System Pressurised by a feed pump and/or static head with provision for make-up water

Note:

Boilers pressurised by steam are classified as steam boilers and should therefore generally comply with the requirements for 'Steam boilers' above.

1)

Automatic Controls

All the above categories of fully-flooded hot water boilers should have automatic control apparatus to cut off the fuel supply to the burners of oil or gas fired plant, or the air (and probably fuel) supply to the stokers of solid fuel fired plant in the event of one or more of the following circumstances:

(i)

Flame/pilot. flame failure on oil or gas fired boilers. The control should be of the lock-out type requiring manual resetting.

(ii)

Failure to ignite the fuel within a predetermined time on oil or gas fired boilers. The control should be of the lock-out type requiring manual resetting.

(iii)

Failure of forced or induced draught fan or automatic flue damper, when these are provided.

(iv)

When the water at or near the boiler flow outlet rises to a predetermined temperature providing a margin of at least 17 °C below the temperature of saturated steam corresponding to the pressure at the highest point of the circulating system above- the boiler.

(v)

When the water level in the pressurising equipment in a category B system falls to a predetermined level below the normal operating level. The control should also cause an audible alarm to operate.

(vi)

When the pressure in a category B, C or D system falls below the specified operating pressure to a predetermined pressure. This predetermined pressure should be at a level which will ensure that the water does not reach boiling point in any part of the system while working temperature is maintained.

(vii)

When the pressure in a category C system approaches to within 0.35 bar gauge of safety valve load setting which must not exceed the design pressure of any part of the system.

2)

Independent Overriding Controls

In addition to the foregoing automatic controls, boilers should be provided with independent overriding controls which cut off the fuel supply to oil or gas burners, or air (and possibly fuel) supply to solid fuel stokers when:

(a)

The water at or near the boiler flow outlet rises to a predetermined temperature providing a margin of at least 6 °C below the temperature of saturated steam corresponding to the pressure at the highest point of circulating system above the boiler except that, in the case of boilers fired with solid fuel automatic stokers, the margin should be least 10 °C. The control should be of the lock-out type requiring manual resetting.

(b)

The water level in the pressurising equipment of a category B system falls to a predetermined level below the level mentioned under 'Automatic Controls' above. The Control should lock out the firing equipment and should be of a type that requires manual testing.

3)

Boilers Using Mixing Valves

When mixing valves are used to blend returned water with flow water to serve the heating system, solid fuel boilers should serve at least one circuit which is independent of the mixing valve and which is capable of dissipating residual heat in the fuel bed when the mixing valve closes against the boiler, e.g. during mild weather. Alternatively, a heat dissipation thermostat should be fitted in the boiler flow line which should override the mixing valve control in the event of excessive temperature rise.

4)

Capacity of Safety Valves

The total capacity of the safety valves or vents fitted to any boiler system should be sufficient to discharge the maximum quantity of generated liquid or steam without permitting a rise in pressure of more than 10 per cent above the safe working pressure when the safety valve(s) are discharging.

5)

Testing and Maintenance

Owing to the diversity of controls for fully-flooded hot water boilers it is not possible to give details of testing and maintenance in these notes. The boiler or control manufacturers' instructions or advice on regular testing should be strictly followed.

In addition, quarterly servicing and maintenance by competent personnel, are essential to ensure that controls are kept in good working order.

servicing and maintenance by competent personnel, are essential to ensure that controls are kept in good

APPENDIX 09.05.03

BOILER REPLACEMENT CALCULATIONS

Two boilers at a PETRONAS marketing installation handling bitumen and fuel oil were approaching the end of their economical lives. Three solutions were available to management to deal with the situation:

(i)

Two new boilers could be installed at a cost of US$ 280 000.

(ii)

The existing boilers could be overhauled for US$ 100 000.

(iii)

A few more years' life could be squeezed from the existing boilers by minor repairs costing US$ 20 000 per year.

If the last course was adopted there would be no change in fuel efficiency. New boilers would be about 15% more efficient, saving an estimated US$ 100 000 per year on fuel costs. A boiler overhaul was estimated to give a smaller fuel saving of US$ 35 000 per year, while requiring somewhat more annual maintenance than new boilers (US$ 4 000 compared with US$ 2 000).

This situation is typical of many fuel saving investments. Comparison of the three options can only be made by making a full Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) comparison. This is particularly important when, as in the case of the company concerned, capital allowances are claimable against tax.

Such a calculation was made for these three cases; the results are summarised in the Figure below. It will be seen that the new boiler option is clearly the most attractive giving a present value (PV) surplus just below four years, whereas the others show a deficit.

However, further consideration showed that if only one boiler was replaced immediately (at US$ 140 000), a second boiler could be installed in the second year. Furthermore, the application of other energy conservation measures, i.e. tank top insulation, improved line tracing, 'hot-oil' systems etc, shows that by that time heating demand could be met with the installation of a smaller boiler; these options are not shown in Figure 1.

The outcome of the exercise was that only one boiler needed to be replaced in the next year's budget, thereby reducing immediate capital demand. The example demonstrates that such asset management calculations are an aid in the selection of different methods of operation, maintenance and replacement, thereby assisting management decisions.

in the selection of different methods of operation, maintenance and replacement, thereby assisting management decisions.

09.06.00.

AUTOMATED CONTROL OF LOADING

09.06.01

Introduction

Automated control of loading of bulk products into road vehicles, rail waggons, barges and coastal tankers has been introduced in many plants. Control systems are available virtually as standard packages - both hardware and software. They should be considered essential for new depots, or for plants which are being modernised.

09.06.02.

Objectives of Automated Loading Systems

The principal aims are:

(a)

Security Accurately to control product loaded and moved in order to prevent/minimise/isolate product losses; to ensure that only authorised vehicles and drivers can load, that the correct products and volumes are loaded and that all activities are logged continuously.

(b)

Safety To improve the safety of loading operations by incorporating interlocks that automatically prevent/stop product flowing unless all safety precautions are in operation - particularly those related to static electricity hazards.

(c)

Data Capture To capture data automatically - quickly and accurately as it is generated - in order to provide accurate records of all the events relating to loading operations for invoicing, control of exchange deals, stock management and planning (this will include volumes at standard temperature if temperature probes are incorporated), and performance control.

(d)

Productivity To improve performance by minimising the manpower involvement in loading control and on stock management - particularly data capture and calculations.

09.06.03.

Scope and Methods of Operation

Depending upon local conditions and needs, a loading control system can be as simple as an unattended keylock system (i.e. permitting only authorised key or card holders to draw product and logging all transactions immediately afterwards), or as comprehensive as a complete control system which is linked with the depot administration system and which ensures that loading follows a strictly predetermined sequence and measures the volumes into each compartment.

09.06.04.

Loading Controls

(a) Security

(i) Identity Card (ID) Identity recognition is normally by means of an identify card (ID) which may be associated with a: company (customer, jobber, other oil company, etc); vehicle; driver; load for individual trip. The ID card can either be 'swallowed' by the card reader or returned to the gate office in exchange for the delivery note). Such a card can be read to control: access to the depot using a barrier; similarly, exit from the depot; authority to load, i.e. linked with the control valves on the loading island and the product pumps; the printer producing delivery note/gate pass. The system can store information so that: any card lost by the authorised user can be locked out; customers whose product quota or credit limit has been reached can be locked out; cards can be valid for certain products only; validity checks can be made on the card number (parity or check digit). The ID cards themselves should be tough, durable and unaffected by oil products. Since the card readers are usually sited within a hazardous area they must be intrinsically safe. The reading of the code is usually either magnetic or optical.

(ii)

Vehicle Recognition

A device, can be fitted on each bulk vehicle so that when the bonding

connection is made at the loading bay, the system recognises the unique coding of the vehicle device. However, this system is only useful where the majority of vehicles are regularly loaded at the depot - either company-owned or contractor's vehicles.

(b) Grade and Quantity Control

(i)

Metering equipment White oils and most black oils are normally measured by means of positive displacement or turbine meters. These are well proven and are accepted by most statutory authorities as accurate devices - subject to regular checks and calibration to maintain their accuracy. For data capture the preferred method is to replace the mechanical computer with an electronic pulse unit. The latter may also be used to control the whole loading operation, i.e. to preset quantities via the gantry control system and use the pulses to initiate the control of the slow flow and shut-off. Apart from eliminating the problem of discrepancies this approach has the advantage of enabling all meter

adjustments to be made electronically, i.e. by feeding in a meter factor update (under key control). Also the system can linearise the meter output over its full operating range and allow compensation for changes

in

the viscosity of the product being handled.

It

may be desirable to have an electronic display panel visible to the

driver; this would take the place of the read-out head on the meter stack-up and would show the countdown of litres loaded. Being in a hazardous zone it must be explosion proof or intrinsically safe, and the actual display must be easily readable in full daylight.

In

all cases (to satisfy Customs and Excise regulations) the pulse unit

must generate and transmit dual pulses; these are compared continuously and if any discrepancy arises the system must stop the flow and send a warning message.

(ii)

Temperature Measurement The temperature of the product being loaded can be measured accurately (to say 0.1 °C) by means of a platinum resistance probe inserted in the product supply line close to the loading bays. The loading control system polls the probes (and all the other

instrumentation devices) at regular intervals and can therefore relate the temperature to the volume flowing through the meter, in order to calculate the average temperature and then the volume at standard temperature. While it may be neither necessary nor desirable to deliver and invoice products at standard temperature to ordinary customers, it

is

usually necessary for supplying other oil companies, e.g. exchange

deals, and is of course essential for accurate stock control.

(iii)

Valve Control

Having recognised at the loading bay the driver, vehicle or load, and after the safety interlocks have been satisfied, the system should release the inhibition of one or more of the meters to supply only the appropriate product or products. Then the flow of product can be started (solenoid valve open and pump started) and the pulse unit on the meter will transmit signals to the system to record the volume metered. Depending on the requirements and on the design, the system will either:

- Monitor the loading i.e. record the volume after the event: this leaves the complete responsibility with the driver to fill his bulk vehicle correctly - with or without a preset mechanism on the meters, or

- Control the quantity taken: in this case the system presets the volume automatically, having related the loading instructions to the bulk vehicle being loaded. The driver will be told the total quantity of a single product load, or total quantity by product and by compartment.

(iv)

Weighbridges

Where the majority of bulk vehicles for luboils, or chemicals, load more than one product/grade (by compartment), it is desirable to have a separate weigh bridge at each loading bay. Such an arrangement enables loading control to be automated. Accurate weights can be predetermined and preset so vehicles are not overloaded and liable to infringe traffic regulations. Where the majority of loads are of a single product, and where efficient and duplicated overfill prevention devices can be used on all bulk vehicles, then it is possible to use a single weigh bridge at the depot entrance/exit to capture the loading data after fill. Clearly this is a much cheaper solution but is only suitable where the scale of the operation and the traffic flow is not too great. Twin weighbridges - one at the entrance (tare weight) and the other at the exit (gross weight and therefore load) - can be used but have to be checked frequently to ensure there is no discrepancy between them. For rail tank waggons, dedicated weighbridges at each loading bay can be used in the same way as for road vehicles above.

(v)

Additive Injection The number of additives necessary for injecting into products, and therefore into loading arms, depends on PETRONAS's needs and on product drawing arrangements with competitors. The control system must be able to select the additives for each loading arm on the basis of the product required for the company/customer taking the particular load, i.e. deriving the instruction from the system's customer file.

(vi)

Product Returns

If a bulk vehicle equipped with a meter returns to the depot with some

product, the quantity remaining can be deduced and entered into the administrative system so that the appropriate volume of the same product can be loaded on top. However, if the tank contents on the vehicle are not metered, any returns (other than full compartments) have to be pumped back into depot storage - preferably at a special unloading bay under the control of the gantry control system. Returned product must either be pumped into the appropriate storage tank or via an intermediate storage system; it must not be pumped into the product delivery lines because of the hazard of air entrainment.

(c)

Safety In some plants there are existing interlock systems linked to the flow control covering earth bonding and/or overfill prevention; if the equipment is in good condition the control can be incorporated into most forms of automated loading systems. All interlocks should be permissive, i.e. when satisfied they allow the solenoid product control valve to open and the pump to start, and all must be designed to fail safe.

It is essential that the sequence of work for the driver in any automated loading control system should be exactly the same as that followed under a manual operation which is correctly carried out.

(i)

Earth Bonding In every case it is essential to have an interlock to ensure that the vehicle tank is effectively bonded to the loading equipment by means of

a

cable and a connection - preferably a well-designed plug and socket. It

is advisable to have the socket facing aft on the vehicle, so that if no warning light is fitted and if the vehicle moves off without first removing the bond, the plug can at least pull out.

(ii)

System Operating Product flow should be stopped if for any reason the computer controlling the system ceases to operate. For power failures the system should shut-down in a safe condition and the battery back-up should provide power to retain all data already collected by the system. If mechanical presets and meter read-outs are retained it is possible to switch over and operate a system manually under strict supervision.

(iii)

Quantity Cut-off Filling the correct quantity of product into a tank (or compartment) is normally arranged through a preset positive displacement meter. The provision of a ticket printer on the meter improves security if the sequence of tickets is checked at the end of the shift. Irrespective of the method of controlling loading, there should always be at least two independent devices/methods to initiate the cut-off of product flow. The addition of electronic-pulsing equipment to the meter enables data to be automatically recorded and, as it is received in sequence, it provides an automatic record and identification of all loadings.

(iv)

Overfill Prevention Devices (See the Loading and Discharging - Road Manual Loading Facilities for Bulk Road Vehicles 19.00.00)

These must be fitted to vehicles loaded through bottom outlet(s). If fitted

to

top filling vehicles it permits two compartments to be loaded at the

same time. Where fitted, the overfill prevention device must be linked to the product authority valve or safety lock system so that if the device is

not operating, product flow will be stopped.

(v)

Top Loading - Loading Arm Position

Interlocks should be fitted to ensure that the left/right proximity switches confirm that the arm is on the same side as the card reader that has been used (to prove that the correct vehicle is being loaded). To confirm that the arm is fully down in the compartment, either a pneumatically-operated or a mercury switch should be interlocked to prove that the arm is fully down; therefore it prevents splash loading and minimises the electrostatic hazard.

(vi)

Top Loading - Access Bridge An interlocked proximity switch can ensure that the access bridge from the gantry platform to the vehicle is down while the vehicle is loading. Opening this switch can also be used to indicate the end of the filling operation.

(vii)

Bottom Loading - Filling Arm Position

A

proximity switch can indicate when the filling arm is correctly stowed

after loading is complete. The exit traffic signal (if installed) can only go green after all the arms are stowed.

(viii)

Vapour Recovery Connection The correct positioning of the vapour recovery connection (where used) can be ensured by an interlocked proximity switch.

(ix)

Some Additional Control Features As an additional safeguard, traffic lights - linked with the control system - may be installed at the entrance and/or exit of each loading bay; however, this is only likely to be justifiable for bottom loading. The entry light should only go green when the bay is vacant and the loading equipment is in satisfactory working order - the exit light should only go green when the loading operation is complete, the loading arms/hoses stowed, and the earthing bond disconnected. An automatic barrier may also be used to augment the exit traffic light, but would be obstructive should an occasional bulk vehicle come with a trailer needing separate positioning for loading. The height of a barrier should relate to the level of the driver's line of vision from a typical vehicle cab.

(x)

Electrical Equipment All electrics must be manufactured and certified for use in the particular environment according to area classification requirements for explosive gas atmospheres; specifically, loading islands are classified in Zone 1 and all electrical equipment must be flame/explosion-proof or intrinsically safe.

(xi)

Emergency Stop Controls Clearly marked and easily accessible emergency stop buttons should be fitted at each end of bottom loading islands; for top loading they should be at each end of the working platform at the top of the stairways (also at mid-point of long gantry platforms, see the Loading and Discharging Manual - Road 23.00.02). The emergency buttons should stop all pumps, shut all solenoid control valves and set off the alarm signals.

(xii)

Communication Between Office and Loading Bays Amplifier equipment can be provided on the loading islands so that there can be a dialogue between the dispatch office and the driver when necessary. If provided, it must be certified safe for use in a hazardous area.

(xiii)

Product Temperatures (if required) Data can be generated by sensors in the product lines either at or adjacent to the loading facilities. An accuracy to 0.1 °C should be specified. Temperature is not normally required for calculating volumes at standard temperature for individual loads, but it is used for aggregating totals for stock management.

09.06.05. Demanned Depots

When dealing with local authorities it is important to stress that such depots are only unmanned when they are inactive; otherwise a responsible person is always in charge whenever product is flowing - a driver filling his bulk vehicle, or an operator/supervisor replenishing the depot tanks.

Self-service controlled by keylock systems using mechanical or electro-mechanical equipment is well proven. The latest equipment is based on electronic systems in modular form and service experience indicates that this method will become more important.

In principle, keylocks can be fitted to any bulk metering system; however, experience is mainly confined to handling of gas oils (heating oils and automotive fuel) and kerosine.

Electronic systems have the advantages that they may be read remotely, so that the loading data can be summoned over a telecommunication system by a central computer.

09.06.06. Computer Equipment

(a) Control PCs Modern loading control systems usually rely on computers to achieve the actual process control of the operation. Each filling point may have its own controlling computer (usually on a single-printed circuit board) or a number of points may be controlled by one PC. The actual location of the computer depends on the manufacturer's design; if intrinsically safe or housed in an approved explosion/flameproof enclosure, they can be put on or near the loading gantry or filling point - in that case they can be located with, for example, remote electronic read-out and control heads for the meters, gantry card readers, etc. In this case the computer acts as a multiplexor and simplifies the cabling to and from the loading bays. In other systems, the control computer may be grouped in a safe area - usually in the office building alongside any other computing equipment. The disadvantage of this layout is that either every pulse unit, temperature probe, interlock and proximity switch has to be wired individually back from the loading area to the office building, or a multiplexing device has to be added it the loading area.

(b)

Supervisory PC The individual loading control PCs are usually instructed by a single master computer, which acts as the input device for the dispatcher and as the data collector from the loading controllers. In large systems this supervisory PC may be duplicated to minimise the hazard of computer failure. The supervisory PC is usually located in the plant office and typically has disk storage for holding permanent files order/loading instructions and the data on completed loads and

meter totals. Its peripherals include one or more VDUs for input or interrogation,

a

logging printer and, depending on the system design, it may have printers for

producing loading instructions and/or delivery notes/invoices. An example of this approach is shown as a line diagram in Figure 09.06.01; this system has given satisfactory service for some years.

In an integrated system the supervisory PC is linked to the depot order- taking/administrative system. This link enables the order-taking system to down load order data into the supervisory PC, and so minimises the need for manual input with its risk of errors. If the link is designed for 2-way operation,, the supervisory PC can feed back the data on completed loadings to the administrative system. Most of the end of day routines - back-up printing of

reports and transmission of data - can be done automatically at a specified time

of

day or night; the log on printer should report successful completion or highlight

any problems for investigation or action next day. One system, which only has a

very simple printer connected to its PC uses one of the depot administrative system's full-width printers to print its summaries and reports overnight.

(c)

Electric Cabling

Where power cables and signal cables have to be routed in the same direction it

is important to have the signal cables sheathed and led in separate conduits or

ducts from the power cables. This is particularly important for the cables from the meter pulse units, as otherwise they could pick up spurious pulses. Further

information on cabling requirements is given in Section 10.01.04.

FIGURE 09.06.01

COMPUTER CONTROL OF BULK VEHICLE LOADING

FIGURE 09.06.01 COMPUTER CONTROL OF BULK VEHICLE LOADING

09.07.00.

BLENDING AND MIXING EQUIPMENT

09.07.01. References

Blending methods and equipment are designed to suit the components of the blending operation and to achieve the right mix. Recommendations for particular products are given in the following manuals:

- Specific Lubricating Oil Blending Plant Operating Manuals.

- Bitumen Facilities, also Plant Operating Manual, Volume 4

- Safe Handling Procedures in Pesticide Formulation Plants: Parts I and II: SICM

- Plant Operating Manual, Volume 1, Section 02.03.00

- Additive Injection: Loading Facilities for Bulk Road Vehicles 18.00.09

- Additive Injection: Rail Tank Waggon Loading and Discharging 06.07.00

Guidance on the choice of, and attachments for, positive displacement meters is given in Section 06.02.00 of the Oil Measurement and Product Conservation Manual.

09.07.02. In-tank Blending

In this method the components of the blend are pumped into the blending tank and then agitated to obtain a homogeneous mixture. A bulk component can be measured either:

(i)

In the tank, by means of tank dip or contents gauge,

(ii)

By means of positive displacement flow meters.

The components are agitated in the blending tank by mechanical stirrers; alternatively, and subject to the restrictions noted in 09.07.04 below, by blowing with compressed air or recirculating the oil through a jet nozzle.

09.07.03. In-line Blending

In this method all components must be pumped simultaneously. The rate of flow of each component is controlled automatically, so that the proportions of the components in the delivery line from the blending unit are correct. A mechanical mixer may be incorporated in the delivery line.

Direct in-line blending of grades needed regularly, e.g. industrial and marine fuel oils, into bulk rail or road vehicles, or into ships, can be economically feasible because samples can be taken from the transport unit's tanks and tested/approved before transporting the product.

(a)

Blending Fuel Oils

For blending intermediate grades of fuel oils from fuel and diesel, or gas oils direct into ships' bunker tanks, an in-line blender is recommended - such as the mobile blender shown in Figure 09.07.01, or the fixed type blending unit shown in Figure 09.07.02 - in 3-inch, 6-inch and 8-inch sizes as required. Figure 09.07.03 is a diagrammatic layout of the Fisher in-line blender, including operating instructions.

(b)

Blending White Oils Although blending of white oils is normally carried out at the supply point, in some countries it may be necessary for PETRONAS companies to prepare alcohol/methanol/gasoline blends at installations and depots. The methods in use are:

(i)

In-line blending: an example of a Fisher blending valve is shown in Figure 09.07.04. (Note: This valve is designed for blending non-viscous products and is not recommended for fuel oils.)

(ii)

Jet-blending in the tank: see 09.07.04(b). In this application for Class I

products, the level of the liquid must be kept above the point at which the jet stream could penetrate the surface of the product and cause splashing. The level of about 2/3 tank height is suggested depending upon the design and position of the jet orifice.

09.07.04.

Mixing Systems

(a)

Compressed Air

This

system must not be used for blending low-flash or volatile components of a

mix

and is undesirable for heated products. Its advantages of simplicity and

cleanness are particularly suited to blending of lubricants.

(b)

Jet Recirculation

In this method oil is drawn from the bottom of the tank and returned through a small diameter jet nozzle at high velocity towards the surface of the oil. The nozzle is positioned so that a jet of liquid is directed across the diameter of the tank. It is widely used in lub oil blending plants. While this method can be used for Class I products it is essential to ensure that the jet stream does not penetrate the liquid surface and cause splashing i.e. the

tank

should be at least 2/3 full.

(c)

Pump Recirculation

This

system is widely used for minimising sludge build-up in fuel oil tanks; also

when blends incorporate low-flash or volatile products.

(d)

Mechanical Mixing

Electric motor-driven stirrers fitted with propeller, paddle or turbine heads are used for mixing liquids. Side-entry mixers (MESC 43.55.70 and as shown in Figure 09.07.05) are fitted in storage tanks for either:

(i)

Blending or homogenising of components and products - including bitumen, or

(ii)

Control of tank bottom deposits such as sludge i.e. to create a

movement so that solids are kept in suspension. This ensures that all the tank contents remain pumpable, which minimises tank corrosion and laborious/costly tank cleaning. Side-entry mixers have the ability to blend safety at most normal product heights in the tank. Floating covers in tanks fitted with side-entry mixers should have sufficiently long legs to prevent them fouling the mixer when in their lowest positions.

09.07.05.

Additive Injection

Many products loaded into road and rail vehicles require additives to be incorporated during the loading operation; moreover some products may require different additives in different proportions for different customers - with additive quantities required ranging from less than 1 ppm (part per million) for anti-static additive, up to 4 000 ppm for gasoline additives.

The most satisfactory method of incorporating additives is to inject them into the product pipeline just upstream of the meter, for example see Figure 09.07.06A and B, in the exact proportion required. To achieve this, the injection pump should be synchronised with the meter, either using a direct or geared drive mechanism or, preferably, a system by which the injector is operated by signals sent from the meter, e.g. electrical or pneumatic pulses.

If a simple manual method is required, additive quantities can be calculated by the

operator loading the vehicle, measured into a beaker for each compartment and added to the vehicle before loading starts. Such methods are slow and liable to error, and are

not recommended where additive injection is required regularly.

When additive is to be injected using electric pulse transmitters or pneumatic transmitters fitted to the meters, an electric supply (conforming with area classification requirements), or air supply to the additive proportioner, must be provided. Such a system requires delivery of additive at a pressure at least 50% above the product pressure in the pipeline, and an additive pressurisation or pumping system will therefore be needed.

To enable fixed additive injection systems to be calibrated without interrupting deliveries,

a calibrated container should be installed in the additive supply line, with a changeover

valve system to enable the container to be filled from the additive supply before connecting to the injection pump; simultaneously isolating the mainline additive supply to

the injector pump.

Additive supply tanks installed at the loading bays should be sited to avoid obstruction of working areas, and to avoid problems which might arise from the properties of the additive, i.e. corrosive vapours, class of product, etc. The tank mounting arrangements should be adequately protected in case of fire.

Facilities for filling additive tanks from bulk vehicles or drums should be located so that normal vehicle loading operations are not delayed or obstructed. Alternatively, the additive supply system should have sufficient capacity for replenishment to be delayed until slack periods.

FIGURE 09.07.01

FISHER MOBILE IN-LINE BLENDER FOR FUEL OILS

FIGURE 09.07.01 FISHER MOBILE IN-LINE BLENDER FOR FUEL OILS

FIGURE 09.07.02

FISHER FIXED IN-LINE BLENDER FOR FUEL OILS

FIGURE 09.07.02 FISHER FIXED IN-LINE BLENDER FOR FUEL OILS

FIGURE 09.07.03

FISHER BLENDING UNIT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS

FIGURE 09.07.03 FISHER BLENDING UNIT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS

FIGURE 09.07.04

FISHER IN-LINE BLENDING VALVE FOR WHITE OILS

FIGURE 09.07.04 FISHER IN-LINE BLENDING VALVE FOR WHITE OILS

FIGURE 09.07.05

STORAGE TANK SIDE ENTRY MIXER INSTALLATION

FIGURE 09.07.05 STORAGE TANK SIDE ENTRY MIXER INSTALLATION

FIGURE 09.07.06A

AVERY-HARDOLL IN-LINE ADDITIVE INJECTOR

TYPICAL INSTALLATION OF IN-LINE INJECTION

FIGURE 09.07.06A AVERY-HARDOLL IN-LINE ADDITIVE INJECTOR TYPICAL INSTALLATION OF IN-LINE INJECTION TABLE OF ADDITIVE RATIOS

TABLE OF ADDITIVE RATIOS

FIGURE 09.07.06A AVERY-HARDOLL IN-LINE ADDITIVE INJECTOR TYPICAL INSTALLATION OF IN-LINE INJECTION TABLE OF ADDITIVE RATIOS

FIGURE 09.07.06B

AVERY-HARDOLL METER WITH IN-LINE ADDITIVE INJECTOR

FIGURE 09.07.06B AVERY-HARDOLL METER WITH IN-LINE ADDITIVE INJECTOR

09.08.00.

PRIME MOVERS

09.08.01

Engine Selection

If it is uneconomical to use the local electrical supply, or to generate electricity to meet power requirements, compression-ignition (CI) engines are recommended for driving plant and equipment such as generators, pumps, compressors and welding sets. As there are many suitable makes of CI engines available for general installation and depot duties, availability of spare parts, after-sales service and cost become the most important considerations when selecting an engine.

For all normal operating requirements, multi-cylinder vertical or 'V' type, naturally aspirated (or turbo-charged or turbo-intercooled), medium-speed engines are recommended for direct coupling to pumps, generators, etc. Engines of up to about 200 kW will meet most installation and depot requirements and within this range air-cooled or radiator-cooled engines are recommended.

Air-cooling has advantages, but the noise level which is higher than a water-cooled engine, may be disturbing if the engine is located near an office or residential area.

09.08.02.

Engine Rating

Engines are usually rated by the brake power they produce at their operating speed for a given period of time under specified atmospheric conditions. The effects of atmospheric conditions on the performance of CI engines are important in two respects:

(i)

In

correcting engine performance for the effect of change of altitude (site rating).

(ii)

In correcting engine performance, measured at a given site, to standard atmospheric conditions.

In the first case the operator is generally concerned with corrections on a basis of constant exhaust smoke density, whereas in the second case he is concerned with a basis of constant fuel delivery.

Existing methods for correcting CI engine performance vary widely and, when applied to constant fuel rate conditions, tend to be complex. Correction methods for different altitudes, air temperatures and humidity have tended to be empirical and rough guide- lines on the reduction of power which may be expected with naturally aspirated engines are as follows:

(a)

Altitude Approximately 3% per 300 m of altitude above 150 m

(b)

Air Temperature Approximately 3% per 10 °C above 30 °C

(c)

humidity Percentage derating is approximately as follows:

Air Temperature

% HUMIDITY

°C

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

30

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.4

35

0.2

0.9

1.6

2.2

2.9

3.6

4.2

40

0.3

1.2

2.1

3.0

3.0

4.8

5.7

6.6

45

1.1

2.3

3.5

4.7

5.9

7.1

-

-

50

201

307

503

6.9

Notwithstanding the foregoing, in order to ensure that engine equipment is suitable for the operating conditions it is essential that the information which should be supplied by the customer, and the information offered by the engine maker, is comprehensive. To this end Appendix 09.08.01 lists the main items to be considered by the customer, and the performance data which should be submitted by the manufacturer.

A typical PETRONAS Data/Requisition Sheet for internal combustion engines is

given in Appendix 09.08.02.

09.08.03.

Engine Location

Small engines of up to 75 kW which are easily moved, can be provided with a weatherproof casing and located in the open. Large engines which are not readily moveable may require separate weather protection. Where climatic conditions permit, open-sided buildings are recommended.

CI engines with electric starters may be used to drive gasoline pumps, provided that the engine and pump are located in the open or in an open-sided building, and at the recommended safety distances from tanks, filling points, fixed sources of ignition, etc; otherwise air starters must be used. The requirements for protecting CI engines for operation in hazardous areas are given in Section 03.09.01.

APPENDIX 09.08.01

SPECIFICATION OF PRIME MOVERS

1)

INFORMATION TO BE SUPPLIED BY THE CUSTOMER