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NTY315DX

Nortel Networks

OPTera Long Haul 1600


Optical Line System
1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications
Guide
Standard Rel 3 Issue 2 October 2000

Whats inside...
Introduction
Optical layer building blocks
Optical link engineering rules
Application-independent optical link engineering rules
Optical layer components specifications
Appendix A: Description of commercially available optical fiber types
Appendix B: Overview of fiber-optic fundamentals
Appendix C: 1600G Amplifier power specifications
Appendix D: External tap couplers

*A0810309*

Copyright 2000 Nortel Networks, All Rights Reserved.


The information contained herein is the property of Nortel Networks and is strictly confidential. Except as expressly authorized in
writing by Nortel Networks, the holder shall keep all information contained herein confidential, shall disclose it only to its employees
with a need to know, and shall protect it, in whole or in part, from disclosure and dissemination to third parties with the same degree
of care it uses to protect its own confidential information, but with no less than reasonable care. Except as expressly authorized in
writing by Nortel Networks, the holder is granted no rights to use the information contained herein.
*Nortel Networks, the Nortel Networks logo, the Globemark, How the World Shares Ideas, S/DMS TransportNode, OPTera,
Preside, and Unified Networks are trademarks of Nortel Networks.
TrueWave is a registered trademark of Lucent Technologies Inc.
LEAF is a registered trademark of Corning Incorporated.
SMF-LS and SMF-28 are trademarks of Corning Incorporated.

Printed in Canada and in the United Kingdom

iii

Publication history

October 2000
Issue 2 of the 1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide introduces
link engineering rules for TrueWave Plus, LS, and TrueWave RS fiber. It
also provides additional information on power specifications and 1600G
amplifiers equipped with external tap couplers.
July 2000
The first issue of the 1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide.

1600G Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

iv Publication history

1600G Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

Contents

About this document


Introduction

ix
1-1

Chapter overview 1-1


Describing and understanding optical networks 1-1
OPTera Long Haul 1600 technologies for optical layer solutions 1-3
DWDM transmitters and wavelength translators with tightly controlled
wavelengths 1-3
Multiwavelength optical signal amplifiers and integrated components, 1600G
Amplifiers 1-3
OPTera Long Haul 1600 DWDM couplers 1-3
OPTera Long Haul 1600 OADM couplers 1-3
Dispersion compensating modules (DCM) 1-3
Dispersion slope compensating modules (DSCM) 1-3

Optical layer building blocks

2-1

Optical layer functional building blocks 2-1


Link Models 2-1
Configuration overview 2-3
Standard configurations building blocks 2-3
Special configuration building blocks 2-6
1600G amplifier group description 2-6
1600G Amplifier building block components 2-7
Wavelength capacity 2-7
Mid-stage access (MSA) rules 2-7
Padding rules 2-8
Usage with 1480/1510 nm OSCs or 1510/1615 nm OSCs 2-8
Unused ports 2-8
Mux/Demux building blocks 2-9
Configuration description 2-10
Mux/Demux building blocks components 2-11
Wavelength capacity 2-11
Spare wavelengths 2-11
Module deployment 2-11
Unused ports 2-12

Optical link engineering rules

3-1

Link engineering rules for OPTera Long Haul 1600 C-Band unidirectional

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

vi Contents
applications 3-3
Deployment considerations for OPTera Long Haul 1600 optical layer applications 3-4
Optical link engineering procedure 3-5
Optical link budgets and span loss rules 3-5
Span loss rules and guidelines 3-7
Derating example 3-10
Padding rules 3-11
Optical patch panel rule 3-11
Optical link transmission performance guarantee 3-12
OPTera Long Haul 1600 C-Band unidirectional applications on NDSF fiber
multiplexing 10 Gbit/s channels 3-13
OPTera Long Haul 1600 C-Band unidirectional applications on TrueWave Classic
fiber multiplexing 10 Gbit/s channels 3-25
OPTera Long Haul 1600 C-Band unidirectional applications on E-LEAF fiber
multiplexing 10-Gbit/s channels 3-30
OPTera Long Haul 1600 C-Band unidirectional applications on TrueWave Plus
fiber multiplexing 10-Gbit/s channels 3-35
OPTera Long Haul 1600 C-Band unidirectional applications on SMF-LS fiber
multiplexing 10-Gbit/s channels 3-40
OPTera Long Haul 1600 C-Band unidirectional applications on TrueWave RS
fiber multiplexing 10-Gbit/s channels 3-45

Application-independent optical link engineering rules

4-1

Tx chirp adjustment for dispersion compensation 4-1


NLS dithering provisioning 4-1
OPTera Long Haul 1600 mid-stage access (MSA) loss restrictions 4-2
Polarization mode dispersion (PMD) consideration 4-4
Nortel Networks 100 GHz ITU-T compliant wavelength grid 4-5
Wavelength plans 4-6
OADM Applications 4-6

Optical layer components specifications

5-1

Fiber optic attenuators 5-17


Fixed attenuators 5-17
Specifications 5-17

Appendix A:
Description of commercially available optical fiber types

6-1

NDSF 6-1
DSF 6-1
NZ-DSF 6-2
LEAF and E-LEAF (LEAF with reduced dispersion slope) 6-2

Appendix B:
Overview of fiber-optic fundamentals
Effects in the optical fiber 7-1
Fiber effects affecting the energy of an optical pulse 7-2
Fiber effects affecting the shape of an optical pulse 7-4
Chromatic dispersion in DWDM systems 7-4

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

7-1

Contents vii
Chromatic dispersion compensation strategies 7-6
Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) 7-7
Self-Phase Modulation (SPM) and Cross-Phase Modulation (XPM) 7-7

Appendix C:
1600G Amplifier Power specifications

8-1

1600G EOL Power Mask Specifications 8-1


Optical power requirements 8-2

Appendix D:
External tap couplers

9-1

First generation of the 1600G C-band amplifier cards 9-1


Main function of the external tap couplers 9-1
Optical specifications of external tap couplers 9-3
Optical layer functional building blocks with external tap couplers 9-4
Building blocks for standard configurations with external tap couplers 9-4
Special configuration building blocks with external tap couplers 9-8

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

viii Contents

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

ix

About this document

This guide describes the DWDM system applications designed with 1600G
Amplifiers. This guide also provides planning, link engineering processes, and
component specifications for the OPTera Long Haul 1600 C-Band
Unidirectional Optical Systems. The Nortel Networks OPTera Long Haul
1600 Optical Line System (formerly OPTera LH) Release 3 with the OPTera
Long Haul 1600 optical amplifiers scales up to 40 in the C-Band. Future
releases will introduce amplification for the C- and L-Band wavelengths in
both unidirectional and bidirectional configurations.
This document contains the following chapters:

Chapter 1, Introduction
Provides an overview of the optical networks and how the OPTera Long
Haul 1600 technologies interoperate with other Nortel Networks
components to offer a generic optical layer solution.
Chapter 2, Optical layer building blocks
Provides a description of the functional building blocks required for
deploying all the OPTera Long Haul 1600 applications.
Chapter 3, Optical link engineering rules
Provides the optical link budgets and engineering rules required to deploy
1600G Amplifier DWDM systems.
Chapter 4, Application-independent optical link engineering rules
Provides additional rules for Tx Chirp Adjustment, Mid-Stage Access
Loss Restrictions, polarization mode dispersion (PMD) consideration and
Wavelength Plans.
Chapter 5, Optical layer components specifications
Describes the optical building block components specifications required to
deploy the OPTera Long Haul 1600 applications.
Appendix A: Description of commercially available optical fiber types
Provides description of the major fiber types that are commercially
available today (NDSF, DSF, NZ-DSF, LEAF and E-LEAF)

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

x About this document

Appendix B: Overview of fiber-optic fundamentals


Presents the fiber effects affecting the energy or shape of an optical pulse.
It also explains chromatic dispersion, polarization mode dispersion
(PMD), self-phase modulation (SPM) and cross-phase modulation (XPM
or CPM), four-wave mixing (FWM), modulation instability (MI) impact in
DWDM systems.
Appendix C: 1600G Amplifier power specifications
Provides power mask specifications for the 1600G amplifiers. It also
includes the power requirement figures used when you equalize the system
following a system line-up and test (SLAT) procedure, or after adding or
removing optical channels.
Appendix D: External tap couplers
Provides basic information about external tap couplers in specific OPTera
Long Haul 1600 amplifier configurations.

Audience
This document is for the following members of the operating company:
strategic and current network planners
provisioners
transmission standards engineers
network administrators

The OPTera Long Haul 1600 Amplifier Library


The 1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Application Guide is part of the 1600G
Amplifier documentation library. This library consists of NTPs and Planning
Guides. The NTPs contain procedural information that explain how to perform
specific tasks. The Planning Guides contain contextual information to help you
understand why you perform those procedures.
The Planning Guides complement the NTPs by providing the technical
background on issues related to planning, installing, provisioning and
maintaining your optical network. The figure on the following page represents
the relationship between the Planning Guides and the NTPs of the 1600G
Amplifier documentation library.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

About this document xi


OTP1468p.eps

OPTera Long Haul 1600 Optical Line System


Network Application Libraries

Repeater
Library

1600G Amplifier
Library

Combiner
Library

Engineering Guides
323-1808-1xx
NTPs

Maintenance
Guides
323-1801-5xx

Planning
Guides

1600G Amplifier
Network
PEC: NTY314AX
Application
New Product features
Guide
Positioning the 1600G amplifier
1600G amplifier application
Transmission and topologies
Amplifier building blocks
DWDM building blocks
Shelf configurations and bay footprint
Ordering information
Engineering documentation
Technical support and information
Power requirements
External tap couplers
Control shelf configurations

1600G Amplifier
Optical Layer
Application
Guide

PEC: NTY315DX
Optical layer building blocks
Link engineering rules
Application-independent link
engineering rules
Optical layer components
specifications
Optical fiber types
Fiber-optic fundamentals

Installation,
Commissioning,
and Testing Guides
323-1801-3xx
Operations,
Administration, and
Provisioning Guides
323-1801-3xx

PEC: NTY313GC
1600G OADM general
guidelines
Optical Add/Drop

OADM
fiber routing
Multiplexer User
Connecting and site testing
Guide
topology 1/2 amplifiers with
OADM in Direction 1
Connecting and site testing
topology 1/2 amplifiers with
OADM in Direction 2
Completing connections at
an OADM site
Coupler specifications and
ordering information

1600G Amplifier
OAM&P Guide

PEC: NTY317DX
Logical, physical and
software views of Amplifier
Provisioning and facility
management
Optical layer alarms
Level 2 routing

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

xii About this document

References
This document refers to the following documents:
1600G Amplifier Network Application Guide (NTY314AX)
OPTera Long Haul 1600 Release 3 NTP Library (NTCA65EC)

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

1-1

Introduction

1-

Chapter overview
The following sections provide an overview of optical networks including:
Describing and understanding optical networks on page 1-1
OPTera Long Haul 1600 technologies for optical layer solutions on page
1-3

Describing and understanding optical networks


A transport network can be split into two primary layers (see Figure 1-1):
a data layer (SONET, SDH, IP, ...) consisting of line, section, or path
terminating equipment
an optical or photonic layer, optical throughways where data payloads are
transported
The optical layer can be divided further into four sublayers:
optical components
functional building blocks
optical spans
optical links
Optical components are the physical boxes that perform core optical functions,
both active and passive, and include such devices as:
optical amplifiers such as erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA)
wavelength multiplexing/demultiplexing couplers
wavelength add/drop couplers
dispersion and dispersion slope compensating modules (DCM/DSCM)
These optical components, in turn, can be combined in a variety of ways to
form functional building blocks. For example, optical amplifiers and add/drop
couplers can be combined to form an add/drop multiplexing site.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

1-2 Introduction

A functional building block is associated with a specific geographic site. An


optical span is created when two functional building block sites are
interconnected with an optical fiber plant. Optical spans require amplification
of incoming and outgoing wavelength signals to compensate for loss.
Several spans combined together form an optical link, the boundaries of which
are defined by the data network element interfaces, specifically the
transmitters and receivers. The optical link can contain several DWDM
wavelength channels or signals. Two counterpropagating channels are required
to form a single bidirectional data transmission channel.
The optical layer of a transport system is the combination of all the optical
links.
Figure 1-1
Data and optical layers of transport network
F4716-MOR_R80.eps

STE's

Open Architecture
Interfaces

SONET/SDH
LTE's
SONET/
SDH/
IP/
ATM

LTE/ADM

Optical
link

OPTICAL
LAYER

Optical link

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical amplifier
(uni or bidirectional)

Optical terminating site


(optic - electric &
electro-optical conversion)

Introduction 1-3

OPTera Long Haul 1600 technologies for optical layer solutions


A generic optical layer solution contains a number of key technology
components that set it apart from a traditional SONET/SDH network. For
optical layer applications with a spacing of 100 GHz between the optical
channels, Nortel Networks provides the following:
DWDM transmitters and wavelength translators with tightly controlled
wavelengths
Nortel Networks offers DWDM transmitters at 10-Gbit/s line rates for a
maximum of 40 wavelengths (unidirectional), with bidirectional applications
planned for the future.
Multiwavelength optical signal amplifiers and integrated components,
1600G Amplifiers
1600G Amplifiers can amplify a maximum of 160 wavelengths. The 1600G
Amplifier is the baseline amplifier for 160 applications and provides a
mid-stage access functionality where you can insert components such as
DCMs/DSCMs or optical add/drop multiplexer (OADM) couplers, improving
deployment flexibility.
OPTera Long Haul 1600 DWDM couplers
DWDM couplers multiplex and demultiplex optical channels in and out of a
single fiber. These couplers consist of passive filters that are packaged as
stand-alone optical components, with one port for each DWDM channel and a
common port which connects to the fiber plant. Monitoring taps, variable
optical attenuators for received power adjustment, and expansion ports for
upgrades are also included.
OPTera Long Haul 1600 OADM couplers
OPTera Long Haul 1600 OADM couplers selectively add and drop DWDM
channels at a site while passing through other channels in the optical link. Such
configurations improve connectivity and flexibility, and offer services such as
wavelength leasing. OPTera Long Haul 1600 OADM deployment rules are
under development.
Dispersion compensating modules (DCM)
DCMs are used to counter chromatic dispersion in long haul transmission
systems. DCMs contain dispersion compensating fiber that apply a predefined
level of dispersion to reconstruct (compress) the optical pulses. Optical pulses
need to be reconstructed after they have spread out over a given length of fiber.
Dispersion slope compensating modules (DSCM)
A second type of dispersion compensation modules is used in OPTera Long
Haul 1600 applications, namely the Dispersion Slope Compensating Module
(DSCM).

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

1-4 Introduction

Each channel experiences a different amount of dispersion in the transmission


fibre. The DCMs provide an appropriate amount of compensation for a single
channel. With the MOR Plus, the RED and BLUE Erbium bands were narrow
enough that the difference in dispersion experienced by each channel in a given
band was small. The Erbium gain windows used by OPTera Long Haul 1600
are about 2.5 times larger than MOR Plus therefore optimizing the dispersion
compensation for a subset of wavelength in the band is not appropriate.
DSCMs address this issue by providing a wavelength dependent amount of
dispersion compensation.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

2-1

Optical layer building blocks

2-

This chapter describes the Nortel Networks optical layer solution for transport
networks. It provides a description of the functional building blocks required
for deploying all the applications described in this applications guide.

Optical layer functional building blocks


You can combine the components of the optical layer in several ways to make
a variety of optical link applications. To facilitate the planning process, Nortel
Networks has defined building blocks which you can combine using
engineering rules to create the required applications.
The building blocks in this applications guide consist of OPTera Long Haul
1600 DWDM components. These components are used to create a 100 GHz
spaced system with the 1600G Amplifiers. Currently, OPTera Long Haul 1600
C-Band unidirectional applications support a maximum of 40 wavelengths.

Link models
In OPTera Long Haul 1600 line applications, Terminal sites are designated as
Term1 or Term2, and Line Amplifier Sites are designated as LA1, LA2, LA3,
LA4 or LA5. Refer to Figure 2-1 for a better understanding of the OPTera
Long Haul 1600 naming conventions used to identify the terminal amplifier
sites and the line amplifier sites.
In all the link budgets rules, LA1 is the first line site nearest to the transmitter.
With the DCMs/DSCMs deployment rule, note that LA1 in one direction does
not correspond LA1 in the opposite direction. The same principle also applies
to the other LA sites.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

2-2 Optical layer building blocks


Figure 2-1
4-span unidirectional link
OTP1128.eps

Mux

Tx

Demux

Direction 1

LA1

LA2

LA3

Rx

Term1, Rx

Term2, Rx

Mux

Demux

Term1, Tx

LA3

LA2

Direction 2
Legend
- 1600G Amplifier - unidirectional

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

LA1

Rx

Term2, Tx

Tx

Optical layer building blocks 2-3

Configuration overview
This section describes, at the functional level, the key attributes and the various
configurations for the OPTera Long Haul 1600 based building blocks. These
building blocks are divided into three categories:
Standard configurations building blocks
Special configuration building blocks
Mux/Demux building blocks

Standard configurations building blocks


This section provides specific descriptions of all amplifier sites used in
OPTera Long Haul 1600 C-Band unidirectional applications.
Figure 2-2 shows the Tx-end amplifier site, commonly called Term1. In
addition to Term1, Figure 2-3 also shows one amplifier in the link. This
amplifier is designated as a line amplifier site, commonly known as an LA.
Figure 2-4 shows the Rx-end amplifier site, commonly called Term2.
Figure 2-2
Term1 site configuration
OTP1633p.eps

MSA 1AB
Dual Amp

Common
Tx Pad

Booster Amp

Mux

1A

1B

IN-1
Direction 2

Span
Pad

OUT-1

Booster Amp

MSA
Pad

Demux

OUT-2
2B

Direction 1
UPB

2A
IN-2
UPA-2

MSA
Pad
MSA 2AB

- WDM Coupler
- Faceplate connector
- EDFA
- Circulator
- Pad
- Internal Tap Coupler

OSC1
ADD

OSC1

Legend

OSC2

UniOSC

OSC1
DROP

Note: MSA is mid-stage access for the DCM/DSCM

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

2-4 Optical layer building blocks


Figure 2-3
LA site configuration
OTP1637p.eps

MSA 1AB
Dual Amp

Booster Amp

UPA-1
IN
IN-1

1A

1B
OUT-1
MSA
Pad

Booster Amp
Direction 2 OUT

IN

OUT-2

2B
Span
Pad
UPB

Direction 1
OUT
Span
Pad
UPB

2A
IN-2
UPA-2

MSA
Pad
MSA 2AB

Legend
- WDM Coupler
- Faceplate connector
- EDFA
- Circulator
- Pad
- Internal Tap Coupler

OSC2
ADD

OSC1
ADD

OSC1

UniOSC
OSC2

OSC2
DROP

OSC1
DROP

Note: MSA is mid-stage access for the DCM/DSCM and/or the OADM filter

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical layer building blocks 2-5


Figure 2-4
Term2 site configuration
OTP1635p.eps

Booster Amp

1A
MSA
Pad

Booster Amp
2B

Span
Pad

Mux

Direction 2

1B

Direction 1

Demux

MSA 1AB
Dual Amp

2A
Common
Tx Pad

MSA
Pad
MSA 2AB

Legend
- WDM Coupler
- Faceplate connector
- EDFA
- Circulator
- Pad
- Internal Tap Coupler

OSC1

Uni OSC
OSC2

OSC2
DROP

OSC2
ADD

Note: MSA is mid-stage access for the DCM/DSCM

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

2-6 Optical layer building blocks

Special configuration building blocks


Figure 2-5 shows the special asymmetric configuration required at the Tx-end
terminal amplifier site used in some of the OPTera Long Haul 1600 C-Band
unidirectional applications. The special link engineering considerations
require signals to bypass the dual amplifier in the Tx direction at the head-end
Tx site.
Figure 2-5
Term1 site special configuration (dual amplifier bypass)
OTP1639p.eps

Mux

Common
Tx Pad
Dual Amp

Booster Amp 1B

Span
Pad

1B

1A

Direction 1
Direction 2

Booster Amp 2B

Demux

UPB
2B

2A
UPA-2
MSA
Pad
MSA 2AB
UniOSC

OSC1
ADD

OSC1

- WDM Coupler
- Faceplate connector
- EDFA
- Circulator
- Pad
- Internal Tap Coupler

OSC2

Legend

OSC1
DROP

Note: MSA is mid-stage access for the DCM/DSCM

1600G amplifier group description


The 1600G amplifier group, which includes the C-Band Dual-Amplifier and
Boosters 18 and 21, amplifies a maximum of 40 C-Band wavelengths in a
unidirectional DWDM link. Dispersion compensation is achieved by installing
DCMs/DSCMs in the mid-stage access (MSA) of the OPTera Long Haul 1600.
The Dual-Amplifier supports two independent amplifiers that are each
provisionable for a total output power of up to +15.5 dBm.
Booster18 can be provisioned to provide +18 dBm of output power. Booster21
can be provisioned to provide +21 dBm of output power.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical layer building blocks 2-7

Booster18 and Booster21 are amplifiers that consist of an input port, output
port, a coupler port, and an interleave port (circulator port) for bidirectional
configurations. The circulator port acts as an output isolator and an upgrade
port for interleaved filter-based amplifier topology. The interleave port will be
available in future releases where bidirectionality is supported.
The Line Amp Site is the only site which applies OADM support.
Tap couplers provide access to optical signals for the purpose of power
measurement and monitoring. While the current version of the C-Band Dual
Amplifier has a built-in internal tap coupler, earlier versions did not. If you
have an earlier version of the C-Band Dual Amplifier, you must use an
External Tap Coupler Assembly to gain access to optical signals for
monitoring.
ATTENTION
For 1600G amplifiers without internal tap couplers, please refer to OPTera
Long Haul 1600 External Tap Coupler Guide (NTY312GC).
1600G Amplifier building block components
The following components are used in specific amplifier sites:
C-Band Dual-Amplifier
C-Band Booster18/Booster21 amplifiers
Optical pads where applicable
Dispersion and dispersion slope compensating modules (DCM/DSCM)
UniOSC or BiOSC
C-Band Grid 1 Mux/Demux couplers (Terminal sites only)
OADM couplers (Line amplifier sites only)
Wavelength capacity
In a unidirectional application, the Dual Amplifier used with Booster18 can
support up to 20 C-Band wavelengths on one fiber.
In a unidirectional application, the Dual Amplifier used with Booster21 can
support up to 40 C-Band wavelengths on one fiber.
Mid-stage access (MSA) rules
To enhance optical networking, optical passive devices such as OADM and
DCMs/DSCMs are used in the mid-stage access. The optical loss in the
mid-stage access of the 1600G amplifiers must be kept close to 10 dB.
Therefore, the sum of the insertion loss of all the components inserted in the
mid-stage (DCMs/DSCMs and optical pads) must be as close as possible to 10
dB, unless specified otherwise.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

2-8 Optical layer building blocks

Padding rules
Common padding is used at Tx, MSA, and span (link) side. The intent of the
rules is to deploy common pads for all wavelength counts. This way, there is
no need to change pads as channels are added.
The Common Tx Pad must be placed between the output of Mux and the input
to the first in-service amplifier (FISA). MSA pads must be placed between
Dual-Amp and DCM/DSCM if there is a DCM/DSCM present. Span pads
must be placed after the Booster output. Refer to Figure 2-2, Figure 2-3, Figure
2-4, and Figure 2-5.
Usage with 1480/1510 nm OSCs or 1510/1615 nm OSCs
Nortel Networks offers two types of OSC circuit packs: a unidirectional and
bidirectional OSC. Use the UniOSC 1480/1510 nm only in a unidirectional
network. If there are plans to migrate from a unidirectional network to a
bidirectional network, then use the BiOSC 1480/1510 nm circuit pack.
Note: Nortel Networks has introduced a new OSC which uses
wavelengths 1510/1615 nm.
Note: Link budgets for unidirectional and bidirectional implementations
of OPTera Long Haul 1600 are different. If you plan to transition a network
from a unidirectional to bidirectional implementation, contact Nortel
Networks for detailed guidelines.
Unused ports
Amplifier unused ports

Do not terminate the unused ports of the Dual Amp and Booster. The unused
ports of the Dual Amp are labelled UPB-1 and UPB-2. The unused ports of the
Booster are labelled UPB and INTLV.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical layer building blocks 2-9

Mux/Demux building blocks


This section provides specific descriptions for Mux/Demux modules used in
OPTera Long Haul 1600 C-Band unidirectional applications. Figure 2-6 and
Figure 2-7 show Mux/Demux architectures.
Figure 2-6
Mux modules architecture
OTP0828.eps

To 1600G Amplifier

Common Port
Monitor Port (Tx)
Module 1

Spare
Wavelength
Port

Tx
1546.12 through 1554.13

Module 3

Module 2

Tx
1538.19 through 1545.32

Module 4

Tx
1554.94 through 1562.23

Note: A and B are external patchcords.

Tx
1530.33 through 1537.40

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

2-10 Optical layer building blocks


Figure 2-7
Demux modules architecture
OTP0829.eps

To 1600G Amplifier
Common Port
Monitor Port (Rx)
Module 1

Spare
Wavelength
Port

Rx
1546.12 through 1554.13
A

Module 3

Module 2

Rx
1538.19 through 1545.32
A

Rx
1554.94 through 1562.23

Module 4

Note: A and B are external patchcords.

Rx
1530.33 through 1537.40

Configuration description
The Mux modules multiplex a maximum of 40 wavelengths onto a single fiber.
The Demux modules demultiplex a maximum of 40 wavelengths from a single
fiber.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical layer building blocks 2-11

Mux/Demux building blocks components


The following components are currently used in specific Mux/Demux
configurations:
Grid 1:
Module 1 (1546.92 nm to 1554.13 nm, Spare: 1546.12 nm)
Module 2 (1554.94 nm to 1562.23 nm)
Module 3 (1538.19 nm to 1545.32 nm)
Module 4 (1530.33 nm to 1537.40 nm)

Grid 2:
Module 1 (1547.32 nm to 1554.54 nm, Spare: 1546.52 nm)
Module 2 (1555.34 nm to 1562.64 nm)
Module 3 (1538.58 nm to 1545.72 nm)
Module 4 (1530.72 nm to 1537.79 nm)

Wavelength capacity
Up to four modules (mux/demux) are interconnected in cascade to support up
to 40 C-Band wavelengths, plus 1 optional spare, in each wavelength grid.
Each module carries 10 C-Band wavelengths except for the first module that
contains the spare wavelength.
Spare wavelengths
One spare wavelength, 1546.12 nm Grid 1 or 1546.52 nm Grid 2, can be added
or extracted from the fiber using the DWDM baseline coupler.
Module deployment
In a typical unidirectional application, the Mux and Demux is based on the
same grid. This means that when starting to deploy Grid 1, you have to
continue deploying Grid 1 until all its capacity is exhausted for all fiber types.
If you intend to migrate a unidirectional application to a bidirectional
application at a later date, you must use Grid 1 on one direction, and Grid 2 on
the counterpropagating direction.
Note: Link budgets for unidirectional and bidirectional implementations
of OPTera Long Haul 1600 are different. If you plan to transition a network
from a unidirectional to bidirectional implementation, contact Nortel
Networks for detailed guidelines.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

2-12 Optical layer building blocks

Unused ports
All unused upgrade ports of Mux modules must be terminated with
low-reflection terminators. Terminate all ports of the Demux modules with
low-reflection terminators.
The upgrade ports of Mux Module 1 are:
Upgrade A from Module 2
Upgrade B from Module 2
Upgrade A from Module 3
Upgrade B from Module 3
The upgrade ports of Demux Module 1 are:
Upgrade A to Module 2

Upgrade B to Module 2
Upgrade A to Module 3
Upgrade B to Module 3

The upgrade ports of Mux Module 3 are:


Upgrade A from Module 4
Upgrade B from Module 4
The upgrade ports of Demux Module 3 are:
Upgrade A to Module 4
Upgrade B to Module 4

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

3-1

Optical link engineering rules

3-

This chapter provides the optical link budgets and engineering rules required
to deploy 1600G amplifiers DWDM systems. Table 3-1 provides the steps to
follow when using this guide to design the links. This chapter includes the
following sections:
optical link engineering procedure
optical link transmission performance guarantee
link engineering rules
ATTENTION
For all optical link budgets for the OPTera Long Haul 1600 systems, the
specified bit error rate (BER of 10-15) is guaranteed for the projected
end-of-life (EOL) target of 10 years with single Forward Error Correction
(FEC) turned on.
For all WT applications which presently do not support FEC feature, contact
Nortel Networks.
ATTENTION
Link budgets for unidirectional and bidirectional implementations of OPTera
Long Haul 1600 are different. If you plan to transition a network from a
unidirectional to bidirectional implementation, contact Nortel Networks for
detailed guidelines.
ATTENTION
Optical links deployed on a mix of fiber types are not supported in the rules
provided in this applications guide. For more information, contact Nortel
Networks.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

3-2 Optical link engineering rules

ATTENTION
For the 10 Gbit/s system link budgets, the numbers given in this chapter for
maximum allowed span loss take into account the presence of an optical
patch panel that connects the OPTera Long Haul 1600 input/output port to the
line fiber. Read Optical patch panel rule on page 3-11 for more information
when designing systems with sites equipped with optical patch panels.
ATTENTION
The link engineering rules for 2.5 Gbit/s systems are not currently
documented. Contact Nortel Networks for more information.
Table 3-1
Link design steps
Step no. Action
1

Use Table 3-2 on page 3-3 to locate the engineering rules specific to the
deployed application on the selected fiber type, and read the
corresponding rules.
If the link engineering rules are not available, contact Nortel Networks.

Refer to Chapter 2, Optical layer building blocks for more information


about the building blocks for the system to be deployed. For detailed
information about the building block components, refer to Chapter 5,
Optical layer components specifications.

Use Chapter 3, Optical link engineering rules to design the optical link
properly. Proceed with the following steps:
Read Deployment considerations for OPTera Long Haul 1600 optical
layer applications on page 3-4 for an overview of the link engineering
process. Look at the link engineering process flow chart (Figure 3-1 on
page 3-6) to verify the required steps required to design of a DWDM
link.
Read the Application-independent optical link engineering rules on
page 4-1 for application type independent rules (Tx chirp, PMD and
MSA loss).
Check the appropriate wavelength plan required for the system by
reading Nortel Networks 100 GHz ITU-T compliant wavelength grid on
page 4-5.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical link engineering rules 3-3

Link engineering rules for OPTera Long Haul 1600 C-Band


unidirectional applications
Use Table 3-2 to find the page number of the unidirectional engineering rules
for each fiber type.
Table 3-2
Page location of the engineering rules
Fiber type

Line rate

Wavelength
capacity

Number of
spans

Supported
configuration

Page

NDSF

10 Gbit/s

1 to 40

1 to 6

Dual-Amplifier
and Booster21,
Dual-Amplifier
Bypass

page 3-13

TW Classic

10 Gbit/s

1 to 30

1 to 6

(see Note 2)

E-LEAF

10 Gbit/s

1 to 40

1 to 6

(see Note 2)

Dual-Amplifier
and Booster18
or
Dual-Amplifier
and Booster21
Dual-Amplifier
and Booster21,

(see Note 1)

page 3-25
(see Note 1)

page 3-30
(see Note 1)

Dual-Amplifier
Bypass
TW Plus

10 Gbit/s

1 to 40

1 to 6

(see Note 2)

Dual-Amplifier
and Booster21,

page 3-35

Dual-Amplifier
Bypass
(See Note 3)
LS

10 Gbit/s

1 to 20

1 to 6

Dual-Amplifier
and Booster18

page 3-40

TW RS

10 Gbit/s

1 to 40

1 to 6

Dual-Amplifier
and Booster21,

page 3-45

(see Note 2)

Dual-Amplifier
Bypass
Note 1: Read the attention messages on page 3-4
Note 2: Currently, 1 to 20 can be deployed with OPTera Long Haul 1600 Release 3.
Note 3: 6-span TW+ link requires the use of a Dual Amp and Booster 18 rather than the Dual Amp and
Booster 21 suggested.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

3-4 Optical link engineering rules

Deployment considerations for OPTera Long Haul 1600 optical layer


applications
The selection of an application and its corresponding link engineering rules
depends on the following factors:
the fiber plant on which the application is to be deployed
the maximum wavelength capacity the link is designed to support
the number of optical spans in the link and their loss profile
the total length of the link
OPTera Long Haul 1600 optical link currently supports up to 40 wavelengths
on a single fiber with 100 GHz spacing between the copropagating optical
channels. Future releases of OPTera Long Haul 1600 will support up to 160
wavelengths on a single fiber. However, to fully define an application, link
budgets and engineering rules are required.
Link budgets are in constant development, supporting new fiber types and
increasing the capacity of the systems. In the following sections, the statement
that a given combination of wavelength number and fiber type is not supported
might not mean that the hardware is not designed to meet the requirement, but
rather that the link budget and engineering rules for that specific application
have not been developed.
If specific information is required about an application type that does not have
link engineering rules for a given fiber and wavelength capacity scenario,
contact Nortel Networks.
For more information about how the characteristics of various optical fibers
affect the link budget and engineering rules, refer to Appendix B: Overview
of fiber-optic fundamentals.
ATTENTION
OPTera Long Haul 1600 OADM deployment rules are under development
and will be presented at a later date.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical link engineering rules 3-5

Optical link engineering procedure


Before you perform an optical link design, refer to the following requirements:
the span loss profile
Note: Measured data is recommended.

the span lengths in kilometers


Note: Measured data is recommended.

the chromatic and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) profile


Note: If required, Nortel Networks can provide engineering services for
performing and interpreting these measurements. Contact your Nortel
Networks sales representative for details.

Optical link budgets and span loss rules


To make network planning easier, special span loss rules and guidelines have
been developed to provide added flexibility in matching Nortel Networks link
budgets with field systems. The link budget tables detail loss in terms of a
maximum allowed loss per span. This loss is the typical acceptable maximum
loss per span for the link.
The design can exceed this span loss slightly on some of the spans if the
cumulative loss for the link (the sum of all the span losses) remains within a
predetermined range. The approach is to acquire unused marginal loss from
shorter spans and add it to the higher loss spans. A detailed interpretation of
the guidelines and rules follow. Figure 3-1 shows the link design procedure
flow chart.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

3-6 Optical link engineering rules


Figure 3-1
Link design procedure flow chart
OTP1155.eps

Is there a configuration
that supports this fiber
type for a particuliar
number of wavelengths
and determined number
of spans ?

No

Contact Nortel Networks


for more information

If required, add fixed


pads to get span
loss minimum required
Does any span
exceed maximum
allowed + 2 dB?

Calculate total link loss


(sum of span losses)
for the link

Is the link within the


supported window
of operation (km)?

No

No

Contact Nortel
Networks
for more information

Yes
Is total link loss >
No
(maximum allowed span
loss x number of spans)?
Yes

Yes

Does any span


exceed maximum
allowed + 1 dB?

Yes

Is the Total
Excess Loss
2 dB?

Yes

Derate the maximum span


loss by the amount
indicated in Table 3-4

Yes

Derate the maximum span


loss by the amount
indicated in Table 3-5

No

No

Is the Total
Excess Loss
3 dB?

Determine the
Excess Loss in
the link

Is the Total
Excess Loss
1 dB?

Determine the
Excess Loss in
the link

Yes
No derating required

Is total link loss >


(maximum derated
span loss x number
of spans)?

No

Yes

Yes Derate the maximum span


Is the Total
Excess Loss
loss by the amount
> 1 dB but 2 dB?
indicated in Table 3-3

No

No
Yes

Is total link loss >


(maximum derated span
loss x number of spans)?
No

Re-engineer the link

Determine the following:


1. Common Tx Pad
2. MSA Pad and DCMs/
DSCMs required and
their locations
3. Span Pad

Link design is complete

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Determine the following:


1. Common Tx Pad
2. MSA Pad and DCMs/
DSCMs required and
their locations
3. Span Pad

Link design is complete

Optical link engineering rules 3-7

Span loss rules and guidelines


Span loss assumption

The span losses listed in the link budget tables are specified from the output of
the Booster to the input of the Dual-Amplifier. They assume measured or
calculated losses between building blocks, including a 0.25 dB connector loss
at each amplifier. Additional loss must be added to the span as follows:

When using OPTera Long Haul 1600 C-Band unidirectional link


engineering rules for 10 Gbit/s, you can increase 1600G amplifier peak
power clamp (overlaunch) to compensate for fiber patch panel losses at the
head end of a span. See the Optical patch panel rule on page 3-11 for
more details.

Any losses related to splices or fiber distribution panels along the span
must be added to the calculated or measured fiber loss.
Figure 3-2 shows the span loss (Lspan) calculation zone where Lspan is the
sum of the fiber patch panel losses (Lopp) and the fiber loss (Lfiber). The value
of Lspan must be between 17 dB and the maximum allowed loss per span
(Lmax).
Figure 3-2
Span loss calculation
OTP1156.eps

Span loss (Lspan) Calculation Zone


optical
patch panel

Direction 1

optical
patch panel

to mux/demux
or MSA site

from mux/demux
or MSA site

Lopp

Lfiber
Lopp

Lspan = Lopp + Lfiber + Lopp


17 dB Lspan Lmax

Legend
1600G Amplifier

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

3-8 Optical link engineering rules


Total allowed link loss

The total allowed link loss is the sum of the maximum allowed span loss for
the candidate link.
Total link loss margin

The total link loss (the sum of all span losses for the candidate link) must be
between N x Lmin and N x Lmax, where N is number of spans, Lmax is the
maximum allowed loss per span provided in the link budget tables, and Lmin
is the minimum average loss per span.
Minimum allowable span loss

The minimum allowable loss per span is 17 dB unless otherwise indicated. If


a measured span loss is below this threshold, add fixed attenuation to achieve
the minimum requirement. Use this higher loss as your measured span loss.
Make sure that the fixed pads attenuate all wavelengths linearly and do not
introduce ripple.
Excess loss

The excess loss penalty is defined as a function of fiber type and span count.
The excess loss of each span is defined as the excess loss above Lmax (the
maximum allowed loss per span). For each span, note the amount of loss that
exceeds the maximum allowed span loss. Each of the obtained values
constitutes the per-span excess loss. See Link design procedure flow chart
on page 3-6 to follow the procedure for derating the link budgets for excess
loss when it applies. This procedure refers to Table 3-3, Table 3-4 and
Table 3-5. Please note that excess loss penalty rules are defined only for NDSF,
TWTM Classic, and E-LEAF fiber in this issue.
Maximum allowable per-span excess loss

The maximum allowable per-span excess loss is Lmax + i dB, where i is the
excess loss for span i (1 i n; n = total number of spans).
Total excess loss (EL)

The total excess loss (EL) is the sum of all per-span excess loss over the link.
n

EL = i , where n is the total number of spans.


i=1

Table 3-3, Table 3-4, and Table 3-5 provide the derating factor which needs to
be subtracted from the link budget given in this applications guide. These
derating factors are based on Lmax and EL.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical link engineering rules 3-9


Table 3-3
Per span excess loss 1 dB with total excess loss > 1 dB but 2 dB
Per fiber type derating values
Span Count

NDSF

TWTM Classic

E-LEAF

0 dB

0 dB

0 dB

0.5 dB

0 dB

0 dB

0 dB

0 dB

0 dB

0 dB

0 dB

0.5 dB

Table 3-4
Per span excess loss 2 dB with total excess loss 2 dB
Per fiber type derating values
Span Count

NDSF

TWTM Classic

E-LEAF

1 dB

0 dB

0.5 dB

0 dB

0.5 dB

0.5 dB

0.5 dB

0 dB

0.5 dB

0.5 dB

0 dB

0.5 dB

0.5 dB

0 dB

1 dB

Table 3-5
Per span excess loss 2 dB with total excess loss 3 dB
Per fiber type derating values
Span Count

NDSF

TWTM Classic

E-LEAF

0.5 dB

0.5 dB

1 dB

1.5 dB

0.5 dB

1 dB

1 dB

0 dB

1.5 dB

1 dB

0 dB

1.5 dB

PMD margin

Refer to Polarization mode dispersion (PMD) consideration on page 4-4 to


determine if the average loss per span must be derated.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

3-10 Optical link engineering rules

Derating example
Use the following example to understand the procedure for derating link
budgets when excess loss rules apply.
Link information:
Fiber type: 300 km of E-LEAF
Span 1: 98 km with a loss of 28.5 dB
Span 2: 100 km with a loss of 17 dB
Span 3: 102 km with a loss of 29 dB
Link budget for 3-span E-LEAF is 28 dB. The supported window for this
budget is between 253 km and 345 km as detailed in Table 3-14.
The allowable difference in span lengths for E-LEAF system is 28 km. The
difference in length between the minimum and maximum span length cannot
be greater than 28 km, otherwise an alternative DCM/DSCM strategy is
required. In this example, the minimum span length is 98 km and the
maximum span length is 102 km. 102 km - 98 km = 2 km which is lower than
28 km. Therefore, we can apply the DCM/DSCM strategy provided in Table
3-14.
Follow the flow chart on page 3-6 to find:
1 Is the total link loss greater than the maximum allowed span loss times the
number of spans?
No, because (28.5 dB + 17 dB + 29 dB = 74.5 dB) is not greater than
(3 28 dB = 84 dB).
2 Does any span exceed the maximum allowed by more than 1 dB?
Yes.
3 Does any span exceed the maximum allowed by more than 2 dB?
No.
4 Determine the total excess loss (EL).
Span 1: 28.5 dB Excess Loss of Span 1 = 1 = 0.5 dB
Span 2: 17 dB Excess Loss of Span 2 =2 = 0 dB
Span 3: 29 dB Excess Loss of Span 3 = 3 = 1 dB
EL = 1 + 2 + 3 =0.5 dB + 0 dB + 1 dB = 1.5 dB
5

Is EL lower or equal to 2 dB?


Yes. Then derate the maximum span loss by the amount indicated in Table
3-4. For a 3-span system on E-LEAF, Table 3-4 shows that the link budget
must be derated by 0.5 dB. This means that our new budget is:
New budget = 28 dB/span 0.5 dB/span = 27.5 dB/span

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical link engineering rules 3-11

Is the total link loss greater than the maximum derated span loss times the
number of spans?
No, because (28.5 dB + 17 dB + 29 dB = 74.5 dB) is not greater than
(3 27.5 dB = 82.5 dB).
Derating and Excess Loss Procedure completed.

Padding rules
Three types of pads are used in all OPTera Long Haul 1600 applications:
Common Tx pads, MSA pads and Span pads.
Common Tx pads

Common Transmitter (Tx) pads are attenuators placed at the head-end of the
optical link. The strategy is to use the same attenuators for all channel counts
supported by any application. The common Tx pad must be placed between the
output of the Mux coupler and the input of the first-in-service amplifier
(FISA), that is before the DCM/DSCM if there is a DCM/DSCM present. See
Figure 2-2, Figure 2-3, Figure 2-4, and Figure 2-5 for detailed placement of
Common Tx pads at Term1 and Term2 Amplifier sites.
MSA pads

MSA pads are attenuators placed in the OPTera Long Haul 1600 mid-stage
access (MSA). MSA pads must be placed immediately after the
Dual-Amplifier output, that is before the DCM/DSCM if there is a
DCM/DSCM present. See Figure 2-2, Figure 2-3, Figure 2-4, and Figure 2-5
for detailed placement of MSA pads at Term1, Term2 and Line Amplifier sites.
Span pads

Span pads are attenuators placed in line in order to bring the link attenuation
within the prescribed range. Span pads must be placed after the Booster output.
See Figure 2-2, Figure 2-5, and Figure 2-4 for detailed placement of MSA pads
at Term1, Term2 and Line Amplifier sites.

Optical patch panel rule


For the OPTera Long Haul 1600 C-Band unidirectional applications with
10 Gbit/s link budgets, provisioning rules are designed to compensate for the
patch panel loss at the head-end of the span, after the 1600G amplifier
configured as a post or MSA post-amplifier.
Compensating for the patch panel loss requires higher output power from the
amplifier. Therefore, if the patch panel is not installed at the head-end site, the
output power of the OPTera Long Haul 1600 must be reduced to eliminate
additional distortion penalties caused by channel powers being launched too
high directly into the line fiber. In addition, to meet the specified performance,
the maximum allowed span loss must be reduced by 0.5 dB if there is no
optical patch panel at either head end site. Equivalently, a 0.5 dB penalty can
be added to the measured span loss and the maximum allowed span loss given
in this guide can be used without modification.
1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

3-12 Optical link engineering rules

Optical link transmission performance guarantee


The transmission performance of S/DMS TransportNode 10 Gbit/s and
equivalent SDH systems for OPTera Long Haul 1600 C-Band unidirectional
applications is provided for worst-case end-of-life (EOL) parameters. EOL
parameters include system and equipment impairments caused by deployment,
aging, and temperature degradation over a 10-year period.
The link budgets provided are guaranteed for an EOL bit error rate (BER) of
10-15 on all DWDM channels, with single Forward Error Correction (FEC)
turned on.
To comply with the Nortel Networks performance guarantee, you must meet
the following requirements:

Use Nortel Networks optical modules (transmitters, couplers, DCMs,


amplifiers, receiver).
Design the optical link according to the link engineering and provisioning
rules defined in this application guide.
Set up the optical link according to the system lineup and test (SLAT)
procedures provided by Nortel Networks.
Note: Nortel Networks guarantees BER performance for links that have
optical return loss (ORL) equal to or in excess of 24 dB. Customers must
note that networks containing mechanical splices and biconic connectors
may not meet this requirement. It is recommended that you use tuned
optical connectors.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical link engineering rules 3-13

OPTera Long Haul 1600 C-Band unidirectional applications on


NDSF fiber multiplexing 10 Gbit/s channels
Use this section for DWDM systems carrying 10 Gbit/s channels.
You can deploy the following:
1 to 6 span systems with a maximum of 40 wavelengths
For a proper design, you must follow these steps:
Verify that the loss of each span in the link is equal to or below the values
that appear in Table 3-6. If optical patch panels are not installed at all sites,
follow the derating procedure explained in Optical patch panel rule on
page 3-11. You can use the excess loss borrowing method described on
page 3-9 in paragraphs 4 to 7, if applicable.

Select the appropriate DCM/DSCM deployment for the given link length
using Table 3-6. DCM/DSCM placement is very specific. DCMs/DSCMs
must be placed as indicated in Table 3-6.
Read the remainder of the section for amplifier provisioning rules and
padding rules information.

ATTENTION
All links must meet both the maximum allowed span loss and the related
dispersion window of operation.
Dispersion windows of operation are strictly applicable to the number of
spans for which they are designed.
ATTENTION
FEC must always be turned on. For all WT applications which presently do
not support FEC feature, contact Nortel Networks.
ATTENTION
Although the current OPTera Long Haul 1600 hardware is compatible for a
channel count of 40 per band on NDSF, OPTera Long Haul 1600 Release 3
only supports channel power monitoring capabilities for a wavelength count
less than or equal to 20 (Module 1 and Module 2 only). As a result, peak
power clamp and Power Optimizer is only available for links with channel
counts less than or equal to 20 (Module 1 and Module 2 only).

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

3-14 Optical link engineering rules

ATTENTION
For NDSF applications, in conjunction with OPTera Long Haul 1600
Release 3 software, an external Optical Spectrum Analyzer (OSA) must be
used to scale capacity and balance power levels above 20 wavelengths. Above
20 wavelengths, scaling channel capacity with Power Optimizer (PO) will be
addressed in future OPTera Long Haul 1600 software releases.

ATTENTION
The allowable difference in span lengths for NDSF system is 5 km. The
difference in length between the maximum and minimum span length cannot
be greater than 5 km, otherwise, an alternative DCM/DSCM strategy is
required.
Maximum allowed span loss, dispersion windows and DCM/DSCM deployment
rules

Always design the link for the final number of wavelengths that is to be
multiplexed in it after all the planned upgrades.
NDSF wavelength plan

This application supports wavelength plans spanning from 1530.33 nm to


1562.23 nm (Grid 1) or 1530.72 nm to 1562.64 nm (Grid 2). Use Module 1,
Module 2, Module 3 and Module 4 with applications on NDSF fiber. NSDF
has a special wavelength upgrade plan requiring that the wavelengths fall
within successive groups of five Reddest. See Wavelength plans on page 4-6
for more information.
Tx chirp

The required transmitter chirp is negative chirp for this particular fiber type
application. See Tx chirp adjustment for dispersion compensation on page
4-1 for more information.
FEC rules

For all spans, FEC must be turned on and the EOL BER is 10-15.
Common Tx Pads

Common Transmitter (Tx) Pads are attenuators placed at the head-end of the
optical link. The strategy is to use the same attenuators for all channel counts
supported by any application. The common Tx pad must be placed between the
output of the Mux coupler and the input of the first-in-service amplifier
(FISA), that is before the DCM/DSCM if there is a DCM/DSCM present. See
Table 3-6 for detailed placement of Common Tx Pads.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical link engineering rules 3-15


MSA pads

It is possible that MSA padding is required at OPTera Long Haul 1600 line
amplifier sites to set the loss in the mid-stage. MSA Pads must be placed
immediately after the Dual Amplifier output (before the DCM/DSCM) if there
is a DCM/DSCM present. See the OPTera Long Haul 1600 MSA rules on page
4-2 for more information.
Span pads

Span Pads are attenuators placed in line in order to bring the link attenuation
within the prescribed range. Span Pads must be placed after the Booster output.
NDSF fiber link with external tap coupler

For applications with an external tap coupler at the amplifier output, an


additional power loss of 0.5 dB must be considered for the tap coupler and
connector.
In general, all external tap couplers at the output of the dual amplifier are
placed before the fixed pad or DSCM at MSA.
The following engineering rules apply:

At the dual amplifier output, there is no change to the MSA padding rule.
However, the Dual Amp peak power must be increased by 0.5 dB (over
launching).
There is no need to over-launch at booster outputs.

For more information, refer to Appendix D: External tap couplers. If you do


not have a 1600G C-band amplifier with an external tap coupler, these rules do
not apply.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

3-16 Optical link engineering rules


Table 3-6

Maximum allowed span loss, dispersion compensation rules and padding rules for 1-40
applications deployed on NDSF fiber, 10 Gbit/s channels (See Note 1 and Note 2)
10G, NDSF, C-Band, Unidirectional, 1-40, Dual-Amp and Booster21 Config., Dual-Amp Bypass
Span

Max. Avg.
Loss
[dB/span]
(see Note 3)

DSCM
(see Notes 4, 5, 6, and 7)

32

T1C DSCM-70 at Rx

74-142

T1C DSCM-70 at LA1,


T1C DSCM-40 at Rx

142-175

T1C DSCM-80 at LA1,


T1C DSCM-60 at Rx

171-202

T1C DSCM-100 at LA1,


T1C DSCM-70 at Rx

200-229

T1C DSCM-100 at LA1,

227-253

30

Total Length
Compensation
[km]

(see Note 10)

Common Tx Pad
Required
[dB]
(see Notes 8
and 9)

T1C DSCM-90 at Rx

28

T1C DSCM-100 at LA1,


T1C DSCM-40 at LA2,
T1C DSCM-50 at Rx

212-244

T1C DSCM-110 at LA1,


T1C DSCM-60 at LA2,
T1C DSCM-50 at Rx

239-273

T1C DSCM-110 at LA1,


T1C DSCM-70 at LA2,
T1C DSCM-70 at Rx

270-301

T1C DSCM-110 at LA1,


T1C DSCM-90 at LA2,
T1C DSCM-80 at Rx

300-328

T1C DSCM-100 at LA1, LA2, Rx

327-353

continued

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical link engineering rules 3-17


Table 3-6 (continued)

Maximum allowed span loss, dispersion compensation rules and padding rules for 1-40
applications deployed on NDSF fiber, 10 Gbit/s channels (See Note 1 and Note 2)
10G, NDSF, C-Band, Unidirectional, 1-40, Dual-Amp and Booster21 Config., Dual-Amp Bypass
Span

Max. Avg.
Loss
[dB/span]
(see Note 3)

26

DSCM
(see Notes 4, 5, 6, and 7)

Total Length
Compensation
[km]

(see Note 10)


T1C DSCM-90 at LA1,
T1C DSCM-60 at LA2,
T1C DSCM-50 at LA3, Rx

267-300

T1C DSCM-90 at LA1,


T1C DSCM-70 at LA2,
T1C DSCM-60 at LA3, Rx

296-324

T1C DSCM-90 at LA1,

318-345

T1C DSCM-70 at LA2, LA3, Rx

Common Tx Pad
Required
[dB]
(see Notes 8
and 9)

T1C DSCM-100 at LA1,


T1C DSCM-90 at LA2,
T1C DSCM-70 at LA3, Rx

343-370

T1C DSCM-110 at LA1,LA2,


T1C DSCM-70 at LA3, Rx

370-396

T1C DSCM-110 at LA1,


T1C DSCM-100 at LA2,
T1C DSCM-90 at LA3,
T1C DSCM-80 at Rx

392-413

T1C DSCM-110 at LA1, LA2, LA3,

411-435

T1C DSCM-70 at Rx
continued

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

3-18 Optical link engineering rules


Table 3-6 (continued)

Maximum allowed span loss, dispersion compensation rules and padding rules for 1-40
applications deployed on NDSF fiber, 10 Gbit/s channels (See Note 1 and Note 2)
10G, NDSF, C-Band, Unidirectional, 1-40, Dual-Amp and Booster21 Config., Dual-Amp Bypass
Span

Max. Avg.
Loss
[dB/span]
(see Note 3)

DSCM
(see Notes 4, 5, 6, and 7)

Total Length
Compensation
[km]

(see Note 10)


T1C DSCM-100 at LA1, LA2,

Common Tx Pad
Required
[dB]
(see Notes 8
and 9)

415-439

T1C DSCM-70 at LA3, LA4, Rx


T1C DSCM-100 at LA1, LA2,

436-459

T1C DSCM-70 at LA3,


T1C DSCM-80 at LA4, Rx
T1C DSCM-100 at LA1, LA2,

454-478

T1C DSCM-90 at LA3,


T1C DSCM-80 at LA4, Rx
5

25

T1C DSCM-100 at LA1, LA2,

477-498

T1C DSCM-90 at LA3, LA4, Rx


T1C DSCM-100 at LA1, LA2, LA3

492-508

T1C DSCM-90 at LA4, Rx


T1C DSCM-110 at LA1, LA2,

505-520

T1C DSCM-100 at LA3,


T1C DSCM-90 at LA4, Rx
T1C DSCM-110 at LA1, LA2,

518-532

T1C DSCM-100 at LA3, LA4,


T1C DSCM-90 at Rx
T1C DSCM-110 at LA1, LA2,
T1C DSCM-100 at LA3, LA4, Rx
continued

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

531-544

Optical link engineering rules 3-19


Table 3-6 (continued)

Maximum allowed span loss, dispersion compensation rules and padding rules for 1-40
applications deployed on NDSF fiber, 10 Gbit/s channels (See Note 1 and Note 2)
10G, NDSF, C-Band, Unidirectional, 1-40, Dual-Amp and Booster21 Config., Dual-Amp Bypass
Span

Max. Avg.
Loss
[dB/span]
(see Note 3)

DSCM
(see Notes 4, 5, 6, and 7)

Total Length
Compensation
[km]

(see Note 10)


T1C DSCM-110 at LA1,

Common Tx Pad
Required
[dB]
(see Notes 8
and 9)

541-551

T1C DSCM-90 at LA2, LA3, LA4,


T1C DSCM-80 at LA5, Rx
T1C DSCM-110 at LA1,

549-569

T1C DSCM-90 at LA2, LA3, LA4, LA5


T1C DSCM-80 at Rx
T1C DSCM-110 at LA1, LA2,
6

24

568-577

T1C DSCM-100 at LA3,

T1C DSCM-90 at LA4,


T1C DSCM-80 at LA5, Rx
T1C DSCM-110 at LA1, LA2,

576-586

T1C DSCM-100 at LA3, LA4,


T1C DSCM-80 at LA5, Rx
T1C DSCM-110 at LA1, LA2, LA3

586-598

T1C DSCM-80 at LA4, LA5


T1C DSCM-100 at Rx
T1C DSCM-110 at LA1, LA2,

590-607

T1C DSCM-100 at LA3, LA4,


T1C DSCM-90 at LA5,
T1C DSCM-80 at Rx
continued

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

3-20 Optical link engineering rules


Table 3-6 (continued)

Maximum allowed span loss, dispersion compensation rules and padding rules for 1-40
applications deployed on NDSF fiber, 10 Gbit/s channels (See Note 1 and Note 2)
10G, NDSF, C-Band, Unidirectional, 1-40, Dual-Amp and Booster21 Config., Dual-Amp Bypass
Span

Max. Avg.
Loss
[dB/span]
(see Note 3)

DSCM
(see Notes 4, 5, 6, and 7)

Total Length
Compensation
[km]

(see Note 10)

Common Tx Pad
Required
[dB]
(see Notes 8
and 9)

Note 1: All budgets require single Forward Error Correction (FEC) on.
Note 2: Loss is calculated from the Fiber Side of Post Amp to fibre side of Pre Amp.
Note 3: The supported minimum span loss is 17 dB for 1- to 5-span links. Minimum span loss is 18dB
for 6 span.
Note 4: LA1 is the first line site closest to the transmitter, LA2 is the second line site closest to the
transmitter on a direction basis.
Note 5: All the DSCM used here are C-Band Type 1 DSCMs (T1C DSCM).
Note 6: MSA loss rule is 10dB (8 to 11dB)
Note 7: DSCM at the MSA site must be placed after the MSA pad. DSCM at Rx must be placed in the
MSA of the Demux site.
Note 8: The same fixed transmitter pad is applied to 1-40 applications.
Note 9: The Common Tx Pad must be placed between the output of the Module 1 Mux DWDM
coupler and at the input of the head-end amp.
Note 10: The allowable difference between the minimum and maximum span lengths for the NDSF
system is 5 km, with the exception of single span.
Provisioning rules

The provisioning rules over NDSF are described in the following tables:
Table 3-7 gives the 1-20 provisioning rules
Table 3-8 gives the 21-25 provisioning rules
Table 3-9 gives the 26-30 provisioning rules
Table 3-10 gives the 31-35 provisioning rules
Table 3-11 gives the 36-40 provisioning rules
For the wavelength count 1-20, the peak power clamp is enabled on all line
amplifiers.
For the wavelength count 21-40, the peak power clamp is enabled on all
amplifiers at Tx. Also, the peak power clamp is enabled on all amplifiers at Rx
in 1-span case.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical link engineering rules 3-21


Table 3-7
applications deployed on NDSF fiber, 10 Gbit/s channels
Provisioning rules for 1-20
10G, NDSF, C-Band, Unidirectional, 1-20, Dual Amp. Booster21 Config., Dual-Amp Bypass
Transmitter Site
Span

Dual

Line Site

Booster21

Dual

Receiver Site

Booster21

Dual

Booster21

Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power
[dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm]

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

--

--

--

--

15.5

21

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

15.5

6.5

21

15.5

21

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

15.5

6.5

21

15.5

21

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

15.5

6.5

21

15.5

21

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

15.5

6.5

21

15.5

21

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

15.5

6.5

21

15.5

21

Note: The peak power clamp is enabled on all amplifiers.


Table 3-8
applications deployed on NDSF fiber, 10 Gbit/s channels
Provisioning rules for 21-25
10G, NDSF, C-Band, Unidirectional, 21-25, Dual Amp. Booster21 Config., Dual-Amp Bypass
Transmitter Site
Span

Dual

Line Site

Booster21

Dual

Receiver Site

Booster21

Dual

Booster21

Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power
[dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm]

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

--

--

--

--

15.5

21

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

--

13.7

--

20.8

--

13.7

--

21

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

--

13.6

--

19.4

--

13.6

--

21

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

--

13.0

--

19.4

--

13.0

--

21

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

--

13.8

--

19.0

--

13.8

--

21

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

--

14.4

--

19.5

--

14.4

--

21

Note 1: The peak power clamp is enabled on all amplifiers in a 1-span link
Note 2: The peak power clamp is disabled on all line amplifiers and Term2 amplifiers. The peak power
clamp is enabled on all Term1 amplifiers in all applications.
Note 3: Do not round the total power value.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

3-22 Optical link engineering rules


Table 3-9
applications deployed on NDSF fiber, 10 Gbit/s channels
Provisioning rules for 26-30
10G, NDSF, C-Band, Unidirectional, 26-30, Dual Amp. Booster21 Config., Dual-Amp Bypass
Transmitter Site
Span

Dual

Line Site

Booster21

Dual

Receiver Site

Booster21

Dual

Booster21

Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power
[dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm]

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

--

--

--

--

15.5

21

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

--

13.7

--

20.8

--

13.7

--

21

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

--

14.0

--

19.4

--

14.0

--

21

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

--

13.8

--

19.4

--

13.8

--

21

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

--

14.2

--

19.4

--

14.2

--

21

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

--

14.8

--

19.8

--

14.8

--

21

Note 1: The peak power clamp is enabled on all amplifiers in a 1-span link
Note 2: The peak power clamp is disabled on all line amplifiers and Term2 amplifiers. The peak power
clamp is enabled on all Term1 amplifiers in all applications.
Note 3: Do not round the total power value.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical link engineering rules 3-23


Table 3-10
applications deployed on NDSF fiber, 10 Gbit/s channels
Provisioning rules for 31-35
10G, NDSF, C-Band, Unidirectional, 31-35, Dual Amp. Booster21 Config., Dual-Amp Bypass
Transmitter Site
Span

Dual

Line Site

Booster21

Dual

Receiver Site

Booster21

Dual

Booster21

Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power
[dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm]

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

--

--

--

--

15.5

21

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

--

13.7

--

20.8

--

13.7

--

21

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

--

14.3

--

19.4

--

14.3

--

21

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

--

14.0

--

19.4

--

14.0

--

21

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

--

14.5

--

19.4

--

14.5

--

21

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

--

15.2

--

20.1

--

15.2

--

21

Note 1: The peak power clamp is enabled on all amplifiers in a 1-span link
Note 2: The peak power clamp is disabled on all line amplifiers and Term2 amplifiers. The peak power
clamp is enabled on all Term1 amplifiers in all applications.
Note 3: Do not round the total power value.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

3-24 Optical link engineering rules


Table 3-11
applications deployed on NDSF fiber, 10 Gbit/s channels
Provisioning rules for 36-40
10G, NDSF, C-Band, Unidirectional, 36-40, Dual Amp. Booster21 Config., Dual-Amp Bypass
Transmitter Site
Span

Dual

Line Site

Booster21

Dual

Receiver Site

Booster21

Dual

Booster21

Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power
[dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm]

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

--

--

--

--

15.5

21

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

--

13.8

--

21

--

13.8

--

21

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

--

14.3

--

20.0

--

14.3

--

21

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

--

15.0

--

20.0

--

15.0

--

21

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

--

15.0

--

20.0

--

15.0

--

21

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

--

15.5

20.5

--

15.5

--

21

Note 1: The peak power clamp is enabled on all amplifiers in a 1-span link
Note 2: The peak power clamp is disabled on all line amplifiers and Term2 amplifiers. The peak power
clamp is enabled on all Term1 amplifiers in all applications.
Note 3: Do not round the total power value.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical link engineering rules 3-25

OPTera Long Haul 1600 C-Band unidirectional applications on


TrueWave Classic fiber multiplexing 10 Gbit/s channels
Use this section for DWDM systems carrying 10 Gbit/s.
You can deploy 1 to 6 span systems with a maximum of 30 wavelengths.
For a proper design, you must follow these steps:
Verify that the loss of each span in the link is equal to or below the values
that appear in Table 3-12. If optical patch panels are not installed at all
sites, follow the derating procedure explained in Optical patch panel rule
on page 3-11. You can use the excess loss borrowing method described on
page 3-9 in paragraphs 4 to 7, if applicable.
Select the appropriate DCM/DSCM deployment for the given link length
using Table 3-12. DCM/DSCM placement is very specific. DCMs/DSCMs
must be placed as indicated in Table 3-12.
Read the remainder of the section for amplifier provisioning rules, padding
rules information.
ATTENTION
All links must meet both the maximum allowed span loss and the related
dispersion window of operation.
Dispersion windows of operation are strictly applicable to the number of
spans for which they are designed.
ATTENTION
FEC must always be turned on. For all WT applications which presently do
not support FEC feature, contact Nortel Networks.
ATTENTION
The link budgets rules are compatible for 30 wavelengths channel count.
ATTENTION
The power provisioning rules are available for up to 20 wavelengths
applications. The power provisioning rules for 30 wavelengths count will be
provided with a future OPTera Long Haul 1600 software release.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

3-26 Optical link engineering rules

ATTENTION
Although the current OPTera Long Haul 1600 hardware is compatible for a
channel count of 30 per band on TrueWave ClassicTM, OPTera Long Haul
1600 Release 3 only supports channel power monitoring capabilities for a
wavelength count less than or equal to 20 (Module 1 and Module 2 only). As
a result, peak power control and Power Optimizer is only available for links
with channel counts less than or equal to 20 (Module 1 and Module 2 only).
Above 20, scaling channel capacity with PO will be addressed in future
OPTera Long Haul 1600 software releases.
ATTENTION
With TrueWave ClassicTM, Booster18 is the optimum amplifier and must be
used as the standard configuration. Booster21 can also be supported for the
same application.
ATTENTION
The allowable difference in span lengths for TrueWave ClassicTM system is
28 km. The difference in length between the maximum and minimum span
length cannot be greater than 28 km, otherwise, an alternative DCM/DSCM
strategy is required.
Maximum allowed span loss, dispersion windows and DCM/DSCM deployment
rules

Always design the link for the final number of wavelengths that is to be
multiplexed in it after all the planned upgrades.
TrueWave Classic TM Wavelength plan

This application supports wavelength plans spanning from 1538.19 nm to


1562.23 nm (Grid 1) or 1538.58 nm to 1562.64 nm (Grid 2). Use Module 1,
Module 2 and Module 3 with applications on TrueWave ClassicTM fiber. This
channel wavelength plan is optimized for TrueWave ClassicTM fiber. See the
Wavelength plans on page 4-6 for more information.
Tx chirp

The required transmitter chirp is negative chirp for this particular fiber type
application. See Tx chirp adjustment for dispersion compensation on page
4-1 for more information.
FEC rules

For all spans, FEC must be turned on and the EOL BER is 10-15.
Common Tx Pads

Common Transmitter (Tx) Pads are attenuators placed at the head-end of the
optical link. The strategy is to use the same attenuators for all channel counts
supported by any application. The common Tx pad must be placed between the

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical link engineering rules 3-27

output of the Mux coupler and the input of the first-in-service amplifier
(FISA), that is before the DCM/DSCM if there is a DCM/DSCM present. See
Table 3-12 for detailed placement of Common Tx Pads.
MSA Pads

It is possible that MSA padding be required at OPTera Long Haul 1600 line
amplifier sites to set the loss in the mid-stage. MSA Pads must be placed
immediately after the Dual-Amplifier output, that is before the DCM/DSCM
if there is a DCM/DSCM present. See the OPTera Long Haul 1600 MSA rules
on page 4-2 for more information.
Span Pads

Span Pads are attenuators placed in line in order to bring the link attenuation
within the prescribed range. Span Pads must be placed after the Booster output.
TrueWave Classic TM fiber link with external tap coupler

For applications with an external tap coupler at the amplifier output, an


additional power loss of 0.5 dB must be considered for the tap coupler and
connector.
In general, all external tap couplers at the output of the dual amplifier are
placed before the fixed pad or DSCM at MSA.
The following engineering rules apply:

At the dual amplifier output, reduce the fixed MSA pad requirement from
5 dB to 4 dB. There is no need to over-launch at the Dual Amp output.
Over launch by 0.5 dB (peak power) at booster output.

For more information, refer to Appendix D: External tap couplers. If you do


not have a 1600G C-band amplifier with an external tap coupler, these rules do
not apply.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

3-28 Optical link engineering rules


Table 3-12

Maximum allowed span loss, dispersion compensation rules and padding rules for 1-30
Classic fiber, 10 Gbit/s channels (See Notes 1, 2, and 11)
applications deployed on TW
10G, TWC, C-Band, Unidirectional, 1-30, Dual Amp. Booster18 Config., No Bypass
Total Length Common Tx
Pad
Compensation
Required
[km]
[dB]
(see Note 12)
(see Notes 9
and 10)

Span

Max. Avg.
Loss
[dB/span]
(see Note 3)

DCM/DSCM
(see Notes 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8)

31

two 1600 DCM 200P at Tx site

122 - 185

29

1600 DCM 300P at Tx,

155 - 274

290 - 398

T1C DSCM-5 at Rx
3

27

1600 DCM 300P at Tx,


T1C DSCM-20 at Rx

25

1600 DCM 200P at Tx, T1C DSCM-30 at Rx

442 - 504

23

two 1600 DCM 200P at Tx, T1C DSCM-10 at


LA1, LA2, LA3, LA4, Rx

502 - 556

22

two 1600 DCM 200P at Tx, T1C DSCM-10 at


LA1, LA2, LA3, LA4, LA5, Rx

555 - 588

Note 1: All budgets require single Forward Error Correction (FEC) on.
Note 2: Loss is calculated from the Fiber Side of Post Amp to fibre side of Pre Amp.
Note 3: The supported minimum span loss is 17 dB for 1- to 6-span links.
Note 4: LA1 is the first line site closest to the transmitter, LA2 is the second closest line site to the
transmitter, on a direction basis.
Note 5: All the DSCM used here are C-Band Type 1 DSCMs (T1C DSCM).
Note 6: Use the same DCM strategy for 1-30 applications.
Note 7: DSCM at Tx must be placed in the MSA of the Mux site. DSCM at the MSA site must be placed
after the MSA pad. DSCM at Rx must be placed in the MSA of the Demux site.
Note 8: MSA loss rule is 10dB (8 to 11dB)
Note 9: The same fixed transmitter pad is applied to 1-30 applications.
Note 10: The Common Tx Pad should be placed between the output of the Module 1 Mux DWDM
coupler and at the input of the head-end amp.
Note 11: The minimum loss between the output of the dual amplifier and the input of the DSCM is 5 dB
for line and Rx sites. The purpose of having a 5 dB pad is to ensure that power launch into the DSCM
is low enough to prevent nonlinear distortion. Even with this 5 dB pad, the MSA loss rule of 8 to 11 dB
must be followed.
Note 12: The allowable difference between the minimum and maximum span lengths for the TWC
system is 28 km, with the exception of single span.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical link engineering rules 3-29


Provisioning rules

Table 3-13 shows the 1-20 provisioning rules over TrueWave ClassicTM.
Table 3-13
applications deployed on TW
Classic fiber, 10 Gbit/s channels
Provisioning rules for 20-
10G, TWC, C-Band, Unidirectional, 1-20, Dual Amp. Booster18 Config., No Bypass
Transmitter Site
Dual

Span

Line Site

Booster 18

Dual

Receiver Site

Booster 18

Dual

Booster 18

Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power
[dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm]

15.5

3.5

18

--

--

--

--

15.5

18

15.5

2.5

18

15.5

2.5

18

15.5

18

15.5

2.5

18

15.5

2.5

18

15.5

18

15.5

2.5

18

15.5

2.5

18

15.5

18

15.5

1.5

18

15.5

1.5

18

15.5

18

15.5

1.5

18

15.5

1.5

18

15.5

18

Note 1: The peak power clamp is enabled on all amplifiers


Note 2: Provisioning rules assume an overlaunch of 0.5 dB to account for a head-end optical patch
panel.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

3-30 Optical link engineering rules

OPTera Long Haul 1600 C-Band unidirectional applications on E-LEAF


fiber multiplexing 10-Gbit/s channels
Use this section for DWDM systems carrying 10 Gbit/s.
You can deploy 1 to 6 span systems with a maximum of 40 wavelengths.
For a proper design, you must follow these steps:
Verify that the loss of each span in the link is equal to or below the values
that appear in Table 3-14. If optical patch panels are not installed at all
sites, follow the derating procedure explained in Optical patch panel rule
on page 3-11. You can use the excess loss borrowing method described on
page 3-9 in paragraphs 4 to 7, if applicable.
Select the appropriate DCM/DSCM deployment for the given link length
using Table 3-14. DCM/DSCM placement is very specific. DCMs/DSCMs
must be placed as indicated in Table 3-14.
Read the remainder of the section for amplifier provisioning rules, padding
rules information.
ATTENTION
All links must meet both the maximum allowed span loss and the related
dispersion window of operation.
Dispersion windows of operation are strictly applicable to the number of
spans for which they are designed.
ATTENTION
FEC must always be turned on. For all WT applications which presently do
not support FEC feature, contact Nortel Networks.
ATTENTION
The link budgets rules are compatible for 40 wavelengths channel count.
ATTENTION
The power provisioning rules are available for up to 20 wavelengths
applications. The power provisioning rules for 40 wavelengths count will be
provided with a future OPTera Long Haul 1600 software release.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical link engineering rules 3-31

ATTENTION
Although the current OPTera Long Haul 1600 hardware is compatible for a
channel count of 40 per band on E-LEAF, OPTera Long Haul 1600 Release
3 only supports channel power monitoring capabilities for a wavelength count
less than or equal to 20 (Module 1 and Module 2 only). As a result, peak
power control and Power Optimizer is only available for links with channel
counts less than or equal to 20 (Module 1 and Module 2 only).
Above 20, scaling channel capacity with PO will be addressed in future
OPTera Long Haul 1600 software releases.

ATTENTION
The allowable difference in span lengths for E-LEAF system is 28 km. The
difference in length between the maximum and minimum span length cannot
be greater than 28 km, otherwise, an alternative DCM/DSCM strategy is
required.
Maximum allowed span loss, dispersion windows and DCM/DSCM deployment
rules

Always design the link for the final number of wavelengths that is to be
multiplexed in it after all the planned upgrades.
E-LEAF Wavelength plan

This application supports wavelength plans spanning from 1530.33 nm to


1562.23 nm (Grid 1) or 1530.72 nm to 1562.64 nm (Grid 2). Use Module 1,
Module 2, Module 3 and Module 4 with applications on E-LEAF fiber. See
Wavelength plans on page 4-6 for more information.
Tx chirp

The required transmitter chirp is negative chirp for this particular fiber type
application. See Tx chirp adjustment for dispersion compensation on page
4-1 for more information.
FEC rules

For all spans, FEC must be turned on and the EOL BER is 10-15.
Common Tx Pads

Common Transmitter (Tx) Pads are attenuators placed at the head-end of the
optical link. The strategy is to use the same attenuators for all channel counts
supported by any application. The common Tx pad must be placed between the
output of the Mux coupler and the input of the first-in-service amplifier
(FISA), that is before the DCM/DSCM if there is a DCM/DSCM present. See
Table 3-14 for detailed placement of Common Tx Pads.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

3-32 Optical link engineering rules


MSA Pads

It is possible that MSA padding be required at OPTera Long Haul 1600 line
amplifier sites to set the loss in the mid-stage. MSA Pads must be placed
immediately after the Dual-Amplifier output, that is before the DCM/DSCM
if there is a DCM/DSCM present. See the OPTera Long Haul 1600 MSA rules
on page 4-2 for more information.
Span Pads

Span Pads are attenuators placed in line in order to bring the link attenuation
within the prescribed range. Span Pads must be placed after the Booster output.
E-LEAF fiber link with external tap coupler

For applications with an external tap coupler at the amplifier output, an


additional power loss of 0.5 dB must be considered for the tap coupler and
connector.
In general, all external tap couplers at the output of the dual amplifier are
placed before the fixed pad or DSCM at MSA.
The following engineering rules apply:

At the dual amplifier output, reduce the fixed MSA pad requirement from
5 dB to 4 dB. There is no need to over-launch at the Dual Amp output.
Over launch by 0.5dB (peak power) at booster output.

For more information, refer to Appendix D: External tap couplers. If you do


not have a 1600G C-band amplifier with an external tap coupler, these rules do
not apply.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical link engineering rules 3-33


Table 3-14

Maximum allowed span loss, dispersion compensation rules and padding rules for 1-40
applications deployed on E-LEAF fiber, 10 Gbit/s channels (See Notes 1, 2, and 11)
10G, E-LEAF, C-Band, Unidirectional, 1-40, Dual Amp. Booster21 Config., Dual-amp Bypass
Max. Avg.
Loss
[dB/span]
(see Note 3)

DCM/DSCM
(see Notes 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8)

33

1600 DCM 200P at Tx site

87-172

31

1600 DCM 200P at Tx, T1C DSCM-10 at LA1 &


Rx

180-279

28

1600 DCM 100P at Tx, T1C DSCM-10 at LA1 &


LA2, T1C DSCM-20 at Rx

253-345

27

T1C DSCM-10 at LA1 & LA2,

415-447

494-505

533-545

Span

Total Length
Compensation
[km]

(see Note 12)

Common Tx
Pad Required
[dB]
(see Notes 9
and 10)

T1C DSCM-20 at LA3 & Rx


5

25

T1C DSCM-10 at LA1, LA3 & LA4,


T1C DSCM-20 at LA2, T1C DSCM-5 &
T1C DSCM-20 at Rx

23.4

T1C DSCM-10 at LA1, LA3 & LA4,


T1C DSCM-20 at LA2 & Rx,
T1C DSCM-5 & T1C DSCM-10 at LA5

Note 1: All budgets require single Forward Error Correction (FEC) on.
Note 2: Loss is calculated from the Fiber Side of Post Amp to fibre side of Pre Amp.
Note 3: The supported minimum span loss is 17 dB for 1- to 6-span links.
Note 4: LA1 is the first line site closest to the transmitter, LA2 is the second closest line site to the
transmitter, on a direction basis.
Note 5: All the DSCM used here are C-Band Type 1 DSCMs (T1C DSCM).
Note 6: Use the same DCM strategy for 1-40 applications.
Note 7: DSCM at Tx must be placed in the MSA of the Mux site. DSCM at the MSA site must be placed
after the MSA pad. DSCM at Rx must be placed in the MSA of the Demux site.
Note 8: MSA loss rule is 10dB (8 to 11dB)
Note 9: The same fixed transmitter pad is applied to 1-40 applications.
Note 10: The Common Tx Pad should be placed between the output of the Module 1 Mux DWDM
coupler and at the input of the head-end amplifier.
Note 11: The minimum loss between the output of the dual amplifier and the input of the DSCM is 5 dB
for line and Rx sites. The purpose of having a 5 dB pad is to ensure that power launch into the DSCM is
low enough to prevent nonlinear distortion. Even with this 5 dB pad, the MSA loss rule of 8 to 11 dB must
be followed.
Note 12: The allowable difference between the minimum and maximum span lengths for the E-LEAF
system is 28 km, with the exception of single span.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

3-34 Optical link engineering rules


Provisioning rules

Table 3-15 shows the 1-20 provisioning rules over E-LEAF.


Table 3-15
applications deployed on E-LEAF fiber, 10 Gbit/s channels
Provisioning rules for 20-
10G, E-LEAF, C-Band, Unidirectional, 1-20, Dual Amp. Booster21 Config., Dual-amp Bypass
Transmitter Site
Span

Dual

Line Site

Booster 21

Dual

Receiver Site

Booster 21

Dual

Booster 21

Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Total
Peak
Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power
[dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm] [dBm]

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

--

--

--

--

15.5

21

N/A

N/A

6.5

21

15.5

6.5

21

15.5

21

N/A

N/A

5.5

21

15.5

5.5

21

15.5

21

N/A

N/A

5.5

21

15.5

5.5

21

15.5

21

N/A

N/A

4.5

21

15.5

4.5

21

15.5

21

N/A

N/A

3.5

21

15.5

3.5

21

15.5

21

Note 1: The peak power clamp is enabled on all amplifiers


Note 2: Provisioning rules assume an over-launch of 0.5 dB to account for a head-end optical patch
panel.
Note 3: N/A is short for not applicable.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical link engineering rules 3-35

OPTera Long Haul 1600 C-Band unidirectional applications on


Plus fiber multiplexing 10-Gbit/s channels
TrueWave
Use this section for DWDM systems carrying 10 Gbit/s.
You can deploy 1 to 6 span systems with a maximum of 40 wavelengths.
For a proper design, you must follow these steps:
Verify that the loss of each span in the link is equal to or below the values
that appear in Table 3-16. If optical patch panels are not installed at all
sites, follow the derating procedure explained in Optical patch panel rule
on page 3-11. You can use the excess loss borrowing method described on
page 3-9 in paragraphs 4 to 7, if applicable.
Select the appropriate DCM/DSCM deployment for the given link length
using Table 3-16. DCM/DSCM placement is very specific. DCMs/DSCMs
must be placed as indicated in Table 3-16.
Read the remainder of the section for amplifier provisioning rules, padding
rules information.
ATTENTION
All links must meet both the maximum allowed span loss and the related
dispersion window of operation.
Dispersion windows of operation are strictly applicable to the number of
spans for which they are designed.
ATTENTION
FEC must always be turned on. For all WT applications which presently do
not support FEC feature, contact Nortel Networks.
ATTENTION
The link budgets rules are compatible for 40 wavelengths channel count.
ATTENTION
6-span TW+ link requires the use of a Dual Amp and Booster 18 rather than
the Dual Amp and Booster 21 suggested.
ATTENTION
The power provisioning rules are available for up to 20 wavelengths
applications. The power provisioning rules for 40 wavelengths count will be
provided with a future OPTera Long Haul 1600 software release.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

3-36 Optical link engineering rules

ATTENTION
Although the current OPTera Long Haul 1600 hardware is compatible for a
channel count of 40 per band on TrueWave Plus, OPTera Long Haul 1600
Release 3 only supports channel power monitoring capabilities for a
wavelength count less than or equal to 20 (Module 1 and Module 2 only). As
a result, peak power control and Power Optimizer is only available for links
with channel counts less than or equal to 20 (Module 1 and Module 2 only).
Above 20, scaling channel capacity with PO will be addressed in future
OPTera Long Haul 1600 software releases.
ATTENTION
The allowable difference in span lengths for system TrueWave Plus is
50 km. The difference in length between the maximum and minimum span
length cannot be greater than 50 km, otherwise, an alternative DCM/DSCM
strategy is required.
Maximum allowed span loss, dispersion windows and DCM/DSCM deployment
rules

Always design the link for the final number of wavelengths that is to be
multiplexed in it after all the planned upgrades.
Plus Wavelength plan
TrueWave

This application supports wavelength plans spanning from 1530.33 nm to


1562.23 nm (Grid 1) or 1530.72 nm to 1562.64 nm (Grid 2). Use Module 1,
Module 2, Module 3 and Module 4 with applications on TrueWave Plus
fiber. See Wavelength plans on page 4-6 for more information.
Tx chirp

The required transmitter chirp is negative chirp for this particular fiber type
application. See Tx chirp adjustment for dispersion compensation on page
4-1 for more information.
FEC rules

For all spans, FEC must be turned on and the EOL BER is 10-15.
Common Tx Pads

Common Transmitter (Tx) Pads are attenuators placed at the head-end of the
optical link. The strategy is to use the same attenuators for all channel counts
supported by any application. The common Tx pad must be placed between the
output of the Mux coupler and the input of the first-in-service amplifier
(FISA), that is before the DCM/DSCM if there is a DCM/DSCM present. See
Table 3-16 for detailed placement of Common Tx Pads.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical link engineering rules 3-37


MSA Pads

It is possible that MSA padding be required at OPTera Long Haul 1600 line
amplifier sites to set the loss in the mid-stage. MSA Pads must be placed
immediately after the Dual-Amplifier output, that is before the DCM/DSCM
if there is a DCM/DSCM present. See the OPTera Long Haul 1600 MSA rules
on page 4-2 for more information.
Span Pads

Span Pads are attenuators placed in line in order to bring the link attenuation
within the prescribed range. Span Pads must be placed after the Booster output.
Plus fiber link with external tap coupler
TrueWave

For applications with an external tap coupler at the amplifier output, an


additional power loss of 0.5 dB must be considered for the tap coupler and
connector.
In general, all external tap couplers at the output of the dual amplifier are
placed before the fixed pad or DSCM at MSA.
The following engineering rules apply:

At the dual amplifier output, reduce the fixed MSA pad requirement from
5 dB to 4 dB. There is no need to over-launch at the Dual Amp output.
Over-launch by 0.5dB (peak power) at booster output.

For more information, refer to Appendix D: External tap couplers. If you do


not have a 1600G C-band amplifier with an external tap coupler, these rules do
not apply.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

3-38 Optical link engineering rules


Table 3-16

Maximum allowed span loss, dispersion compensation rules and padding rules for 1-40
Plus fiber, 10 Gbit/s channels (See Notes 1, 2, 11 and 12)
applications deployed on TrueWave
10G, TW+, C-Band, Unidirectional, 1-40 , Topology 2, Dual-amp Bypass
Span

Max. Avg.
Loss
(dB/span)
(see Note 3)

DCM/DSCM
(see Notes 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8)

Total Length
Compensation
(km)

Fixed Tx
Pad
Required
(dB)
(See Notes
9 and 10)

34

1600 DCM200P at Tx

44-185

28

1600 DCM200P at Tx, T1C DSCM20 at Rx

171-318

26

1600 DCM200P at Tx, T1C DSCM20 at LA1,


T1C DSCM10 at LA2 and Rx

326-408

25

1600 DCM100P at Tx, T1C DSCM20 at LA1,


and LA2, T1C DSCM10 at LA3 and Rx

490-509

23

1600 DCM200P at Tx, T1C DSCM20A at


LA1, LA2, LA3, and LA4

553-572

6 (See
Note 13)

22

1600 DCM200P at Tx, T1C DSCM20A at


LA1 and LA2, T1C DSCM10 at LA3, LA4 and
Rx

511-526

Note 1: All budgets require single Forward Error Correction (FEC) on.
Note 2: Loss is calculated from the Fiber Side of Post Amp to fibre side of Pre Amp.
Note 3: The supported minimum span loss is 17 dB for 1- to 6-span links.
Note 4: LA1 is the first line site closest to the transmitter, LA2 is the second closest line site to the
transmitter, on a direction basis.
Note 5: All the DSCM used here are C-Band Type 1 DSCMs (T1C DSCM).
Note 6: Use the same DCM strategy for 1-40 applications.
Note 7: DSCM at Tx must be placed in the MSA of the Mux site. DSCM at the MSA site must be placed
after the MSA pad. DSCM at Rx must be placed in the MSA of the Demux site.
Note 8: MSA loss rule is 10dB (8 to 11dB)
Note 9: The same fixed transmitter pad is applied to 1-40 applications.
Note 10: The Common Tx Pad should be placed between the output of the Module 1 Mux DWDM
coupler and at the input of the head-end amplifier.
Note 11: The minimum loss between the output of the dual amplifier and the input of the DSCM is 5
dB for line and Rx sites. The purpose of having a 5 dB pad is to ensure that power launch into the DSCM
is low enough to prevent nonlinear distortion. Even with this 5 dB pad, the MSA loss rule of 8 to 11 dB
must be followed.
Note 12: The allowable difference between the minimum and maximum span lengths for the TW+
system is 50 km, with the exception of single span.
Note 13: 6-span TW+ link requires the use of a Dual Amp and Booster 18 rather than the Dual Amp
and Booster 21 suggested.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical link engineering rules 3-39


Provisioning rules

Table 3-17 shows the 1-20 provisioning rules over TrueWave Plus.
Table 3-17
applications deployed on TrueWave
Plus fiber, 10 Gbit/s channels
Provisioning rules for 20-
10G, TW+, C-Band, Unidirectional, 1-20 , Topology 2, Dual-amp Bypass
Transmitter Site
Span

Dual

Line Site

Booster 21

Peak
Total
Peak
Power Power Power
(dBm) (dBm) (dBm)

Dual

Receiver Site

Booster 21

Total
Peak
Total
Power Power Power
(dBm) (dBm) (dBm)

Dual

Booster 21

Total
Peak Total Peak
Total
Peak
Power Power Power Power Power Power
(dBm) (dBm) (dBm) (dBm) (dBm) (dBm)

N/A

N/A

5.5

21

--

--

--

21

15.5

21

N/A

N/A

5.5

21

15.5

5.5

21

15.5

21

N/A

N/A

3.5

21

15.5

3.5

21

15.5

21

N/A

N/A

2.5

21

15.5

2.5

21

15.5

21

N/A

N/A

2.5

21

15.5

2.5

21

15.5

21

N/A

N/A

2.5

18

15.5

2.5

18

15.5

18

Note 1: The peak power clamp is enabled on all amplifiers


Note 2: Provisioning rules assume an over-launch of 0.5 dB to account for a head-end optical patch
panel.
Note 3: N/A is short for not applicable.
Note 4: 6-span TW+ link requires the use of a Dual Amp and Booster 18 rather than the Dual Amp and
Booster 21 suggested.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

3-40 Optical link engineering rules

OPTera Long Haul 1600 C-Band unidirectional applications on SMF-LS


fiber multiplexing 10-Gbit/s channels
Use this section for DWDM systems carrying 10 Gbit/s.
You can deploy 1 to 6 span systems with a maximum of 20 wavelengths.
For a proper design, you must follow these steps:
Verify that the loss of each span in the link is equal to or below the values
that appear in Table 3-18. If optical patch panels are not installed at all
sites, follow the derating procedure explained in Optical patch panel rule
on page 3-11. You can use the excess loss borrowing method described on
page 3-9 in paragraphs 4 to 7, if applicable.
Select the appropriate DCM/DSCM deployment for the given link length
using Table 3-18. DCM/DSCM placement is very specific. DCMs/DSCMs
must be placed as indicated in Table 3-18.
Read the remainder of the section for amplifier provisioning rules, padding
rules information.
ATTENTION
All links must meet both the maximum allowed span loss and the related
dispersion window of operation.
Dispersion windows of operation are strictly applicable to the number of
spans for which they are designed.
ATTENTION
FEC must always be turned on. For all WT applications which presently do
not support FEC feature, contact Nortel Networks.
ATTENTION
The link budgets rules are compatible for 20 wavelengths channel count.
ATTENTION
The allowable difference in span lengths for system SMF-LS is
50 km. The difference in length between the maximum and minimum span
length cannot be greater than 50 km, otherwise, an alternative DCM/DSCM
strategy is required.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical link engineering rules 3-41

ATTENTION
The 20 wavelength plan for SMF-LS link fall within MUX/DEMUX
modules 3 and 4 (short wavelength end). Because the MUX common output
is in module 1, module 1, 3, and 4 must be used to implement the C-Band
wavelength plan. Any channel in the 20 wavelength plan can be replaced with
the spare channel in module 1 without budget penalty.

Maximum allowed span loss, dispersion windows and DCM/DSCM deployment


rules

Always design the link for the final number of wavelengths that is to be
multiplexed in it after all the planned upgrades.
SMF-LS Wavelength plan

This application supports wavelength plans spanning from 1530.33 nm to


1545.32 nm (Grid 1) or 1530.72 nm to 1545.72 nm (Grid 2). Use Module 3 and
Module 4 with applications on LS fiber. See Wavelength plans on page 4-6
for more information.
Tx chirp

The required transmitter chirp is positive chirp for this particular fiber type
application. See Tx chirp adjustment for dispersion compensation on page
4-1 for more information.
FEC rules

For all spans, FEC must be turned on and the EOL BER is 10-15.
Common Tx Pads

Common Transmitter (Tx) Pads are attenuators placed at the head-end of the
optical link. The strategy is to use the same attenuators for all channel counts
supported by any application. The common Tx pad must be placed between the
output of the Mux coupler and the input of the first-in-service amplifier
(FISA), that is before the DCM/DSCM if there is a DCM/DSCM present. See
Table 3-18 for detailed placement of Common Tx Pads.
MSA Pads

It is possible that MSA padding be required at OPTera Long Haul 1600 line
amplifier sites to set the loss in the mid-stage. MSA Pads must be placed
immediately after the Dual-Amplifier output, that is before the DCM/DSCM
if there is a DCM/DSCM present. See the OPTera Long Haul 1600 MSA rules
on page 4-2 for more information.
Span Pads

Span Pads are attenuators placed in line in order to bring the link attenuation
within the prescribed range. Span Pads must be placed after the Booster output.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

3-42 Optical link engineering rules


SMF-LS fiber link with external tap coupler

For applications with an external tap coupler at the amplifier output, an


additional power loss of 0.5 dB must be considered for the tap coupler and
connector.
In general, all external tap couplers at the output of the dual amplifier are
placed before the fixed pad or DSCM at MSA.
The following engineering rules apply:

At the dual amplifier output, there is no change to the MSA padding rule.
There is no need to over-launch at the Dual Amp output.
Over-launch by 0.5dB (peak power) at booster output.

For more information, refer to Appendix D: External tap couplers. If you do


not have a 1600G C-band amplifier with an external tap coupler, these rules do
not apply.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical link engineering rules 3-43


Table 3-18

Maximum allowed span loss, dispersion compensation rules and padding rules for 1-40
applications deployed on SMF-LS fiber, 10 Gbit/s channels (See Notes 1, 2, 11 and 12)
10G, SMF-LS, C-Band, Unidirectional, 1-20 , Topology 1, No Bypass
Span

Max. Avg.
Loss
(dB/span)
(see Note 3)

DCM/DSCM
(see Notes 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8)

Total Length
Compensation
(km)

Fixed Tx
Pad
Required
(dB)
(see Notes 9
and 10)

34

T1C DSCM50 at Tx, 1600 DCM300P at Rx

101-200

30

T1C DSCM40 at Tx, two 1600 DCM200P at


Rx

232-318

27

T1C DSCM30 at Tx, two 1600 DCM200P at


Rx

279-351

25

T1C DSCM20 at Tx, two 1600 DCM200P at


Rx

344-416

24

T1C DSCM20 at Tx, 1600 DCM200P at LA4,


2DCM200P at Rx

426-534

22

T1C DSCM30 at Tx, two 1600 DCM200P at


LA5, two 1600 DCM200P at Rx

533-572

Note 1: All budgets require single Forward Error Correction (FEC) on.
Note 2: Loss is calculated from the Fiber Side of Post Amp to fibre side of Pre Amp.
Note 3: The supported minimum span loss is 17 dB for 1- to 6-span links.
Note 4: LA1 is the first line site closest to the transmitter, LA2 is the second closest line site to the
transmitter, on a direction basis.
Note 5: All the DSCM used here are C-Band Type 1 DSCMs (T1C DSCM).
Note 6: Use the same DCM/DSCM strategy for 1-20 applications.
Note 7: DSCM at Tx must be placed in the MSA of the Mux site. DSCM at the MSA site must be placed
after the MSA pad. DSCM at Rx must be placed in the MSA of the Demux site.
Note 8: MSA loss rule is 10dB (8 to 11dB)
Note 9: The same fixed transmitter pad is applied to 1-20 applications.
Note 10: The Common Tx Pad should be placed between the output of the Module 1 Mux DWDM
coupler and at the input of the head-end amplifier.
Note 11: The minimum loss between the output of the dual amplifier and the input of the DSCM is 5 dB
for line and Rx sites. The purpose of having a 5 dB pad is to ensure that power launch into the DSCM
is low enough to prevent nonlinear distortion. Even with this 5 dB pad, the MSA loss rule of 8 to 11 dB
must be followed.
Note 12: The allowable difference between the minimum and maximum span lengths for the SMF-LS
system is 50 km, with the exception of single span.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

3-44 Optical link engineering rules


Provisioning rules

Table 3-19 shows the 1-20 provisioning rules over SMF-LS.


Table 3-19
applications deployed on SMF-LS fiber, 10 Gbit/s channels
Provisioning rules for 20-
10G, SMF-LS, C-Band, Unidirectional, 1-20 , Topology 1, No Bypass
Transmitter Site
Dual

Span

Line Site

Booster 18

Dual

Receiver Site

Booster 18

Dual

Booster 18

Peak Total
Peak Total Peak Total
Total
Peak
Total
Peak Total Peak
Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power
(dBm) (dBm) (dBm) (dBm) (dBm) (dBm) (dBm) (dBm) (dBm) (dBm) (dBm) (dBm)

15.5

4.5

18

--

--

--

15.5

18

15.5

4.5

18

15.5

4.5

18

15.5

18

15.5

3.5

18

15.5

3.5

18

15.5

18

15.5

3.5

18

15.5

3.5

18

15.5

18

15.5

2.5

18

15.5

2.5

18

15.5

18

15.5

1.5

18

15.5

1.5

18

15.5

18

Note 1: The peak power clamp is enabled on all amplifiers


Note 2: Provisioning rules assume a booster over-launch of 0.5 dB to account for a head-end optical
patch panel.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical link engineering rules 3-45

OPTera Long Haul 1600 C-Band unidirectional applications on


RS fiber multiplexing 10-Gbit/s channels
TrueWave
Use this section for DWDM systems carrying 10 Gbit/s.
You can deploy 1 to 6 span systems with a maximum of 40 wavelengths.
For a proper design, you must follow these steps:
Verify that the loss of each span in the link is equal to or below the values
that appear in Table 3-20. If optical patch panels are not installed at all
sites, follow the derating procedure explained in Optical patch panel rule
on page 3-11. You can use the excess loss borrowing method described on
page 3-9 in paragraphs 4 to 7, if applicable.
Select the appropriate DCM/DSCM deployment for the given link length
using Table 3-20. DCM/DSCM placement is very specific. DCMs/DSCMs
must be placed as indicated in Table 3-20.
Read the remainder of the section for amplifier provisioning rules, padding
rules information.
ATTENTION
All links must meet both the maximum allowed span loss and the related
dispersion window of operation.
Dispersion windows of operation are strictly applicable to the number of
spans for which they are designed.
ATTENTION
FEC must always be turned on. For all WT applications which presently do
not support FEC feature, contact Nortel Networks.
ATTENTION
The link budgets rules are compatible for 40 wavelengths channel count.
ATTENTION
The power provisioning rules are available for up to 20 wavelengths
applications. The power provisioning rules for 40 wavelengths count will be
provided with a future OPTera Long Haul 1600 software release.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

3-46 Optical link engineering rules

ATTENTION
Although the current OPTera Long Haul 1600 hardware is compatible for a
channel count of 40 per band on TrueWave RS, OPTera Long Haul 1600
Release 3 only supports channel power monitoring capabilities for a
wavelength count less than or equal to 20 (Module 1 and Module 2 only). As
a result, peak power control and Power Optimizer is only available for links
with channel counts less than or equal to 20 (Module 1 and Module 2 only).
Above 20, scaling channel capacity with PO will be addressed in future
OPTera Long Haul 1600 software releases.

ATTENTION
The allowable difference in span lengths for system TrueWave RS is
14 km. The difference in length between the maximum and minimum span
length cannot be greater than 14 km, otherwise, an alternative DCM/DSCM
strategy is required.
Maximum allowed span loss, dispersion windows and DCM/DSCM deployment
rules

Always design the link for the final number of wavelengths that is to be
multiplexed in it after all the planned upgrades.
RS Wavelength plan
TrueWave

This application supports wavelength plans spanning from 1530.33 nm to


1562.23 nm (Grid 1) or 1530.72 nm to 1562.64 nm (Grid 2). Use Module 1,
Module 2, Module 3 and Module 4 with applications on TrueWave RS fiber.
See Wavelength plans on page 4-6 for more information.
Tx chirp

The required transmitter chirp is negative chirp for this particular fiber type
application. See Tx chirp adjustment for dispersion compensation on page
4-1 for more information.
FEC rules

For all spans, FEC must be turned on and the EOL BER is 10-15.
Common Tx Pads

Common Transmitter (Tx) Pads are attenuators placed at the head-end of the
optical link. The strategy is to use the same attenuators for all channel counts
supported by any application. The common Tx pad must be placed between the
output of the Mux coupler and the input of the first-in-service amplifier
(FISA), that is before the DCM/DSCM if there is a DCM/DSCM present. See
Table 3-20 for detailed placement of Common Tx Pads.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical link engineering rules 3-47


MSA Pads

It is possible that MSA padding be required at OPTera Long Haul 1600 line
amplifier sites to set the loss in the mid-stage. MSA Pads must be placed
immediately after the Dual-Amplifier output, that is before the DCM/DSCM
if there is a DCM/DSCM present. See the OPTera Long Haul 1600 MSA rules
on page 4-2 for more information.
Span Pads

Span Pads are attenuators placed in line in order to bring the link attenuation
within the prescribed range. Span Pads must be placed after the Booster output.
RS fiber link with external tap coupler
TrueWave

For applications with an external tap coupler at the amplifier output, an


additional power loss of 0.5 dB must be considered for the tap coupler and
connector.
In general, all external tap couplers at the output of the dual amplifier are
placed before the fixed pad or DSCM at MSA.
The following engineering rules apply:

At the dual amplifier output, reduce the fixed MSA pad requirement from
5 dB to 4 dB. There is no need to over-launch at the Dual Amp output.
Over-launch by 0.5dB (peak power) at booster output.

For more information, refer to Appendix D: External tap couplers. If you do


not have a 1600G C-band amplifier with an external tap coupler, these rules do
not apply.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

3-48 Optical link engineering rules


Table 3-20

Maximum allowed span loss, dispersion compensation rules and padding rules for 1-40
RS fiber, 10 Gbit/s channels (See Notes 1, 2, 11 and 12)
applications deployed on TrueWave
10G, TWRS, C-Band, Unidirectional, 1-40 , Topology 2, Dual-amp Bypass
Span

Max. Avg.
Loss
(dB/span)
(see Note 3)

DCM/DSCM
(see Notes 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8)

Total Length
Compensation
(km)

Fixed Tx
Pad
Required
(dB)
(see Notes
9 and 10)

34

1600 DCM200P at Tx

42-187

28

1600 DCM200P at Tx, T1C DSCM10 at L1 &


Rx

135-324

26

1600 DCM200P at Tx, T1C DSCM-10 at


LA1, LA2, DSCM30 at Rx

235-430

25

1600 DCM200P at Tx, T1C DSCM10 at LA1,


LA3, DSCM20 at LA2, T1C DSCM30 at Rx

326-465

24

1600 DCM200P at Tx, T1C DSCM10 at LA2,


LA4, T1C DSCM20 at LA1, LA3, T1C
DSCM30 at Rx

444-466

23

T1C DSCM20 at LA1, LA3, LA5, T1C


DSCM10 at LA2 & LA4, T1C DSCM30 at Rx

558-571

Note 1: All budgets require single Forward Error Correction (FEC) on.
Note 2: Loss is calculated from the Fiber Side of Post Amp to fibre side of Pre Amp.
Note 3: The supported minimum span loss is 17 dB for 1- to 6-span links.
Note 4: LA1 is the first line site closest to the transmitter, LA2 is the second closest line site to the
transmitter, on a direction basis.
Note 5: All the DSCM used here are C-Band Type 1 DSCMs (T1C DSCM).
Note 6: Use the same DCM strategy for 1-40 applications.
Note 7: DSCM at Tx must be placed in the MSA of the Mux site. DSCM at the MSA site must be placed
after the MSA pad. DSCM at Rx must be placed in the MSA of the Demux site.
Note 8: MSA loss rule is 10dB (8 to 11dB)
Note 9: The same fixed transmitter pad is applied to 1-40 applications.
Note 10: The Common Tx Pad should be placed between the output of the Module 1 Mux DWDM
coupler and at the input of the head-end amplifier.
Note 11: The minimum loss between the output of the dual amplifier and the input of the DSCM is 5
dB for line and Rx sites. The purpose of having a 5 dB pad is to ensure that power launch into the
DSCM is low enough to prevent nonlinear distortion. Even with this 5 dB pad, the MSA loss rule of 8
to 11 dB must be followed.
Note 12: The allowable difference between the minimum and maximum span lengths for the TWRS
system is 14 km, with the exception of single span.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical link engineering rules 3-49


Provisioning rules

Table 3-21 shows the 1-20 provisioning rules over TrueWave RS.
Table 3-21
applications deployed on TrueWave
RS fiber, 10 Gbit/s channels
Provisioning rules for 20-
10G, TWRS, C-Band, Unidirectional, 1-20 , Topology 2, Dual-amp Bypass
Transmitter Site
Span

Dual
Total
Peak
Power Power
(dBm) (dBm)

Line Site

Booster 21

Dual

Receiver Site

Booster 21

Dual

Booster 21

Peak
Peak Total
Total
Total Peak Total Peak
Peak
Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power
(dBm) (dBm) (dBm) (dBm) (dBm) (dBm) (dBm) (dBm) (dBm)

Total
Power
(dBm)

N/A

N/A

5.5

21

--

--

--

--

15.5

21

N/A

N/A

4.5

21

15.5

4.5

21

15.5

21

N/A

N/A

4.5

21

15.5

4.5

21

15.5

21

N/A

N/A

4.5

21

15.5

4.5

21

15.5

21

N/A

N/A

4.5

21

15.5

4.5

21

15.5

21

N/A

N/A

3.5

21

15.5

3.5

21

15.5

21

Note 1: The peak power clamp is enabled on all amplifiers


Note 2: Provisioning rules assume an over-launch of 0.5 dB to account for a head-end optical patch
panel.
Note 3: N/A is short for not applicable.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

3-50 Optical link engineering rules

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

4-1

Application-independent optical link


engineering rules
4The following rules apply to all OPTera Long Haul 1600 C-Band
Unidirectional applications.
Tx chirp adjustment for dispersion compensation
Depending on the fiber type you use in the application, use a DWDM
transmitter with positive or negative chirp to pre-compensate for dispersion.
The 10 Gbit/s DWDM transmitters are software provisioned for positive or
negative chirp.
The selection of a positive or negative chirp transmitter depends on the exact
value of 0. For example, a transmitter which sees negative dispersion ( < 0)
should have its chirp set to positive. Table 4-1 shows the engineering rules for
selecting the appropriate 10 Gbit/s transmitter chirp as a function of
wavelength and fiber type.
Table 4-1
10 Gbit/s Tx chirp polarity selection criteria with OPTera Long Haul 1600
Fiber type

Net link dispersion

Required transmitter chirp

NDSF

positive

negative chirp

TrueWave Classic

positive

negative chirp

E-LEAF

positive

negative chirp

TrueWave Plus

positive

negative chirp

SMF-LS

negative

positive chirp

TrueWave RS

positive

negative chirp

NLS dithering provisioning


Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is a nonlinear scattering effect that
transfers energy from one light wave to a counter-propagating light wave of
longer wavelength. Therefore, the pulses of the shorter DWDM wavelengths

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

4-2 Application-independent optical link engineering rules

will see their energy being transferred to longer wavelengths while they
propagate through the fiber. SBS effects become more significant with
increasing power of DWDM channels and increasing length of the optical link.
Since SBS is a narrowband effect, it is possible to dither the source to decrease
the penalty. The frequency excursion of the dither must be sufficient to
increase the SBS threshold, but small enough so that the dispersion penalty is
not seriously increased. NLS dithering must be turned on for OPTera Long
Haul 1600 Releases 1.2 and higher. See the OPTera Long Haul 1600, or
OPTera Long Haul 1600 Optical Amplifier Shelf NTP libraries for NLS dither
provisioning procedures.
OPTera Long Haul 1600 mid-stage access (MSA) loss restrictions
When 1600G amplifiers are used, components can be inserted between them.
To optimize the performance of the line amplifier, the loss in the MSA must be
adjusted within certain limits. The total loss in the MSA is the sum of the loss
of all the components inserted between two 1600G amplifiers. Table 4-2 gives
MSA loss targeted values unless otherwise indicated in the tables of Chapter
3, Optical link engineering rules.
Table 4-2
MSA loss recommendations
MSA loss [dB]

Link budget impact

<8

Not supported. Pad required to reach the 8-11 dB


supported range at this moment.

8-11

No link budget penalty.

>11

Not supported at this time.

It is important to keep the loss within the prescribed limits. Additional padding
can be required to bring the total loss within the desired operating point.
The 1600G amplifiers are designed for 10 dB of mid-stage access (MSA) loss.
However, the recommended MSA padding value can be anywhere between 8
to 11 dB. The MSA loss includes connector, DCM/DSCM, OADM, and pad
losses within the MSA site.
To calculate the required pads for Network Planning purposes, the loss of the
inserted components must be known. Table 4-3 gives the loss of all
components that can be inserted in the MSA.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Application-independent optical link engineering rules 4-3


.

Table 4-3
Maximum DCM losses used for total MSA loss calculation
Type

DCM Module

Maximum Loss [dB]

Positive DCM

1600 DCM 100P

2.3

Positive DCM

1600 DCM 200P

4.6

Positive DCM

1600 DCM 300P

6.9

C-Band Type 1 DSCM

T1C DSCM-5

2.2

C-Band Type 1 DSCM

T1C DSCM-10

2.6

C-Band Type 1 DSCM

T1C DSCM-20

3.4

C-Band Type 1 DSCM

T1C DSCM-30

4.2

C-Band Type 1 DSCM

T1C DSCM-40

5.0

C-Band Type 1 DSCM

T1C DSCM-50

5.8

C-Band Type 1 DSCM

T1C DSCM-60

6.6

C-Band Type 1 DSCM

T1C DSCM-70

7.4

C-Band Type 1 DSCM

T1C DSCM-80

8.2

C-Band Type 1 DSCM

T1C DSCM-90

9.0

C-Band Type 1 DSCM

T1C DSCM-100

9.8

C-Band Type 1 DSCM

T1C DSCM-110

10.6

C-Band Type 1 DSCM

T1C DSCM-120

11.4

ATTENTION
Measured loss due to patch panels and other passive components must be
taken into account when determining the required pads to adjust the MSA
loss to the prescribed MSA loss recommendations (Table 4-2). This measured
loss can be determined from OAM&P Display Total Power
Recommendations Screen.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

4-4 Application-independent optical link engineering rules

Polarization mode dispersion (PMD) consideration


In rare cases, the signal distortion and performance degradation resulting from
PMD must be compensated for by reducing the link budgets provided in this
chapter by the appropriate amount. Table 4-4 provides the specifications for
the modification to be made to the link budgets.
To obtain the mean link differential group delay (DGD), you can use data
provided by the fiber supplier or, preferably, you can measure the mean DGD
directly using commercially available test equipment.
Data provided by the fiber supplier is normally specified as a PMD coefficient
[ps/km]. To calculate the mean DGD for a link, use the following formula:
Mean link DGD={ [(PMD value/span) ps/km]2 x [(length of span) km]}1/2
For example, in a 3-span system with span lengths of 80 km, 60 km, and 40 km
in which the PMD coefficients are 0.2 ps/km, 0.16 ps/km, and 0.13 ps/km,
respectively, the DGD would be calculated as:
Mean link DGD = (0.22 x 80 + 0.162 x 60 + 0.132 x 40)1/2 = 2.33 ps
Table 4-4
PMD specifications for 10 Gbit/s DWDM applications
Differential group delay
[ps]
10 Gbit/s

Engineering rules

0-4

No change

4-9

De-rate average loss per span by 1 dB

9 - 14

De-rate average loss per span by 2 dB

14 - 22

Contact Nortel Networks.

> 22

Reduce the number of spans (see Note 2)

Note 1: In these ranges the probability of a protection switch when the signal
degrade threshold is set to 10-8 is one per year.
Note 2: If PMD compensation is needed, contact Nortel Networks for more
information.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Application-independent optical link engineering rules 4-5

Nortel Networks 100 GHz ITU-T compliant wavelength grid


The Nortel Networks DWDM wavelength grid is compliant with the
international 100 GHz ITU-T wavelength grid. The 1600G amplifiers provide
optical amplification in two separate bands of transmission: the Conventional
Band (C-Band) and the Long Band (L-Band). The C-Band ranges from 1530
nm to 1563 nm. The L-Band ranges from 1570 nm to 1603 nm. Currently, a
maximum of 40 C-Band wavelengths selected from the 100 GHz ITU-T
wavelength grid are provided. The L-Band capability will be introduced in
future releases of OPTera Long Haul 1600.
To simplify the network planning of a unidirectional or bidirectional DWDM
architecture, the Nortel Networks wavelength plan is divided into two Grids in
the C-Band:

Grid 1 Wavelengths Range: 1530.33 nm to 1562.23 nm, Spare


1546.12 nm. Grid 1 is based on the 100 GHz ITU-T wavelength grid.
Grid 2 Wavelengths Range: 1530.72 nm to 1562.64 nm, Spare
1546.52 nm. Grid 2 is offset by 50 GHz from the 100 GHz ITU-T
wavelength grid.
To ensure optimal use of the OPTera Long Haul 1600 gain spectrum, the OSC
signal wavelengths (UniOSC 1480nm/1510 nm, BiOSC 1480 nm/1510 nm,
UniOSC 1510/1615 or BiOSC 1510/1615) are allocated outside the channel
wavelength plan grid. Figure 4-1 shows Nortel Networks 1600G Amplifier
Gain Spectrum and channel allocation grid.
Figure 4-1
1600G Amplifier Gain Spectrum
OTP1631.eps

1480 nm 1510 nm
OSCs

1530 nm

1563 nm 1570 nm

1603 nm

1615 nm
OSC

Conventional Band
(C-Band)

Long Band
(L-Band)

OPTera Long Haul 1600 gain window

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

4-6 Application-independent optical link engineering rules

Wavelength plans
The wavelength upgrade plans for OPTera Long Haul 1600 C-Band are shown
in Table 4-5 (Grid 1) and Table 4-6 (Grid 2). The tables specify the Channel
Wavelength-to-DWDM Mux/Demux Module mapping.
For all fiber types, the engineering rules for DWDM Mux/Demux Module
deployment sequence are:

Deploy Module 1 until all the capacity is exhausted for all fiber types.
Deploy Module 2 next for all fiber types except certain types of NZ-DSF
fiber.
Deploy Module 3 next for all fiber types.
Finally, deploy Module 4 for all fiber types except TrueWave Classic TM.

OADM Applications
For OADM applications, choose the wavelengths according to 1-channel,
2-channel, or Band OADM drop recommendations. OADM modules are to be
introduced in 1-channel, 2-channel, or multichannel band drop. See Table 4-5
and Table 4-6 for the wavelength plan corresponding to the OADM couplers.
Channels designated to support express or OADM channels need to be
assigned correctly to either express or OADM applications. As a result, careful
planning of wavelengths before deployment is required. For example, if all
wavelengths from Module 1 are to be deployed as express channels, the
OADM wavelengths on that module should remain as express wavelengths. In
the event that OADM is required at a later date, the OADM wavelengths from
modules 2, 3, or 4 should be used providing that the OADM wavelengths on
them have not yet been deployed as express.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Application-independent optical link engineering rules 4-7


Table 4-5
C-Band Grid 1 wavelength plan for the 1600G Amplifier
C-Band Grid 1 wavelengths, 10-Lambda modular plan (100-GHz ITU-T)
Express
OADM
Frequency (THz) Wavelength (nm) Mod 1 Mod 2 Mod 3 Mod 4 1-channel 2-channel
195.90
1530.33
195.80
1531.12
195.70
1531.90
195.60
1532.68
195.50
1533.47
195.40
1534.25
195.30
1535.04
o
195.20
1535.82
x
o
o
195.10
1536.61
195.00
1537.40
x
o
x
o
194.90
1538.19
194.80
1538.98
o
x
o
194.70
1539.77
194.60
1540.56
o
194.50
1541.35
194.40
1542.14
194.30
1542.94
194.20
1543.73
194.10
1544.53
194.00
1545.32
193.90
1546.12
x
Spare
193.80
1546.92
193.70
1547.72
193.60
1548.51
193.50
1549.32
193.40
1550.12
193.30
1550.92
193.20
1551.72
o
x
o
193.10
1552.52
193.00
1553.33
o
x
o
192.90
1554.13
192.80
1554.94
x
o
o
192.70
1555.75
192.60
1556.55
x
o
o
192.50
1557.36
192.40
1558.17
192.30
1558.98
192.20
1559.79
192.10
1560.61
192.00
1561.42
191.90
1562.23
Note: Shaded boxes in the Mod 1, 2, 3, 4 columns represent wavelengths supported on each module.
1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

4-8 Application-independent optical link engineering rules


Table 4-6
C-Band Grid 2 wavelength plan for the 1600G Amplifier
C-Band Grid 2 wavelengths, 10-Lambda modular plan (-50 GHz offset from 100-GHz ITU-T)
Express
OADM
Frequency (THz) Wavelength (nm) Mod 1 Mod 2 Mod 3 Mod 4 1-channel 2-channel
195.85
1530.72
195.75
1531.51
195.65
1532.29
195.55
1533.07
195.45
1533.86
195.35
1534.64
195.25
1535.43
o
195.15
1536.22
x
o
o
195.05
1537.00
194.95
1537.79
x
o
x
o
194.85
1538.58
194.75
1539.37
o
x
o
194.65
1540.16
194.55
1540.95
o
194.45
1541.75
194.35
1542.54
194.25
1543.33
194.15
1544.13
194.05
1544.92
193.95
1545.72
193.85
1546.52
x
Spare
193.75
1547.32
193.65
1548.11
193.55
1548.92
193.45
1549.72
193.35
1550.52
193.25
1551.32
193.15
1552.12
o
x
o
193.05
1552.93
192.95
1553.73
o
x
o
192.85
1554.54
192.75
1555.34
x
o
o
192.65
1556.15
192.55
1556.96
x
o
o
192.45
1557.77
192.35
1558.58
192.25
1559.39
192.15
1560.20
192.05
1561.01
191.95
1561.83
191.85
1562.64
Note: Shaded boxes in the Mod 1, 2, 3, 4 columns represent wavelengths supported on each module.
OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

5-1

Optical layer components specifications5This chapter describes the optical building block components specifications
required to deploy the applications described in this applications guide. The
components specifications are split into the following two groups:
Active components

Optical Service Channel (unidirectional or bidirectional) (Table 5-1 on


page 5-2)
Dual amplifier circuit pack (Table 5-2 on page 5-4)
Booster amplifier (Table 5-3 on page 5-6)

Passive components

DWDM couplers, C-Band, Grid 1 or Grid 2, Mux or Demux (Table 5-4 on


page 5-9)
Dispersion and Dispersion Slope Compensating Modules (DCM/DSCM)
(Table 5-5 on page 5-12)
Fiber optic attenuators (Table 5-6 on page 5-17 and Table 5-7 on page
5-19)

Provided within this chapter are functional descriptions of each optical


component, package options, and input/output interface specifications. The
specifications described are for reference only and are not to be used for any
other purpose.
With the exception of optical fixed pad attenuators, Nortel Networks makes all
the passive components described in this chapter and considers these
components as an integrable part of its network solution. Two key advantages
to purchasing these components from Nortel Networks is a total quality
guarantee for the manufacture of all its subcomponents, including those
provided by subcontractors, and access to the Nortel Networks end-of-life
(EOL) performance guarantee.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

5-2 Optical layer components specifications


Table 5-1
Optical Service Channel (unidirectional or bidirectional)
OTP0836.eps

UniOSC
1510/1615 nm

OSC-1
OSC-2

151 OS
0 A C-1
dd
161
5D
rop

O
5 A SC-2
dd
151
0

161

1
2

O
0 A SC-1
dd
161
5

151

Dro
p

O
5 A SC-2
dd
151
0

161
Dro

Dro

continued

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical layer components specifications 5-3


Functional description
Nortel Networks offers two types of OSC circuits packs: a bidirectional OSC and a unidirectional OSC.
This circuit pack is mandatory in all configurations and is supported in slots 1 (G0) and 6 (G5) of the
main shelf.
Use the UniOSC 1480/1510 nm or UniOSC 1510/1615 nm only in a unidirectional network. If there are
plans to migrate from a unidirectional network to a bidirectional network, then use the BiOSC 1480/1510
nm or BiOSC 1510/1615 nm circuit pack.
Hardware description
The OSC circuit pack is equipped with 2 trays named OSC-1 and OSC-2. OSC-1 contains connectors
to support optical service channel in Direction 1. OSC-2 contains connectors to support optical service
channel in Direction 2.
The faceplate includes four LEDs. A green LED identifies an active circuit pack. A red LED indicates a
failed circuit pack. Two yellow LEDs indicate a loss of signal (LOS) for OSC-1 and OSC-2.
The UniOSC 1480/1510 nm supports four ports, allowing OSC add/drop capabilities at both 1510 nm
and 1480 nm. The UniOSC 1510/1615 nm supports four ports, allowing OSC add/drop capabilities at
both 1615 nm and 1480 nm.
The faceplate shown in the figure on the previous page represents the UniOSC 1510/1615 nm. The
OSC port labeling is 1615 nm ADD, 1510 nm DROP, 1615 nm DROP and 1510 nm ADD.
The BiOSC 1480/1510 nm contains two ports: 1510 nm ADD/1480 nm DROP and
1480 nm ADD/1510 nm DROP. The BiOSC 1510/1615 nm contains two ports: 1615 nm ADD/1510 nm
DROP and 1510 nm ADD/1615 nm DROP.The bidirectional OSC circuit pack is the same as that shown
in the figure on page 5-2 except that the BiOSC only has two connectors instead of four. You can order
FC, ST, or SC type adapters to match the fiber plant connector types.
OAM&P features
The OSC circuit pack has the following features: remote provisioning and alarm reporting.
Options
Definition

PEC

UniOSC 1480/1510 nm

NTCA15AA/ NTCA15AB/ NTCA15AC

BiOSC 1480/1510 nm

NTCA15BA/ NTCA15BB/ NTCA15BC

UniOSC 1510/1615 nm

NTCA15AE/ NTCA15AF/ NTCA15AG

BiOSC 1510/1615 nm

NTCA15BE/ NTCA15BF/ NTCA15BG

Note: For more details, refer to the 1600G Amplifier Network Application Guide (NTY314AX).

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

5-4 Optical layer components specifications


Table 5-2
Dual amplifier circuit pack
OTP1402.eps

C-band Dual Amplifier

AMP
AMP

MO
N-1

UP
A-1

OU
T-1

IN-1
MO
N-2

1
2

MO

N-1

UP
A-2

OU
T-2

IN-2

MO

N-2

UP

A-1

UP

A-2

OU

T-1

OU

T-2

IN-

IN-

Functional description
The Dual Amplifier is mandatory. Deploy the Dual Amplifier first in any amplifier configuration. The Dual
Amplifier provides amplification of up to +15.5 dBm. The first extension shelf houses this circuit pack in
slots 1 and 6.
OPTera Long Haul 1600 Release 3 introduces the Dual Amplifier to support amplification in the C-Band
only. A separate Dual Amplifier will be introduced to support transmission in the L-Band.
continued

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical layer components specifications 5-5


Table 5-2
Dual amplifier circuit pack (continued)
Hardware description
The Dual Amplifier supports two amplifiers located in two different trays named Amp-1 and Amp-2. The
upgrade port UPA provides OSC drop capabilities. The Dual Amplifier has eight ports.
You can order FC, ST, or SC type adapters to match the fiber plant connector types.
The faceplate includes four LEDs. A green LED identifies an active circuit pack. A red LED indicates a
failed circuit pack. Two yellow LEDs indicate a loss of signal (LOS) for the following incoming signals:
traffic 1, and traffic 2.
OAM&P and control features
remote provisioning
total and per-channel optical power monitoring (analog maintenance 2)
optical link equalization software to optimize link performance
alarm reporting
optical reflectometer
channel autodiscovery
autopropagation of provisioned values
local locking of provisioned power values
gain control or total power control (with and without peak power clamping)
Options
Definition

PEC

Dual Amplifier C-Band

NTCA15CK/ NTCA15CL/ NTCA15CM

Note: For more details, refer to the 1600G Amplifier Network Application Guide (NTY314AX).
Specifications
Wavelengths (nm)

1530 to 1563

Output power (dBm)

15.5

Design flat gain (dB)

19.5 (see Note 1)

Gain control for minimal channel


interaction

yes

OADM support

yes (see Note 2)

Note 1: An additional 0.5 dB has been added to ensure enough gain to overcome amplifier connector
losses (assumed to be 0.25 dB per mated connector).
Note 2: OADM support when combined with a Booster Amplifier. Refer to Table 5-3 for Booster
Amplifier specifications.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

5-6 Optical layer components specifications


Table 5-3
Booster amplifier
OTP1422.eps

C-Band Booster18 (or Booster21)

AMP
AMP

OU

T(B AMP
i:IN
)

IN
UP

UP
INT G
LV

P
AM
OS

U
UP PG
B
OU

T(B AMP
i:IN
)

Note: Install fixed


attenuation pad in
location indicated
if required.
INT

LV

MO

IN

continued

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

MO

Optical layer components specifications 5-7


Table 5-3
Booster amplifier (continued)
Functional description
Nortel Networks offers two Booster amplifiers: Booster18 C-Band and Booster21 C-Band. Both
Boosters have the same faceplate.
Booster18 C-Band provides amplification of up to 18 dBm. Coupled with the Dual Amplifier, Booster18
can support up to 20 wavelengths (unidirectional) on each fiber on all fiber types. Coupled with the Dual
Amplifier, Booster18 can support up to 30 wavelengths (unidirectional) on each fiber on specific fiber
types. Extension shelf 1 houses this circuit pack in slots 2, 3, 7 and 8.
Booster21 C-Band provides amplification of up to 21 dBm. Coupled with the Dual Amplifier, Booster21
can support up to 40 wavelengths on each fiber on all fiber types. Extension shelf 1 houses this circuit
pack in slots 4, 5, 9 and 10.
Figure 2-2, Figure 2-3, Figure 2-4, and Figure 2-5 show the three configurations where the Dual
Amplifier is coupled with the Booster Amplifier. The application space for each configuration is based
on the OADM, DCM/DSCM, interleave filter (ILF), and wavelength count requirements.
Hardware description
The Booster Amplifier circuit packs have two different trays: one for traffic handling, the other for the
OSC add and the interleave access. Booster18 C-Band and Booster21 C-Band amplifiers have four
ports.
You can order FC, ST, or SC type adapters to match the fiber plant connector types.
The Booster faceplate includes four LEDs. A green LED identifies an active circuit pack. A red LED
indicates a failed circuit pack. Two yellow LEDs indicate a loss of signal (LOS). The AMP LED indicates
a LOS of the incoming signal while the OS LED indicates an LOS of the optical service coming through
upgrade port B (UPB).
OAM&P and control features
remote provisioning
total and per-channel optical power monitoring (analog maintenance 2)
optical link equalization software to optimize link performance
alarm reporting
optical reflectometer
autopropagation of provisioned values
local locking of power provisioned values
tilt control
gain control (with or without peak power clamping)
continued

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

5-8 Optical layer components specifications


Table 5-3
Booster amplifier (continued)
Options
Description

PEC

Booster18 C-Band Amplifier

NTCA15CN/ NTCA15CP/ NTCA15CQ

Booster21 C-Band Amplifier

NTCA15CR/ NTCA15CS/ NTCA15CT

Note: For more details, refer to the 1600G Amplifier Network Application Guide (NTY314AX).
Specifications
Booster18 amplifier

Booster21 amplifier

Output power (dBm)

18

21

Design flat gain (dB)

14.5 (see Note 1)

17.5 (see Note 1)

Amplification capacity
(Wavelengths/fiber)

30

40

Gain control for minimal channel yes


interaction

yes

OADM support

yes

yes

Tilt control

yes

yes

Note: An additional 0.5 dB has been added to ensure enough gain to overcome amplifier connector
losses (assumed to be 0.25 dB per mated connector).

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical layer components specifications 5-9


Table 5-4
DWDM couplers, C-Band, Grid 1 or Grid 2, Mux or Demux
OTP1126.eps

C-Band 10+1 Mux Grid 1 Module 1


Upgrade A

Monitor
1546.92 1547.72 1548.51 1549.32 1550.12 1550.92 1551.72 1552.52 1553.33 1554.13 Spare 1546.12

From module 3 From module 2

Command In

Upgrade B

C-Band 10+1 Demux Grid 1 Module 1


Upgrade A

Spare 1546.12 1554.13 1553.33 1552.52 1551.72 1550.92 1550.12 1549.32 1548.51 1547.72 1546.92

To module 2 To module 3

Monitor

Command In

Upgrade B

Functional description
Each Mux module can support up to 10 wavelengths. Module 1 (first module of the four interconnected
modules) includes a monitor port and spare wavelength port. The Mux modules are a mirror image of
the Demux modules. Use two patchcords (A and B) to interconnect the modules.
Each Demux module can support up to 10 wavelengths and contains a miniature variable attenuator
(mVOA) for each wavelength. Module 1 (first module of the four interconnected modules) includes a
monitor port and spare wavelength port. The Mux modules are a mirror image of the Demux modules.
Use two patchcords (A and B) to interconnect the modules
Options
Description

PEC

C-Band Grid 1 Mux Module 1

NTCA15NA (SC), NTCA15NK (FC), NTCA15NS (ST)

C-Band Grid 1 Mux Module 2

NTCA15NB (SC), NTCA15NL (FC), NTCA15NT (ST)

C-Band Grid 1 Mux Module 3

NTCA15NC (SC), NTCA15NM (FC), NTCA15NU (ST)

C-Band Grid 1 Mux Module 4

NTCA15ND (SC), NTCA15NN (FC), NTCA15NV (ST)

C-Band Grid 1 Demux Module 1

NTCA15MA (SC), NTCA15MK (FC), NTCA15MS (ST)

C-Band Grid 1 Demux Module 2

NTCA15MB (SC), NTCA15ML (FC), NTCA15MT (ST)

C-Band Grid 1 Demux Module 3

NTCA15MC (SC), NTCA15MM (FC), NTCA15MU (ST)

C-Band Grid 1 Demux Module 4

NTCA15MD (SC), NTCA15MN (FC), NTCA15MV (ST)


continued

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

5-10 Optical layer components specifications


Table 5-4
DWDM couplers, C-Band, Grid 1 or Grid 2, Mux or Demux (continued)
C-Band Grid 2 Mux Module 1

NTCA15NF (SC), NTCA15NE (FC), NTCA15NW (ST)

C-Band Grid 2 Mux Module 2

NTCA15NG (SC), NTCA15NP (FC), NTCA15NX (ST)

C-Band Grid 2 Mux Module 3

NTCA15NH (SC), NTCA15NQ (FC), NTCA15NY (ST)

C-Band Grid 2 Mux Module 4

NTCA15NJ (SC), NTCA15NR (FC), NTCA15NZ (ST)

C-Band Grid 2 Demux Module 1

NTCA15MF (SC), NTCA15ME (FC), NTCA15MW (ST)

C-Band Grid 2 Demux Module 2

NTCA15MG (SC), NTCA15MP (FC), NTCA15MX (ST)

C-Band Grid 2 Demux Module 3

NTCA15MH (SC), NTCA15MQ (FC), NTCA15MY (ST)

C-Band Grid 2 Demux Module 4

NTCA15MJ (SC), NTCA15MR (FC), NTCA15MZ (ST)

Note: For more details, refer to the 1600G Amplifier Network Application Guide (NTY314AX).
Specifications
Mux
Minimum

Demux
Maximum

Minimum

Maximum

All ports
Optical Return Loss (ORL)

40 dB

40 dB

Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL)

0.6 dB

0.6 dB

Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)

0.4 ps

0.4 ps

Insertion Loss (Grid A or B) Module 1

5.6 dB

7.3 dB

Insertion Loss (Grid A or B) Module 2

3.5 dB

4.7 dB

Insertion Loss (Grid A or B) Module 3

4.5 dB

5.7 dB

Insertion Loss (Grid A or B) Module 4

3.5 dB

4.7 dB

Common - Channel Ports

Directivity (channel to channel)

55 dB

Chromatic Dispersion over passband

35 ps/nm
continued

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

55 dB
+35 ps/nm

35 ps/nm

+ 35 ps/nm

Optical layer components specifications 5-11


Table 5-4
DWDM couplers, C-Band, Grid 1 or Grid 2, Mux or Demux (continued)
Specifications continued
Common - Upgrade Ports
Mux
Minimum

Demux
Maximum

Minimum

Maximum

Loss 1A Upgrade to 2A

6.3 dB

6.3 dB

Loss 1B Upgrade to 2B

5.9 dB

5.9 dB

Loss 1A Upgrade to 3A

5.9 dB

5.9 dB

Loss 1B Upgrade to 3B

5.5 dB

5.5 dB

Loss 3A Upgrade to 4A

1.9 dB

1.9 dB

Loss 3B Upgrade to 4B

1.9 dB

1.9 dB

Monitor Port Insertion Loss

24.0 dB

19.0 dB

Monitor Port Ripple

0.5 dB

0.5 dB

Monitor Port

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

5-12 Optical layer components specifications


Table 5-5
Dispersion and Dispersion Slope Compensating Modules (DCM/DSCM)
F4726-MOR_R80.eps and OTP1127.eps

Dispersion Compensating
Module (DCM)

Dispersion Slope Compensating


Module (DSCM)

Fiber out
Fiber in

Functional description
Two types of dispersion compensation modules are used, namely the Dispersion Compensating Module
(DCM) and the Dispersion Slope Compensating Module (DSCM). Dispersion compensating modules
provide negative or positive dispersion in order to compensate the dispersion accumulated in a given
fiber type.
Each channel experiences a different amount of dispersion in the transmission fibre. The DCMs provide
an appropriate amount of compensation for a single channel. With the MOR Plus, the RED and BLUE
Erbium bands were narrow enough that the difference in dispersion experienced by each channel in a
given band was small. The Erbium gain window used by OPTera Long Haul 1600 are about 2.5 times
larger than MOR Plus and optimizing the dispersion compensation for only a single wavelength in the
band is not appropriate. DSCMs, specifically designed for the C-Band or L-Band, address this issue by
providing a wavelength dependent amount of dispersion compensation after a span of a given length.
continued

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical layer components specifications 5-13


Table 5-5
Dispersion and Dispersion Slope Compensating Modules (DCM/DSCM) (continued)
Hardware description
The following DCMs are available:
1600 DCM 100P

1600 DCM 200P

1600 DCM 300P

The following DSCMs are available:


C-Band Type 1 DSCM-5

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-50

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-100

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-10

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-60

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-110

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-20

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-70

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-120

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-30

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-80

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-40

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-90

Options
Description

PEC

1600 DCM 100P (see Note 1)

NTCC14FD (SC), NTCC14FF (FC)

1600 DCM 200P (see Note 2)

NTCC14GG (SC), NTCC14GJ (FC)

1600 DCM 300P (see Note 3)

NTCC14GD (SC), NTCC14GF (FC)

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-5

NTCA14CN (ST), NTCA14DN (FC)

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-10

NTCA14AA (SC), NTCA14CA (ST), NTCA14DA (FC)

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-20

NTCA14AB (SC), NTCA14CB (ST), NTCA14DB (FC)

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-30

NTCA14AC (SC), NTCA14CC (ST), NTCA14DC (FC)

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-40

NTCA14AD (SC), NTCA14CD (ST), NTCA14DD (FC)

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-50

NTCA14AE (SC), NTCA14CE (ST), NTCA14DE (FC)

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-60

NTCA14AF (SC), NTCA14CF (ST), NTCA14DF (FC)

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-70

NTCA14AG (SC), NTCA14CG (ST), NTCA14DG (FC)

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-80

NTCA14AH (SC), NTCA14CH (ST), NTCA14DH (FC)

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-90

NTCA14AJ (SC), NTCA14CJ (ST), NTCA14DJ (FC)

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-100

NTCA14AK (SC), NTCA14CK (ST), NTCA14DK (FC)

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-110

NTCA14AL (SC), NTCA14CL (ST), NTCA14DL (FC)

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-120

NTCA14AM (SC), NTCA14CM (ST), NTCA14DM (FC)


continued

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

5-14 Optical layer components specifications


Table 5-5
Dispersion and Dispersion Slope Compensating Modules (DCM/DSCM) (continued)
Specifications
1600 DCM 100P
Insertion Loss (1527.5 to 1560.5 nm)

maximum: 2.3 dB

Average Polarization Mode Dispersion

maximum: 0.55 ps

Optical Return Loss

minimum: 27 dB

1600 DCM 200P


Insertion Loss (1527.5 nm to 1560.5 nm)

maximum: 4.6 dB

Average Polarization Mode Dispersion

maximum: 0.55 ps

Optical Return Loss

minimum: 27 dB

1600 DCM 300P


Insertion Loss (1527.5 nm to 1560.5 nm)

maximum: 6.9 dB

Average Polarization Mode Dispersion

maximum: 0.55 ps

Optical Return Loss

minimum: 27 dB

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-5


Insertion Loss (1530 nm to 1567 nm)

maximum: 2.2 dB

Average Polarization Mode Dispersion

maximum: 0.3 ps

Optical Return Loss

minimum: 45 dB

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-10


Insertion Loss (1530 nm to 1567 nm)

maximum: 2.6 dB

Average Polarization Mode Dispersion

maximum: 0.3 ps

Optical Return Loss

minimum: 45 dB

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-20


Insertion Loss (1530 nm to 1567 nm)

maximum: 3.4 dB

Average Polarization Mode Dispersion

maximum: 0.4 ps

Optical Return Loss

minimum: 45 dB
continued

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical layer components specifications 5-15


Table 5-5
Dispersion and Dispersion Slope Compensating Modules (DCM/DSCM) (continued)
C-Band Type 1 DSCM-30
Insertion Loss (1530 nm to 1567 nm)

maximum: 4.2 dB

Average Polarization Mode Dispersion

maximum: 0.5 ps

Optical Return Loss

minimum: 45 dB

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-40


Insertion Loss (1530 nm to 1567 nm)

maximum: 5.0 dB

Average Polarization Mode Dispersion

maximum: 0.6 ps

Optical Return Loss

minimum: 45 dB

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-50


Insertion Loss (1530 nm to 1567 nm)

maximum: 5.8 dB

Average Polarization Mode Dispersion

maximum: 0.7 ps

Optical Return Loss

minimum: 45 dB

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-60


Insertion Loss (1530 nm to 1567 nm)

maximum: 6.6 dB

Average Polarization Mode Dispersion

maximum: 0.7 ps

Optical Return Loss

minimum: 45 dB

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-70


Insertion Loss (1530 nm to 1567 nm)

maximum: 7.4 dB

Average Polarization Mode Dispersion

maximum: 0.8 ps

Optical Return Loss

minimum: 45 dB

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-80


Insertion Loss (1530 nm to 1567 nm)

maximum: 8.2 dB

Average Polarization Mode Dispersion

maximum: 0.8 ps

Optical Return Loss

minimum: 45 dB

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-90


Insertion Loss (1530 nm to 1567 nm)

maximum: 9.0 dB

Average Polarization Mode Dispersion

maximum: 0.9 ps

Optical Return Loss

minimum: 45 dB
continued

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

5-16 Optical layer components specifications


Table 5-5
Dispersion and Dispersion Slope Compensating Modules (DCM/DSCM) (continued)
C-Band Type 1 DSCM-100
Insertion Loss (1530 nm to 1567 nm)

maximum: 9.8 dB

Average Polarization Mode Dispersion

maximum: 0.9 ps

Optical Return Loss

minimum: 45 dB

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-110


Insertion Loss (1530 nm to 1567 nm)

maximum: 10.6 dB

Average Polarization Mode Dispersion

maximum: 1.0 ps

Optical Return Loss

minimum: 45 dB

C-Band Type 1 DSCM-120


Insertion Loss (1530 nm to 1567 nm)

maximum: 11.4 dB

Average Polarization Mode Dispersion

maximum: 1.0 ps

Optical Return Loss

minimum: 45 dB

Note 1: 1600 DCM 100P compensates for approximately -100 ps/nm of dispersion
Note 2: 1600 DCM 200P compensates for approximately -200 ps/nm of dispersion
Note 3: 1600 DCM 300P compensates for approximately -300 ps/nm of dispersion

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical layer components specifications 5-17

Fiber optic attenuators


Fixed attenuators
There are two different types of fixed attenuators used on Nortel Networks
DWDM systems. These fixed attenuators are made by third-party
manufacturers, such as JDS Fitel and AMP. One attenuator is the plug
(bulkhead) type, and the other is an in-line type.
Fixed attenuators are typically installed into optical fiber networks to reduce
the received power to the optimum operating level. Their small size allows for
easy insertion into Nortel Networks fiber management trays for each network
element. The advantage of using fixed attenuators in network applications are
their low cost and small size. These high performance fixed attenuators have
very low back reflection, very low optical ripple, and provide good optical
performance.
The technical specifications for 5 dB and 10 dB fixed attenuators are listed in
the tables below.
Note: If you intend to order these fixed attenuators from other vendors
rather than the ones recommended by Nortel Networks, ensure that the
technical specifications of those fixed attenuators follow Nortel Networks
strict guidelines listed in the tables below. Additionally, you should contact
your next level of support or Nortel Networks technical assistance.
Specifications
The following are the specifications for both plug-in and in-line attenuator
types.
Table 5-6
Specifications for plug-in attenuators
Characteristics

Manufacturer
JDS Fitel

AMP

5 dB (plug-in)

5 dB (plug-in)

FC

FC

5 dB 0.5 dB

5 dB 0.5 dB

< 50 dB

< 50 dB

FA100-35-05-HP5

PF98-0014-3

Connector type

SC

SC

Back reflection

< 50 dB

< 50 dB

Fixed attenuator type


Connector type
Attenuation range
Back reflection
Part number

continued

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

5-18 Optical layer components specifications


Table 5-6
Specifications for plug-in attenuators (continued)
Characteristics

Manufacturer

Connector type

JDS Fitel

AMP

N/A

ST
5 dB 0.5 dB

Attenuation range
Back reflection

< 45 dB

Part number
Fixed attenuator type

PF98-0014-5
10 dB (plug-in)

10 dB (plug-in)

FC

FC

10 dB 0.5 dB

10 dB 0.5 dB

< 50 dB

< 50 dB

FA100-35-10-HP5

PF98-0014-4

SC

SC

10 dB 0.5 dB

10 dB 0.5 dB

< 50 dB

< 50 dB

FA110-35-10-HP5

PF98-0014-2

N/A

ST

Connector type
Attenuation range
Back reflection
Part number
Connector type
Attenuation range
Back reflection
Part number
Connector type

10 dB 0.5 dB

Attenuation range
Back reflection

< 45 dB

Part number

PF98-0014-6

Note: N/A indicates not available.


end

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Optical layer components specifications 5-19


Table 5-7
Specifications for in-line attenuators
Characteristics

Manufacturer
JDS Fitel

Fixed attenuator type


Connector type
Attenuation range
Pigtail length
Cable type
Part number
Connector type
Attenuation range
Pigtail length
Cable type
Part number
Connector type
Attenuation range
Pigtail length
Cable type
Part number

5 dB (in-line)

10 dB (in-line)

FC

FC

5 dB 0.5 dB

10 dB 0.5 dB

1.5 m (4.9 ft) 5%

1.5 m (4.9 ft) 5%

3.0 mm (0.12 in) cable

3.0 mm (0.12 in) cable

FA5B05-NT01

FA5B10-NT01

SC

SC

5 dB 0.5 dB

10 dB 0.5 dB

1.5 m (4.9 ft) 5%

1.5 m (4.9 ft) 5%

3.0 mm (0.12 in) cable

3.0 mm (0.12 in) cable

FA5B05-NT03

FA5B10-NT03

ST

ST

5 dB 0.5 dB

10 dB 0.5 dB

1.5 m (4.9 ft) 5%

1.5 m (4.9 ft) 5%

3.0 mm (0.12 in) cable

3.0 mm (0.12 in) cable

FA5B05-NT02

FA5B10-NT02

end

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

5-20 Optical layer components specifications

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

6-1

Appendix A:
Description of commercially available
optical fiber types
6Nortel Networks optical layer solutions with 1600G Amplifiers are currently
compatible with NDSF and TrueWave Classic fiber plant. Studies are
underway to extend Nortel Networks link budgets to include the latest
technology optical fiber such as dispersion managed fiber.
The following is a description of the major fiber types that are currently
commercially available:
NDSF
Commonly referred to as standard single-mode silica fiber, this fiber type is
also known as non-dispersion-shifted fiber (NDSF). The SMF-28, made by
Corning, is one of the most popular NDSF fibers deployed today. The main
disadvantage of NDSF is that it has an operating wavelength for zero
chromatic dispersion (called o) of 1310 nm. Transmission wavelengths used
with EDFA amplification systems (1550 nm window) undergo significant
chromatic dispersion and hence require dispersion compensation, particularly
at 10 Gbit/s rates (see page 7-4 for more information about chromatic
dispersion). Typical losses range from 0.21 to 0.25 dB/km.
DSF
To minimize chromatic dispersion at 1550 nm, a new fiber called
dispersion-shifted fiber (DSF) was introduced in the early 1980s. By changing
the index profile and reducing the core radius, fiber designers were able to
move o from the 1310 nm window to the 1550 nm window. While it is very
effective in reducing chromatic dispersion effects, the positioning of o in
close proximity to the operating wavelengths has resulted in susceptibility to a
nonlinear distortion effect called four wave mixing (FWM), particularly in
DWDM applications with more than eight wavelengths (see page 7-2 for more
details on FWM). Typical losses range from 0.25 to 0.30 dB/km.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

6-2 Appendix A: Description of commercially available optical fiber types

NZ-DSF
To counteract the FWM limits of DSF, non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber
(NZ-DSF) has been developed. This fiber moves o to either end of the EDFA
spectrum thus ensuring that all the wavelength channels have slightly different
optical speeds in the fiber. Common brands are TrueWave Classic (o < 1530
nm), TrueWave Plus (o = 1497 nm), TrueWave RS (o < 1452 nm) by
Lucent, and SMF-LS (o > 1560 nm) by Corning. The advantage that these
fibers have over DSF is a slightly lower degree of integrated dispersion
compensation and a higher tolerance to nonlinear distortion effects.
and E-LEAF (LEAF
with reduced dispersion slope)
LEAF
Although the concentration of optical power in a fiber core is directly related
to higher susceptibility to nonlinear distortion effects, large effective area
fibers (LEAF) with o = 1513 nm, and E-LEAF with o = 1500 nm, are
being introduced to the market. They offer both effective integrated dispersion
compensation and a higher tolerance to nonlinear distortion as compared to
NZ-DSF. The latter benefit permits higher per channel optical launch powers
thus improving the span loss margin.
Note: The vintage of the LEAF fiber may impact performance. Consult
with Corning about the type of LEAF that is deployed.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

7-1

Appendix B:
Overview of fiber-optic fundamentals 7Optical fiber is currently the best guided wave medium for long haul, high
speed, high channel density applications. However, some physical properties
of the fiber tend to generate effects that limit the reach of an optical link to less
than the loss limited achievable distance (the distance that can be covered
when only loss is taken into account in the link design). This section will
discuss the various impairments that can limit the distance * bandwidth (L * B)
product of a link. By using appropriate methods to counteract these
impairments, the reach of an optical link can be significantly increased.
Factors other than the fiber properties themselves affect the L * B product,
such as transmitter and receiver performance, coupler and filter characteristics
and amplifier performance (noise, gain profile...). This section will only
describe the fiber related limitations.

Effects in the optical fiber


Each data channel in a DWDM link is a train of pulses. Being finite in time,
each of these optical pulse is composed of a range of wavelengths distributed
around a central optical wavelength, which corresponds to the central
wavelength of a specific DWDM channel. The total signal in the fiber is then
the combination of all the DWDM optical channels multiplexed in the fiber.
While propagating in the fiber, each of the pulses will see their shape and
amplitude modified by various effects arising from the physical properties of
the fiber material. This section discusses these properties and explains their
effects on the optical pulse.
These effects are not necessarily occurring simultaneously with equal
importance in all optical links. Their strengths depend on many factors such as
the specific wavelengths multiplexed in the link, the number of wavelengths,
the fiber type (different dispersion, attenuation and nonlinear effect threshold),
the power in each optical channel and the length of the link.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

7-2 Appendix B: Overview of fiber-optic fundamentals

The various effects can be grouped according to their action on the optical
pulses. It is useful to categorize them in two main categories: pulse energy
variations and pulse shape variations. Pulse energy variations are related to the
intensity change of the various wavelengths that form the pulse as it propagates
in the link. Pulse shape variations are related to the pulse distortion, which is a
modification of the pulse shape that can potentially affect its duration.
Fiber effects affecting the energy of an optical pulse
The pulse energy is affected by fiber loss and four nonlinear effects: stimulated
Brillouin scattering (SBS), stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), four wave
mixing (FWM) and modulation instability (MI). The importance of the penalty
related to these effects depends on the power concentrated in the effective area
of the fiber (light intensity).
Fiber loss

Fiber loss results in a progressive attenuation of the optical pulse while it is


traveling in the fiber. For example, typical fiber loss at 1550 nm is between
0.21 and 0.25 dB/km for NDSF fiber. Fiber loss is also wavelength dependent.
Different DWDM channels undergo slightly different attenuation. Optical
amplifiers are used to extend the reach of an optical link by optically
amplifying the attenuated signal.
SBS and SRS

SBS and SRS are two nonlinear scattering effects that transfer energy from one
light wave to another light wave of longer wavelength. Therefore, the pulses of
optical channels with the shorter DWDM wavelength have their energy
transferred to longer wavelengths as they propagate through the fiber.
Both SBS and SRS effects become more important with increasing power in
the DWDM channels and increasing length of the optical link.
In the case of SBS, the energy transfer occurs in a narrow linewidth (for
example, around 20 MHz around 1550 nm). Therefore, with todays DWDM
links having 100 GHz of wavelength spacing, the energy transfer does not
create interaction between different DWDM channels. However, it does impact
the wavelength intensity within each DWDM channel. SBS will transfer part
of the energy contained in a DWDM channel propagating in one direction to
other wavelengths generated and propagating in the opposite direction. The
transmitted signals are attenuated as they travel through the fiber, adding a
power penalty.
The SBS-related penalty can be minimized by keeping the per-channel power
below the SBS threshold, which depends on the size of the fiber core and on
the transmitter linewidth. Because SBS is a narrowband effect, it is also
possible to dither the source to decrease the penalty. The frequency excursion
of the dither must be sufficient to increase the SBS threshold, but small enough
so that dispersion penalty is not seriously increased.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Appendix B: Overview of fiber-optic fundamentals 7-3

SRS is a broadband effect that transfers power from a shorter wavelength to a


longer wavelength. SRS couples energy in both the transmission direction and
the reverse direction. Coupling occurs when two optical pulses (two 1s) from
two DWDM channels overlap each other. However, the SRS threshold is
significantly higher than SBS, therefore this effect has an insignificant impact
on most of the applications described in this guide.
FWM

FWM mixing is another nonlinear effect where the optical power in some
wavelengths is transferred to other wavelengths. Due to the physical properties
of the fiber (in this case, nonlinear induced polarization in the fiber material),
the DWDM channels centered at optical frequencies 1, ..., n, interact to
create new optical waves at frequencies such as 2i - j and i + j - k. The
penalty resulting from this effect is bit rate independent and highly dependent
on the spacing between the DWDM channels and the dispersion in the fiber.
Like SRS, the impairment related to FWM increases when dispersion is lower
in the link. Very low dispersion leads to wavelengths traveling at identical
speeds, creating a phase matching condition which increases the interaction
between optical pulses. Therefore, FWM can be important in some NZ-DSF
and in DSF fiber because their zero dispersion wavelengths may fall very close
or right in the DWDM channels optical band. Decreasing the channel spacing
also results in more penalty because of FWM.
The generated signals with frequencies i + j - k cause the most problems.
They are likely to generate significant cross-talk in the optical link. Therefore,
the penalty arises not only from a loss of power in the DWDM optical
channels, but also from the cross-talk generated by the waves created when
their frequencies fall on or very close to the frequencies of the DWDM
channels.
Solutions to reduce FWM includes a careful selection of the DWDM channel
center frequencies to avoid equal spacing between them, which reduces the
cross-talk and hence the penalty related to FWM. Like other nonlinear effects,
limiting the per-channel power also reduces the FWM in the link.
MI

MI is a complex effect that occurs when the optical channels in the DWDM
system are seeing positive (or anomalous) dispersion. The interaction between
the nonlinear and the dispersive effects results in a frequency-dependent gain
for the ASE (noise generated by the optical amplifiers in the link). It is a single
channel effect in which the high channel power acts as a pump to provide gain
for the ASE. The amount by which the ASE noise gets amplified depends on
the channel power and the net downstream dispersion which is perceived.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

7-4 Appendix B: Overview of fiber-optic fundamentals

Fiber effects affecting the shape of an optical pulse


These effects change the shape of the pulses, potentially increasing or
decreasing their time duration. Increased time duration can result in
intersymbol interference (ISI) when the pulse duration becomes longer than
the bit period, seriously impairing the performance of the system. Chromatic
dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) are two fiber properties
that change the pulse shape. Two nonlinear effects also change the pulse
duration: self-phase modulation (SPM) and cross-phase modulation (XPM or
CPM).
The resulting penalty is greater in 10 Gbit/s systems. The 2.5 Gbit/s channels
have a longer bit period (around 0.4 ns) compared to 0.1 ns for 10 Gbit/s
channels and have more margin before their performance is affected. As a
result, 10 Gbit/s links must be carefully designed with correct dispersion
compensation to avoid performance degradation.

Chromatic dispersion in DWDM systems


Two main dispersion phenomena are taken into account when designing
DWDM systems in single mode fibers: chromatic dispersion and PMD.
Chromatic dispersion is due to an inherent property of silica fiber. The speed
of a lightwave depends on the refractive index, n, of the medium within which
it is traversing. In silica fiber, as well as many other materials, n changes as a
function of wavelength. Thus, different wavelength channels travel at slightly
different speeds along the fiber. A wavelength pulse is composed of several
wavelength components or a spectra. Each of its spectral constituents travel at
slightly different speeds within the fiber. The result is a spreading of the
transmission pulse as it travels through the fiber; the slower energy
components tend to fall behind the primary energy group, the faster energy
components tend to lead the primary energy group.
Another property of silica fibers is that the difference of the speed at which two
wavelength channels travel varies with the wavelength range within which
they are situated. To understand this property better, note that all fibers have a
wavelength at which chromatic dispersion is practically zero. This wavelength
is called the fiber zero dispersion wavelength, or o (see Figure 7-1). Two
co-propagating wavelength channels that are in close proximity to o have a
smaller speed difference than two co-propagating wavelength channels, with
the same spacing, but located further from o. Therefore, a wavelength
channels position in relation to o must be considered to accurately assess the
degree of dispersion that affects the channel. Also, as shown in Figure 7-1,
transmitters with a center wavelength greater than o realize a positive (or
anomalous) dispersion. Transmitters with a center wavelength less than o
realize a negative (or normal) dispersion. A wavelength channel subjected to
positive dispersion sees its longer wavelength components travel more slowly

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Appendix B: Overview of fiber-optic fundamentals 7-5

than its shorter counterparts, whereas a wavelength channel subjected to


negative dispersion will see its longer wavelength components travel faster
than its shorter counterparts.
Figure 7-1
Illustration of zero dispersion wavelength
F5930-MOR_R80.eps

Dispersion D
(ps/nm.km)

Transmitter

2<

Positive
(anomalous)
dispersion

2
Negative
(normal)
dispersion

1
Transmitter

1>

This last property is important, as a light pulse that has undergone a certain
amount of negative dispersion can essentially correct itself by travelling
through a medium that has an equivalent amount of positive dispersion. This
is the function that dispersion compensating modules perform in optical links;
they introduce, in-line, an opposite dispersion medium to that of the fiber.
Depending on the type of fiber and transmitter wavelengths used, the form of
dispersion will vary as follows:
Non Dispersion Shifted Fiber (NDSF)

NDSF fiber has a o around 1310 nm, thus the dispersion in the 1550 nm
wavelength window (C-Band) will always be positive.
Standard Dispersion Shifted Fiber (DSF)

Standard DSF fiber has a o anywhere between 1535 nm to 1565 nm, thus an
optical channel in the lower wavelength range of the C-Band will always see
negative dispersion, whereas an optical channel in the higher wavelength range
of the C-Band may see positive or negative dispersion.

SMF-LS

SMF-LS (commonly known as LS-DSF) fiber has a o > 1560 nm, thus
optical channels in the C-Band will always see negative dispersion.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

7-6 Appendix B: Overview of fiber-optic fundamentals


Classic
TrueWave

TrueWaveTM Classic fiber has a o< 1530 nm, thus most optical channels in the
C-Band will generally see positive dispersion. The 1528 and 1530 nm
wavelengths may see negative dispersion.
RS
TrueWave

TrueWaveTM RS fiber has a o < 1452 nm, thus optical channels in the C-Band
will always see positive dispersion.

LEAF

LEAF fiber has a o < 1513 nm, thus optical channels in the C-Band will
always see positive dispersion.
E-LEAF

E-LEAF fiber has a o < 1500 nm, thus optical channels in the C-Band will
always see positive dispersion.
Chromatic dispersion compensation strategies
Several techniques can be used to counteract chromatic dispersion in an optical
link. They include:
Dispersion-shifted fiber

Fiber made today is available with o that have been shifted towards the EDFA
portion of the optical spectrum. For more information, consult the list of fibers
in this chapter.
DWDM transmitters or narrow-band wavelength transmitters

As a laser emits energy over a defined spectral band which is centered about
the primary wavelength of the laser, the transmission pulses will be subject to
chromatic dispersion. By narrowing the spectral content of the wavelength
signal, transmission pulses can be made more robust to dispersion. For this
reason, on long optical links, DWDM transmitters with externally modulated
narrow linewidth lasers are preferred over broadband transmitters.
Chirp

Chirp is a software-provisionable transmitter pre-compensation technique.


Chirp essentially pre-distorts the output signal pulse, acting on the spectral
content of the pulse so that it will experience compression instead of expansion
over a given distance of propagation. Chirp is defined as negative or positive,
in relation with the nature of dispersion in the fiber. Typically, chirp will be set
to the opposite of the dispersion in the fiber.
Dispersion and slope compensation modules (DCMs)

DCMs/DSCMs are used to provide dispersion correction in a DWDM link on


various types of fibers. Different DCM or DSCM modules can be used to
correct for positive or negative dispersion, depending on which fiber type is
being used for the link deployment.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Appendix B: Overview of fiber-optic fundamentals 7-7

Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)


Another dispersion phenomenon that is taken into account when designing
DWDM systems in single mode fibers is PMD. PMD can affect higher data
rate systems such as 10 Gbit/s. It is an inherent property of fiber which results
from a nonideal fiber manufacturing process and from stresses on the fiber.
The dispersion of the optical pulse results from the different propagation
velocity of the two orthogonal modes of polarization that the light signal can
borrow as it travels along the fiber. The propagation delay between the two
modes, accumulated over the length of the fiber, is known as differential group
delay (DGD) and is measured in units of picoseconds [ps]. PMD is a statistical
phenomena and the DGD produced by PMD change randomly in time.
Therefore the mean value of DGD is used to characterize PMD. As a rule of
thumb, the mean DGD increases as the square root of the fiber length.
In a few cases, especially for old fiber, the signal distortion and performance
degradation must be compensated for by reducing the link budgets, provided
in this chapter, by the appropriate amount depending on the mean DGD in the
system.
Data provided by the fiber supplier can be used to obtain the mean link DGD.
However, it is preferable to measure the mean DGD directly using
commercially available test equipment.
Data provided by the fiber vendor is normally specified as a PMD coefficient
[ps/km]. To calculate the mean DGD for a link, use the following formula:
Mean link DGD= { [(PMD value/span) ps/km]2 x [(length of span) km]}1/2

= { (PMD value/span)2 x length of span}1/2


For example, in a 3-span system with span lengths of 80 km, 60 km, and 40 km
in which the PMD coefficients are 0.2 ps/km, 0.16 ps/km, and 0.13 ps/km
respectively, the mean link DGD = (0.22 x 80 + 0.162 x 60 + 0.132 x 40)1/2 =
2.33 ps.

Self-Phase Modulation (SPM) and Cross-Phase Modulation (XPM)


These two effects, like dispersion, alter the pulse shape and potentially
generate ISI. The penalty of these two effects highly depends on the
per-channel power, the dispersion in the fiber and the optical link length.
SPM occurs because the refractive index of the fiber depends on the
per-channel power. This change in refractive index will result in phase shifts
which are proportional to the intensity of the pulse. Because the pulse does not
have constant intensity throughout its duration, different parts of the pulse sees
a different phase shift, causing induced chirp.

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

7-8 Appendix B: Overview of fiber-optic fundamentals

SPM does not modify the pulse shape by itself. The pulse distortion occurs
when SPM arises in a dispersive medium. This induced chirp will either
increase the pulse broadening caused by dispersion, compress the pulse or
even result in amplitude modulation of the pulse, depending on the dispersion
characteristic of the fiber and on the level of SPM,.
For example, in NDSF fiber, the combination of SPM-induced chirp and
positive dispersion seen by all optical channels in the 1550 nm window results
in an initial compression of the pulse, followed by pulse broadening.
XPM causes similar pulse chirping as SPM. However, the chirp level is
increased by the interaction of pulses from the different DWDM channels in
the system. Two pulses overlapping in the fiber causes a local increase in
power, which changes the refractive index. As a result, the two pulses see
additional chirp increasing the effect generated by SPM.
In a dispersive medium, pulse distortion also increases. However, high local
dispersion can also decrease the effect of XPM because the probability of two
pulses overlapping with each other over a long distance is reduced. By
reducing the net dispersion experienced by the pulse, dispersion compensation
added downstream of the fiber also reduces the broadening effect caused by the
interaction between XPM and dispersion. The balance between all these
effects must be considered.
When designing DWDM links, you must consider the magnitude of dispersion
correction provided by the compensation modules as well as their placement
in the link.

Conclusion
Although dispersion must be reduced in a link to increase the reach of a
system, the compensation strategy must be carefully implemented to prevent a
significant increase in the penalty arising from nonlinear effects. This penalty
could seriously affect the link reach and system performance.
All the link engineering rules provided in this chapter were carefully
developed to optimize both reach and performance of a DWDM system by
taking into account the long list of impairments present in that kind of system.
Proper link design is even more important for 10 Gbit/s systems. 10 Gbit/s
systems must conform to both maximum average span loss and related
dispersion windows. When 10 Gbit/s channels are multiplexed in a DWDM
system, both span loss and total link length must be taken into account.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

8-1

Appendix C:
1600G Amplifier power specifications 81600G EOL power mask specifications
The 1600G amplifier output power mask for the dual and booster amplifier
modules are shown in Table 8-1 and Table 8-2. These tables compare the input
power for the amplifier to the end-of-life (EOL) total output power. For
example, when the input power to the dual amplifier is -5 dBm, the output
power at end-of-life can be adjusted from 0 to +15.5 dBm.
Table 8-1
1600G C-Band Dual Amp EOL Power Mask Specifications
Total Input Power [dBm]

Total Dual Amp Output Power [dBm]

15.5

15.5

-5

15.5

-10

14.0

-16

12.8

-22

11.8

-25

8.8

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

8-2 Appendix C: 1600G Amplifier power specifications


Table 8-2
1600G C-Band Booster Amp EOL Power Mask Specifications
Total Input Power [dBm]

Total Booster18 Output Power


[dBm] at VCA = 0

Total Booster21 Output Power


[dBm] at VCA = 0

11

18.0

21.0

18.0

21.0

18.0

21.0

-1

18.0

21.0

-10

16.6

19.4

Optical power requirements


This section briefly describes the optical power requirements of the 1600G
Amplifier topologies. These power requirement figures are used when you
equalize the system following a system line-up and test (SLAT) procedure, or
after adding or removing optical channels.
Table 8-3 lists the total optical power requirements at the first in-service
amplifier (FISA) in an amplifier chain. The total input power of the first
in-service amplifier should fall within the range shown in Table 8-3. The power
provisioning rules provided in Chapter 3, Optical link engineering rules ensure
that the total input power falls within the range shown in Table 8-3. These
values are provided for reference only. If your input power is not within this
range, contact Nortel Networks.
Table 8-4 lists the required optical output at the receiver based on the fiber
type, number of spans, and the topology of your configuration. The optical
power of your receiver must fall within the range shown in Table 8-4.
For details about adjusting the total input power and optical power at the
receiver, refer to the 1600G Amplifier SLAT and Upgrade Procedures,
323-1801-226.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Appendix C: 1600G Amplifier power specifications 8-3


Table 8-3
Total input power required at the FISA
Fiber type Span
count
NDSF

1 to 6

ELEAF
TW+

Topology

Topology 2,
C-band,
unidirectional,
Dual Amp bypass

TWRS

TW c

1 to 6

LS

1 to 6

Topology 1,
C-band,
unidirectional,
no bypass
Topology 1,
C-band,
unidirectional,
no bypass

Number of
wavelengths

Required total input power [dBm]


PMaxSpec

PMinSpec

1 to 10

+11.0

-10.0

11 to 20

+11.0

-5.5

21 to 25

+11.0

-4.0

26 to 30

+11.0

-3.0

31 to 35

+11.0

-1.5

36 to 40

+11.0

+1.0

1 to 10

+3.0

-12.0

11 to 20

+4.0

-5.5

21 to 30

+3.0

-4.0

1 to 10

+3.0

-12.0

11 to 20

+3.0

-5.5

Table 8-4
Optical power required at the Rx
Fiber type

Span count

Topology

Number of
wavelengths

Rx power range
[dBm]

NDSF

1 to 6

Topology 2,
C-band,
unidirectional,
Dual Amp bypass

1 to 40

-6.0 to -11.5

TWc

1 to 6

Topology 1,
C-band,
unidirectional,
no bypass

1 to 30

-6.0 to -11.5

LS

1 to 6

Topology 1,
C-band,
unidirectional,
no bypass

1 to 20

-6.0 to -11.5

ELEAF
TW+
TWRS

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

8-4 Appendix C: 1600G Amplifier power specifications

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

9-1

Appendix D:
External tap couplers

9-

Tap couplers provide access to optical signals for the purpose of power
measurement and monitoring. Although the current version of the C-band dual
amplifier has a built-in internal tap coupler, earlier versions did not. If you have
an earlier version of the C-band dual amplifier, you must use an external tap
coupler assembly to gain access to optical signals for monitoring.

First generation of the 1600G C-band amplifier cards


The first generation of C-band amplifier cards did not have a MON port to
allow monitoring. Nortel Networks is discontinuing these circuit packs. Table
9-1 lists the PEC codes of these discontinued circuit packs.
Table 9-1
Discontinued 1600G C-band amplifiers without MON port
Description

PEC

CPC

C-Band Dual Amplifier (SC)

NTCA15CA

A0781500

C-Band Dual Amplifier (ST)

NTCA15CB

A0806763

C-Band Dual Amplifier (FC)

NTCA15CC

A0806164

C-Band Booster18 Amplifier (SC)

NTCA15CE

A0784190

C-Band Booster18 Amplifier (ST)

NTCA15CF

A0806163

C-Band Booster18 Amplifier (FC)

NTCA15CG

A0806765

C-Band Booster21 Amplifier (SC)

NTCA15CH

A0784191

C-Band Booster21 Amplifier (ST)

NTCA15CI

A0806768

C-Band Booster21 Amplifier (FC)

NTCA15CJ

A0806161

Main function of the external tap couplers


The external tap coupler drop-in plate assembly includes four independently
terminated 2% couplers installed in the OPTera Long Haul 1600 fiber
management trays (FMTs). The assembly permits output power monitoring
1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

9-2 Appendix D: External tap couplers

with existing dual amplifier and booster modules. This is achieved by


connecting one external tap coupler to the output port of an existing dual
amplifier and another coupler to the booster module. The external tap coupler
drop-in plate assembly is illustrated in Figure 9-1, External tap coupler drop-in
plate assembly.
Future releases of Nortel Networks OPTera Long Haul 1600 product line will
feature an in-skin optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) module. The external tap
couplers are inserted at the output of all 1600G amplifiers to access the system
signals to be monitored by the OSA.
Future releases of the Nortel Networks OPTera Long Haul 1600 product line
will use the tap coupler ports to increase the accuracy of amplifier output
power measurements. This will allow you to scale the capacity of the 1600G
amplifier above 40 wavelengths and into the L-band.
Figure 9-1
External tap coupler drop-in plate assembly
OTP1688p.eps

External Tap coupler Assembly

Fiber Management Tray

Figure 9-2 illustrates the functional blocks of the 1600G amplifiers with
external tap couplers.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Appendix D: External tap couplers 9-3


Figure 9-2
Functional block diagram
OTP1558t.eps

Dual Amp
Input 1
Tap 4
98%

Tap 2
2B 98%

2%
To OSA

1A

Tap 1
98%

1B

2%
To OSA

2%
To OSA
2A

Tap 3
98%

Dual Amp
Input 2

2%
To OSA

Optical specifications of external tap couplers


The optical specifications of the external tap coupler drop-in plate assembly
are shown in Table 9-2.
Table 9-2
Optical specifications of external tap couplers

Operating Wavelength Range

Minimum

Maximum

1480 nm

1615 nm

Insertion Loss 98% Port Input

0.8 dB (See Note 1)

Insertion Loss 2% Port Output

16 dB

Return Loss all ports

45 dB

Directivity all ports

55 dB

PDL

18 dB

0.1 dB

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

9-4 Appendix D: External tap couplers

Optical layer functional building blocks with external tap couplers


For more information on the 1600G Amplifier building block components,
refer to Chapter 2, Optical layer building blocks. The external tap couplers are
used with these components to create the following two categories of
configurations:

Building blocks for standard configurations with external tap couplers


Building blocks for special configuration with external tap couplers

Building blocks for standard configurations with external tap couplers


This section provides specific descriptions of all amplifier sites with external
tap couplers used in unidirectional C-band applications of OPTera Long Haul
1600.
Figure 9-3 shows the Tx-end amplifier site, commonly called Term1.
Figure 9-4 also shows one amplifier group in the link. This amplifier group is
designated as the line amplifier site, commonly known as an LA site.
Figure 9-5 shows the Rx-end amplifier site, commonly called Term2.

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Appendix D: External tap couplers 9-5


Figure 9-3
Term1 site configuration
OTP1632p.eps

MSA 1AB
Common
Tx Pad

Booster Amp

Mux

1A

Span
Pad

1B
Direction 1

Dual Amp

Direction 2
Demux

Booster Amp
2B

MSA
Pad

2A
MSA
Pad
MSA 2AB

- WDM Coupler
- Faceplate connector
- EDFA
- Circulator
- Pad
- External Tap Coupler

OSC1
ADD

OSC1

Legend

OSC2

UniOSC

OSC1
DROP

Note: MSA is mid-stage access for the DCM/DSCM

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

9-6 Appendix D: External tap couplers


Figure 9-4
LA site configuration
OTP1636p.eps

MSA 1AB
Dual Amp

Booster Amp

1A

1B
MSA
Pad

Booster Amp

Direction 2

2B
Span
Pad

Direction 1

Span
Pad

2A
MSA
Pad
MSA 2AB

Legend
- WDM Coupler
- Faceplate connector
- EDFA
- Circulator
- Pad
- External Tap Coupler

OSC2
ADD

OSC1
ADD

OSC1

UniOSC
OSC2

OSC2
DROP

OSC1
DROP

Note: MSA is mid-stage access for the DCM/DSCM and/or the OADM filter

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Appendix D: External tap couplers 9-7


Figure 9-5
Term2 site configuration
OTP1634p.eps

Booster Amp

1A
MSA
Pad

Booster Amp
2B

Span
Pad

Mux

Direction 2

1B

Direction 1

Demux

MSA 1AB
Dual Amp

2A
Common
Tx Pad

MSA
Pad
MSA 2AB

Legend
- WDM Coupler
- Faceplate connector
- EDFA
- Circulator
- Pad
- External Tap Coupler

OSC1

Uni OSC
OSC2

OSC2
DROP

OSC2
ADD

Note: MSA is mid-stage access for the DCM/DSCM

1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications Guide NTY315DX Rel 3

9-8 Appendix D: External tap couplers

Special configuration building blocks with external tap couplers


Figure 9-6 shows the special asymmetric configuration required at the Tx-end
terminal amplifier site used in some of the OPTera Long Haul 1600 C-Band
unidirectional applications with External Tap Couplers. The special link
engineering considerations require signals to bypass the dual amplifier in the
Tx direction at the head-end Tx site.
Figure 9-6
Term1 site special configuration (dual amplifier bypass)
OTP1638p.eps

Mux

Common
Tx Pad
Dual Amp

Booster Amp 1B

Span
Pad

1B

1A

Direction 1
Direction 2

Booster Amp 2B

Demux

2B

2A

MSA
Pad
MSA 2AB
UniOSC

OSC1
ADD

OSC1

- WDM Coupler
- Faceplate connector
- EDFA
- Circulator
- Pad
- External Tap Coupler

OSC2

Legend

OSC1
DROP

Note: MSA is mid-stage access for the DCM/DSCM

OPTera Long Haul 1600 NTY315DX Rel 3

Nortel Networks

OPTera Long Haul 1600


Optical Line System
1600G Amplifier Optical Layer Applications
Guide
Copyright 2000 Nortel Networks, All Rights Reserved.
The information contained herein is the property of Nortel Networks
and is strictly confidential. Except as expressly authorized in writing
by Nortel Networks, the holder shall keep all information contained
herein confidential, shall disclose it only to its employees with a
need to know, and shall protect it, in whole or in part, from
disclosure and dissemination to third parties with the same degree
of care it uses to protect its own confidential information, but with
no less than reasonable care. Except as expressly authorized in
writing by Nortel Networks, the holder is granted no rights to use
the information contained herein.
*Nortel Networks, the Nortel Networks logo, the Globemark, How
the World Shares Ideas, S/DMS TransportNode, OPTera, Preside,
and Unified Networks are trademarks of Nortel Networks.
TrueWave is a registered trademark of Lucent Technologies Inc.
LEAF is a registered trademark of Corning Incorporated.
SMF-LS and SMF-28 are trademarks of Corning Incorporated.
NTY315DX
Rel 3
October 2000
Printed in Canada and in the United Kingdom