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(-, 21 2014 .)

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204

:

Hindoo mythology, vol. I,
Ms.lnd.IV.19,

:
..
A.A.
..
..
..
H.H.
..
, 2015
,
2015

Kritzer Robert. Garbhvakrntistra: The Sutra on Entry into


the Womb. Tokio: The International Institute for Buddhist
Studies of The International College for Postgraduate Buddhist
Studies, 2014 (Studia Philologica Buddhica, Monograph
Series XXXI). 438 pp. (.. )

208

.. , H.. , . .:
, 2014. 256 ., 270 .
(. )

211

.. , .
.: , 2010. 397 .
(.. )

213

.. .
, , ,
.. ; : ..
: , ,
. .: , 2014 ().
280 . (.. )

216

IN MEMORIAM
(1930-2015) ( . )

219

(1939-2014) (.. )

221

RUSSIAN ACADEMY
OF SCIENCES
The Institute of Oriental
M anuscripts

Published under the supervision


of the Historical-Philological
Department of the Russian
Academy of Sciences

WRITTEN
nOM HENTS
OE THE ORIENT
1

)
spring - summer

2015
Founded in 2004
Issued biannually

in THIS IS S 4 E
PUBLICATIONS
Manuscript of Mongolian Folktale A Tale o f the Old Man
Borontai from IOM, RAS Collection. Foreword, Transcription
and Translation from Mongolian by D.A. Nosov

RESEARCH WORKS
A.L. Khosroyev. Some More Reflections on the Apophatic
Theology of Gnostics

12

L. V. Goriaeva. Two Manuscripts o f The Kings o f the Pasai


Chronicle (Notes on the Texts History)

37

I.S. Gurevich. On Two Buddhist Texts as Sources to Study


the Vernacular Chinese Language of the 3rd-9th Centuries

47

K.G. Marandjian. Confucian Treatise of Nakae Toju Dialogue


with an Old Man as a Reliable Historical Source, or
Were the Warriors Illiterate at the Beginning o f the 17 Century?

57

Z.A. Yusupovci. A Look into the History of Studies in the


Luri Dialects

67

HISTORY AND HISTORIOGRAPHY

Nauka
Vostochnaya Literatura
2015

M.M. Yunusov. From the History of the Decipherment of West


Semitic Writing: Events and People. (Ill) Palmyra Texts
in Europe: S. Petit and N.-C. de Peiresc

75

Y.A. loannesyan. The Shaykhi Teaching on the Tripartite Spiritual


Reality of the Human Being

98

A.L Kolesnikov. Topography of the Christian Dioceses in


Eastern Iran and Khurasan under Sasanians (3rd-7th Century)

118

V.M. Rybakov. Misappropriation in Tang Dynasty Criminal Law

128

S.L. Burmistrov. Datttreya and His Place in Hindu Mythology

141

COLLECTIONS AND ARCHIVES


E.P. Ostrovskaya. N.D. Mironovs Contribution to the Description
of the Buddhist Manuscripts at the Indian Collection of Asiatic
Museum, IOM, RAS

153

S. I. Marakhonova. Russian Japanologist Serge Elisseff


at Harvard in 1932-1957

169

ACADEMIC LIFE
T.A. Pang. The 57th Annual Meeting o f the Permanent
International Altaistic Conference (Vladivostok,
September 9-14, 2014)

177

S.L. Burmistrov. The 31st Conference on Comparative Philosophy


Philosophical Comparativistics and the Comparative Philosophy
of Education. Center for Comparative Philosophy, Institute of
Philosophy, St. Petersburg State University.
(St. Petersburg, November 21, 2014)

181

T. V. Ermakova, E.P. Ostrovskaya. The 8th All-Russian Oriental


Conference in Memory of O.O. Rozenberg (St. Petersburg,
November 24-25, 2014)

184

M M . Yunusov. International Conference Dedicated to the


Centenary of Igor Mikhailovich Diakonov
(St. Petersburg, January 13-15, 2015)

189

S.Kh. Shomakhmadov. The 10th Open Theoretical Seminar of the


Section o f South Asia, Department of Central and South Asia IOM,
RAS (St. Petersburg, February 11, 2015)

200

Yu.A. loannesyan. Conference on Iranian Studies Philosophy,


Religion, History and Culture of Iran (St. Petersburg,
February 18, 2015)

204

REVIEWS
Kritzer Robert. Garbhvakrntistra: The Sutra on Entry into
the Womb. Tokyo: The International Institute
for Buddhist Studies of The International College for
Postgraduate Buddhist Studies, 2014 (Studia Philologica
Buddhica, Monograph Series XXXI). 438 pp.
{V.P. Ivanov)

208

Borkin L. Ya. Izvara, N.K. Roerich, the Himalayas,


St. Petersburg: Izdatelstvo Yevropeisky Dorn, 2014.
256 pp. (T. V. Ermakova)

211

Vassilkov Ya. V. Myth, Ritual and History in Mahbhrata.


St. Petersburg: Izdatelstvo Yevropeisky Dorn, 2010.
397 pp. (E. V. Tanonova)

213

Rudenko M.B. Studies on Medieval Kirdish Literature. Prepairing


Manuscript for Publication, Introduction, Comments, Index by
Zh.S. Musaelyan; Appendix by M.B. Rydenko. Records for
the lecture Kurds: Life, Morals, Customs and Culture .
St. Petersburg: Kontrast, 2014 (Asiatica). 280 pp.
{Z.A. Yusupova)

216

IN MEMORIAM
Vladimir Aronovich Yakobson ( 1930-201 5) (N. O. Chekhovich)
Valery Viacheslavovich Polosin ( 1939-2014) (.S. M. lakerson)

219
221



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1:
[1] erte ag-tu nige borontai ebgen geji yabuba. Tere sayin boru
[2] mori mayu boru mori qoyar-tai : 10 boru qoni agsan aji
[3] mayu boru mori-bar nigen edr boru qoni-ban qariyulji yabun[4] atalan 10 boru qoni yay-a jay-a qaljan boru qoni-aca <ere> qaljan cayan
[5] quriy-a trleki; ebgen bi quriy-a-yi qormusta tngri[6] degen ergmi kernen yekede bayarlaji : busu qoni-ban buayuqui-yin
[7] jayura 2 qong keriy-e ireji tere k quriy-a-u 2 nidn-i maltajjaqui
[8] ebgen tegni jeged maSi yeke qumuduju : jigrten-i gyeden[=g]
[9] sayin boru mori-ban unuju tere k 2 qong keriy-e-yi bariju fiidn-i
[10] maltatai amitui tabiba : tere k 2 keriy-e anu qormasta tngri-dr
[11] oini ebgen-i mrgbei : qormasta tngri 2 inu-yi borontai ebgen-
[12] jigrten-i gyedeg sayin boru mori-yi idegtn kemen jakiji ilegebei
[13] ebgen 2 inu-a ireji sayin boru mori-yi ideki-i jng bilig-iyer
[14] medeged : sayin boru mori barilyadaq yajar-a mayu boru mori-ban
[15] bayilyaji : sayin boru mori yadan-a tabiba 2 inu sni ireji
[ 16] mayu boru mori-yi ideski : ebgen sayin boru mori-bar 2 6inu-a-yi
[17] giceji buyiyad : arisu-yi bgsen-ee bitek ebiji toloyai-tu-i
[ 18] toryuji amitui tabuqui : 2 inu- qormasta tngri-yi oiju
1b:
[1] ayiladyaba : qormusta tngri ayurlaju 7 idgr-i borontai ebgen-i
[2] alaytun kemen jakiji iledkebe : ebgen mn tede-i ireki-yi medeged :
[3] ger-n edge-ben qayaji : yeke toyon-dur morin-u qubaqai arayal-i usun[4] tu buclayayad : rgstei qarayana-a-bar biyinay buquyad bayitala :
[5] 7 idgr ireji ger-i anu cuyulaji sayayaji bayiqui-tur ebgen
[6] bucalagsan arayal-aa bayinay-iyar keyigsen-tr 7 cidgr-n nidn anu
10 -- .
11 , .

[7] tasqurba gek : tede mn qurmasta-dayan ayiladqaysan-tu : buri


[8] yeke aqurlaju : nirgeden tngri-yi borontai ebgen-i nirgi kernen
[9] jakiji ilegebi : borontai ebgen tegn-i medeged : say in mori-ban
[10] unuji sayaday umar-ban angsaji : sarun cayin selmen-ben JegJ
[11] boljoy-tu-yin boru toloyai-du bayijaqui teyitele nirgedeg
[12] tngri ireji nirgeki-dr sayin boru mori-bar deb geji qarqui-dur
[13] boru toloyai-yin kemke nirgejki : nirgede tngri-yin gn-n
[14] bolcin-i borontai ebgen selmen-ber tasu cabciji gemi nirgedeg
[15] tngri anu mn qormusta tngri-du ayiladqaba qormusta anu
[16] bi ber-e jeji tegn- Jb buruyu-yi sigsgei geki-yi ebgen
[17] medeged 10 boru qoni <.> yay-a jay-a qaljan borulan qoni alaju
[18] ceberken bolyuji caqan tuluq debsger debsn : eldeb idegen
2a:
[1] amtan-u degeji beledged qurmasta tngri ireji mini jadqaylal
[2] soyurqa kernen jalbarin mrgji bayital-a qormasta irgeged : J-a ebgen
[3] 2 keriy-e- mini nidn yayun-tu maltaba gebe : qormasta tngri-tan dayan
[4] bariqu kernen bayarlaji bayigsan qaljan cayan quriyan-u mini nidn maltaysan[5] du qumuduyad maltalai bi gebe : tere cinu Jb : 2 cinu-J-u arasu-yi
[6] Jaqun-tu amitui-bar ebcige gebe : 10 boru qoni-bar qariyuladaq mayu
[7] boru mori-yi-ban idegsen-d yomuduji tegsleb bi gebe : tere cini Job :
[8] 7 cidgr-n nid-yi yayun-du tasulaba gebe : namayi-yi alaqu-bar <.>
[9] alan gei em r-e-yin mini toloqai-ban qayaji sayuqu ger-i
[10] mini cuyuluysan-du ayurlaji tegsileb gebe : tere cini basa Jb :
[11] nirgeden tngri-yin bolcin yayun-du tasu cabciba gebe : namai-yi
[12] nirgen gei 10 boru qoni-u mini iredeq boru toluyai nirgegsen-t tegsleb
[13] bi gebe : borontai ebgen- buruyutai bisi aji : r-e-ber cini bayan nr
[14] boltuyai geji ayiladayad bucaji : ebgen yeke bayan nr bolji
[15] Jaryaba gek :
D 114
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12 . .
13 (. Caragana) .

.. // Mongolica-III.
XIX XX . ., 1994. . 11-17.
.. . T. III. -, 1960.
(. ). , 1982.

Summary
Manuscript of Mongolian Folktale
A Tale o f the Old Man Eorontai from IOM, RAS Collection
Foreword, Transcription and
Translation from Mongolian by D.A. N osov
Manuscripts and archival materials are used by Mongolists in their research work on Mongolian
folklore. Still, manuscripts collections in Asia and Europe contain much data still to discover. The
manuscript in question is probably one of the earliest variants of the Mongolian folktale of the old
man Borontai. This cumulative story is widely spread in Mongolia and Buryatia. Its oral version is
well known to folklorists. The manuscript, transcribed and translated into Russian, is the first version
of the tale written down in Mongolian-Uyghur script.

A.J1.

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: Proleg a d phil. Plat., Praef.) ;
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. : Dillon, 1977.
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intelligence to apprehend and which therefore can only be the objects of a negative theology that is a theology
expressing not what a divine nature is but what it is not (Hancock, 1992, p. 167); .: Kenney, 2000, p. 260,
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Iobject en question: p. 346); Chadwick, 1968; Dillon, 2000, p. 931; , 1991, . 75, 141-143.
, , ,
- (von der Elementarschule bis zur Philosophenschule: BhligWisse, 1975, p. 15)
(Wer die griechische Schule nicht besucht hatte, konnte die gnostischen Texte weithin kaum verstehen; solche
Texte verfassen konnte er auf keinen Fall: ibid. S. 53). , ,
: I think, then, in general, that any influence which may have been
exerted by any kind of Greek philosophy on Gnosticism was not genuine but extraneous and, for the most part
superficial. We are dealing with the use o f Greek ideas, often distorted or strangely developed, in a context which
is not their own, to commend a different way of faith and feeling, not with a genuine growth of any variety of
Gnosticism out of philosophy, whatever some ancient heresiologists may have thought (Armstrong, 1978, p. 101 ;
. A.X.); (seil, -) .
\ Gnosticism < ...> Platonism run wild (Nock, 1972, p. 949; 1964 .);
, , popular Greek philosophy (principally watered Platon
ism)... (ibid., p. 950); ,
(. : . 23) subphilosophical phenomena, Platonic underworld (Dillon,
1977, p. 384). , (, ; . : . 9),
( ), , (, ) (...durent
recourir la philosophie dans llaboration de leur thologie)
(lhrsie gnoslique) (le christianisme orthodoxe), .:
Fredouille, 1980, p. 213 ( . ..).
17 , , -
( , ) credo
( , , ;
). ( II .),
, ( , ) (
//), ( < ...> ): , ( ) , , ( ) (Fr. 12 /Petty, 24.2 ./);
(Norden, 1913, S. 72-73) ,
() ( : Dodds, 1963, . 310 .).

(.),
, ;
, ( \ ,
, (
) ,
\
, - . :
(2 0 .1 9 . /B G 2 /) 18
19(22.2) [ ] , ()
, (5) 20, []
21 < ...> . () 22:
,
( : Ale., Didasc. 10.4; . :
Plato, Phaedr. 247C), , , ,
: ...both Gnostic and Catholic recognize it (scil.
) as the foundation o f their belief. They differ considerably about the nature o f sin and de
filement, they differ about the human body of Jesus and its nature, but they agree about the Divine Compassion
and that its embodiment was found in Jesus the Saviour (Burkitt, 1932, p. 41); , ,
, - ,
, . ,
-, ; .
(Adv. haer. IV.6.1 .),
11.27. , , -
-
. IIIII . (
), .. ,
( ) IV (
, ,
/ / , ,
, , / /: Orat.
28. 7: PG 36, 33 .) ..; .-. (. : . 3)
.
18 ,
( .: , 2014, . 24, . 63;
. 26, . 76; . 31-32, . 93). , ,
(Adv. haer. 1.29), (
) (Schmidt, 1907); ,
. ,
: Waldstein-Wisse, 1995, (BG 2); ,
, , ,
, .
, , .
19 , , ,
.
20 ] ^ [ ^ ] ^ [ > ] , ,
, ,
: , , , ,
, ... (Clem., Exc. Theod. 78.2).
21 < ...> [ ] ^ (plur.) , , .
; ., : 1.16. .
22 ( )
, , ( ),
( ), ( ; , ),
II . , , (. : . 18),
.

()23 ()24, ,
() 25; (20) 26, , 27, 23 ( [ ] ;) ( 2.26 /NHC II. 1/). ( ,
); : ( ,
) , , , ,
; , ; ,
, , ( ) , ,
; ,
... ( , , fjv
. , .
, , , ,
. , ...:
Adv. haer. 1.11.3). -,
, proarche, proanennoetos, monotes, henotes,
monas, arche, hen ; (de Graeco interpretatio) , , -
(Adv. Val. 6.1-2). ,
, ( < ...> : Her. 183; .
...: Leg. All. II.3), , (
= ) , , ( ,
: Vit. cont. 2); , ,
, .: Her. 187 (
, ). : ,
(
: Paed. 1.71.1); .: ( ) ) 2 (Codr 2;
McDermot, 229. 5-6); ( ) (Fr. 11 /Mejercik, 52/);
, ( ,
) (. : . 5,
17) , ( .: Mejercik, 3, . ),
. . : . 25.
24 . , ( ),
.., ( n x y A q ): 17
(CodBr 2; MacDermot, 259. 21-22). , ,
.. , , (
: Epist. 11.312E); . : ... (
: Migr. Abr. 146) (
: Post. Cain. 101); , ,
Platonica familia, (basileus),
totius rerum naturae causa et ratio et origo initialis...; . : Mortley, 1972; . :
() (Numenius. Fr. 12; . : . 17);
( ) ( < ...> : Plot., Enn. .9.9). ,
(.,
, 2 1.24).
25 , ,
, e x q , , ,
; . 2.27 (NHC II. 1). , -
, .: Corp. Herrn. IV. 10 ( , ...), ., ,
, ( ),
, () ( , : ibid. V.2);
, , : , (, , ),
( ), ,
( : Fr. 27 /Mejercik, 58/); . : 51.3-4 . 72
. . : Les spculations sur la Monade apparaissent dans lcole de Platon < ...> sous
linfluence du pythagorisme... (Nock-Festugire I. 56-57, . 28).
26 riTiipq (, ), . .. , ,
, , , .. (. Siegert, 1982, S. 107: das All,
d.h. das Pleroma, unter Ausschlu des Kosmos, aber /wohl/ Einschlu des im Kosmos zerstreuten Lichts).
(. : 4.6) -

, ()28 (23)
29, 30.
()31, () () - () (5) -
: (Philo, Her. 62);
(Ale., Didasc. 9.1); (Corp. Herrn. 1.21); . , (
) ( ),
( ... Enn. VI.4.2).
27 = ( 31.7 . : ^ )
, ( )
; ., : , (Philo, Opif. mund. 69);
(, 1- II .): , (,
; : Clem., Strom. VI.39.3); .: Corp. Herrn. V.1 ,
( ), (seil, ) (
); :
<...> , (Clem., Strom. V.74.4);
, (ibid. V.78.3) .. .:
Bauer, s.v.
28 . ^ ( 2.30
/NHC II. 1/). 1 1.17,
; . 2 (CodBr 2; MacDermot,
229. 18-20): , , , ... (. . .).
29 . (alii), ,
, : ... , -
, , ; ,
(...loquuntur, esse quoddam primum lumen in virtute Bythi / /, beatum et incorruptibile
et interminatum: esse autem hoc Patrem omnium et vocari Primum Hominem: Adv. haer. 1.30.1).
30
N o y o n Tr^a , .
( ) (Vit. Mos. 1.166), II .:
( : Max. Tyr., Orat. XI; : Drrie et al., 2008, 78
/190.2.1-2/); . y (. 180 .):
( ,
: Autol. 1.3, 5; .: Min. Fel., Octav. 32, 4, 6: sentire,
oculis camalibus). ( ),
, ( ), , (Autol.
1.2; 5); .: < ...> (Tat., Orat. 4); < ...>
(Athen., Legat. 4.1); :
( ) ( : Corp.
Herrn. IV. 11) ..
31 ( ) ( . ^ ^ ) :
2.33 (NHC II. 1) 4.2-3 (NHC IV. 1); 2.27-28 et passim (NHC VIII. 1)
, (o y n X ^ ^ e p o q ^ [ ]
^ ); 40.13-14 (NHC III.2) , , ,
; 49.9-10 (NHC .3): ( ^ ^ [).
, , ,
(sub) ; (Primam Feminam eum vocantes: Adv. haer. 1.30.1; . : Haer. fab. 1.14). .: ( :
4.24) : ,
( : Orig., Comm. Joh. .25 /147/).
, , , , : ...
, () ( , : Autol.
1.3); .: , < ...> , ( < ...> ,
: Corp. Herrn. 11.14). ,
( :
: Plat., D ef.\ (. : 4.24; ),
, , ; . (
) (), (
: SVF 11.416: ); . , ,
, (

: () () 32; (), ,
() 33.
() , 34, () (-)
: (-) 35, (10) () 36, (
), (-) 37.
: Orig., Cels. VI.7 1); ,
( , : Tat., Oral. 4). .: Dodd,
1978 (1- .: 1953), . 213-227.
32 .: ( ihm i ix o e ic ihm
{ 17 /Codr 2/; MacDermot, 259.18-19); . : ... (: . 14).
33 , , ,
(. : ). . :
(... : Plant. 77); .:
, , (
, : Tat., Orat. 4);
{Strom. IV. 162.5); . : 75.2-3, :
( : 58.23-24 /NHC XI.3/);
([] ): 22 {CodBr 2; MacDermot, 276.1-2). .: (),
(Plot., Enn. V.5.10).
34 2v r e q e > 2N, . : (. : 25.8-9); .
22. 24-25 {NHC XI.2): ( :; . : . 24),
(ibid. 23.20-21); : < ...> ,
, ( < ...> ,
: Enn. VI.4.2); . : . 43.
35 .: (M^qp?cpi^) , , ;
(plur.) ( ? 2 hapax) (^ ic)
{ 62.17 . /NHC XI.3/);
, ,
- (Wire 1990, . 177; .: Tardieu, 1984, . 250,
; . : . 4).
, , (. : . 17),

.
36 , , , ;
, ,
, (: Tim. 37 ., 141: ):
(seil. ) ( , ) ;
, , (
, : Quod Deus imm.
32); , ( ) :
, ,
( ); (
<...> ), (Fr. /Petty, 14.6-9/).
37 : { 3.4-5 /NHC 11.1/
4.11-12 INHC IV. 1/). qp (. :
25.8; , )
.., ,
, ; ., , : < ...>
, , ( ), (Clem., Strom.
VI.39.3); Ale., Didasc. 10.3: < ...> , < ...>
, .. ; Tat., Orat. 4: , ;
Athenag., Legat. 13.1: < ...> ; Clem., Protr. 56.5: ;
Strom. VI. 137.4: < ...> ; Orig., Comm. Joh. XIII.34 /219/:
( );
, , ( ),
() {Enn. VI.9.6); . : ibid. V.5.10. ., ,
, (

() 38, () 39,
, ()
40. 41. (15)
42, ,
43.
(), ,
() 44.
): ,
Leg. All. 111.181; .: Mut. nom. 175).
3S .: ( : 61.11-12 /NHC XI.3/), :
ibid. 52.28; 53.18.
39 . . : . 37 : . 99 ^ .
40 . , , ,
, Tiipq, , , , ,
, , e q x iiK Tiipq,
, ( 3.6-7 /NHC II. 1/); .: < ...>
( <...> : Clem., Strom. IV. 162.5). .
. 52.14 passim (NHC VIII. 1). o y o e u p h im (= )
Tiipq n e , (.. ) , . Ale., Didasc. 10.3: < ...>
, .
41 ( ) ; .,
, Philo, Somn. 1.75: < ...> ,
( < ...> , ); Max. Tyr., Orat. XI /23/:
( < ...> ); Corp. Herrn. 1.21: (
); . 1 1.5 ( ), 102.3-5 (BG 3):
( ^ n o y o n //); .
, 21 (CodBr 2; MacDermot, 270. 15 .): < ...>
( ^ ), ,
( ^ h im ), ( ) <...> , ( - ^ ), < ...>
( ), <...> ( 2^ ); .: (Just. Dial. 5)
..
42 e p o q , , , () (. :
24.13-14, ); .: 60.27-28
{NHC XI.3) . . , (seil. ), , ,
, . Plato, Parm. 137D; . : . 82.
43 o v r e q e o i i, ., , : (
; . : . 34). .: () , () (-)
( ] XTNxpiixq ] e p o q eR o x 2 to o [tc } ]: ( 63.1-3
/NHC XI.3/). : , (
)? ( * ; Plot. Enn. V.5.10);
, ( : ibid.
V.5.11).
44 : , .. , ,
, , , , ,
. , ? 0 2 { 3.9-10 /NHC
II. 1/), (. . 14.1,
20 2; .: 3.17, < ...> 1 ,
), , , , , ,
- (, ,
); ; . : . 97 136 .
: . . . 1 (= ) [ ] ! M [oyoei]n
Min { 22 /CodBr 2; MacDermot, 272.8-11/) () ,
, [], , (undivisible one of
Light... (MacDermot, ad loc.), ,
(., , Plot., Enn. IV. 1: ,
), ; , < ...>
(... ), .: Num. Fr. 11 (Petty, 22.14).

45, (20) , ()
.
, (24) .
, ().
46, ,
.
, (5) ,

47

, () 48.
, , .
() (10) (-), () 49,
, () , ()50.
() () () , (15) ()
, ().
45 . ;
. : ], (24.6-7),
>[ { 5.2-3 IN III. 1/); : ( e p o q
^ ) 7 (CodBr 2; MacDermot, 237.13-14). .
, ( ) incorporeus, indictus, innominabilis, , , ( : . apimetros), {Plat,
dogm. 1.5).
46 \ e p o q (= 24.8) . ; . 5.4 {NIIC III. 1),
; .: (^ ^ ) ( ) { 61.15-16
IN XI.3). , (: . 142
; . : . 4), :
( < ...> : Somn. 1.67), II .: Ale., Didasc. 10.3
(); . Tyr, Orat. XI ( < ...> /1-3/); Apul., Plat. dogm. 1.5 (indictus), ..;
. . .
47 a t x i TTneqpJi (. . .);
()
{Adv. haer. 1.11.3 = Hippol., Ref. VI.38.2); . ( ): ,
( < ...> : Cels. VI.65); ,
( ^ ^ [MMjoq [ ] 17^|' e p o q ) 47.18-19
{NHC XI.3); .: innominabilis (Apul., Plat. dogm. 1.5); .: () ()
( : Plot., Enn. V.3.13). :
, , ; - , , ,
- (), ( ,
, ,
: 2. 6.1); 2 ^ T e q e 2 H
; . : . 34, 43.
4 niTKRO eToyxAR -, , () ; .: () (:
Philo, Quod Deus imm. 8); , (seil. )
( ), cm.: Plot. Enn. VI.9.3.
49 MTNAATq = .
. (Iren., Adv. haer. 1.1.2 =
Hippol., Ref. VI.30.5 = Tert., Adv. Val. 8.2); . . .
50 .: ... ( ), (-), (-)
<...> , , , { 62.27-36 /NHC XI.3/);
. . , , () (
[] , ), cm.: Ale., Didasc. 28.3, :
( : Opif. mund. 8), (
< ...> : Spec. Leg. 1.277).

() (-)51. ,
52. 53, () .
() (20) () . -,
, () , (), ( )
(-), () (25) () .
() (): ( //
// //, (5) 54).
, () -, ,
(-) ( )55. , .
, (10) () 56 ,
() () 57.
() !58
51 = . , ,
, Petri Doctrina, ,
(De princ. I. Praef. 8); . 11 . .. locus communis - .
, , : < ...> (), (
: Didasc. 10.8); . : ...
(Ref. 1.19.3), : ( : Fr. 6 /Petty, 16.10/; Fr. 7 /ibid. 16.2/);
incorporeus (Apul., Plat. dogm. 1.5); , ,
, () ( : Fr. 143
/Mejercik, 100/); , (), : - ( ) ,
, (, ) ( ,
: Orat. 25).
52 n e [ ] n e . , , , (
), . : Fr. 2 (Petty, 4.12 116-117 , ad loc.).
53 , , . () - (
, ), .. , (), (), ..
; ., ,
: , ,
(in Joh. 2.8). , , -
( <...>), , (Leg. all. 1.51); .
: , , -
, ... (
...: Didasc. 10.4); -, ,
... ( ...) (Plot., Enn. VI.9.3); ,
( ), c m . ib id . VI. 1.26.
54
5.20-22 (NHC III. 1): , , - ( 2 )
(.. ) . , , (5.20) :
. . : . 36.
55 .: ... (-) () () [ ] () ( 65.22-24 /N H C X 1.3).
56 MToq () HMoq mmim (, , )
( Ffciuq- , ..),
: . . : . 112 72.12-13, 20; 75.2-5 (NHC III.5).
57 , , ., , Aie., Didasc.
10.3: ... ( );
. : < ...> , () ,
, ( < ...> ,
: Comm. Joh. Fr. 13 / 1.18/); lila enim natura soli sibi cognita est (id., Princ.
IV.4.8).
58 , .
, ; ., ,
42.14 (NHC 1.3); . : Iren., Adv. haer. 1.2.1) ..
* . : . 45.

, !59
, (15) !
, !60
(), (-)!61
, !62
() , () () ()63,
(20) () (oov) , () (oov) !
, !64
, !65
!66
(26) () , ?67
59 :
, { 4.3 . INHC 11.1) .. . 26
( , ..)
( , , ..); .
, . 2: ... ( ) <...>, ( : Dion. Ar., Myst. 4), a :
. 66.
60 , , ( ,
: Philo, Fuga, 198); ( : id., Somn. 1.75); .
: { 1.4); .: (seil. ) ( M ^y^xq ^ 12:
20 ICodBr 2/; MacDermot, 262.21-22).
61 .: < ...> ( < ...>
: Philo, Spec. Leg. 1.209); beatus et beatificus (Apul., Plat. dogm.
1.5); . : . 63.
62 n e e q jT io o o y i (
4.5-6 INHC II. 1/). . 63.14-16 {NHC XI.3):
() , ( e i n e = ) .
63 ; .
: ( : Tim. 29), : < ...> ,
( < ...> ,
: Philo, Spec. Leg. 1.209). : ,
, (...,
: Ale., Didasc. 10.3); .: < ...> , ,
{Corp. Herrn. VI. 1). .: , ,
( : Athen., Legat. 26.2; . 18. 19); ,
( ), cm.: Clem., Strom.
VI 1.42.4. (2N ^ ^ = ) (^^-- =
, ) { 52.30-32 INHC XI.3/).
64 Cyut. ^ ( ) . ; ( ..)
102- ( : . 6; : . 8).
65 2 : { 4.8 INHC II. 1).
; . . .
., , ,
: , (
), (. : .
30), : ( < ...> ), (
), ( ), ( ),
( ), ( )
.. {Autol. 1.3). II .
: < ...> , , , , ( < ...>
, , , , : Ale., Didasc. 10.3), ;
. : . 5 52.
67 ^ 2 0:(4 , ^ T iio e i R tio q ..
(), ; .
53.2-3: ~^2'> M^q 72.14: ^ T T ^ 2 o q . , ,
, , ( : Post. Cain. 15); .
(Clem., Strom. VI.39.3) ..

() ()68, () . () (
) () (5) . () , ()
( ), , 69, ,
, (), (+) (10) ().
- ? () (plur.),
, ( ) , ....
(51.1 . /N H C .5/)70
(),
()71, , (+) 72;
, (5) 73 .
, - ,
. , (10) ,
74 , ( )
(), ? (15) ()
68 6.16-17 (NHC III. 1) ... > ... ..
69
^ 2 (=* ) e q F r r Moq 2 oyK ^ptuq (=* ). .: ... (seil.
) (o y T ^ q ^ o y o r n 2: 62.24-25 IN XI.3/);
( ^^ n e n e in i) : 20 (Cod Br. 2, MacDermot, 262.16/). . Num., Fr. 2 (Petty,
4.12-13): , , ( < ...> ); .
, . 12: : . 121.
70 , ( ) ,
,
; , - ( . 180 .), ,
, ()
(Strom. IV.71.1) , ,
( seil, ), , (Hippol., Ref. VI.35.6).
,
150 180 . (Kasser et al., 1973, p. 37); cp. Thomassen, 1989, p. 11-20, ,
, , III . .,
: Zandee, 1961; Kenney, 1992. , ( ) (, , L6), : Attridge,
1985,1, . 192-337, : Thomassen, 1989.
71 , , , , ,
. , , . plur. (.
21.9: , = 2 , ; .: . 1.3),
, , ,
( Adv. haer. 1.1.1 . : . 12; . Tert., Adv. Val. 7.3: in sublimibus). .: Thomassen,
1989, p. 260, , ad loc. , , , ,
.
72 < ...> . ( ), ,
(Adv. haer. 1.1.1); .: 22.32-33; 23.19-20 (NHC
XI. 2); .: Thomassen, 1989, 261. . : . 26.
73 2 (= S. 2 ), . : . 65.
74 n e e q o n u j^ p n n e o y e e i
, , . (.: 3.30),
. e q o , , ,
, lin e (Attridge, 1985, 1, . 193: like a number;
Nagel, 1998, p. 21: wie eine Zahl = Schenke, 2001, p. 57; //: ); , lin e multiple
(en tant la faon du multiple; .: Le Pre est la fois un et multiple'. Thomassen, 1989, p. 51
, ad loc.: p. 261-263).
.

() 75. () , ,
, ( ) , (20) () .
, 76, 77
78. (25) 79 ,
. () 80, (30)
, , , . () -
() , , . (), (
) (35) ,
, () 81 (52) ,
, . , ; ,
. (5) . (), 82
.
( ) ( , ),
(10) () 83 ,
75 . : , , ... (quemadmodum pa
ter non potest esse quis, si filius non sit...: Deprinc. 1.2.10);
.: Puech, Quispel, 1955, p. 79 .
76 , ,
: - (.: . , ,
: , . 4 . 51 //; . , .) , ..
. , ,
..; .: Attridge, 1985, . 2, 221, , ad 1. Thomassen, 1989, . 264, , ad 1.
77 , ( ), .: Philo, Quod Deus imm. 57.
78 ...<n>qu;RixiT r ^ q e n (= : 52.22) .
, ,
;
, () ,
(seil. ) (... : Quod Deus imm. 22); ,
(... : Leg. All. 11.33); . : ,
, ( : Fr. 8 /Petty, 18.2/); ,
() (), .: Ale., Didasc. 10.7;
.: Williams, 1985, . 150, . 13 154; PGL s.v. . : ( ^ --
> &.>) 72.17 (NHC III.3; . ),
Corp. Herrn. XIII.6; ( n e ^ ) : 20 (CodBr2\
MacDermot, 262. 11-12) ,
(Pan. 31.5.1 ).
79 ^ . ^ . : . 76. . :
Kasser et al., 1973 (ad loc.), ^ >(?), .. ,
51.20-21.
80 X T x ri^q (. : 52.9, 37 et passim) (),
; : 71.22 (. ); ( 29.18 IBG 2/)
( 127.5-6 /NHC II.5/). . , ,
- (, . : . 53), ( ),
( ) , . ( ; . : . 78)
(Leg. all. 1.51); (
< ...> , : Corp. Herrn. .4 et passim) ..
81 oii ^ (
. , -); ., , ^ ; . : . 76 79.
82 ^ (= : 52.36) . ; ., , Orig.,
Heracl. 2, ; . ( privativum): < ...> , ( < ...>
: Plato, Parm. I37D); . : . 42.
83 , , . .. ,
; .:
( : Philo, Conf. Ling. 96; . : . 78 );
.: Nock-Festugire, II, . 214, . 51 , implique la fois

, , , , . () (15)
84, () -
85, , (20) ,
. , , ()
, , , (25)
, , 86, (..)87 88,
89 () , - - ,
() , () , (30) () (
// )90, ,
, , (. Corp. Herrn. XIII. 11). . 128.27-28 ,
(: ; 2 <> ). x tkim (= . , ; .
.78 ), . 9 (CodBr 2;
MacDermot, 240.9 et passim); .: Williams, 1985, . 8 .;
fhomassen, 1989, . 265-266.
84 T xq q n ^ q r r q M n e T q o e i MM^q , ,
; , , -
, , . .
q i
< ...> [] ( 129.11-12)
, .. .
85 ^ T p e < q > x n e , ; 2^ , , . ,
; . 52.8 ;>
.
86 52.14 . ( ...) (.: Thomassen, 1980, . 372, . 6) (ipse enim in se est et a se est et circum se totus est, plenus atque
perfectus, isque sua firma stabilitas est nec alicuius inpulsu [nec] loco moveri potest, cum in eo sunt omnia et in
omnibus ipse est solus...: Ascl. 30; Nock-Festugire, II, p. 338 /18-22/ 388, . 265-267).
52.10-33, , (the same source),
.
87
(, ); .., ,
, .
88 MMTN06 = ; . : . 58.
89 q i (. r i t - ) -:
grasp (Attridge, 1985, 1, . 195); dplacer (Thomassen, 1989, p. 55); entfernen
(Nagel, 1998, p. 22 = Schenke, 2001, p. 58); ( ). ,
{ 52.23) qiT*
, .. (=:
Crum, 621b), qi, ,
, , , { 19.20; 16.12; ,
, ); RiTq, , ( )
, , , . , ..
, ; ,
: < ...> , ( < ...>
, : Man. 1/26.1/); . ... ,
(Iren., Adv. haer. 1.15.5); ... (), < ...>
( < ...> : Clem., Strom. .6.2-3; .
Parm. 138); : () ,
(virtute enim sua omnia compraehendit /= Princ. 1.1.8/), et ipse
nullius creaturae sensu compraehensus est: Princ. IV.4.8); : ,
, , { 100.3-5 /NHC VII.4/),
, , , ; . Corp. Herrn. IV. 11 ,
( ); . : . 23 25,
: Schoedel, 1972.
90 , , ,
(?); , , , , .: Attridge, 1985, 2, . 225, . ad 1.

, 91 . ,
(35) (-) 92,
93, () () (40)
() ( ), 94 (53)
, 95 (), 96
(), (5) 97.
98, - () ,
() 99, , (10)
() . 100,
, , , (15) ,
101, - , ,
, , (20) (),
.
91 n e N X TnxN eq ... < ...> ....
X T nxN eq ; (= )
. : . 78; X T n x N e q , , . (. commonly
ass. with : PGL, s.v. ). ()
: ,
;
.
92 ^ < ...> 2 ^ = ; . : . 33, 82; . . 137
( 75.2-3).
93 .: , ( , :
Theoph., Autol. 1.4); .: () () ( 20 ICod.Br 2/;
MacDermot, 262.20-21); , (
, : Just., Dial. 5.5).
94 XTXXBeq , 1 6.16: < ...> ,
x o o e q .
95 (. : 54.20), , ; . : . 97 136.
96 2 FMxq, , 2*; . :
26.2 (BG 2) . 67.
97 22 ^ . (. : . 136) (.
49.14 /NHC .2/); MT2A6e . ,
(Kasser et al., 1973, 314 ad loc.),
(.: PGL, s.v.). ,
; . : . 66.
98 2 = . : . 76 79.
99 . : . 63; , . (1989,
268 , ad loc.), : sans dficience (57), *, ..
(. : . 37). , ,
, ,
(.: Ignat., Smyrn. Proem.), .. = ,
(.. ) (),
(2 : 78.5 et passim); ,
.
100 fMTXTROONe , :
, ; .: Siegert, 1982, S. 10, s.v.:
bersetzung von akakia Arglosigkeit?; Tomassen, 1989, p. 268, , *
, labsence denvie: 57; Nagel, 1998, S. 22: das Fehlen jeglichen Bsen; lack of
any malice (Attridge, 1985,1, p. 195); , , ; ., : ( : Corp. Herrn.
V.2). - , ,
, (Dodds, 1963, . 213-214).
101 x x e q o y x n rx x e q ,
; . : . 94.

() ,
. (), (25) 102,
, < ...> 103. () ()
(), , , (54) , 104.
, (), , ,
, (5) , , ()
, . ()
( 10) , () ,
.
() , , (15)
() () , () ,
() , () ()
105 - (20) ,
(), 106 , 107.
() : (25) 108
, () -, , ,
() 109 , , (30) ()
102 ( ) (),
, ( 17 ICodBr. 2/; MacDermot, 258. 14-15); .
, (. : . 26) (
, : Enn. VI.4.2; . : ibid. VI.9.3).
103 < ...> (53.27-39) . , II,
.
104 HTiipq . : . 26.
105 .. ;
? n n x q , ;
(Phaedr 247); .: ( : Tat., Oral.
4); . : . 17; . . 30.
106 * = . : . 45; .: ( - )
: 5 (CodBr 2; MacDermot, 232. 19-20).
107 (Nagel, 1998, S. 23, . 19) ,
(/), , , Attridge, 1985, 1, . 197: illimitable will ( ,
: ibid., 2, . 231 ad 1.) Thomassen, 1989, . 59:
volont, ..: cleft, gap (Crum, 501b). To,
, , , : profundum et longitudinem et altitudinem (. : . 10); .
(), , (
: Fr. 3 /Petty, 6.11-12/). , , ,
, , ,
3.18, , , (
), auf e in e wahrscheinlich vorchristliche gnostische Lehre (Krmer, 1967,
S. 246-247).
108 , ,
( ) .. (, .. ) .. (q, .. ).
109 ^ .., .. , ,
, ( ,
: Tomassen 1989, p. 273, ad loc.). : ... ()
, , ( 53.34-35);
() ( ) (
: Rep. 509) , (
) (); , (
), .: Orig., Cels. VI.64); .: ( )
() ( 47.33-35 /NHC XI.3/); () ( 17
/Cod. Br. 2/).

(), .. , ()110, (
) . () , ,
(35) 111, () ,
,
,
,
(40) 112, (55) : , ,
, () , ,
, (5) , () ,
, , ( = . forma) ; (10),
() 113, , , , ( ),
() (-)114, 115, 116,
, (15) ()117, , ()118, , .
, (), , , , , ,
(20) , (), ()
, 119, (25) ,
, (), 120.
110 , () , . Plato, Parm. 137D: (. Phaedr.
247); Just., Dial. 4.1 : , ,
( , , ); Max. Tyr., Oral. 11/83-86/: , ,
, - , (
); .: {Corp. Herrn. XIII.6); ( < ...>
: Orig., Cels. VI.64); ,
, ( ), ..
(): Plot. . VI.9.3; ( v) : ibid.; ( :
V.5.11). . : () ( ^ ^): 1
{CodBr2\ MacDermot, 237.11), , , . (
Liddell & Scott; .: Lampe, s.v.); . : forma 55.9.
111 X T C o y iu iiq . {.: 17.23); .
20 ICodBr 2; MacDermot, 262. 11-18),
, , , : ( ; . : . 78),
(), (), (),
(), (), ()
()...; ,
: ... (XTOoyiiiq), , , ,
(ibid. 17 /258.10-11/).
112 ; ., ,
Corp. Herrn. XIII.6,
(... :); . : . 56 . .
113 .: (
: Ale., Didasc. 10.3); . . ., : . 56 : . 135.
1,4 n i^ T p n o e i R n ^ q , , (),
17.8 {NHC 1.3) ^ p ^ q . . : . 5,
11,66, 99.
115 ; x p x q = . : . 46.
116 (= 17.7-8 /NHC 1.3/ ) (Crum,
576) ; . : . 89. .: (), ()
{ 22 ICodBr 2/; 276.17-19); : ,
(, : Clem., Strom. VI.39.3); . , . 12 (Iren., Adv. haer. 1.1.1).
117 Herr , .., .
118 .: , ( ,
: Ale., Didasc. 10.3).
119 cxe> ie . , . , (= )
( <...> ), .: Philo, Opif. mund. 8 ( . : . 5); .:
(= ) ( : Ale., Didasc. 10.3).
120 , . : . 10 107.

, , ,
, (30) , ()
, , () ( ), (
) , (35) . () 121,
, 12 , (40)
.
(56) , 123,
() , ...
(71.13 . /NHC 1.3/)124
125 126. (15) () ,
(), ()127, ()128
() () ( ), () .
121 ^ . : . 69.
122 x x e itfe . , . , (seil. )
( < ...> : Phlb. 26E);
( ),
( ), cm.: Philo, Virt. 34 (.: Clem., Strom. II.78.2); ,
( : Ale., Didasc. 10.3);
, , ( : Plot., Enn. 1.6.7); .: ( )
{Corp. Herrn. 11.12).
123 . 7 {CodBr 2; MacDermot, 237.12): ...,
( .. . 1 e n T ^ q x n o q ).
124 ,
(, , ), ,
. ,
, , , ,
. NHC III.3, NHC V.1,
{NHC III BG 3), . , ,
, , ,
, , (Krause, 1964) ,
, ; ., : Khosroyev, 1999,
; .
: , 2- II .
: Parrott, 1991, : Trakatelis, 1991 ( ).
125 , , , , . . , .:
(LXX: 3.14), .. , ; .: , (
2^ p i? ^ p o q ): 5 {CodBr 2; MacDermot, 232.26-27), (
// ): ibid. 7 (237.14).
126 e p o q . : . 46.
127 NHC V.2.11 ..: , ,
( ^ m 2 1. [ ]); . . .
128 (., ,
3.10: ... ) , , ,
.
: ,
, , , ,
... ( ,
...: . 31.5.2).
, , .
, ,
( ) ; , ,
( ; , , , ; . ); ,
( : BG 83.9-10) , ,
, ( .
. ), ; ,
( e p o q = ).

() () , (20) .
() , , .
(), (). () ,
(), .
() (72) .
129. () , ,
, ( ), .
() . () , (5) ()
, .
() (),
() , () (), (10)
130: 131
.
132, 133. (15)
() () ().
(), 134.
(), ().
() (-), (20) () () 135.
136.
(), .
(73) (), (().
. < ...>
(74) (20) () 137 : (
) , a () (). ()
() (75) , . A ()
() ()138. , (5) ,
139 (), .. (129 (.: Mneqpam 24.2) = ; . : . 47.
130 e m rrn ip q (, , H irm ipq) , ,
, ( - ..); . e r m i p q (.. ..)
95.5 (NHC II 1.4); . : . 26.
131 , .., .. ( ^ ...) .
BG 85.3 . : .. (/ ?...),
, ( ) . ..
132 v r x p n x q BG 85.9 . . . :
. 42 ) e p o q .
133 XTTX^oq = ; . : . 67.
134 , , . : . 78. = ^ , ,
. : . 99.
135 XTNoei MMoq < ...> q n o e i MMoq n o q , , ; . :
. 56, 112, 113.
136 ?,
95.14-15 (NHC III. 4), BG 86.1 v r x i ^ *, .
( 11.33), *.
( ) ,
{Adv. haer. 1.1.2),
Od. 12.6 (LXX): ...; . : . 44 .
137 ^ : [ ] (.1-% /NHC V.1/).
138 . : . 33, 82. .: (),
, < ...> ( ) ( ) ,
() ( 2 ICodBr 21; MacDermot, 228.18-22).
139 . . ( ); . . () ( /NHC V. 1/)
. . (. . 1081)


), ( ) ( )
( ) ( ), ( ) ...
,
, ( )
( . : . 18, 7 0 , 124) , ,
, - . . ( . : . 16),
:
^

M M xq = ;

(P ) n o 61 n o q = ( ) ; ^ , 2 = ; ^ x u j x x e

(x x ip e x e

^pxq) =

n e q p x N ,

n x x ^ q

p^N =

epoq

; r x n o q ( x x x n ^ q ) = ( ) ; x x p w e = , x t k im =
; x x i p m e = ; ^ T U j i x q , M ie x p H X O N = ;
X T ip ^ n q ,
^ = ; ^ , = , x x p ^ e = ;
,

xxxpH xq,

xnepxN X O O =

e p o q = , ( ) ; q p ^ \ , =
, , ...

BCNH Bibliothque copte de Nag Hammadi


HTR Harvard Xheological Revue
NH(M)S Nag Hammadi (and Manichaean) Studies
PTT Platonic Xexts and Xranslations
VC Vigiliae Christianae

(NHC XI.3)
(NHC II.1; IV. 1 III. 1; BG 2)
(NHC V.5)
(NHC III.3; V.1)
() (NHC III. 2; IV.2)
(NHC 1.3)
(NHC VIII. 1)
(NHC III.4; BG 3)
(NHC II.5)
(VI 1.4)
(CodBr 2)
BG Codex Berolinensis (Gnosticus) 8502
CodBr Codex Brucianus
NHC Nag Hammadi codices
:
A Greek-English Lexicon. Comp, by H.G. Liddell & R. Scott. Rev. et augm. by H.S. Jones <...>.
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(Hunt, 1911, 16-19, . 18); . :
, , (Crum, 80b). 27.1-4 (BG 2):
() (), () ,
; (7.9-11 /NHC III. 1/) .
, .. .


.. // . . 8. ., 1972. . 129-183.
.. (11,6; VI,3;

VII,4; IX,3). ., 1991.


..

(Nag Hammadi Codex 1.5: 109.21-110.22)// . 2012. 2(17).


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Summary
A.L. Khosroyev
Some More Reflections on the Apophatic Theology o f Gnostics
The author demonstrates with many examples from Platonic and Gnostic texts of the second and
third centuries that the Gnostics were the first in the Christian world who promoted the a pophatic (or
negative) theology by interpreting the Platonic idea o f the transcendent godhead in their own way.

JI..

( )

(XV .) ( ,
- ), - XIII XIV .
,
().
.
: , , , , , ,
.

(Hikayat Raja Pasai)


.
-
-. , ,
XIII XIV .

- .
,
.
, ,
: ,

. ,
.
.
-,

,
(Teeuw, 1964, . 222-234; Cowan, 1973, . 253-286).
, , (
), ,
, .
.

. ,
, Raffles Malay
6 7 ( ),
.., 2015

().
(1781-1826), - -
(1811
1815). ,
,
.
, ,
: 3
, 16 1830 ..
21 1230 .. (.. 2 1815 .1).
, 140-, , ,
() , , 1742 .
, 1814-15 . ,
, :
1812 . .. ,
,
, (Hill, 1960,
. 25).
, , . 141-142
, ,
- .
, . ,
,
, ,
.
.
( ) 1811 .,
.
..
, , . 30 1814 .
,
(. ),
1815 .
, . India Office
, ,

(Ricklefs, 1982, . 307).
15 , ,
, 13 1814 . 29
1815 . ,
, (Hikayat
Raja Pasai, 1999, p. XV).
,
, . .

XV1I1-X1X . (. ). 1812 .
, 1 1999 ., , ,
, 3 (Hikayat Raja Pasai, 1999, p. XIV).

; ,
(Drewes,
1977, . 198). ,
.
, . ,
, . ,
Alkesah (),
. , . 142
. 230x172 , 15 ,
163x120 .
: Hikaya Raja P asei Raffles 67.
..
(Tuuk, 1866,
. 453).
, ( )
(1830),
,
. 3040- XIX .
,
.
1838 . , ( )
,
.
1849 .
: ,
Hikaya raja-raja Pasai ( raja)
Hikaya raja Pasai (Dulaurier, 1849).
1.1.50, , ,
(Cabaton, 1912,
. 224). , ,
,
(Marre, 2004).
. 1986 .

( MS Or. 14350).
.. (Kratz, 2004, . 130-144).
,

- 2.
83 , 17 .
19,5x15 , 150x110 .
, .
, .
- ( ), .
2 http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/Viewer.aspx?ref=or_14350_fs001 #.

.
( . ..),
(Hikayat Raja Handik Berperang dengan Nabi Allah).

. 75 .
, ,
, : 171/ , .. 20%
. , , . 107-110 (
tiada kumakan dicucuknya dengan rotan) (recto verso)
, 79- 80- .
maka tuan puteri pun minta doalah,
. 121. .. ,
7 -8 (Kratz, 2004, . 138).

, , ,

. ,
, ,
. :
, ! ,
,
4. , ,
[] ,
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(Or. 14350, f.lr& v.).
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5 .
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, - ,
,
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.
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. [. ..] 3 .
4 , ,
(.. ), , , (9:25).
5 -.
6 12:18 (. .. ).

8 1211 ,
! (Or. 14350, f. 45v).
,
,
,
. , , , ,
,
. , ,

(Kratz, 2004, . 136-138).

, , ,
7.
:
, , ,
, 11 ,
;
(Liaw Yock Fang, 1975, p. 168-169).

,
. ,
, ,
, -
(.).
.
,
.
(h
, segerah, bagindah, q pula pulaq, bawa
baut ..).
, .. , .
,
. , ,
, , ,
. ,
, (f. 45).
,
, -
( ),
, ,
.

,
8. , ,
7 ,
, 2 - (Wormser,
2012, . 71).
8 ., ., (Droche, 2005, . 318-319).

, :
, , .. (
, 1984, . 8-56).
,
, ,
,
(Wieringa, 2007, . 22,
26, 79, 83 et al.).

, , ,
.
- . - (Chambert-Loir, 2006,
. 364).
, , ,
. ,
(.. , )
.
, (
) . ,
,
,
(,
).
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. :
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.
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.
(1999 .) .
, .
:

/5/ sabda baginda [...] laki /46/ Maka sabda baginda: Berbahagialah adinda
isteri pun bermohonlah kepada beroleh anak, akan kakanda ju ga belum lagi boleh
adinda laki isteri lalu kembali.
anak. Maka baginda laki isteri pun bermohonlah
kepada adinda laki isteri lalu kembali.
/10/ terlalulah [...] amat /47v/ Maka terlalu am at sukacita raja Ahm ad denbaik parasnya.
gan tuan puteri sebab melihat rupa kanak-kanak
itu terlalu amat baik parasnya.
/25/ Setelah [...] maka berapa /52v-53r/ Setelah sudah maka Syaikh Ism ail pun
lamanya berlayar maka sam- naiklah ia ke kapal maka lalu ia berlayar. Hatta
pailah ia ke negeri Maabri itu.
maka berapa lamanya berlayar, maka sampailah ia ke
negeri Maabri itu.
/20/ Maka disuruh oleh Megat /5 1r/ Maka disuruh oleh Megat Sekandar pada segala
Sekandar pada segala rakyat rakyat membawa beras seorang sekampit dan hayam
membawa beras seorang sekam- seekor seorang akan membawa pekerjaan itu.
pit dan [...] seorang seekor akan
membawa pekerjaan itu.

/49/ ...karena firman Allah Taala /60v/ ...karena firman Allah Taala dalam Quran
dalam Quran demikian [...] erti- demikian bunyinya: Wa man lam yahkum u bi
anzalallahu fa -u la lk a hum u9l khasiruna, ertinya:
nya: Barangsiapa...
Barangsiapa...
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/ . .. . .: , 1984. . 8-56.
XV-XVII . / . , ,
, , .. . .: , 2011.
.. IX-X1X . ., 1980.
.. (, , , ).
. ., 2012.
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Bibliothque Nationale. P., 1912.


C ham bert-L oir . Malay Colophons II Indonesia and the Malay World. 2006. Vol. 34, 100,

November.
C ow an H.K.J. La lgende de Samudra // Archipel. Etudes interdisciplinaires sur le monde insulindien.

1973. Vol. 5. P. 253-286.


D roche F. et al. Islamic Codicology: An Introduction to the Study o f Manuscripts in Arabic Script.

L.: Al-Furqn Islamic Heritage Foundation, 2005.


D rew es G.W .J. Directions for Travellers on the Mystic Path // Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk

Instituut voor Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde. 1977, 81.


D ulaurier Ed. (ed.). Collection des Principales Chroniques Malayes. Premier fascicule. La chronique

du Royaume de Pasey. P., 1849.


Hikayat Raja Pasai. Dikaji dan diperkenalkan oleh Russell Jones. Kuala Lumpur, 1999.
H ill A .H . Hikayat Raja-raja Pasai, a Revised Romanized Version with an English Translation, an
Introduction and Notes II Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 1960.
Vol. 33. Part 2.
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Asiatic Society. 1989, 62(1). P. 1-10.
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Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 2004. S. 130-144.
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prsentation et notes par Monique Zaini-Lajoubert). Toulouse: Anacharsis ditions, 2004.
L iaw Yock Fang. Sejarah Kesusasteraan Melayu Klassik. Singapura, 1975.
M arsden W. The History o f Sumatra, Containing an Account o f the Government, Laws, Customs and
Manners of Its Native Inhabitants. L., 1811.
R affles T.St. (tr.). Genealogy of the Rajahs of Pulau Percha // Malayan Miscellanies. 1822. 2. 12
(Bencoolen). P. 341-356.
R icklefs M .C .y V oorhoeve P. Indonesian Manuscripts in Great Britain: Addenda et corrigenda // Bulle
tin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. June, 1982. Vol. 45. Issue 45.
T e e u w A . Hikayat Raja-Raja Pasai and Sejarah Melayu // B a stin J . and R o olvink R. (eds). Malayan
and Indonesian Studies. Oxf., 1964. P. 222-234.
Tuuk H.N. van der. Kort verslag der Maleische handschriften toebehoorende aan de Royal Asiatic
Society te Londen // Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. 1866. Vol. 13.
W ieringa E.P. Catalogue of Malay and Minangkabau Manuscripts in the Library o f Leiden University
and Other Collections in the Netherlands. Leiden, 2007. Vol. 2. Pt 1.
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dans le monde malais au XVIIe sicle // Cahier dArchipel. P., 2012.

Summary
L.V. Goriaeva
Two Manuscripts o f The Kings o f the Pasai Chronicle
(Notes on the Texts History)
The K ings o f the P asai C hronicle (the 15th century) is the earliest Malayan chronicle and perhaps
the earliest of the compositions written in Malay which narrates the history of the Samudra-Pasai
kingdom (North Sumatra) and covers the events from the mid-13th to the mid-14th century. There are
only two manuscripts which contain the text of the chronicle housed at the British Library and the
Royal Asiatic Society collections (London). The paper proposes an analysis o f the existing versions
of the texts history with a number of additions and amendments to them.

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). , 1924-1929. T. IV, 171. . 419^124.

(
--- :
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) The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch. The Text of the
Tun-Huang Manuscript with Translation, Introduction and Notes by Philip B. Yampolsky. N. Y.:
Columbia University Press, 1967. C. 1-30.


. , / .
.. .. . . . .. . ., 1962.
(
). 4 .2 . .. . ., 1972 (
. XXXIV, 2).
- fit # Fil! f|J fifio , 1958.
-. '45 SIL W {f f ^ 5 S W )& (Gao Ming-kai. Tangdai chan jia yulu suojian-de yufa chengfen. -. ,
() ) // . , 1948. 34. . 49-84.
.. IIIV . (
). ., 1974.
-
-ijjXo , 1954. T. VIII.
(/ ^
). . . 48, 2008. . 345-365.
F.Sr (Da zheng xin xiu da zangjing.
). , 1924-1929.
- . fl^jftlMFii!, , 1958.
Ch en .S. Buddhism in China. A Historical Survey. Princeton, 1964.
Maspero H. Sur quelques textes anciens de chinois parl II Bulletin de lEcole Franaise dExtrmeOrient. Hanoi, 1914. Vol. 14. No. 4.
The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch. The Text of the Tun-Huang Manuscript with Translation,
Introduction, and Notes by Philip B. Yampolsky. N. Y.: Columbia University Press, 1967.

Summary
I.S. Gurevich
On Two Buddhist Texts as Sources to Study the Vernacular Chinese Language
o f the 3rd-9th Centuries
In this paper, two Buddhist texts are being examined as best examples to study the vernacular Chi
nese language of the time. The Sutra o f the Prince Sudana, being compared with the original Chinese
works of the time, represents the vernacular Chinese o f the 3rd-5th centuries at its best. The Sutra
o f the Sixth Patriarch, as the earliest text in the yulu genre, recorded the grammatical structure in its
transitional stage from the Liuchao period to the Tang epoch.

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, (.: Bieda W.A. A Study of the Life of
Nakae Toju and a Comparative Analysis of His Thought with the Philosophy of the Chinese Ming Dynasty
Thinker Wang Yang-ming. Translation of One of Nakae Tojus Major Writings Okina mondo (Dialogue with
an Old Man). University of Queensland, 1979). , .
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.. // .
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, , 2008-2010. . 6. ., 2010.
. , , // Humanistic
Base Texts and the Mahayana Sutras / Ed. by Tarmo Kulmar. Tartu, 2008 (Studia Orientalia
Tartuensia. Series Nova. Vol. III).
H.H. //
. 2013. 12.
: / . .. . ., 2011.
Gardner D.. Transmitting the Way: Chu His and His Program o f Learning // Harvard Journal of
Asiatic Studies. 1989. Vol. 49. No. 1.
Sand and Pebbles (Shasekishu). The Tales of Muju Ichien. A Voice for Pluralism in Kamakura Bud
dhism / Transi, and comment. R.E. Morrell. State University o f New York Press, 1985.
( - ). , 1960.
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1966.
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Summary
K.G. Marandjian
Confucian Treatise o f Nakae Toju
Dialogue with an Old Man as a Reliable Historical Source, or
Were the Warriors Illiterate at the Beginning o f the 17 Century?
The article centers on the question whether lamentations of Nakae Toju about ignorance and illit
eracy among warriors reflected the real situation or were just a necessary preamble to the unfolding of
the new teaching when the term ignorance meant the spiritual blindness o f the people who were
offered a new alternative worldview.

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,
, (1, 1956, . 26).

( ) . , ,
, , ,
. ,
(
)
.
, ,
, , , (
), ,
(Zebh, 1977).


(zedpenah, 1978). (
).
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,
,
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...
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( , . 6-7).
,
, ,
(, qerec)1, ,
, .
, . ,
, ( , . 10).
, ,
, ,
.
- (kwel-kawil),
.
. ,
,
. : 1) mamesn2
( : rostem, begi, caw, dujmin zar); 2 ) kweglu (
: behm, behrehmed, tb, biwr, n, gurum, baw, rel, yusif, aruy, ehmed, tlekoy, ewar .); 3) bextar ( : arling heftling); 4)
() ( : dilvan, amle, sle-sle, balagirwe,
, , : a) kaewend, twetend,
mumne, rewend, baxbewend, uar; 6 ) kuk, zwdar, qatir, umerab, mraxur;
) hesewend, qulwend, yuswend; r) pap, ren, sak, derdewend). ,
, , , hk, hlan wan.

lek, lekistan,
zemd, maf, bacelan, tezhan, selsele, del wend, zendegl, ,
, , .
. .
,
: Mla Peran, Babe Tayer Hemedan, Husn Qul-xan,
Necme Mamesn, Defter, Fez, zd, Esxer Nehawend, x Xel Ekber, Xulam
Reza, Mr Newroz, Xanemensr, ake, Mla ef, Mla Newad Nwrekuln, Xeleke,
Baie .3.
,
- (XI .),
. ,
,
(, 2014, . 75). . ,
, 1 , .
. .
2 ,
.
3 XVIII . ,
, Feq lek, Ezzua lur, Huseyn-xan lur . (Rencr, 1983, . 71 ).

(Minorsky, 1934, . 612). ,


.. ,
,
,
- XI . (, 1964, . 152).
,

( ).
. ,

- . , ,
,
,
(, 1964, . 390). ,
77
(Dilzar, 1960).

. (German, 2001-2004), - , , , ,
(, , , )
(, , , , , ).

4.

, -
5.

,
(, 1960, 1988).
A.A. ,
(
, 1982). , . , ..
... , ,
. , ,
, , , ,
, .
, ,
, , ,
: dil , dst , dar , , baxl , brf , gui
, bxt , ga , sd , sg , sr , suvr
, tn , qeng , cnd , i , , hr
, sln , Sau/sev , rng , kird , kr , ml
, , zn 6 ..
- , , ,
, :
4 - .
5 . ,
, .
6 .

1)
/-y, -gl (. 293);
2)
, - (. 295);
3)
, -k (. 295);
4) 1 . .. mi , 2 . .. tu , (. 294), 1 . ..
m (. 298);
5) I , han (. 299);
6 ) xom, xot (. 299);
7) k , ci , cnd , ira ,
(. 300);
8 ) yk , du , se , , , ss
, hft , deh . (. 296-297);
9) -: da , , na
(. 147), -d: krd , -t: got/go , ht
(. 381); -: , dl (. 301-302);
1 . .. -im/m, 2 . .. -I, 3 . .. -, 1 . .. -Im, 3 . .. -in/n (. 307-309);
10) b, bi, v, , dr, ver, ta, b, b, ti (c. 307-309);
1 1 ) u , hm , (. 311); y (. 311); gr, gr
(. 310).
,
,
, ,
, .
, . ,
, : d, dk (. 185), bava
(. 183), kurr , , 1 (. 188), kl ,
(. 187), 6 m , gund (. 186), fir (. 185), mmk
(), (. 99); gp (. 186),
(. 99), xsh (. 36), kal (. 187), kilik (. 189)
.
,
( ) .
- ,
, - ,
.

,
, , ,
,
, , 7.
,
, ,
..
,
(, 1979, . 81-82).
7 , , , (1925-1941)

.
... (, 1960, . 321-323). , 1975 1980 . -
.

JRAS Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. L.
BSOAS Bulletin of the School of Oriental (and African) Studies

. - . ., 1903.
- . -. . 1 / ., ., . .

.. . ., 1967.
.. //

(24-27 1962 .). J1.: - , 1964.


. //

. ., 1847. . LVI. . IV. . 19.


.. . . 3. -

. . 1.1. ; 2. . ., 1922.
A.A. // .

. ., 1982.
.. . ., 1989.
. . . 1. ., 1856.
. . , // . 1963. 1.
. . ., 1964.
.. . ., 1988.
. . // . . ., 1979.
. VII- . , 1987.
.. . ., 2014.

. ., 1957.
. . ., 1985.
. . // Hrd manas.
70- /
. . H.H. . .: , 2005. . 470^175.
L orim er D .L.R. A. Bakhtiari Prose Text II JRAS. 1930. Pt. 2.
L orim er D.L.R. The Popular Verse of the Bakhtiari of S.W. Persia. Pt. I II BSOAS. 1954. Vol. XVI.
L orim er D .L.R. Specimens of Bakhtiari Verse. Pt. II // BSOAS. 1955. Vol. XVII.
M ann O. Kurdische-Persische Forschungen. Die Mundarten der Lur-Stmme (Mamassn und Kh-

gl, Bakhtar, Feili). Abt. 2. ., 1910.


M inorsky V. Baba Tahir II El. 1934. Vol. 4.
M inorsky V. The Tribes of Western Iran II JRAI. 1945. Vol. LXXV.
M organ J. de. tudes linguistiques. Dialectes kurdes. Langues et dialectes du Nord de la Perse.

Mission scientifique en Perse. T. V. P., 1904.


R ich Cl.S. Narrative of Residence in Koordistan. L., 1837.
W ahby T. Rock Sculptures in Guirduk Cave. Baghdad, 1957.


Dilzar. Gencne beke le uarnekan Baba Tahr Hemedan. Koye, 1957.

Dwan Rencr. Lkoinewey Muhemed Qeredax. Bexda, 1983.


zedpenah H. Ferheng lek u lur. Bexda, 1978.
G erm ian A. - ( .) // Lkoinewey Kurdistan. Uppsala,

2001. 6. C. 7-30.
G erm ian A. ( .) // Lkoinewey Kurdistan

Uppsala, 2002. No. 8. C. 12-27.

Germian . - ( .) // Lkoinewey Kurdistan.


2003. 10. C. 12-34.
Germian A. ( .) //
Kurdistan nw. Silman, 2004. 6634.
Germian A. (
.) // Kurdistan nw. Silman, 2004. 7169.
. Ferheng Xa. Berg 1. Silman, 1956.
Zebih A. Qamus ziman kurd. Berg 1. Bexda, 1977.

Summary
Z.A. Yusupova
A Look into the History o f Studies in the Luri Dialects
The present article is a brief review o f sources and literature (in Russian, Kurdish and Western lan
guages) on the Lurs and Luri dialects. It considers different viewpoints on the position o f the Luri
dialects within Iranian languages reflected in various sources studied by the author.

..
:
.
III. :
. .-. 1

,
. XVII . - ,
. . 1scriptionum antiquarum 1588 . (Pl. XXXII), . .
. .
. (1679), . .-.
(1632) .
,
. ,
.
'. , , , Roma I, Roma II, , , , ,
, , .

(1594-1643)
, , , , . .
(1647-1685)
(1646-1715), , , 2.
III: Geschichte der nordsemitischen Epigraphik (
) . : Handbuch der nordsemitischen
Epigraphik ( ),
- (Roma /),
,
1 I , 2013, . 100-125; II , 2014, . 125-152.
2 Der genfer Professor Samuel Petit (1594-1643) lieferte zwar eine bersetzung, doch machte diese mehr
seiner Phantasie als seiner Gelehrsamkeit Ehre. Jac. Spon (1647-1685), der diese Entzifferung Petits und zugleich
ein treffendes Urteil des Orientalisten Antoine Galland (1646-1715) ber sie mitteilte, verffentlichte noch eine
andere an demselben Orte gefundene lateinisch-palmyrenische Bilinguis, aber wiederum in schlechter Abbildung,
so dass die palmyrenischen Studien dadurch nichts gewonnen haben (Lidzbarski, 1898, S. 89-90).
C. , . ,
, . (. Nmes)
, 35 ,
( -). XVI .
, , , .
.., 2015

75

XVI .
. /. 3 Inscriptionum antiquarum quae passim per Europam,
liber (Pl. XXXII/14) 1588 . . 4 Inscriptiones antiquae Totius orbis
Romani (Pl. LXXXV1/8) 1602 . .
- {Roma )
5.

, XVI .
XVIII .
, ,
, .
. ,
, . . ,
. -
. ,
,
(. 1). ,
,
. , .-. , Geschichte
der nordsemitischen Epigraphik .
. , ,
,
, ,
.
{Samuel Petit) ,
, 25 1594 . 6. 1610-1614 .
3 (. Joest Lips, . Justus Lipsius, 1547-1606) ,
(1579-1590).
, , , . (.
Martinus Smetius, . Maartan de Smedt, 1525-1578) . 1545 1551 .
, ,
.
.
. 1558 . , -
, (51 ).
, 1578 . ,
( ,
). .
, 1585 . .
, .
. . .
4 (. Jean Gruter/Gruytre, . Janus Gruterus, 1560-1627) .
, ,
. ,
.
5 Spon, 1679, . 3. . ,
: Gruter, 1602. Pl. XXXVI/1. .: , 2013 ( Roma I . 7,
11, 12).
6 ,
. .
. -, . . . .
. : Tulot, 2011, . 1. : Nicolas, 1854, vol. I, p. 311-326;
Boyer, 1871.

. /.
(1647-1685)

. 7.
. .
.
{ministre de Nmes),
. 1627 . .
{Collge des Arts),
(. 2)8. ,
,
,
.
. -
,
. ,
- .
. ,
, ,
. ,
. 1629 .
.-. , .

9.
7 {Giovanni Diodati, 1576-1649) .
. .
(1603 .). ,
(1644 .).
8 . .
(1604-1676), . ,
.
9 Larroque, 1887, . 9-17.

& mJ.'ft/JMtvrj

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. 2.

(Muse des Beaux Arts de Tours, France).


(1604-1676)

- {Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, 1580-1637)


, , , ,
(. 3).
, .
,
. ,
. 14 1629 . .-. ,
. --, XIII
, . . .-.
.
, .
, --
, , .-.
. ,
10, , .
10 , (Pierre Dupuy, 1582-1651) (Jacques Dupuy, 1591-1656),
, , , .
.
,
, ,

. 3.

- (1580-1637)

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,
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, . ,
. (Claude Dupuy, . Claudius Puteanus, 15451594) ,
, ,
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, .
1657 . , fo n d Dupuy.
11 (. Uzs) , , 24 .

Marmora Arundelliana12, . .

, , 13,
, 14 .
, , ,
. .
15,
,
16. ,
, ,
,
.

, .
, ,
. 17 -
18, ,
12 III . ..,
. . 1627 .
. , 21- . 1628 .
{John Seiden)
Marmora Arvndelliana; Siue Saxa Grca incisa. , .-. 1529 .
. , ,
3 1629 . : Marmora Arundelliana
, , ,
, ... (j'en suis si affam, que vous
m'obligerez infiniment de m'en faire avoir un, le plus tot qu il se pourra) (Larroque, 1887, tome II, p. 12.)
, , . {Pierre Gassendi, 1592-1655) ,
, , .-. , ,
, ,
(Gassendi, 1691, . 226).
13 ,
. 1597 1600 ., , 1605 .:
C. Svetoni Tranqvilli De XII. Caesaribvs libri VIII. {Isaac Casaubon, 15591614) ,
, , .. .
, , . I
. , .
14 / (. Claudius Salmasius, . Claude Saumaise, 1588-1653)
, , , . ,
. . ,
.. . 1635 . . ,
: , .
15 .-. ,
() , .
16 : .-.
. ,
, , , (Larroque, 1887, tome 2, p. 134, note 2).
17 {Michel de Marillac, 1563-1632) , ,
XIII. (1624-1626).
. .
1626 . ( ). {chteau de
Chteaudun).
18 , (. Antoine Coiffier de Ruz d'Effiat, 1581-1632)
, .
. 1626 . . ,

. .
, ,
. - Jle , -
(),
. . (. )
19,
, . ,
. , .
, 12 ,
. .
...
, , .
--, 21 1629 .20.
, .-. ,
,
. , ,
,
. .
XIII , .
1642 . .
19 . . (Prodige de la
France), , (. Guillaume Bud, . Guilielmus Budaeus,
1467-1540) -,
. .
20 Monsieur, nous voicy enfin de retour sains et sauves du petit voyage de la Cour que nous sommes allez
faire du cost dUzez et de Nmes o Messieurs de nostre compagnie voulurent que je me trouvasse entre leurs
dputez pour saler le Roy et Messieurs les Ministres...
Jay veu Nismes le Sieur Samuel Petit, professeur en thologie prtendue, filz d un Parisian proche parent de
Mr Perrot, vostre alli, et demeuray grandement satisfaict de la douceur de sa conversation et de sa rare rudition.
Il me monstra un petit travail quil a faict sur le compute des Samaritains aprez Scaliger, o il montre combien
peult son esprit aprez celuy de ce grand personnage, et me diet avoir faict quelque travail d importance sur la
chronologie. Je luy montray les Marmora Arundelliana que j avois dans ma maie, o il print un extrme plaisir.
Il me fit voir trois libvres dobservations trez curieuses sur Athene, sur les mesmes m[anu]s[cri]ts que Casaubon
avoit maniez, o il faict comme Mr Saulmaise sur le Suetone. Il les veult mettre soubs la presse ce moy de
septembre Dieu aydant quil espere d aller faire un voyage Paris pour cet effect, dont j ay extorqu parolle de
luy. Il a faict de bonnes notes sur le Martial. Mais il en a de bien plus utiles et ncessaires sur tout le Plaute o il
est all si avant quil a interprt tout le Punique qui y estoit le plus heureusement du monde, et y a trouv un sens
relatif du latin du devant et du derrire, qui lie trez bien les noms propres qui y sont entremeslez dont il rend les
raisons trez apparantes, par le rapport des regies de cez langues orientales qui sont drives les unes des autres, et
lesquelles diversifioient si frquemment les voyelles. Il est arriv jusques ce poinct que d interpreter le plus
heureusement quon eust sceu imaginer, quelques noms propres de lieux insrs en la Saincte Escripture par ces
fragments de la langue Punique, ce que pas un des anciens Pres n avoit encores sceu faire.
Au reste cest un homme le plus humble, le plus modeste et la plus doulce humeur que j ay veu. Je parlay de
luy Monseigneur le Garde des Sceaux et Mr le Surintendant lequel en parla Monseigneur le Cardinal de
Richelieu pour le faire tirer de l et lappointer Paris. En quoy je trouvay tout plein de bonne disposition. Si nous
en venons bout, je pense quil feroit des merveilles ldition de ce Pentateuque Samaritain. Jen parleray aussy
Mr Le Grand, maistre des requestes, pour le gouverner un peu durant le sesjour quil a faire Nismes. Il me
monstra un grand Homere de ldition de Budee in folio en deux volumes, tout apostill de la main propre du diet
Budee et enlumin en divers endroicts des armoiries et devises du diet Budee. Il a une grande passion de vous
offrir son service, tenant vostre vertu en singulire veneration. J estime que vous y aures bien du contentement.
Il a une belle et curieuse bibliothque, o il a bien bouquin ses livres durant 12 annes quil sest tenu dans cette
misrable ville, et a une mmoire non pareille. Il le faut ayder sen tirer...
Monsieur, vostre trez humble, trez oblig serviteur de Peiresc.
A Aix, ce samedy 21 juillet 1699 (Larroque, 1887, tome 2, p. 130, 133-134).


.
: 1630 . 21
(550 .) Samvelis Petiti Miscellaneorvm Libri Novem22, /
23. , 1630 . Samuelis Petiti
obseruationum libri 111 ( 1633 .)24. , 1631 .
Samuelis Petiti ecologae chronologicae
( 1632 .)25. 1633 . . : Varia
rum lectionum libri 1III26, 1635 . Leges Atticae,
27. :
Parisiis, Apud Carolum Morellum, vi lacob, ad insigne Fontis.
,
,
.-. 28, .
,
, , , . 29
.
21 Svmma privilegii. Lutetiae Parisiorum 4. Februarij 1630.
22 Samuelis Petiti Miscellaneorum libri novem: in quibus varia veterum scriptorum loca, quae philologiam,
historiam, philosophiam, chronologiam spectant, emendantur, illustrantur, explicantur.
, .
23 .. , , .
,
(Movers, 1845, S. 8-9).
24 Samuelis Petiti obseruationum libri III: in quibus varia veterum scriptorum loca, qu ad philologiam,
iurisprudentiam, & vtriusque ecclesi Iudac atque Christian historiam pertinent, illustrantur, aut emendantur.
, ,
, .
25 Samuelis Petiti ecologae chronologicae: in quibus de variis annorum Judaeorum, Samaritarum, Graecorum,
Macedonum, Syromacedonum, Romanorum typis, cyclisque veterum Christianorum paschalibus disputatur.
, .-. , , ,
, , , .
26 Samuelis Petiti Variarum lectionum libri IIII: in quibus ecclesiae utriusque foederis ritus moresque antiqui,
sacri item eiusdem atque ecclesiastici Scriptores illustrantur, explicantur, emendantur. ,
K. (. . 28),
, , .
27 Leges atticae. Sam. Petitus collegit, digessit, et libro commentario illustravit. Opus juris, literarum, et rei
antiquariae studiosis utilissimum, VIII. libris distinctum, in quo varii scriptorum veterum graecorum & latinorum
loci explicantur et emendantur. ,
.
28 . , .
. 24 1631 .: . , , logae chronologicae. , . :
Sacrorum lectionum (). ,
.
- , .
, , , ,
(Il vous honore grandement, & ayant plus de fiance dtre exerc pour les acadmies il seroit ais,
comme on m a dit, de lesbranler). ,
(Tulot, 2011, . 6). (Christophe Justel, 1580-1649) ,
, . (Andr
Rivet, 1572-1651) , . .
, .
29 {Jacob Spon, 1647-1685) , , .
. .

MISCELLANEA
ER V D IT A N T I Q y iT A T I S :
s i r s
SV PPL EM EN T J G R V T E R IA N l
LIBER

P R I V S!

In qoo rudaxsa & mtrlk&u ( Marmora onafl

coodanwr i ftatss gonmis, * & tcrt t itturatwr,


tm fm m ** I A C O B O

S M ttm tVcU m <r

G*/ txinnf^gpxm.

* 0 S r A N T,

l <Ibncofijnew apud1*.
V v iD * * H O b D T S bttpalam i
& * F h a k c is c k

R o t * ,

' * Pt*u Dm Merci.

H. PC IXSIX*

Pue. 4.
Miscellanea Eruditae Antiquitatis. Spon, 1679

1679 . Miscellanea Eruditae Antiquitatis:


in quibus Marmora, Statuae, Musi va, Toreumata, Gemmae, Numismata (. 4).
, , 31 -
, ,
. 1683 . . : Recherches cu
rieuses dAntiquit, contenues en plusieurs dissertations sur Mdailles, Bas-reliefs, Statues,
Mosaques et Inscriptions antiques; enrichies dun grand nombre de Figures en Taille
douce,
. , .-. . (. 5).

M iscellanea Eruditae Antiquitatis. 30 .
, , .
.
30 , .
, , ,
1685 ., . , 1683 . ()
. . (Lidzbarski,
1898, S. 5). 1679 .

RECHERCHES
C U R I E U S E S

DANTIQUITE,
NT N V S

E N PLUSIEURS DISSERTATIONS,
fiir des Mdailles > Bas-reiets , Statues, Mofaiques,
& Infcriptions antiques 5
E N R I C H I E S D 'V N G R A N D
de Figures en Taille douse.

NOMBRE

PAR MONSIEUR S P O N , D O C T E U R
Aggrcg au College des Mdecins de Lyon, & Acadmie
des Ricrvrati de Padouc.

L 0
Chez T H O M A S
A M A U L R Y , ru M crcie:
____
au Mercure Galant.

m . n>c. L x x x i i i
AVEC

PRIVILEG E

DU R O Y .

Pue. 5.
Recherches curieuses dAntiquit. Spon, 1683

{Roma /),
. .
. .-. 1632 .
31:
Pour ce qui est des deux dernires lignes de cette inscription, qui sont en langue &
lettres Palmyrenienes, voicy ce que M. Samuel Petit de Nismes, qui possedoit parfaite
ment les Langues Orientales, en dit dans une Lettre quil a crire M. de Peireck. Cette
inscription, dit-il, est concee en lettres Phniciennes des Syriens, qui sont les mesmes
dont les Palmyrenies se servoient, & voicy en quels termes s explique Heliodore en cette
inscription Syrienne. Ma vieillesse a trembl, la plante de mes pieds a bronch, ton ser
viteur accabl de tristesse est tomb dans les mains du demon de la lumire: il a est li
& maltrait, sa maison a est dans un grand danger; le comble de tes misricordes a
abond & arros les lieux pierreux & solitaires, comme est le chemin qui conduit
Memphis {ce qui marque, reprend M. Petit, la situation & la desolation de Palmyre du
temps de Zenobie) tout ce que mon extreme misere souhaitoit m a est donn avec profu
31 Spon, 1583, p. 66-69 (Troisime Dissertation. Sur un Marbre Ancien reprsentant deux Divinitez Syriennes).

sion, ton ombre est souverainement misricordieuse: 'est pourquoy ta portion eternelle
sera une mesure de vin, ou de quelquautre liqueur, que j e t offriray tous les ans pour
l 'usage des Sacrifices.
,
, , - ,
, - . :
, , ,
.
. , . ,
, :
. .
,
{, , - ,
). ,
, . .
,
.
. . 32 .
(. 6 ):
Voicy enfin ce que M. Antoine Galland Interprte des Langues Orientales ma crit
sur lexplication prcdente. Pour vous dire ingnument ce que j e pense de l'explication
que M. Petit donne l 'inscription Palmyreniene d'Heliodore, j e ne puis me persuader,
n 'en dplaise un si grand Homme, qu 'il ait bien expliqu cette Enigme: car quel sens
j e vous prie peut-on tirer de tout cela? Que veut dire ce demon de la lumire? & qu y at'il de commun entre Memphis & Palmyre? Nous savons que les Phniciens n 'ont que
vingt-deux lettres dans leur Alphabet. & cependant il y a plus de vingt-huit caractres
differens dans cette Inscription, soit de la manir don 't vous l'avez copie, soit de la f a
on qu 'elle est grave dans Gruter, qui sont differentes en quelque chose, & l'on ne peut
aisment se persuader que toutes les lettres de l'Alphabet soient comprises dans ces
deux lignes. Je voudrois bien savoir de quels Livres & de quel Dictionnaire M. Petit
s'est servi pour connoistre ces lettres, qui ne sont ny Hebraiques ny Syriaques, si l'on
s'en rapporte la figure qu 'on donne present ces deux caractres. Pour moy
l 'aurois cru que ces deux lignes ne signifient autre chose que ce qui compris dans les let
tres Grecques qui sont au dessus, de mes me qu 'en plusieurs autres Inscriptions Grec
ques & Latines, ce qui est exprim en une Langue n 'est point diffrent de ce qui est con
tenu dans l 'autre.
A , - , ,
: - ,
- , ,
, :
, , ?
? ?
, 22 , 28 32 (Antoine Galland, 1646-1715) .
. 20 1704
1717 . .

. 6.
(1646-1715)

, , ,
.
,
. , .
, , ,
. ,
, ,
, -
,
.
, . ,
. :
Voil ce que j ay p tirer dinstructions sur ces deux lignes. Cependant M. Graverol
clbre Avocat de Ni mes mcrit que M. Gal land na peut-estre pas tant sujet, comme il
le pourroit bien croire, de critiquer la traduction de M. Petit: parce que cela se peut
soutenir avec le secours dun petit Livre manuscript que ce denier33 Auteur a laiss ses
hritiers. Je laisse aux Savans juger ce different, & leur presente cependant le dessein
dun autre Marbre qui est encore Rome, dont Gruter na point aussi donn la figure, &
dont les inscriptions sont en Latin & en Palmyrenien.
, (. ) . , - ,
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34 Spon, 1579, . 2 (Section Prima/ Articvlvs Primvs. Explicatio inscriptionis Grca & Palmyrene, que habetur
apud Gruterum pag. L X X X V I. Sed ibi absque figuris exhibetur). ,
Divus Aurelianus Flavi Vopisci Syracusii, (270-275 . ..),
X X V II/6. (. Flavius Vopiscus, 111IV . ..).
35 , . .-. (1679)
(1685), , . ,
1683 .
36 Joseph Scaliger fut constraint d avouer quil ne les connaissait pas, lui cependant qui se glorifiait de savoir
assez de langues pour pntrer par trre jusqu Chine, sans le secours d aucun interprte. Quelque temps aprs cet
aveu, qui lui cota sans doute Scaliger, Samuel Petit donna de ce monument une explication qui dut lui coter
encore plus, et qui satisfit encore moins. Je ne me sens pas le courage de la traduire en franais. La voici en latin
telle qu il l a propose lui-mme dans une lettre crite M. de Peireck... Croira-t-on jamais qu au lieu de ce tissue
dnigmes que le hazard semble avoir rapproches, l inscription palmyrnienne, en cela conforme la grecque qui
lui correspond... (Barthlmy, 1759, p. 597-598).

E xp ofitio Palm yrenarum litterarum Sa


m u e le P etito N em a u fen fi ,e x ejus
ad P eireffdum
E p ifto la , anni 1 6 3 2 cu i titulum dat,
H em h a a d .

Onccpta eft hxc Infcriptio Phnidis Syro~


rum litteris 5 qwx eardem ac Palmyrenorum:
fic enim Vopifcus in Aurcliano ; Hane , inquit*

Epiftolam Ntcomachus fe iranftulie in Gramm ex


lingua Syrerum d im ab ip fa Zenebia diUatam*

Loquitur autem de fe Aurelius Hcliodorus his


verbis. Tremnit fenem >vacWa^ti planta pedis;
fab volam nttque D amnis lam indigena tm s mteftus
fuit , fplender*fquaBer *\m ( id eft > ad ejus fplendorem fa&itm fuit ) Hgatm eft tpfe , age, projice,
demm in fitmmo period* vcrfata eft , abmdamt after
manfnetwdinum irrigans petrm five filitudim s ,
qunnamvdum quod him ducit iW{Affli&am

Palmyram indigitat Zenob tempore * ejuique


fitum ) Datum abnnde eft quidqmd in umverfnm
dcfiderabat anguftia. Summe mifericers eft umbra
tua , form aterna Hem ina ad libationem. Hoc
eft , hc k x di&a efto in perpemum meis
bonis in quotidianos libationum ufus >in ifterum
Deorum honorem, infcrcndam erte heminam, feu
menfuram quandam v in i, alteriufve liquoris.

El
Puc. 7.
Roma I ( ).
Miscellanea Eruditae Antiquitatis. Spon, 1679. . 2

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38 Nach einigen mehrere ntzliche Bemerkungen fr die damaligen Seiten enthaltenden Aufklrungen ber
die griechische Inschrift theilte er rcksichtlich der palmyrenischen Schriftzge, die Gruter m it arabischen
verwechselt und der berhmte Joseph Scaliger zu entziffern sich fur unvermgend erklrt hatte, eine brieflich ihm
zugesandte Erklrung des Samuel Petit mit, die dieser aber, um seine Unwissenheit zu verbergen, von Anfang bis
zu Ende auf eine lcherliche Weise erlogen hatte (Hartmann, 1820, II, S. 254-255).
34 CIG. III. 6015; Lidzbarski. 1898, S. 477, 1. Taf. X L II, 9; IGUR, 119. ,
.. .
40 Lidzbarski, 1898, S. 477, 1; CIS II 3902; PAT 0247.
41 . , : Adams, 2003, . 251-252.
42 Bibliothque Imguimbertine de Carpentras
(BI Carpentras, Ms 1875/251 r & v). , .. ,
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50 bigearrs bizarres (Dbowiak, 2010, p. 71 ).
51 Lidzbarski, 1898, S. 93.
52 Expositio Palmyrenarum litterarum Samuele Petito Nemausensi, ex ejus ad Peireskium Epistola, anni
1632. Cui titulum dat, Hemina ad Libationem (Spon, 1597, p. 2).
53 Je vous envoyeray a la premire occasion ce que j ay observe touchant l hemina dont parle l inscription
Palmyreniene (Larroque, 1887, V II, p. 40).
54 Cependant je vous remercie de bien bon coeur du soing que vous avez prins pour me faire avoir les petits
fragmens de vases... et des observations que vous me prometez sur Hemina Palmyrenienne (Tulot, 2011. 21,
p. 40). Larroque, 1887.

oR om

. 8.
Roma II. Miscellanea Eruditae Antiquitatis. Spon, 1679. . 3


. .
- Roma II (. 8 ).
, ,
, Miscellanea Eruditae Antiquitatis
(p. 3) Recherches curieuses dAntiquit (p. 69). ,
XVI . . ,
.
XVI . (Stephanus Winandus Pighius, 1520-1604),
( II, 1555) , ,
.
. , .
Inscriptionum Romanarum corpus (Pl. XXXVI/1) -
55 (. . 5).
, 1600 ., .-.
,
. ,
56: Soli Sanstissimo Sacrvm Ti(berius) Cladivs Felix Et
X IX .
. , .
.
: Lajard, 1854, . 13-20. . C IL VI, I, . 126. Index
actorum L, note X X X V III. C IL VI, 710. :
Teixidor, 1979. Pl. X V -X V I.
56
. . : Teixidor, 1979, . 47; Houston, 1990, . 190-193;
Adams, 2003, . 249-251. X V II . Calbienses ,

Clavdia Helpis. Et Ti(berius) Claudivs Alypvs Fil(ius) Eorvm Votvm Solverunt Libens
Merito Calbienses De Coh(orte) III. ( )
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57 CIS II, 3903; Lidzbarski, 1898, S. 477, 2. Taf. X L II, 10; PAT 0248.

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59 Nicolas, 1854, . 317-318.

.. : . I. XVI .: - - // . 2013.
2(19). . 100-125.
.. : . II. : .-. // . 2013. 2(21). . 125-152.
Adams J.N. Bilingualism and the Latin Language. Cambridge, 2003.
Barthlmy J.-J. Rflexions sur lalphabet et sur la langue dont on se servoit autrefois Palmyre II
Mmoires de Littrature de lAcadmie Royale des Inscriptions et Belles-lettres. T. 26. P., 1759.
P. 597-598. Pl. I-III.
Boyer A. Lacadmie protestante de Nmes et Samuel Petit: thse. Montauban, 1871.
CIG Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum. Vol. I-IV. B., 1828-1853, 1877.
CIL Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. Vol. IXVII. B., 1853-1986.
CIS Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum. Vol. I-V. P., 1881-1962.
Dbowiak P. Smantique et timologie: ladjectif franais bizarre et ses equivalents formels dans
d autres langues europennes II Studia Etymologica Cracoviensia. Krakow, 2010. Vol. 15. P. 6776.
Gassendi P. Viri Illustris Nicolai Claudii Fabricii De Peiresc, Senatoris Aquisextiensis Vita. P.,
1691.
GruterJ. Inscriptiones antiquae totius orbis romani, in corpus absolutiss. redactae. Cum indicib.
XXV. ingenio ac cura Iani Gruteri: auspiciis los. Scaligeri ac M. Velseri. Accedunt Notae Tyronis
Ciceronis L. ac Seneca. Ex Officina Commeliniana [Heidelberg?], 1602.
Hartmann A. T. Oluf Gerhard Tychsen oder Wanderungen durch die mannigfaltigsten Gebiete der
biblisch-asiatischen Literatur. Ein Denkmal der Freundschaft und Dankbarkeit. Bremen, 1820.
Bd 2, Abt. 2. S. 254-255.
Houston H. W. The Altar from Rome with Inscriptions to Sol and Malakbel // Syria. 1990. T. 67, fas
cicule l.P . 189-193.
IGUR Moretti L. Inscriptiones graecae urbis Romae. 4 vols in 5 parts. Rome, 1968-1990.
L ajardF. Recherches sur le culte du cyprs pyramidal chez les peuples civiliss de lantiquit II
Acadmie des inscriptions et belles-lettres. Mmoires de lInstitut de France. Acadmie des
inscriptions et belles-lettres. 1854. Vol. 20. Partie 2.
Larroque P. T. Les correspondants de Peiresc: XIV Samuel Petit. Lettres indites crites de Nmes
et de Paris Peiresc (1630-1637). Nmes, 1887.
Lidzbarski M. Handbuch der nordsemitischen Epigraphik nebst ausgewhlten Inschriften. I. Text.
Weimar, 1898.
Mnard L. Histoire civile, ecclsiastique et littraire de la ville de Nismes, avec des notes et les
preuves; suivie de dissertations historiques et critiques sur ses antiquits, et de diverses observations
sur son histoire naturelle. Vol. IVII. P., 1750-1758.
Movers F.K. Die Punischen texte im Poenulus des Plautus: kritisch gewrdigt und erklrt. Breslau, 1845.
Nicolas M. Histoire littraire de Nmes et des localits voisines qui forment actuellement le
dpartement du Gard. Vols. IIII. Nmes, 1854.
PAT Palmyrene Aramaic texts. Hillers D.R., Cussini E. (eds). Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.
Scaliger J.J. De emendatione temporum. Leiden, 1598.
Smetius M. Inscriptionum antiquarum quae passim per Europam, liber. Accessit auctarium a Iusto
Lipso. Lugdunum Batavorum, 1588.
SponJ. Miscellanea eruditae antiquitatis; in quibus marmora, statuae, musiva, toreumata, gemmae,
numismata, Grutero, Ursino, Boissardo, Reinesio, aliisque antiquorum monumentorum collectoribus
ignota, & hucusque inedita referentur ac illustrantur. Francfort, 1679. II-e . Lyon, 1685.
SponJ. Recherches curieuses dantiquit: contenues en plusieurs dissertations, sur des mdaills, basreliefs, statuys, mosaques, & inscriptions antiques. Lyon, 1683.
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dans lEmpire romain. T. 79).

TulotJ.L. Samuel Petit: Un correspondant de Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc et dAndr Rivet dans
le premier... XVlle sicle. Transcription, prsentation et annotation. 2011 [http://jeanluc.tulot.
pagesperso-orange.fr/Petitpeirescrivet.pdf|.

60
14 octobre 1632 Aix M. Petit.
Monsieur,
Je nay receu qu ce soir tout de nuict vostre despeche (depesches) du 3 e (<du 8~e) de ce mois avec
vostre observon sur cette belle (belles) Inscription (inscriptions) de LAurelius Eliodorius (le
Aurelius Eliodorus Parmyrenier) dont Je vous remercie trs humblemt et a paine ay ie eu un peu de
temps pour lire vostre discours que Je seray infnimt aise de bien considrer tout a loisir cepandant
(.Cependant) par ce que lon ma dit que cet homme qui lavoit apport tantost cans avoit dit quil
sen retoumoit demain et quil viendroit prendre ma response Je nay pas voulu iyouler) manquer de
vous en assurer la reception et vous en remercier comme Je fais trs humblemt, vous asseurant que
j ay pris un grand plaisir de voir vos sentiments sur ces annes qui ne sont sans doute autre chose que
ce que vous dites {diss) de laage plustost que ce que M. de la Sala (Scala) et autres on voulu
rapporter aux annes des Eleucides mais pour les characteres estrangers (charactres estranges) qui y
sont ie ne doute nullemt que ce ne soit les vieux syriaques selon vostre authorit {du) [ ] et selon celle
de lEplutan an d autre livre contre les heresies ou il tesmogne quentre les grecs {Grecs) aucuns
usoint des lettres grecques et les autres faisoint grand cas de la langue syrienne trs profonde
particulieremt ceux (ceux) qui habitoint es environs de Palmire en retenoint les characteres en
nombre de XXII o il aiouste que les persiens {Persiens) usoint pareillemt des characteres siriens, or
dautant que les Dieux mentionns en lad. Inscription {en ladite inscriptions) soint qualifis
Aglabolus, et Malharbelus il (.//) faudrait voir dexaminer par les regies de ces langues orientales,
lEtimologie ( l'timomologie) de ces deux noms barbares dont le second semble vouloir signifier
Rex belus qui est en effet le Soleil et de (, & de) fait le marbre au bas duquel est cette inscription
reprsente deux figures humaines dont la seconde est couronne de Rayons {rayons) comme le Soleil
et a un Croissant de Lune {croissant de lunes) derrire les pauls pour en confondre la dite avec ce
Deus Lunus {deux lunes) que ces orientaux represantoint tousiours en forme de figure masculine
plustost que feminine et pour lautre Deite) qui est au premier Rang possible que lEtimologie
examinee par les mesmes rgles pourroint quadrer aussi bien Saturne comme lautre a appolon {
Apollon,) sil est bien constant que ce quelle {qu'elle) tient la main gauche soit une faux (T) me
resouvenant davoir veu un autre marbre antique Rome (T) dont ie devrais avoir un peu de
griffonnemt parmy mes papiers que je fairay chercher pour lamour de vous o se voit une petite
Idole {idole) du Soleil avec la teste rayonne porte par une aygle et lInscription par dessous Soli
Sanctissimo Sacrum &c ayant d un autre cost une Idole {sicle) ou teste de Saturne avec sa faulx
auprs et de lautre un Chariot traisn par quatres Griffons avec une figure couronne par une
victoire et un arbre au quatrime cost (r) mais par dessus ce chariot y a trois lignes de characteres fort
bigearrs que j avois autrefois creu pouvoir ester Phoeniciens ou de ces vieux espagnols (T) dautant
que si ie ne me trompe il sembloit que le marbre eust est dedie par quelque peuple despagne
{d'Espagne). Saturne ayant est en aussi grande veneration parmy ces peuples la comme le Soleil, et
tous deux tenus pour les premiers peres de lumire et de tous les autres lieux comme ils sont qualiffis
en la mesme inscription DHeliodore, si {.Si) j avois un peu plus de loisir que ie nen ay pntemt (7)
possible vous en pourrais je dire quelque chose de plus; (,) mais vous men soulageras bien faci lernt
pour peu que vous y songies comme ie vous en prie et de me tenir tousiours,
M, pour vostre trs humble, trs obeisant serviteur de Peiresc.

60 Bibliothque Mjanes, France. Ms 209 (1027) p. 267-270. Title: 48 Lettre de Peiresc (Nicolas-Claude
Fabri de) crite de Aix-en-Provence l'attention de Petit (Samuel) [s.l.], le 14 octobre 1632.
: . . 42 [http://www.e-cous.org/eng/notices/4675-i048.html].

Summary
.. Yunusov
From the History o f the Decipherment o f West Semitic Writing: Events and People.
(Ill) Palmyra Texts in Europe: S. Petit and N.-C. de Peiresc
This is the third article of a series of essays on some major stages of early Europes West Semitic
epigraphy. During the first third of the 17th century, a Greek-Palmyrene bilingua carved on a marble
bas-relief and published in the collection of J. Lipsius and M. Smetius Inscriptionum antiquarum in
1588 (PL. XXXII) attracted the attention of S. Petit. He tried to translate the Palmyrene part of the
bilingua but failed. We know about it from J. Spons information (1679) who presented an excerpt
with a translation from one of S. Petits private letter to N.-C. de Peiresc (1632). But this translation
had been taken out of context of the authors arguments on the subject. So it is unfair to consider this
text a translation in every sense of the word. More likely, it is a reconstruction o f an oral sacred ritual
during the sacrifice ceremony in front of the relief.

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: zamn/zurwn- akanrag, / :
zamnag- brin, zurwn- drand-xwady. .: , 1997, . 43, 54, 90, 100-101; Zoroastrianism, 1990,
. 47.
65 .: 56:68.
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(4 *
cjjNj
j J**li
UL-jli), . 4274, . 1546
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'-6 . -.
t J lm -b V I (jAill ( j j j ( jj ^Aavl ^cjJdl (JjJHaII ^t;bi <aJbi t
(JjLuj / / u_iljill
1jjjaII diY I ju j t_jl ja. J aJLuij
36-26 .Ly 1993 tAjiUlljUl (jUd -Cjjjii
A xcau-7. [ , ]
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Summary
Y .A .Ioannesyan
The Shaykhi Teaching on the Tripartite Spiritual Reality
of the Human Being
The article is a study of the concept of the human beings tripartite spiritual reality in the Shaikhi
school of Shii Islam. The author sets himself the task of revealing this concept as it emerges from
primary sources, i.e., the works of Shaikh Ahmad Ahsai, the founder of the school, and those of Sayyid Kazim Rashti, his successor. The present research is based on texts (manuscripts and lithographs)
in Arabic and Persian from the collection of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian
Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg. The article is amply supplied with quotes from these texts in
the authors translation.

..


(IIIVII .)

,
,
. ,

,
.
: , , , , , ,
, , , .
,
(
), ,
.

:
V -V II ., .-. (Synodicon
orientale, 1902);
(VI .), .
(M Siha-Zkha, 1907);
( ), . Patrologia O rientalis (H istoire nestorienne, 1908-1919);
1-11 .,
B ibliotheca G eographorum A rabicorum .

,
, .
( . )
410 . 1 (399 -4 2 0 ).
.
(21 ),
,
, .
38 ,

118

.., 2015

.
( )
. 16
.
,
. ,
,
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, .
, ,


(Synodicon Orientale, 1902. Texte: p. 34,1. 19-23; trad.: p. 273).
,
I .
,
1-11 . ..
(1- 111 .)
- ,
(, 1990, . 52-68).
-,
, , (Jullien Chr. et Jullien Fl., 2002,
p. 80). ,
() (Ibid., . 47).
,
, , III .
.. .
, (.. ) 2
(krstyn sgy 'yt hw b klhwn Urwf b rrrb w b mdnx) (Miha-Zkha, 1907. Texte:
p. 29; trad.: p. 106). - 60- III . ,
, 3, ,
, (, 2007,
. 225-228, 245-249).
( )

.
, ,
I (420 .) 28 ,
1 ,
111 .
2 224 . .
III .
3 , - : j ^ i ^ j
A ajI

(), ( ),
, , , :
^ku. i > ^ ? .j( K ita b al-Unvan, 1911, p. 533).

.
, ,
(Synodicon Orientale, 1902. Texte: p. 37^42, trad.: p. 276-284)4.
,
IV . .
(Sims-Williams.
1992, . 531; Jullien, 2009, . 180). V .

I ( ) (
) (, 1999, . 36-37).

.
,
( 424 ., 4- . V),

, : , , ,
, (Sawlta de Grgn) (Synodicon Orientale, 1902. Texte:
p. 43, trad.: p. 285).
486 . ( 2- . )

(Ibid., texte: p. 53, 59; trad.: p. 299, 306).

. , (497 ., 2-
) .
: ,
( ), , (Ibid., texte: p. 62-63, 6 6 6 8 ; trad.: p. 310-311,315-317).
20- VI ., -
. ,
,
().
.
, .
12 ( 14 , 522/3 536/7 .).
. I (531-579)
, , .
540 . I (Labourt, 1904,
. 163-191; Histoire nestorienne, 1911, p. 147-152).
I .
I 544 . ( 13- . I)
.
(),
,
. - -

120

4 , I - Zardust (. 260 .)
( /, ?)
: W hmk p rhstr krmn skstn twrgn mkwrn p 'rtn hndstn kwsnhstr HN prhs
L pskbwr ( : , , , , , ,
...) (Back, 1978, . 285-288 (pa, !)).

, , () (Synodicon Orientale, 1902. Texte: p. 87-89; trad.: p. 342-344).



,

(Histoire nestorienne, 1911, p. 159, 171).

.
,
(554 .). , ,
, ( ), ( ). VI .
(Syno
dicon Orientale, 1902. Texte: p. 108-109, trad.: p. 365-367).
, 576 . ( 45- .
1), 39 ,
, , .
,
(Ibid., 1902. Texte: p. 110, trad.: p. 368).

.
, 1 ( 585 .),
IV (579-590)
,
,
.
,
, ( )
(Ibid., 1902. Texte: p. 164-165; trad.: p. 423).
I ( 596 .) I ( 605 .)
.
III (649-659)

(Ovidiu, 2009, passim). I () 676 .
(57 ..) ,
.

VI .
,
(. 2,) (. 1,) .
IV, ,
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581-591 .,
IV (579-590) ( VI, 590-591 .).

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. 1,.

. 2,.

122

. 3. IV. 7 . (585 ..), . WALWC ().


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126

. -. . T. IX / . .. , . . .
.: (), 1971 ( . :
, II).
Synodicon Orientale, ou Recueil de synodes nestoriens / Publi, trad, et annot par J.-B. Chabot. P.,
1902 (Notices et extraits de la Bibliothque Nationale et autres bibliothques. T. 37).
Histoire de lEglise d Adiabne sous les Parthes et les Sassanides par MSiha-Zkha (VI s.). Texte
Syriaque et trad, par A. Mingana // Sources Syriaques. Vol. I. Lpz.: Otto Harrassowitz, 1907.
Kitab al-Unvan. Histoire universelle crite par Agapius (Mahboub) de Menbidj, d. et trad, en FranaisparA . Vasiliev... Seconde partie ( I ) / / POr. 1911. T. VII. P. 531-535.

Histoire nestorienne (Chronique de Sert). Seconde partie (I). Publie et traduite par Adda Scher //
POr. 1911. T. VII.
Histoire nestorienne (Chronique de Sert). Seconde partie (II). Publie et traduite par Adda Scher //
POr. 1919. T. XIII.
Back M. Die Sassanidischen Staatsinschriften II Acta Iranica. 18. Thran-Lige: Bibliothque Pahlavi, 1978.
Mochiri M.I. Etude de numismatique iranienne sous les Sassanides et Arabe-Sassanides. ..
Thran: Ministre de la Culture et des Arts, 1977.


B.A., .. (
..) // ^ . . 4(). cepifl. .: . 2006. . 136-176.
.. (
VI ) // 1 . . 4(). cepifl.
.: , 2006. . 207-217.
.. : . .: -, 2012 (
).
.. (-
). .: , 1990.
.. // .
. . A.B. . .: , 1999.
.. (Prolegomena). .: - , 2007.
Labourt J. Le Christianisme dans lEmpire Perse sous la dynastie Sassanide. P.: Librairie Victor LecofYre, 1904.
Sims-Williams N. Christianity. III. In Central Asia and Chinese Turkestan // Encyclopaedia Iranica.
Ed. by E. Yarshater. Vol. V. L .-N . Y., 1992. P. 530-534.
The Brocade and Gold from the Silk Road. Tokyo National Museum: NHK Promotions, 2002
( ).
JullienChr. et Jullien FI. Aptres des Confins. Processus missionnaires Chrtiens dans lEmpire
Iranien II Res Orientales, Vol. XV. Bures-sur-Yvette: Groupe pour ltude de la Civilisation du
Moyen Orient, 2002.
Les Perses sassanides: Fastes d un empire oubli. Muse Cemuschi, Muse des Arts de lAsie de la
Ville de Paris. 15 sept.-30 dc., 2006. Paris muses: Editions Findakly ( ).
Jullien Chr. Recherches sur le Livre de la Chastet: Contribution la gographie historique de
lEmpire Sassanide II Res Orientales. XVIII: Sources pour lhistoire et la gographie du Monde
Iranien (224-710). Bures-sur-Yvette: Groupe pour ltude de la Civilisation du Moyen Orient.
2009. P. 173-183.
Ovidiu /oan. Muslime und Araber bei Is'jahb III. (649-659) // Gttinger Orientforschungen.
I. Reihe: Syriaca. Herausgegeben von M. Tamcke. Bd 37. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2009.

Summary
A.I. Kolesnikov
Topography o f the Christian Dioceses in Eastern Iran
and Khurasan under Sasanians (3rd-7th Century)
The paper deals with the analysis of information derived from the medieval Syriac, Arabic and
Middle- Persian sources which contain valuable data on the area o f dissemination o f Christian com
munities in the Eastern extremities of Iranian ecumene under Sasanian rule. The author comes to the
conclusion that, with all variations of primary sources in terms o f genre and ideological attitudes, they
refer to the same main centers of the Eastern Christianity dispersed along the South branch of the Great
Silk Road.

127

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Summary
V.M. Rybakov
Misappropriation in T ang Dynasty Criminal Law
The traditional Chinese criminal law numbered six kinds o f crimes against property. On the basis
o f the Tang dynasty criminal code T'ang lii sh u y i, this article describes the sixth of them the socalled misappropriation, or illicit goods obtained through malfeasance. The definition o f this
crime stipulates that, under the norms of misappropriation, officials o f lower ranks who received
from other persons any property in connection with management of their service should be punished.
But in fact this concept was interpreted by the Tang legislators much more loosely. Firstly, norms of
misappropriation could be applied to non-ranked commoners, whenever they were expected to strictly
comply with a specific law relevant to this or that situation. Secondly, misappropriation was generally
perceived not as wrongful obtaining of some goods, but rather as wrongful moving o f these goods.
Therefore the person, who was thereby enriched could appear as not guilty. But the one whose activi
ties caused the reallocating of values, became the one who bore the responsibility for misappropria
tion. For the empire claiming total control of social motion, not criminal appropriation of property
was intolerable, but criminal appropriation of the right to move this property.

C.JI.

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. 2 7-28).

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.. . ., 2005.
(- -) / . ., ., . .. .. . ., 1992.
/ . . .. . ., 1996.
. . . II: / . . // PSYLIB:
[ . URL:
http://psylib.org.ua/books/mullm01 /txt02.htm]. 10.04.2014.
.., .. // (-
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.. .. . ., 1992. . 15-83.
.. - //
/ . .. .. . ., 1994. . 47-68.
. . / . . ., 1994.
.. : (IV . .. II . ..).
., 2004.
Dasgupta S.N. A History of Indian Philosophy. 5 vols. Cambridge, 1951-1962.
Dattabhujangastotra. . , II, 127 (Ind. 62).
Dattamahimnkhyastotra. . , II, 128 (Ind. 61).
Datttreyspttarasatanmastotra. . , II, 2 (Ind. 70).
Datttreyatantra. . , II, 31 (St. v. H., 45).
Hiltebeitel A. The Two Krsnas on One Chariot: Upanisadic Imagery and Epic Mythology II History of
Religions. 1984. Vol. 24. No. 1. P. 1-26.
Madhva's (nandatTrthas) Kommentar zur Kathaka-Upanisad: Sanskrit-Text in Transkription, nebst
bersetzung und Noten / Hrsg. von B. Heimann. Lpz., 1922.
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Summary
S.L. Burmistrov
Datttreya and His Place in Hindu Mythology
Datttreya is a syncretic deity (supposedly a real historical person a yogin, deified later), con
sidered an incarnation of Visnu. Nevertheless, his image combines features of Brahma, Visnu and
Siva and bears signs of influence of Hindu Tantric cults. Philosophical aspect o f the teaching, pro
fessed by the adepts of the Datttreya cult is a synthesis of Smkhya, Yoga and Dvaita Vedanta. In
one of the hymns addressed to Datttreya, this deity is conceived o f as the tman o f Brahm, Visnu
and Siva who creates this illusory world, so that the souls endowed with potential activity might
fully realize it.

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Summary
E.P. Ostrovskaya
N.D. M ironovs Contribution to the Description o f the Buddhist Manuscripts
at the Indian Collection o f Asiatic Museum, , RAS

I6 8

Two first decades o f the 20th century in the history o f Indian collection o f Asiatic Museum, IOM,
RAS were connected with the name of Nikolay Dmitrievich Mironov (1880-1936) who worked in
these years with this collection containing numerous manuscripts written in many languages and in
many scripts. The topic of the article is his approaches to the problem o f description o f these docu
ments and the results of his work. Buddhist manuscripts in Sanskrit housed in this collection before
1913 were first systematized by N.D. Mironov as a whole set demonstrating fundamental genres of
Mahyna written heritage hymns, sutras (homiletic texts), sstras (treatises) and different variants
f the terminological dictionary Mahvyutpatti.

S.I. Marakhonova
Russian Japanologist Serge Elisseff
at Harvard in 1932-1957

This article deals with the life and scholarly and pedagogical activities o f the Japanologist Serge
Elisseff in the USA where he was the first Director of the Harvard-Yenching Institute and a Chair
man and Professor of the Department of Far Eastern Languages at Harvard University for 23 years.
The author bases his work on the documents found by him in the archives and libraries of Harvard
University and the Harvard-Yenching Institute. Published and unpublished letters of S.G. Elisseff to
his Russian colleagues are also used. Serge Elisseff s activities as an organizer of science and of
teaching Eastern disciplines is also examined.
Key words: Serge Elisseff, archives, Japanology, Harvard University, the Harvard-Yenching In
stitute, Oriental studies in the USA.

In autumn 1932, Serge Elisseff, the well-known Paris-based Japanologist, was invited
to deliver lectures on Japanese history and the Chinese language at Harvard University in
the USA during the 1932-1933 school year. On September 18, 1932, he arrived in the USA
and started working. Elisseff delivered a series o f lectures on the history o f Japan and was
also engaged in the study o f historical Chinese texts and modern Japanese texts with stu
dents. His teaching load was six hours a week. He also gave eight lectures on Japanese
painting at the Lowell Institute in Boston. His lectures were very successful as the scholar
told his listeners about things not written about in the books (Diakonova, 2000, p. 159).
When his official mission at Harvard was over, Elisseff returned to France via Japan
and then China. He visited Shanghai, Nanking and Peking where he got acquainted with
many Chinese scholars. In 1933-1934, he continued to teach in Paris. As Professor o f the
Practical School o f the Higher Studies he read a series o f lectures on Buddhist iconography
and delivered lectures on Chinese painting at the School o f Louvre (Op. cit., 161-162).
At the next meeting o f the Board o f Trustees o f the Harvard-Yenching Institute in N o
vember 1933, Serge Elisseff was recommended for the appointment as Professor o f Far
Eastern Languages at Harvard University Arts and Sciences Faculty and as Director o f the
Harvard-Yenching Institute simultaneously from September 1, 1934. His salary was
$10,000 per year. He was accountable to the Board o f Trustees and to the Educational
Committee o f Harvard University. It should be made clear to Professor Elisseff that his
professorial appointment is without limit o f time and is practically for life, with the qualifi
cation that the Universitys rules are explicit that a man may be retired after the expiration
o f his sixty-fifth year and should normally retire at seventy (H-YI archives. MTp, Novem
ber 13, 1933).
The Harvard-Yenching Institute was established at Harvard University in 1928 to admin
ister a trust under the will o f the late Charles M. Hall, o f Niagara Falls, New York. The
purpose o f it was to organize and supervise the higher education in Christian universities
.., 2015

169

170

and colleges in China. These educational institutions were founded by Protestant missionar
ies in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in order to teach the Chinese language, history,
literature and other subjects contributing to the maintaining o f Chinese traditional culture,
as well as subjects relating to the culture o f the West. Another task was inseparably linked
with this to organize the teaching o f the Chinese and Japanese languages at Harvard Uni
versity, first o f all for those young people (the Americans and the Chinese) who were going
to teach in China.
Christian educational institutions were ruled and subsidized by the United Board of
Christian Colleges in China based in New York. Private donations were also accepted.
After the Harvard-Yenching Institute was established, this Institute also provided substan
tial financial help for them. The Institute was supervised by the Board o f Trustees, one third
o f which were professors from Harvard, one third missionaries, and one third businessmen.
Representatives o f the University intended to organize academic activities at the Institute,
that was why they had to make a scholar, preferably a Sinologist, its first director. Paul Pelliot was chosen for this purpose but he rejected the post and suggested Serge Elisseff in
stead.
While Serge Elisseff was teaching at Harvard, his candidacy was studied with great at
tention at the meeting o f the Board o f Trustees. He made a uniformly good impression as a
man who knew his subject thoroughly and had a good critical mind besides a tremendous
amount o f energy and interest in his subject. But there were arguments against him. The
most important o f those was his academic training in Japan, at Tokyo University, for which
reason he could not be accepted by a number o f Chinese scholars. He had a good practice
o f reading and writing in Chinese but his spoken language was rather poor. Some thought
that it was dangerous to rely on a person specializing in Japan rather than in China. How
ever, having visited China in the summer o f 1933, Elisseff enlisted the support o f Chinese
scholars and it was not difficult for him to improve his spoken Chinese spending some time
in China. The Trustees were also satisfied with the programs o f Chinese and Japanese
teaching courses proposed by Elisseff.
Members o f the Board o f Trustees came to the conclusion that the Americans lacked a
specialist o f E lisseff s level with a tremendous knowledge, a good basic training and great
abilities. Along with this the Trustees planned to transfer the burden o f the Institutes su
pervision to some o f the Americans so that S. Elisseff might concentrate on science en
tirely as it was his greatest inclination.
The outstanding organizational abilities o f the scholar became evident only later. Pro
fessor Elisseff made a uniformly good impression as a man who knew his subject thor
oughly and had a good critical mind besides a tremendous amount o f energy and interest in
his subject. He knows much more Chinese than many people who are known as Chinese
students. Professor E lisseff s access to the Japanese school on Chinese subjects is impor
tant and not to be overlooked. Mr. Green added that he does not think there were any
Americans who have the knowledge, background and ability that Professor Elisseff has
shown. Mr. Green queried whether it might not be advantageous to have an understanding
with him that the professorship was a full appointment, but that it might be desirable from
his point o f view and from the point o f view o f the Trustees to relieve him o f administrative
duties after the organization was started; that it could be out to him so that it would be re
garded as a favor instead o f a lack o f confidence, since he could not conceive o f Professor
Elisseff s desiring to carry a full burden o f administrative duties. It might well be that after
a time there would be some American to whom the Trustees would like to entrust those
responsibilities and leave Professor Elisseff to the productive scholarship for which he is
qualified (H-YI archives. MTp, November 13, 1933).

The USA did not have Oriental studies as a branch o f knowledge, as an academic disci
pline at that time. Different studies were scattered. The Council o f Learned Societies was
organized in 1919 so as to unite scholarly work in America where there is no Academy o f
Sciences and where every university or learned society is isolated from any other (Diakonova, 2000, p. 188). The Council had different commissions as well as the Committee for
Chinese and Japanese studies. Elisseff was a member o f it. Sometimes people who did not
know Oriental languages were engaged in Oriental studies. As Elisseff noted, works on
Japanese history were based on old works o f Japanese authors, on outdated documents.
Primary sources were not used and the knowledge o f languages was not obligatory.
S. Elisseff underlined that it was impossible to study the history o f Japan without a
knowledge o f the language (Diakonova, 2000, p. 158). There were no Japanese and Korean
scholars o f their own either at Harvard or in the US in general.
Beginning from 1931, a Japanese man called Kishimoto taught the Japanese language,
but he had no scientific methodology. Chinese studies were a little better. The Chinese lan
guage was taught by the Sinologist Professor J. Ware but the history o f China was read by
M. Gardner who did not know the language.
So in September 1934, S. Elisseff and his spouse arrived in Cambridge (Massachusetts)
where Harvard University was located, and the scholar assumed his new duties. He had to
accept this position so he could have a financial opportunity to give a higher education to
his children. The children stayed in France with their relatives but soon started living in
E lisseff s old apartment on Boulevard Pereire, 75, on their own. Nikita became a student
o f the Sorbonne and Vadim was about to graduate from his school.
In Cambridge, the Elisseffs settled in Memorial Drive, 989, the street that goes along
the Charles River dividing Cambridge from Boston. Kishimoto has left Harvard University
by this time, and Elisseff alone had to read eleven lectures on Japanology and one lecture
on the Chinese language. These courses included the history o f Japan, art where architec
ture played a great role, reading medieval Japanese texts. There were also six hours o f the
Japanese language remaining from the previous lecturer. Beginning from 1938, E lisseffs
pupil Edwin O. Reischauer conducted the Japanese courses along with his teacher. In
1961-1966, E.O. Reischauer was the US ambassador to Japan.
At one o f the first meetings o f the Trustees, Elisseff stated that it was necessary to or
ganize a magazine where articles devoted to the problems o f East Asia could be published.
That magazine was given priority by the scholar even over advancing the Chinese-Japanese
library. The first issue o f the magazine, which was entitled The Harvard Journal o f Asiatic
Studies, was published in April 1936. It was dedicated to the memory o f Professor o f Phi
losophy J. Woods, who established Oriental studies at Harvard. The second issue was pub
lished in July and the third, double one (Nos. 3 and 4), in November. The publication o f the
magazine became regular. It exists to this day. Later Serge Elisseff involved the best
scholars o f the West and the USSR to work in this magazine his colleagues P. Pelliot,
A. Maspero, V.M. Alexeiev, U.K. Schutzkiy, et al.
Composing the Chinese-English dictionary was another o f E lisseffs important under
takings. For reasons o f economy, work on the dictionary was undertaken in Peking, where
nearly 5 million cards with characters were prepared. The work in China was concluded in
1938 and the cards were sent to the Harvard-Yenching Institute where, under the guidance
o f Serge Elisseff, all the characters were translated into English with exact references and
quotations.
In the second term o f the 1936-1937 school year, S. Elisseff again visited Japan and
China where he inspected Christian universities and a number o f colleges. After this visit,
Elisseff, as Director o f the Institute, became much more sure that the Institute must sup-

1 /1

172

port the Chinese in the study o f their own history and archeology. Elisseff thought the
Harvard-Yenching Institute should continue to subsidize pure studies in Chinese civiliza
tion and not branch out into other activities, especially since the Rockefeller Foundation is
interested in sociology and anthropology. The Director remarked that he felt even more
strongly, after his visit to China, that the Institute should support the Chinese in the study o f
their own history and archaeology. He added that the item Chinese linguistics and Chinese
archaeology mentioned in Professor Wus plan as subjects to be supported by the Institute
is already supported by it in the Chinese Department at Yenching University and should not
be subsidized twice (H-YI archives. MTp, November 8, 1937,1. 24).
The Chinese-Japanese library o f the Harvard-Yenching Institute was situated, like the
Institute itself, in the rooms o f Boylston Hall at Harvard Yard. It comprised books not only
in the Chinese and Japanese languages but also in Manchurian, Mongolian and Tibetan.
There was also a big collection o f Western books dedicated to East Asian problems. In the
1940s, Serge Elisseff called this library the best library o f such a kind in the Western
world. Its quality was beyond doubt, and it was inferior to the Congress Library alone as
regards the quantity o f titles.
In February 1939, there were 130,000 Chinese and 30,000 Japanese books in the library,
and, as o f July 1, 1956, there were 299,841 volumes in the languages o f East Asia, 231,189 of
them in Chinese and 56,381 in Japanese (HU archives. UA III 50.8.11.3).
The library was growing so fast that the question about new areas was argued several
times. The Board o f Trustees was looking for financial opportunities to make a new build
ing for the Harvard-Yenching Institute and its library. However, leaving Harvard in 1957
Serge Elisseff have not seen the new building. Now, it takes a ten-minute walk to get to
this building from Boylston Hall.
The Chinese-Japanese Library exchanged books with the Institute for Oriental Studies of
the USSR Academy o f Sciences and the Library o f the USSR Academy o f Sciences. First
o f all, this applies to the Sinological Index Series o f the Harvard-Yenching Institute and
Supplements o f the Harvard-Yenching Institute Sinological Index Series published in China,
and to volumes o f the Mlanges Asiatiques series published by the USSR Academy o f
Sciences and sent to Harvard as well as the Notes {Zapiski) o f the group o f Orientalists o f
the Asian Museum and several issues o f the Bibliography o f the Orient (Diakonova,
2000, p. 186).
The teaching o f the Oriental languages at the Arts and Sciences Faculty was structuralized in 1938-1939. This structural unit was called the Department o f Far Eastern Lan
guages, and Serge Elisseff was appointed as its chairman. On February 9, 1937, George
Henry Chase, Ph. D., L.H.D., John E. Hudson, Professor o f Archaeology and Dean o f the
Graduate School o f Arts and Sciences, moved that the Faculty o f Arts and Sciences estab
lish a Division o f Far Eastern Languages beginning in 1938-1939. The motion was carried.
The Division o f Far Eastern Languages became the Department o f Far Eastern Languages
in 1939-1940 (Reischauer Institute 1996, p. 6-8, 58-59).
S. Elisseff expected that he would stay at Harvard for five years only. For some time he
did not even retire from the position o f Professor o f the Practical School o f the Higher Studies.
However, the war began in Europe in 1939. So the scholar stayed in the US. Later, when the
war was over, he had to stay until American retirement as he could not retire in France.
In the 1942-1943 school year, S. Elisseff got an Honorary Master degree, most proba
bly, because he was not a student o f an American university. In 1946, the scholar was ap
pointed Director o f the American Institute for Asiatic Studies in Peking that was previously
called the Sino-Indian Institute established by A. Stal-Holstein (H-YI archives. MTp, November 14, 1946,1. 269).

In September 1948, Elisseff was elected an honorary member o f the French School o f
the Far East in Indochina (HU archives. UA V 382.95.1).
He was a member o f the American Academy o f Sciences and Literature, the ChineseJapanese Society o f the USA and a chairman o f the American Oriental Society in 1954
1955.
During the War, the Institute and the Harvard University took an active part in the US
military programs. S. Elisseff and E.O. Reischauer conducted intensive Japanese courses
to prepare linguists for the US Navy. Besides, beginning from 1943, S. Elisseff taught five
days a week from 8 to 9 under the Army School Training Program and went to Washing
ton every Saturday as a consultant to the Office o f Strategic Services. In September, 1944,
the Army asked the University to organize a special course for the Civil Army Training
School, which, although called Far Eastern, in reality dealt only with Japan. The teaching
material furnished by the Army was found entirely unsatisfactory and it was necessary to
prepare new material. Because o f this new program, the Director resigned from his consul
tation work in Washington (H-YI archives. MTp, November 13, 1944,1. 195-196).
The ordinary program o f teaching during the war also changed. As to the urgent neces
sity o f preparing an adequate number o f specialists in the Japanese language as quickly as
possible, a summer term was added to the school year that lasted 12 weeks beginning from
the middle o f June up to middle o f September. Courses were more intensive and additional
lectures and seminars were included. Summer term, although o f 12 weeks, shall constitute
a regular term with the same quality and amount o f work each course has in fall or spring
term (HU archives. UA V 344). Later the University reverted to the normal two-terms
schedule.
Beginning from the 1890s up to 1930-1931, there were only 61 students o f the Japanese
disciplines; during five years in 1931-1935 there were 36 students already; in 1936-1940,
there were 132 people; in 1941-1945, 237 students; in 1946-1950, 442 people; in 1951
1955, 401 students; and in 1956-1960, 627 students (Reischauer Institute, 1996, p. 24).
During his work at Harvard, S. Elisseff prepared a series o f Japanese textbooks and col
lections o f Japanese texts for students o f different levels. His pupil E.O. Reischauer often
was his coauthor. The Japanese textbook for the beginners was published in 1941 and then
it was reprinted numerously.1
The reader in literature and history was prepared for those studying the Japanese language.2
The annotated bibliography on Japanology in main Western languages made by Elisseff
with two pupils must also be noted.3
In 1947, Serge Elisseff, together with the Professors E.O. Reischauer and F.W. Cleaves,
prepared a memorandum titled The Asian Studies at Harvard where he showed his own
attention to this problem. This document, sent to the Dean o f the Arts and Science Faculty
P. Buck, demonstrated Serge Elisseff s talent as an administrator and an organizer o f sci
ence and teaching process.
Elisseff wrote that, after the war, the interest in the Asian countries became much
greater, so new priorities had to be set. He considered the confrontation between the USA
1 Elementary Japanese fo r University Students, Vocabularies, Grammar and Notes. Compiled by S. Elisseff,
E.O. Reischauer. Cambridge (Mass.), 1941. Reprinted in two parts in 1942 and in three parts in 1944: Elementary
Japanese for College Students (together with Takehiko Yoshihashi).
2 Selected Japanese Texts fo r University Students. Vol. I, II. Compiled by Elisseff S., Reischauer E.O. Cam
bridge (Mass.), 1942. Reprinted in 1947-1948 in three parts.
3 A Selected List o f Books and Articles on Japan in English, French and German. Compiled by Borton H.,
Elisseff'S., Reischauer E.O. Washington, 1940.

173

174

and the USSR to be the main one. The US saw only the European part o f the USSR and did
not consider the industrialized Siberia. In Asia, they were also interested only in China and
Japan not paying attention to the other countries that stretched, via Central Asia, from Ko
rea to Turkey. We tend to see the Soviet Union only as a European power, not as a grow
ing Asiatic power with an industrialized Siberia as its focal point. We see Asia as a series of
separated lands beyond great distances o f ocean from the United States, not as a single So
viet borderland, far larger and far more populous than the other borderland, in Europe. This
great Asiatic borderland consists o f a lightly populated zone o f immediate contact, beyond
which lie the great Asiatic centers o f population and culture. In the center o f the contact
zone lives a large block o f Turkish-speaking Moslems in Russian and Chinese Turkestan,
flanked on the west by the Iranians o f Afghanistan and Persia and the Turks o f the Turkey,
and on the east by the Mongols o f Inner and Outer Mongolia, the Chinese o f Manchuria,
and the Koreans. The great lands which lie beyond are China, Japan, a newly independent
India, and the Arabic world o f the Near East. A central factor in the future o f the Asiatic
half o f the world is the relationship between these lands and the Soviet Union (HU ar
chives. UA 111 50.8.11.3. L. 3).
S.
Elisseff proposed to make a teaching program for the Mongolian, Turkish, Persian,
Arabic languages which could be taught at the Department o f Far Eastern Languages, as
there were young scholars at Harvard who specialized in languages and cultures o f many
Asian countries. He also considered it necessary to concentrate not only on the languages,
history and culture as was traditional but also on the economy and politics o f the stud
ied countries.
The scholar noted three drawbacks in Asian studies at Harvard. First was the absence o f
a general course o f Chinese literature. One unfortunate gap in our Chinese studies is the
lack o f a general course in Chinese literature, which is made all the worse by a similar lack
in most other American institutions offering instruction in the Chinese field. One o f the
present members o f the Department o f Far Eastern Languages might be able to offer a
course in Chinese literature, but not without a lightening o f the teaching load, which under
present conditions is impossible. It would, therefore, be advisable, in selecting a part time
replacement for Professor Cleaves in the Chinese field, to choose a person who would be
well qualified to offer a basic course in Chinese literature in addition to language instruc
tion (Op. cit., L. 7).
Second was the absence o f a course o f Asian philosophy, though philosophy was one o f
the main disciplines in the study o f any civilization. It would seem highly desirable that a
man be added in the Philosophy Department who would be a specialist in Asiatic philoso
phy, having both a sound philosophic training and a good knowledge o f at least one o f the
major Asiatic languages. In view o f our concentration in the Chinese field, it would be de
sirable that his special field be Chinese philosophy, possibly Confucianism, and that he
know Chinese and perhaps Japanese also (Op. cit., L. 7-8).
A third deficiency in Asiatic studies at Harvard was in the field o f Indian studies. Al
though new relations were established between the USA and the independent India, Indian
studies in the USA did not increase. Only ancient philosophy, ancient languages and litera
ture were read. Ancient languages, philosophy and art o f India were also taught at Harvard
but if Indian studies are to make their proper contribution to the Asiatic field at Harvard,
further personnel should be added to the faculty to teach the modern languages, the history
and the political, economic and social structure o f India (Op. cit., L. 8).
This document evidently had a great resonance at Harvard. The Mongolian language was
taught in the 1950-1951 school year as well as Chinese and Japanese. The Korean language
was added to them in 1954-1955 and Tibetan, in the end o f the 1950s.

From the beginning o f the 1950s, the Christian colleges had certain difficulties because
o f the political changes in China. The ideology inevitable under a totalitarian regime started
interfering in teaching programs and thus presented a great threat. But the situation has not
reached the critical level when academic freedom became restricted. More and more grants
to the educational institutions were needed in these circumstances to assure their financial
independence (H-YI archives. MTp, April 17, 1950,1. 406-407).
In 1951, the situation in China became much worse. Essential changes in teaching plans
and programs o f the subsidized universities were made, the courses on history and literature
o f China were given from Marxist positions. Nationalization o f the educational institutions
led in the early 1950s to complete governmental control o f their financial and teaching ac
tivities.
The United Board o f the Christian universities and colleges together with the Board o f
Trustees o f the Harvard-Yenching Institute came to the conclusion that, as the political
situation was not going to change in the nearest future, further subsidizing o f these educa
tional institutions was undesirable. Six universities, namely Yenching University, West
China Union University, University o f Nanking, Fukien Christian University and Shantung
Christian University (all o f which, although originally separate charitable corporations o f
New York and Canada, have, since 1945, been consolidated into the United Board) and
Lingnan University, a New York corporation, were made as beneficiaries o f income
charges upon the Restricted Funds o f this Institute under the provisions o f a decree... Since
December, 1950, the corporations have not been able to use any new income from the Re
stricted Funds for maintenance o f their educational programs in China, the primary purpose
prescribed by the Institute (H-YI archives. MTp, November 5, 1951,1. 118, 122-124).
The decision was made to relocate the activities o f the Harvard-Yenching Institute to In
dia, Japan and Korea. Serge Elisseff had to investigate the situation in Japan. He suggested
establishing a small teaching centre on the Far East in one o f the Christian universities in
Japan so as to work with Chinese, Japanese and Korean students.
In 1953, the Americans finally determined whom they would work with in the Asian
countries. The educational institutions were as follows: Japan International Christian Uni
versity (Tokyo), Tokyo Womans Christian College, Toyo Bunko (Tokyo), Doshisha Uni
versity (Kyoto), Research Institute o f Humanistic Sciences (Oriental Section) (Kyoto),
Hong Kong University (Research Section o f the Institute o f Oriental Studies), Yunchi
(Chosun) Christian university in Korea (H-YI archives. MTp, April 27, 1953,1. 207-208).
In spring 1955, S. Elisseff stayed in Japan and Korea for two months. The purpose o f
his trip was to visit educational institutions that received grants from the Institute, to organ
ize the publication o f the library catalogues in these institutions, etc. (H-YI archives. MTp,
November 8, 1954,1.359).
In Japan, Serge Elisseff read lectures and often met with his friend, the Russian Japa
nologist Orest Pletner (O.V. Pletners letter to N.I. Konrad o f June 1958).
In 1955, Serge Elisseff was 66 (the age o f retirement in the USA) but his perfect intel
lectual and physical form and also his great achievements at Harvard let him stay at his job
somewhat longer. In August 1956, Elisseff retired from the post o f Director o f the Har
vard-Yenching Institute but stayed to teach at Harvard University until the end o f the aca
demic year. After his retirement in June 1957, Elisseff with his spouse returned to France.
They continued to be French citizens till the end o f their lives.
The pupils o f Serge Elisseff at Harvard characterized him as a person o f wit, mild and
delicate, having a good sense o f humor and warmth, a man with unflagging energy. His
first pupil E.O. Reischauer called his teacher The father o f the American Japanology and
the founder o f the American Far Eastern studies in general.

175

Abbreviations
HU archives Harvard University archives
H-YI archives the Harvard-Yenching Institute archives
MTp Meeting of the Trustees protocol
RAS archives the Russian Academy o f Sciences archives

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O.V. Pletners letter to N.I. Konrad of June 1958. In: Arhiv Rossijskoj Akademii Nauk (RAS ar
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Diakonova E.M. The Letters of S.G. Elisseff to V.M. Alexeiev. In: S.G. Elisseff and the World
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