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Volume 30 Number 6

November/December 2013

The Official Publication of the International Society of Explosives Engineers

Inside:
Annual Conference Preview.......................6
20th Annual Photo Contest ......................22
The Shale Gas Revolution .........................32
Hazmat 101 ..............................................36
SEE Education Foundation News .............40

The worlds largest professional


organization for explosives engineers.
www.isee.org

What ISEE can do for you.

Access to more than 40 years of


research and technical papers.

Networking opportunities with more


than 4,000 industry leaders,
government officials and organizations
in the explosives industry.
Special member pricing on more than
200 books and ISEE merchandise.

Discounted pricing to the Annual


Conference on Explosives and
Blasting Technique.

Complimentary subscription to the


Journal of Explosives Engineering.
Access to the ISEE Membership
Directory, a complete listing of whos
who in the explosives industry.

The Journal of Explosives Engineering


Published by International Society
of Explosives Engineers
30325 Bainbridge Road
Cleveland, Ohio 44139
www.isee.org

www.isee.org

Publisher
International Society of Explosives Engineers
Editor
Dede Manross
explo@comcast.net
Contributing Writers
John Brulia
R.B. Hopler
Bill Reisz
Tom Snyder
Board of Directors
President
John E. Capers
Vice President, Administration
Michael J. Koehler
Vice President, Technical
Jack W. Eloranta
Treasurer
James P. Daley
Secretary
Alastair C. Torrance
Past President
Ron J. Elliott
Directors
Nancy C. Allen
Kevin Becker
Josef (Boet) E. Coetzee
Kevin J. Hachmeister
Algernon R. Hackett
David Harrison
Keith M. Henderson
Richard M. Hosley, Jr.
Braden Lusk
Cam Thomas
Hans E. Wallin
Kirk Whitaker
Dean A. Wiegand
Executive Director
J. Winston Forde
Director of ISEE and SEE Education Programs
Buck Hawkins
Director of Communication
Dede Manross

November/December 2013

Volume 30 Number 6

F E AT U R E S
6

Annual Conference Preview

Everything you need to know about attending the 40th Annual Conference in Denver
Colo. Includes schedule of events, blasters training seminar, exhibitors, product previews, technical sessions, special sessions, spouse program, special events, tours, and a
registration form.

22 20th Annual Photo Contest

Honorable Mention Winner: Snoqualmie Pass in Washington State.

32 The Shale Gas Revolution

This article presents a brief description of the two major technologies, namely directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing that made the development of these natural gas
resources possible.

36 Hazmat 101

Part 2: Hazardous Material Placarding for Highway Transportation in Commerce of


Explosives, Oxidizers, and Combustible Liquids

40 SEE Education Foundation News.


Meet the 2013 scholarship recipients.

D E PA RT M E N T S
4
From the Executive Director
24 Calendar of Events

A list of upcoming events in the explosives industry.

26 Industry News
28 Explosives, 100 Years Ago, More or Less
More excerpts from Du Pont Blasting Powder.

44 Chapter News
45 Letters to the Editor
On the Cover: Rock
stabilization job at
Snoqualmie Pass in
Washington State.
See story page 22.

Meetings and Conference Manager


Lynn Mangol, CMP
Marketing Manager
Bill Wahl
Office Manager
Mary Spena-Bosch
Membership Coordinator
Ruth Schaefer
Publications Coordinator
Lauren Creneti
Administrative/Conference Assistant
Leigh Crissman
All correspondence should be directed to:
International Society of Explosives Engineers,
30325 Bainbridge Road, Cleveland, Ohio 44139
Telephone: (440) 349-4400. Fax: (440) 349-3788.
E-mail: isee@isee.org WebSite: www.isee.org

Copyright 2013 Society of Explosives Engineers, Inc., dba International Society of Explosives Engineers
The Journal of Explosives Engineering, published six times per year, is the official publication of the International Society
of Explosives Engineers.The Society is not responsible for opinions expressed and statements made by authors in articles
or advertisements published in the Journal. ISEE assumes no responsibility for the completeness, accuracy, or conclusions
reached in any of the articles or items published in this Journal.
Since the information is unique and because each job site is different, information presented in this Journal may not apply
to your specific field situation. Readers are cautioned to carefully consider ideas presented and decide for themselves if
the procedures described are safe and appropriate for the intended use.The International Society of Explosives Engineers
cannot be responsible for the specific application of the information presented. Also, remember to always consult the
manufacturer of the product(s) you are using for recommended practices.
Mention in this publication of a commercial or proprietary product does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation for its use. Registered names, trademarks, logos, artwork, photographs, etc., used in this publication, even without
specific indication thereof, are to be considered protected by law.
Yearly subscription rates: $95 U.S.A., $115 all others (International Air Mail). All members of the Society receive a complimentary subscription.

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

November/December 2013

From the Executive Director


Celebrating the accomplishments,
continuing the journey
By J.Winston Forde
Executive Director, ISEE

Forty years ago,


several visionary
leaders of the industry
charted
an
ambitious
course for an organization
that
would support
the needs of the
field blaster. In a tangible step to take
charge of their destiny, they charted a
course towards a new path to develop
a Society that was deemed an absolute
necessity at that time, a professional
society dedicated to promoting the
safety, security and controlled use of
explosives in mining, quarrying, construction, manufacturing, demolition,
aerospace, forestry, avalanche control,
art, automotive, special effects, exploration, seismology, agriculture, law enforcement, and many other peaceful
uses. It is with pride that we celebrate
a milestone anniversary of the establishment of the International Society
of Explosives Engineers (ISEE). It is my
distinct pleasure and great privilege to
be in the Executive Director position
with the ISEE to take part in hosting
the 40th Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting Technique to be
held at the Hyatt Regency Denver at
the Colorado Convention Center in
Denver, Colorado from February 9
12, 2014.
A 40th anniversary in any sphere
of life is cause for celebration. So it is
with immense pride and a sense of accomplishment that those of us in the
explosives industry should greet the
40th anniversary of our Society. While
we are recognized as a world leader in
providing explosives technology, education, information, and promoting
public understanding of the benefits
of explosives, we are still in our youth.
At 40, we are at the ideal juncture for
retrospection and forecasting, for pondering the vision that has propelled us
thus far, and for projecting our future
4

in an environment that is vastly different from 1974.


At that time, our leaders were
fired up by the concept of strengthin-numbers, they were seized by the
need to capitalize on the profession
of the field blaster; to come together
and speak with one collective voice
to shape our own destiny.The passion
that this collective voice engendered
led to its growth in the U.S.A. initially,
but has begun flourishing internationally.
The Society was born on August
20, 1974 in Room 219, of the Sheraton Motor Inn, Pittsburg, PA. The first
ISEE meeting of the SEE included the
first Board of Directors meeting. In
attendance were; Cal Konya, Joe Dannenberg, D.T. Froedge, Richard Wilding, Hank Van Ormer, Jr., Jerry Brower,
Ed Smith, Chip Harris and Dean Boddorff. The first constitution and bylaws were established along with a
dues structure and conference planning. Jerry Brower was elected Chairman of the Board; Dean Boddorff, Vice
President; Cal Konya, President; Tom
Dowling, Technical Vice President; Joe
Dannenberg, Secretary; and Richard
Wilding, Treasurer. Elected Directors
were Richard Dick, D.T. Froedge, Ed
Smith, Hank Van Ormer, and Donald
Matthews.
From this initial core of founding
fathers and approximately 100 memThe Journal of Explosives Engineers

bers in 1974, the Society has grown


to over 4,000 individual members in
90 countries, 294 corporate members,
and 37 chapters, and continues to
grow. Indeed the road has been long
and arduous, marked with milestones
of achievements. I applaud the strides
we have made through efficient cooperation - in education, in training, in
safety and security; in forging as far as
possible, in shaping our destiny. I commend our founding fathers for having
the foresight to identify an unmet need
in the explosives industry a need to
be consistently at the forefront of efforts to address legislation and regulation on the use of explosives at the
international, federal and state level.
There is no better reason to support
and participate in the ISEE.
I can tell you first hand, the excitement is building as we continue the
planning process for ISEEs 40th Annual Conference on Explosives and
Blasting Technique. One of the major
highlights of the conference this year
will include a keynote address from
Dr. Calvin Konya, one of ISEEs founding fathers. Come and hear what sacrifices were made by the founding fathers to start the ISEE.Additionally, the
excitement is sure to spill over into
the Annual Awards Banquet Reception
and Live Auction as we celebrate our
accomplishments, and continue the
journey.
The time is ripe for us as we celebrate our 40th year of existence, to reflect on and renew that vision, which
still remains our most viable option for
growth and development; a vision of
unity, a vision of advancing the science
and art of explosives engineering. The
time is ripe, as we look forward to the
next 40 years, for us to recommit ourselves to molding a Society for which
we can all continue to be proud. The
time is ripe for us to consider practical
ways of ensuring that our members
enjoy the benefits and impact of the
Society.
November/December 2013

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Annual Conference Preview

The International Society of Explosives Engineers will hold the 40th Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting
Technique Feb. 9 -12, 2014, at the Hyatt Regency Denver at Colorado Convention Center, Denver, Colo.
As many as 1,600 blasters, manufacturers, government officials and suppliers from all over the world will gather for this
conference to gain new insights, ideas and form new business alliances.
This annual event is the premier international forum for the hands-on explosives user.The 2014 program will include
nearly 130 exhibits, technical sessions, poster session and workshops.

Blasters Training Seminar

Scheduled for Saturday, Feb. 8, this popular and highly


regarded one-day seminar is designed and presented for
blasters by the best in the business to help plan and execute efficient blast designs, hear updates on regulations
and safety and more. The seminar is included as part of
the Blasters Weekend Package or sign up separately. A new
segment this year is the Blasters Share featuring a blaster
sharing practical experience with other blasters.The seminars proposed topics and speakers include:
Introduction - Larry Mirabelli, Blasters Training Committee Chairman
Blasters #1 Safety Tool - Risk Analysis - Larry Mirabelli,
Dyno Nobel Inc.
Blast Locations & Use of GPS - Jim Ratcliff, WV DEP/
DMR
Ducking Wild Flyrock - Simon Tose, AEL Mining Services
Detailed Presplitting Guidelines that Guarantee Results in Medium to Large Diameter Holes - Frank Chiappetta, Blasting Analysis International
Initiation Systems - Electronic Detonator Safety - Bryan Papillion, Austin Powder
Critical Rules for Effective Use of Bulk Explosives Dave Hunsaker, Dyno Nobel Inc.
Critical Drilling Practices for Blast Efficiency - Joe Accardo, Sandvik
Blasters Share: Close-in Blasting to Protect a MultiBillion Dollar Bio-Tech Process - Frank Chiappetta,
Blasting Analysis International

Bill Hissem speaking at the blasters training seminar.

Blasters training registration fee includes lunch, coffee


breaks and course materials.The seminar runs from 8 a.m. 5 p.m. Registration opens Friday from 3:30 p.m. - 5:30 p.m.
and Saturday at 7 a.m. A certificate of attendance will be
issued. The states of Alabama, Arkansas, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee,
Virginia, Washington, West Virginia and Wyoming have accepted retraining credit hours in the past. Check with your
state officials for more information.

Special Sessions and Workshop

Opening Session Keynote


Monday, Feb. 10, 2014
8 a.m.
Calvin J. Konya, Ph.D., a founding
member, president and first executive director of the Society of Explosives Engineers with more than 40
years of experience in the explosives
industry, will speak about the history
of the Society and the state of the explosives industry.
Dr. Calvin J. Konya.

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

November/December 2013

ISEE - Half Page Vertical for Instantel.ai 1 1/27/2010 3:32:30 PM

Blasters Forum Poster Session


Monday, Feb. 10, 2014
3:30 p.m. 5 p.m.
Authors will present their papers individually and in small
groups using innovative poster displays to highlight their
presentation and to encourage informal discussions.

Bruno Kuckartz (left) presents his theory to Pierre Labelle.

Tuesday Kickoff

A highlight of the conference is the


Tuesday morning invited speaker, Mr.
Jean Vaverk, Executive Director of
the Canadian Institute of Mining. CIM
has more than 14,600 members, convened from industry, academia and
government. Mr. Vaverk will share
how its members help shape, lead
and connect Canadas mining industry across the globe.
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Mr. Jean Vaverk.

Fragblast Session
Tuesday, Feb. 11, 2014
8:30 a.m. - 10 a.m.
The Fragblast Session will bring together researchers in
rock blasting fragmentation and includes theoretical, experimental and computer simulation papers. These sessions also continue the work of the Fragblast group during
the years in between the Fragblast conferences. Authors of
papers from these sessions are often encouraged to also
submit an expanded paper to the Blasting and Fragmentation Journal.
Explosives Security Workshop
Wednesday, Feb. 12, 2014
8 a.m. - 10 a.m.
Learn how to better protect your product and improve
your understanding of best practices by participating in the
Explosives Security Workshop.
Join regulators and industry professionals in a discussion about the most important security topics relevant to
manufacturing, storing and transporting explosives. The
conversation will include technical presentations regarding protection from theft and technological advancements
in magazine security. Regulatory agencies will also be available to discuss guidelines in securing explosive materials.
November/December 2013

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

Annual Conference Preview


Special Events

Preliminary Schedule of Events

Show
off
your
marksmanship
skills while helping
a good cause during the 12th Annual
ISEE Sporting Clays
Shoot.
Located at the
Kiowa Creek Sporting Club, 46700 E. County Rd 30, Bennett, the clay shoot includes 125 targets (100 sporting clay
targets plus 25 targets of your choice of trap or 5 stand).Approximately 125 rounds of ammo will be provided to each
pre-registered shooter. Bring your own shotgun or rent a
loaner shotgun on site.
Transportation will be provided. The bus will leave the
Hyatt Regency Denver Hotel at 8:30 a.m. and will return at
approximately 3 p.m. Start time is 9:30 a.m.
Clay shoot proceeds benefit the SEE Education Foundation Childrens Fund, which helps families of those killed or
injured in commercial explosives accidents.

Friday February 7, 2014


3:30 p.m. 5:30 p.m.
Blasters Weekend Registration

Student Industry Connection


A Career Development Program for Students
Sunday, Feb. 9, 2014
2 p.m. 3:30 p.m.
Students should not miss this opportunity to get an insiders look at the wide range of careers in the explosives
industry. ISEE student members and student chapter representatives are invited to hear insights and get coaching
advice from experienced industry members. This popular
event is a great opportunity to network with fellow students and longtime members, make valuable contacts, and
boost knowledge.

Monday February 10, 2014


7:00 a.m. 4:00 p.m.
ISEE Conference Registration
8:00 a.m. 8:30 a.m.
ISEE Conference Opening
Session
8:30 a.m. 3:30 p.m.
Technical Sessions
9:00 a.m. 5:00 p.m.
Exhibits Open
12:00 p.m. 1:30 p.m. ISEE Sponsored Lunch in Exhibit
Hall
12:00 p.m. 1:30 p.m. International Luncheon
3:30 p.m. 5:00 p.m.
Blasters Forum Poster Session/
Reception

12th Annual ISEE Sporting Clays Shoot


Saturday, Feb. 8, 2014
8:30 a.m. 3 p.m.

Please note that this schedule may change...please check


your final onsite program for final times and locations of
all activities.

Awards Banquet and Education Foundation Live Auction


Tuesday, Feb. 11, 2014
7 p.m. 10 p.m.
Bargains and fun! Make your bid Tuesday during the
Awards Banquet on a variety of items and memorabilia that
have been pledged by our members to benefit the SEE Education Foundation. View the Auction items in advance at
www.isee.org. Dont miss the good deals!
Back by popular demand is Colorado State Champion
Auctioneer, Walt Partridge, a long time ISEE member and
a familiar face in the industry. Meet Foundation scholarship winners and our Presidents Club members during the
event.
Celebrate the successes of your colleagues as the Distinguished Service Award, Blasters Leadership Award, and ISEE
Presidents Award will be presented.Witness the passing of
the gavel to our incoming president.

Saturday February 8, 2014


7:00 a.m. 11:00 a.m. Blasters Weekend Registration
8:00 a.m. 5:00 p.m.
Blasters Training Seminar
8:30 a.m. 3:00 p.m.
12th Annual Sporting Clays Shoot
5:00 p.m. 7:00 p.m.
Blasters Weekend Reception
Sunday February 9, 2014
7:30 a.m. 10:00 a.m. Chapter Management Workshop
7:30 a.m. 5:00 p.m.
ISEE Conference Registration
10:30 a.m. 12:00 p.m. Regulatory Panel Discussion
12:30 p.m. 2:00 p.m. Blasters R Us Video Roundup
2:00 p.m. 3:30 p.m.
Student Industry Connection
2:00 p.m. 7:00 p.m.
Exhibits Open
4:00 p.m. 6:00 p.m.
Gala Welcome Reception in
Exhibit Hall
6:00 p.m. 7:30 p.m.
International Reception by
Invitation

Tuesday February 11, 2014


8:00 a.m. 4:00 p.m.
Technical Sessions
8:30 a.m. 10:00 a.m. Fragblast Session
9:00 a.m. 3:00 p.m.
Exhibits Open
12:00 p.m. 1:30 p.m. ISEE Sponsored Lunch in Exhibit
Hall
12:00 p.m. 1:30 p.m. Drillers Section Meeting
12:00 p.m. 1:30 p.m. Seismograph Section Meeting
12:00 p.m. 1:30 p.m. Fragblast Section Meeting
4:00 p.m. 5:00 p.m.
ISEE Annual Membership
Meeting
6:00 p.m. 7:00 p.m.
Annual Banquet Reception
7:00 p.m. 10:00 p.m. Annual Awards Banquet &
Education Foundation Live
Auction
Wednesday February 12, 2014
8:00 a.m. 10:00 a.m. Explosives Security Workshop
8:00 a.m. 12:00 p.m. Technical Sessions
12:00 p.m.
ISEE Conference Adjourns

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

November/December 2013

Spouse/Guest Program

The Spouse/Guest Program includes continental breakfast


and tours on Monday and Tuesday along with admission to
exhibits and Welcome Reception.
A Day in Boulder
Monday, Feb. 10, 2014
9:15 a.m. 2:30 p.m.

60,000 diverse works from across the centuries and around


the globe. Begin with a docent-guided tour through the
Western Art Gallery. Enjoy lunch in a gallery-like setting at
the award winning Palettes Contemporary Cuisine located
within the museum.

Conference Hotel

Experience the best of the Mile High City from the


Hyatt Regency Denver at Colorado Convention Center, surrounded by the Rocky Mountain peaks. From
the scenery to the entertainment, Hyatt Regency
Denver is an ideal location to experience great shopping, vibrant nightlife, latest microbreweries and
more than 300 restaurants. It is just 23 miles from
the Denver International Airport.

Take in the beautiful surroundings of Boulder, nestled


near the base of the Flatiron Mountains. Tour the famous
Celestial Seasonings facility, the worlds most advanced tea
production plant, to learn about the tea-making process.
Stop by the gift shop featuring a variety of teas, gifts and
souvenirs. Enjoy lunch at the Dushanbe Teahouse, Boulders
most popular attraction. The ceiling of the Teahouse was
carved and painted with intricate patterns traditional of
Persian art. Next is shopping at the Pearl Street Mall. From
vintage clothing shops and jewelry boutiques to trendy
clothiers and ultrahip independent book stores, downtown
Boulder offers a wide array of shopping.
Denver Art Museum Tour
Tuesday, Feb. 11, 2014
10 a.m. 3 p.m.

Hyatt Regency Denver.

Denver Art Museum.

Founded in 1893, the Denver Art Museum is known for its


collection of acclaimed Native American art and more than
November/December 2013

Room Reservations
For sleeping room reservations, call the Hyatt Regency Denver at Colorado Convention Center at
303.436.1234 or 1.800.233.1234. Please be sure to
mention ISEE to receive the conference discount
rate of $189 single/double. Do not delay in making your reservations because the hotel is expected
to sell out early. Online reservations are available at
www.isee.org.
Denver photos courtesy of VISIT DENVER, Rich Grant, Steve Crecelius and
Hyatt Regency Denver.

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

Annual Conference Preview


Technical Sessions

Implementation of HDAN Prill in Blends in a Coal Mine

The technical sessions will showcase the latest technological advances. Whether youre a blaster in the field or a
supervisor, youll find this an informative, enjoyable event.
The following is a preliminary list of papers that will be
presented in Denver. This program is subject to change.
A Novel Prediction of Blasting Vibration Parameter
A Review of Timing Requirements for Optimization of Fragmentation
A Safer and Green Detonator with NHN Substituting ASA
Advances in Predicting the Effects of Non-Ideal Detonation on Blasting
Analysis Method into True Detonator Delay Element Discrepancies
Analysis of Hollow Effect on Time-Frequency Characteristic of
Surface-Vibration Signal
Blast Optimization Through Long Term Fragmentation Analysis
Blast Segmentation for Vibration Management

Improving Explosive User Safety Through Increasing Regulation


Awareness
Industry Task Force for Elimination of Blasting-Based Flyrock
Incidents Update
Internships: A Bridge Into the Explosives Industry
Investigating Colliding Shock
Kuz-Ram Model and Implication of Class I and Class II Behaviour
Legal Procedures to Avoid Commercial Explosives Theft
Linear Interpolation of Vibration Waveforms for Varying Seed Waveform Modeling
Load Transfer of Polycarbonate Blast Resistant Glazing Systems
Measurement Variances of Pressure Prior to the Mach Stem Forming
Mine to Fill
Mini-Bench Blasting Applicability at the Excavation for Foundation in
Settlement

Blast Vibration Monitoring & Calibration in the 21st Century

Mining and Fragmentation: Proposal for a More Efficient Mine


Management

Blasthole Length, Subdrilling and Stemming Analysis in an Iron Mine

Modeling vs. Monitoring Blast Movement: The Cost of Variance

Blast-Induced Heave Modeling in Three-Dimensions

Non-Ideal Blasting for Ideal Grinding - Part Two

Blasting 1 Million Tons, 205 Meters From a Town

NOx Emissions from Blasting Activities in a Surface Mining Operation

Blasting a Diversion Tunnel Through the Abutment of a Meta-Stable


Dam

Numerical Simulation of Frame-Tube Structure Blasting Demolition


Under Explosive Loading

Blasting Demolition of Urban Viaduct 3.5km (2.175 Miles) in Length

Numerical Simulations for Explosive Production and Design

Business Improvement Through Mentoring at Cliffs Natural Resources

Off-the-Shelf Cellular-Based Magazine Security

Calibration of a Fragmentation Model for a New Mining Operation


Case Examples of Sensor Coupling Effect on Blast Vibration
Measurement

Open Pit Wall Control Analysis Using Photogrammetry


Orica Degradable Emulsion Seismic Explosives
Pinkerton Tunnel Open Cut Project

Comparison of Field and Simulated Cast Blasts

Portable Rock Fragmentation Sensing Using 3D Imaging

Concrete Bridge Pier Removal in an Environmentally Sensitive River

Process Intensification of Emulsion Manufacture

Continuous Velocity of Detonation Measurements in Rock and in Ice

Rapid Raising

Development and Blast Applications for Resolution Coppers No. 10


Shaft

Review of Equations of Motion of Linear Shaped Charges Liner

Development of Wireless Sensors for Blast Monitoring and Slope


Stability

Safely Achieving Optimal Blast Performance with Gassy Holes

Difference Between RDX-Based-Aluminum-Film Explosive and Traditional Aluminized Explosive


Discrete Element Modelling of Dynamic Fracturing of Jointed Rock
Masses
Drill and Blast Costs and Its Relation with Rocks Properties

Rock-to-Sensor Transmissibility of Vibrations


Seismographic Monitoring as a Measure of Environmental Control.
Iso-Seismic Maps
Soil-Structure Resonance Assessment Nearby a Cement Plant, Riyadh,
Saudi Arabia
Structure and Crack Response to Coal Blasting in Brazil

Dynamic Stress Field around Blast Holes A Laboratory Study

Study on Safe Criterion of Blasting Excavation Oil-Gas Pipeline


Ditches

Effect of Ingredients on the MBP of Ammonium Nitrate Emulsions

Tall Structure Response to Close-in Blasting in New York City

Electronic Detonators: The Psychological Edge

Technical Review of Safe Blasting Design at Limited Distance

Engineering Investigation of the 2011 Explosion at a Fireworks


Storage

The Advantages of Recycled Oil in Blasting; A Refreshing Approach

Enhance Blast Performance by Using PPAN Doped Bulk Emulsion


Explosives

The Importance of Internships for Explosives Engineering Students

Experiment and Numerical Simulation of PMMA Crack Propagation


under Impact-Loading

Underwater Overpressure Monitoring in the Columbia River

The Construction and Testing of a Polycarbonate Safe Haven Wall


The Recovery of a Dozer from a Highwall using Blasting

Explosives and Accessories Selection for Safe Blasting in Fiery


Coalmines

Utilizing Structured Public Involvement in Community Meetings


around Blasting Operations

IMESAFR Version 2.0 Sensitivity Studies and Software Testing

Vibration Effects in Underground Concrete Structures

10

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

November/December 2013

A new rig for a tough gig

PowerROC T35 E puts you in control


Come rain or shine, the PowerROC T35 E is a partner that wont let you down. Thanks to its nononsense design, robust Atlas Copco components, and impressive power, the easy-to-operate rig will
help you overcome the toughest everyday challenges.
No matter how tough the gig, the PowerROC T35 E is ready to ROC.
800-732-6762
www.atlascopco.us

Annual Conference Preview


Exhibitors
(as of September 19, 2013)
Company Name
Booth Number
3GSM GmbH
513
AAMCOR Holdings Corp
306
Accurate Energetic Systems LLC
18
Additive Technology, Inc.
1
AkzoNobel
104
Amerind
508
ARMAG Corporation
108
Atlas Copco CMT USA
509
Austin Powder Company
109
BF Carr & Associates
302
Blast Movement Technologies
502
Blasters Tool & Supply Co
313
Brunner & Lay Inc
314
Burton Wire & Cable
300
Coogar Sales & Services
107
Daigh Company Inc
414
Davey Bickford
307
Dexpan USA
516
DNA-Blast Software/TBT
203
Dynamat
602
Dyno Nobel
615
E.I.T. Corporation
21
ENAEX S.A.
506
Fairmont Specialty
317
Flanders
507
Four Star Blasting Mats, Inc
12
Furukawa Rock Drill
607
GeoSonics/Vibra-Tech
316
Ideal Blasting Supply
416
Instantel
301
International Explosives Equipment
308
ISEE Anniversary Photo Booth
35
Itasca
7
IVP
20
J.M. Miller Inc. Explosives Insurance
9
L&H Industrial, Inc
403
Larmee Equipment & Supply
401
Laser Technology Inc
415
LIM Technology Inc
14
Lubrizol Corporation
209
Maptek
26
MAXAM
411
Mitsubishi Materials
604
Montabert
514
Motion Metrics International Corp
206
MREL
115
Nelson Brothers
101
Nobel Insurance Services
614
Normet International Ltd
217
Orica
601
PDB Tools, Inc
608
Petro-Explo, Inc
710

Physical Measurement
Technologies Inc
Potters Industries
Precision Blasting
QMR Pty Ltd
R.A Jones & Co
Renishaw Inc
Rockmore International
Rothenbuhler Engineering
Sandvik Construction
Sauls Seismic, Inc/NOMIS
Seminole Wire & Cable Co
ShotTrack
Sigicom
Soft-Blast

Conference Sponsors

We would like to gratefully acknowledge the sponsors of


the 40th Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting
Technique.Thank you for your contribution to the Conference!
Gold Level

Tread Corporation
Orica
Sauls Seismic, Inc./NOMIS
Austin Powder
Tradestar Corporation
Furukawa Rock Drill
12

International Reception
Sunday Welcome Reception (Food)
Conference Portfolio
International Luncheon
Monday Coffee Break & Tuesday
Banquet Reception
Poster Session Reception

205
201
13
504
310
110
17
417
112
114
706
606
11
500

Split Engineering
Stemlock Inc
Texcel
Thunderbird Mining Systems
Tipper Tie Inc
TM International
Tradestar Corporation
Tread Corporation
United Leasing, Inc
UTEC Corporation
Valeron Strength Films
Varel International
VCE
Vibronics Inc

Warren Manufacturing Inc


White Industrial Seismology Inc

501
600
515
19
610
102
213
407
304
315
22
412
207
503

708
510

Dyno Nobel/Sandvik
Nobel Insurance
Nelson Brothers

Blasters R Us Video Roundup


Sunday Welcome Reception (Bar)
Monday Lunch Beverage Station &
Two Email Blasts
Vibronics
Name Badge Holders
MREL
Conference Program
US Granules
International Luncheon Amenity
Lubrizol Corporation
Tuesday Coffee Break
Rothenbuhler Engineering Sporting Clays Shoot

Silver Level

Ideal Supply Inc.

Blasters Tool and Supply


Instantel
The Journal of Explosives Engineers

Exhibit Hall Stamping Contest


Giveaways
Welcome Reception Entertainment
Photo Contest Display
November/December 2013

40th Annual Conference on Explosives


and Blasting Technique
Hyatt Regency Denver Denver, Colorado USA February 912, 2014

Registration Form
or Register Online
at www.isee.org

First Name:__________________________________ Last Name: _________________________________________


Company: __________________________________ Nickname for Name Badge: _______________________________
Address: _________________________________________________________ ISEE Member Number: ____________
City: ______________________________________ State/Province: ___________ Postal Code: ___________________
Country: _________________ Phone: ________________ Fax: ________________ Email: _____________________

Office Use Only


Batch # _____________
Initialed _____________
(Please print or type. Copy for
additional registrants.)

Spouse/Guest Name Badge: First Name: ___________________________ Last Name: _____________________________


(Badge required for all events) Personal guest only, no business associates.

First ISEE Conference:

o Yes o No

Conference Speaker:

o Yes o No

Cell Phone # Onsite: ______________________________________


Earlybird Before
11/30/13

Conference Registration

Ontime Before
1/5/2014

Late Reg.
After 1/5/14

Full Conference Registration - Sun-Wed, Feb. 9 - 12 (Blasters Training Seminar and Banquet tickets sold separately See Special Events)
ISEE Member
$ 635.00
$ 685.00
$ 760.00
Non-Member (includes a one-year membership)
$ 715.00
$ 765.00
$ 840.00
Emeritus Member
$ 125.00
$ 125.00
$ 125.00
Student Member - Special Rate!
$ 50.00
$ 50.00
$ 75.00
Spouse/Guest Program (includes Exhibits, Meals, Tours)
$ 160.00
$ 170.00
$ 180.00

Total
___________
___________
___________
___________
___________

Blasters Weekend Package - Feb 8 - 9 only (If Attending Full Conf, see Blasters Training Seminar Only under Special Events)
(Includes Blasters Training Seminar, Sat Lunch, Reception, Video Roundup, Exhibits & Sun Welcome Reception)

ISEE Member
Non-Member (includes a one-year membership)
Blasters Weekend Spouse - Feb 8 -9 only

$ 265.00
$ 345.00

$ 295.00
$ 375.00

$ 350.00
$ 430.00

$ 59.00

$ 59.00

$ 59.00

$ 205.00
$ 44.00

$ 235.00
$ 44.00

$ 280.00
$ 44.00

$ 48.00

$ 48.00

$ 48.00

___________
___________
___________

$ 49.00
$ 69.00

$ 49.00
$ 69.00

$ 49.00
$ 69.00

___________
___________

Conference Tours/Events
ISEE Sporting Clays Shoot - Saturday, Feb. 8 (limited space)

$ 150.00

$ 150.00

$ 150.00

___________

Proceedings
Conf Proceedings - Printed Book
Conf Proceedings - CD

$ 89.00
$ 59.00

$ 89.00
$ 59.00

$ 89.00
$ 59.00

___________
___________

(Includes Saturday Lunch, Reception, Exhibits & Sunday Welcome Reception)

Special Events (Not included in Conference Registration Fee)


Blasters Training Seminar Only - Saturday, Feb. 8
Spouse/Guest Admission Ticket to Welcome Reception Only - Sunday, Feb. 9
International Luncheon - Monday, Feb. 10
(This event is complimentary to attendees outside US & Canada)

Annual Awards Banquet & Live Auction - Tuesday, Feb. 11 (not sold on site)
With Full Paid Conference Registration or Spouse Program
Banquet Ticket Only

Total for Registration, Blasters Weekend, Special Events/Tour, Proceedings:


Payment Information

__________
__________
__________

___________

Payment must be included for registration to be processed.

o Enclosed is a check drawn on a US bank payable to ISEE. No wire transfers or international checks will be accepted.
o Please charge my credit card for the amount due: o MasterCard
o Visa
o Amex
o Discover
Card # _________________________________________________ Exp. Date _________________ CVV Code ________________
Signature: __________________________________________________________________________________________________

No Refunds after January 10, 2014 Cancellations must be in writing. A processing fee of $50 will be deducted. No refunds for no shows.
Registrations cannot be taken over the phone.

Mail or Fax form to: International Society of Explosives Engineers, 30325 Bainbridge Road, Cleveland, OH 44139
Tel. (440) 349-4400 Fax (440) 349-3788 Web: www.isee.org

Annual Conference Preview


Product Service/Showcase

VOD Recorders

The following product/service showcase items are advertisements provided by exhibitors attending the 40th Annual Conference in Denver, Colorado. For more information,
please contact ISEE at (440) 349-4400.
Emulsifiers

The Lubrizol Corporation


Booth Location: 209
Lubrizol offers a comprehensive range of emulsifiers for use in emulsion
explosives. Our products
are suitable for applications ranging from load
and shoot operations
to stable re-pumpable matrices to extended shelf life packaged
products. We also provide solutions for cross-linking and other
gelling applications. Eight ISO certified manufacturing locations
worldwide deliver reliable, quality products to over 50 countries.
For more information, contact Kent Stephens (440) 347-5449,
adex@lubrizol.com or http://www.lubrizol.com/ADEX/

MREL
Booth Location: 115
MREL manufactures the industrys
leading line of explosives performance
recorders. MREL recorders are used
worldwide to help both manufacturers
and consumers of explosives to solve
blasting concerns. Choose your role at
MRELs exhibit:Mike the Miner,Pete
the Powderman, or Rose the Researcher and watch the interactive presentations.T: +1.613.545.0466 E: blasting@
mrel.com W: www.mrel.com
See advertisement, page 33.

High-Speed Cameras
MREL
Booth Location: 115

MRELs BlastCam and Blasters Ranger


II are the industrys most popular high
speed digital video cameras. Portability,
ease of use, and clarity of video make
these cameras ideal for recording and
analyzing mine blasts. Be sure to visit
MRELs exhibit for a live demonstration
of their capabilities.T:+1.613.545.0466
E:blasting@mrel.com W:www.mrel.com
See advertisement, page 33.

Rota-Clip High Speed Automatic Clipper


Tipper Tie, Inc.
Booth Location: 610

When speed and shift-long


production runs are critical,
manufacturers rely on the
automated Rota-Clip, which
produces 25 mm to 140 mm
diameter cartridges at up to
335 per minute with a single
operator. Learn more about
the Rota-Clip at TIPPER TIE
booth 610, or visit
www.tippertie.com.

SwiSeal Heat Seal System


Tipper Tie, Inc.
Booth Location: 610

The SwiSeal system is suited


for shift-long production runs
and produces heat-sealed and
clipped chubs from costeffective flat film. Package diameters range from 25 mm to
120 mm, produced at speeds
of 25 to 70 chubs per minute.
Learn more about the SwiSeal
at TIPPER TIE booth 610, or
visit www.tippertie.com.

14

Blasting Mats

Dynamat
Booth Location: 602
Dynamat
the North
Americas
Leading Manufacturer of
Blasting Mats!
We offer a flexibility that is unique in the industry. Our unique
Turnkey Service goes well beyond producing blasting mats we
also make sure you receive your blasting mats exactly Where and
When you choose! Because we care about you, our customer! W:
www.dynamat.qc.ca E: sales@dynamat.qc.ca T: 1-800-363-8026.

GeoSonics/Vibra-Tech Offers Re:mote Monitoring Technology


GeoSonics/Vibra-Tech
Booth Location: 316

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

The GeoSonics/Vibra-Tech Re:moteTM


Monitoring Technology is the first fully
automated monitoring system with
web-based data access and smart phone
apps. Re:mote continuously collects
data, while keeping project personnel
notified through email/text. Whether you
need vibration, noise, dust, geotechnical
or environmental monitoring, Re:mote
brings the field to you.

November/December 2013

Seismograph Sales

3-D Laser Profiling Software

GeoSonics/Vibra-Techs 5500
seismograph features a removable CompactFlash memory
combined with a full QWERTY
keyboard and durable on-board
printer.The 5500 is equipped
with vibration and sound monitoring systems with LCD displays and metal cable connections. We provide exceptional
service on seismograph sales and leases as well as calibration and
repairs. www.geosonicsvibratech.com.

TLC and VIBRONICS offer a


powerful, versatile, and intuitive profiling software package.
The software can be used with
many laser profilers and is
currently being used by major
explosives companies.The
software offers many advanced
features including automatic
generation of subsequent and
back rows of holes, including collar coordinates.The software can
also automatically calculate collar coordinates based upon user
defined burden parameters.The software can calculate burden
intervals from data obtained from borehole deviation tools. Users
comment on the ease of use and speed at which profiles can be
generated and edited. Demo versions available.
See advertisement, page 5.

GeoSonics/Vibra-Tech
Booth Location: 316

Vibronics, Inc.
Booth Location: 503

Drill Bits

Varel International
Booth Location: 412
Varel International is the worlds
largest supplier of drill bits to the
mining and industrial market, providing roller cone and fixed cutter
drill bits. Varels proprietary design
capabilities, efficient manufacturing,
and sales force uniquely position
the company to provide high-quality
bits and value to its customers. More
information, www.varelintl.com.

2-D Profiling Software


Vibronics, Inc.
Booth Location: 503

VIBRONICS, INC. and TLC


Software offer 2-D and 3-D
profiling software for nearly
any handheld laser.This software is used by numerous
major explosives companies.
2-D profiles are generated
instantly (as data is taken)
showing minimum and maximum burdens, and can be viewed, edited, stored and printed via
infrared or Bluetooth. Contact us for free trial.
See advertisement, page 5.

Automated Remote Email/Text Seismic Data Forwarding

(Remote Seismographic Monitoring)


Vibronics, Inc.
Booth Location: 503
VIBRONICS leases complete (plug
and play) remote monitoring
systems. We can ship a complete
system to your site, ready for deployment, install systems for you,
or host and forward data from your
own seismographs. Seismographic
data received and forwarded to
your smart phone and/or email
almost immediately after triggering. Saves you time and money by
not having to physically retrieve data from the field. Contact us
for a quote.
See advertisement, page 5.

Web Based Seismographic Data Hosting


Vibronics, Inc.
Booth Location: 503

Pre/Post Blast Surveys


Vibronics, Inc.
Booth Location: 503

VIBRONICS, INC. has


conducted thousands of PreBlast and Condition surveys.
We take pride in providing
our clients with thorough
and accurate surveys. We
have expertise in communicating with property owners. Our clients can choose
their documentation format
(sketches, pictures, video, or any combination). We provide you
with copies as necessary and archive a copy at our facility for
your convenience. Contact us for a free quote.
See advertisement, page 5.

November/December 2013

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

VIBRONICS web-based seismographic


data hosting allows the user to log on
to a password protected website to
review your remote access seismographic data. Seismographic data is
automatically posted to your account
immediately after a triggered blasting
event. Data can be viewed, downloaded, or printed directly from the password protected site. All data is hosted
and archived for future retrieval.
Please contact us for a demonstration.
See advertisement, page 5.

15

Annual Conference Preview


Seismographic sales/rentals

Mini-Seis Digital Seismograph

VIBRONICS, INC. is an
authorized dealer for
Instantel, Larcor, and White
seismographs, software, and
accessories. We offer seismograph calibration, repair, and
service. We also offer rental
equipment and provide onsite monitoring programs.
We offer both printing and
non-printing units, remote and non-remote systems. Fully operational remote systems can be shipped directly to your site, ready
for installation. Dont purchase or lease without calling us first.
See advertisement, page 5.

The Mini-Seis digital


seismograph is in use
worldwide. It is accurate,
economical, rugged,
reliable and easy to operate. We also provide a
complete data downloading and analysis software
package. An optional
external printer is available which allows the
Mini-Seis to function like a printing seismograph for much less
cost.Tel: 417-624-0164, Email: info@whiteseis.com, Web: www.
whiteseis.com
See advertisement, page 3.

Vibronics, Inc.
Booth Location: 503

White Industrial Seismology, Inc.


Booth Location: 510

Speedvod TDR VOD Instrument

Mini-Seis III Digital Seismograph

Vibronics, Inc.
Booth Location: 503

VIBRONICS is a distributor for the SpeedVod TDR


velocity of detonation
recorder manufactured
by TLC Software.The
SpeedVod is a continuous
VOD device that is battery
operated, uses standard
coaxial cable, stores data
in non-volatile internal
memory, triggers automatically, and is easy to use. Users can
program or modify field parameters without a computer using
the onboard keypad. Powerful and intuitive analysis software is
included. Contact us for more information.
See advertisement, page 5.

Bulk Trucks

Alpha-Blast V11

White Industrial Seismology, Inc.


Booth Location: 510

Tread Corporation
Booth Location: 407
Loading ANFO or
an ANFO/Emulsion
blend into a bulk
truck the easy way
Tread Corporation is
excited to announce
the addition of the
B1 Mixing Plant to
its lineup. Electronic
controls provide
a simple, yet accurate method to blend predetermined ratios
of ammonium nitrate prill, fuel oil, and emulsion at a variety
of rates. Also new to Treads product line is the 3716 Repump
truck. Learn more about these innovative products at www.
TreadCorporation.com.
See advertisement, page 35.

16

White Industrial Seismology, Inc.


Booth Location: 510
The Mini-Seis III is our new state-of-theart seismograph. It features a large, easy
to read display, alphanumeric keypad,
USB support, multiple sample rates and
16 bit dynamic range. The unit also
features multiple operating modes, over
500 MB of onboard memory and linear
and A weighted acoustic using the same
microphone. As with all of our products,
the Mini-Seis III is a great value. Tel: 417624-0164, Email: info@whiteseis.com,
Web: www.whiteseis.com.
See advertisement, page 3.

The standard for value in a


signature analysis program.
In addition to the powerful
analysis features Alpha-Blast
is known for, V11 includes
the ability to use historical data from production
blasting to provide more
accurate amplitude simulations. A White Mini-Seis
or Mini-Seis III and Alpha-Blast are must haves if you use or sell
electronic detonators. Tel: 417-624-0164, Email: info@whiteseis.
com, Web: www.whiteseis.com.
See advertisement, page 3.

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

November/December 2013

Blasters Handbook
From the best subject matter specialists
in blasting comes the completely
18th Edition ISEE Blasters Handbook!

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For the industry by the industry.


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THE Handbook for Blasting in todays world.

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Annual Conference Preview


Remote Seismograph Data Access

White Industrial Seismology, Inc.


Booth Location: 510
We offer remote data access through
TCP/IP enabled cellular or satellite
modems. With automatic reporting
enabled and our AutoReceive software, recordings can be automatically transferred immediately after an
event. The AutoReceive software
can then be used to send email notifications with an image of the event
to any number of recipients. Tel:
417-624-0164, Email: info@whiteseis.
com, Web: www.whiteseis.com.
See advertisement, page 3.

Compu-Blast V9

White Industrial Seismology, Inc.


Booth Location: 510
Yes, we have a new version of
Compu-Blast. V9 features database
storage of designs. There can be
varying decks in a hole and the
number of decks is virtually unlimited. The design database used by
Compu-Blast V9 can be accessed
by Alpha-Blast V11 for simulations.
Tel: 417-624-0164, Email: info@whiteseis.com, Web: www.whiteseis.
com.
See advertisement, page 3.

KartridgPak ChubMaker 2500


R.A Jones & Co.
Booth Location: 310

R.A Jones & Co. is the leader in the


production of KartridgPak Chub
Packaging machines used to package explosives, high viscosity foods,
caulks, sealants and other industrial
products. Every ChubMaker is designed to process higher volumes of
product up to 160 ppm. Its unique
roll-stock wire significantly reduces
clip costs, boosting your profitability
and accelerating your ROI. http://
www.rajones.com, 800-257-5622.

Instantel Minimate Plus and Blastmate III


Instantel
Booth Location: 301

Minimate Plus and Blastmate III


monitors come with a Standard
Triaxial Geophone (ISEE or DIN
version) and a Linear Overpressure Microphone. An A-Weight
Microphone is also available.These
are rugged compliance monitoring
systems or can be setup with high
speed configurations, including 1
channel at 65 kHz.
Telephone: 613-592-4642 Web:
www.instantel.com.
See advertisement, page 7.

Advanced Solutions for Underground Mining and Tunnelling


Normet International, Ltd.
Booth Location: 217

Normet is a fast
growing Finnish
technology company with global operations. It provides
advanced solutions
for selected customer processes in underground mining and tunnelling environments.The Normet Group develops, manufactures
and markets machines, services, construction chemicals and specialized rock bolts for underground processes such as robotized
concrete spraying, highly mechanized explosive charging, lifting
and installation, rock reinforcement and logistics.
Normet International Ltd., Rothusstrasse 21, CH-6331 Hnenberg,
SWITZERLAND,Tel. +41 41 768 52 00, Fax +41 41 768 52 11,
info@normet.fi, www.normet.com

Horizontal Directional Drilling Products

Instantel Minimate Pro4


Instantel
Booth Location: 301

The Minimate Pro4 is


a four-channel monitor
with a Standard Triaxial
Geophone (ISEE or DIN)
and a Linear Overpressure
Microphone. A Type 1
Sound Level Microphone
is also available. This monitor comes with intuitive
menus, rugged cast aluminum case and high speed configurations including 4 channels at
65 kHz.
Telephone: 613-592-4642 Web: www.instantel.com.
See advertisement, page 7.

Atlas Copco CMT USA


Booth Location: 509
Products to drill in any rock formation.
The HDD equipment range includes
Direct Shot tricone pilot bits in all sizes
and types, bit thirds, and bit third hole
openers incorporating a common, random
bit third.
See Advertisement, page 11.

18

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

November/December 2013

Instantel Minimate Pro6

Remote Firing Devices

The Minimate Pro6, with


six channels at 65 kHz,
is designed to monitor
with two Standard Triaxial
Geophones (ISEE or DIN)
or one Triaxial Geophone
and a Linear Overpressure Microphone. A Type 1
Sound Level Microphone is
also available. This monitor comes with intuitive menus, a rugged
cast aluminum case and Ethernet capability.
Telephone: 613-592-4642 Web: www.instantel.com.
See advertisement, page 7.

Remote Firing Devices


for construction, mining
(surface and
underground) and
military industries. Rothenbuhler Engineering is a privately held
company in Washington State, founded in 1946, which designs,
manufactures, and distributes radio remote control blast initiation
devices.The products are known for ruggedness, conservative
price and ease of use with a 5 mile range. Any system can include
both Electric and Shock Tube output. See our web site at: www.
RothenbuhlerEng.com Contact: Kriss Johnson or Neal Rothenbuhler @ 360-856-0836 Fax: 360-856-2183.
See advertisement, page 48.

Instantel
Booth Location: 301

Rothenbuhler Engineering
Booth Location: 417

Instantel InstaLink
Instantel
Booth Location: 301

InstaLink from Instantel is a web based


monitoring solution that allows you to
satisfy the most demanding reporting
requirements, effortlessly and cost
effectively. Now you can have safe and
secure 24/7 access to your vibration
data via the Internet. InstaLink saves
valuable time.
Telephone: 613-592-4642 Web: www.
instantel.com.
See advertisement, page 7.

Instantel Series IV Sound Level Microphone


Instantel
Booth Location: 301

Sound Level Microphone


measures between 30 to
140 dB using A-Weighting
and C-Weighting for
Instantel Blastware
Compliance Mode, or
in Blastware Advanced
Mode, up to 140 dB unfiltered.The unfiltered data
can then be analyzed, processed and weighted, as required.
Telephone: 613-592-4642 Web: www.instantel.com.
See advertisement, page 7.

Experienced Seismic Consultants


Sauls Seismic, Inc.
Booth Location: 114

With 30 years in the seismic


consulting business, Sauls Seismic has gained a reputation for
excellence, professionalism and
personal, dedicated service in
all aspects of the business. Sauls
provides a full line of seismic
services including: vibration control, pre and post blast surveys,
the new displacement/crack monitoring service, computer blast
analysis, expert representation in litigation, damage claim evaluations and public relations/education programs. Offices are conveniently located throughout the South and Midwest USA. Sauls is
associated with NOMIS Seismographs, a world leader in vibration
monitoring equipment. Call us at 866-527-2477, e-mail: sales@
saulsseismic.com. Visit us at www.saulsseismic.com
See advertisement, page 46.

ShotTrack VoD

ShotTrack
Booth Location: 606

Instantel Blastware 10.6


Instantel
Booth Location: 301

Blastware software the


Windows software
companion to your Instantel vibration monitor
offers powerful, easy-touse features, for event
management, customized
compliance reporting
and advanced data analysis, as well as signature
hole analysis. Remotely setup your monitors and communicate
with Series IV monitors using Ethernet.
Telephone: 613-592-4642 Web: www.instantel.com.
See advertisement, page 7.
November/December 2013

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

ShotTrack VoD MKIII Is the latest VoD


monitor to allow simple and inexpensive
testing on site. Using standard Coaxial cable ShotTrack consumables are cheap and
easily obtainable. ShotTrack VoD monitors
are TDR (Time Domain Reflectometer)
type of monitors.
For more information visit www.shottrack.com.au

19

Annual Conference Preview


ShotTrack ViB

Explosives and Initiation Systems

ShotTrack
Booth Location: 606

MAXAM
Booth Location: 411
The release of the new ShotTrack
ViB is close.This light weight, durable and inexpensive self-contained
vibration monitor will revolutionise
near blast data collection. With no
external connections, Bluetooth
connectivity (GSM optional), GPS
and an IP rating of 68, this unit is
virtually indestructible.
For more information visit www.
shottrack.com.au

Maxam is a global
leader in the development, manufacture
and sale of civil
explosives and initiation systems for the
mining, quarrying and
construction industries. Maxam has a heritage of manufacturing a comprehensive
range of reliable products and providing
a high level of customer support dating
back to the 1800s. Stop by the booth or
call us at 801-233-6000 to find out how we
can help improve your process.

Mining Systems, Software, and Services


Split Engineering
Booth Location: 501

Explosives and Initiation Systems


MAXAM
Booth Location: 411

Split Engineering provides systems, software and services for the


worldwide mining industry. Split Engineering is truly a customeroriented company dedicated to providing quantifiable information of the highest integrity to enable process control and
measurement. Since 1997, Split Engineering and its affiliates have
installed over 120 Split-Online fragmentation size measurement
systems monitoring more than 500 different camera locations
for companies on five continents. Split Engineering provides
integrated imaging systems consisting of hardware and proprietary software and also provides consulting and service solutions
for quantifying rock fragmentation size, shape and color. Systems
and Software include: Split-Online, Split-ShovelCam, SplitDesktop, Split-Net and Split-FX.

Maxam is a global leader in the


development,
manufacture
and sale of civil
explosives and initiation systems for the seismic and commercial
mining and construction industries. Maxams comprehensive line
of products may have changed their names, but the quality and
reliability remain the same. Stop by the booth for a free Note our
New Names memory pad, or visit www.maxam-na.com for more
information.

RionelTM

MAXAM
Booth Location: 411

Insurance

Fairmont Specialty
Booth Location: 317
Years of experience have
placed Fairmont
Specialty in a
position to have
the industry
knowledge
to properly
protect the hazardous business of the commercial explosives and
blasting industry. Fairmonts coverage: General Liability, Commercial Automobile, Umbrella, Property, Equipment and Workers
Compensation. For information contact our exclusive agent:
Texas AGA, 800-875-9484, www.aga-us.com.

20

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

Maxam is a global leader in the


development, manufacture and sale
of civil explosives and initiation
systems for the seismic and construction industries.To find out more
about our RIONEL product line,
including RIONEL DDE (Dual
Delay Eight Tube Connector), stop
by our booth of visit us at www.
maxam.net.

November/December 2013

3D Physic-Based Blast Simulation Software


DNA-Blast / TBT
Booth Location: 203

Blending and Loading Equipment


Tradestar Corporation
Booth Location: 213

For 45 years Tradestar


has provided state
of the art explosive
blending and loading
equipment for the
mining industry. We
recently invested in a new manufacturing facility in order to
support the global demand. Our premier facility aligns with our
World Class Capability, Experience, and Talent.

Insurance

Nobel Insurance Services


Booth Location: 614

What if you could reduce uncertainty at shooting time? Accurately forecast blast outcome thanks to I-Blast, the 3D physic-based
simulation software. contact@dna-blast.com | www.dna-blast.
com

Blast Movement Monitor System


Blast Movement Technologies
Booth Location: 502

At Nobel, we understand
the importance of protecting what you have today and better preparing
for tomorrow. For over
30 years, weve provided
quality insurance focused
on meeting the needs of
the commercial explosives industry. Let Nobel help you focus on reaching your goals
of long-term success. Call (800)766-6235 ext. 4121, or visit www.
nobelinsurance.com.

The Blast Movement Monitor


system is a grade control
tool that minimises ore loss
and dilution. An integrated
software and hardware
solution, the BMM System
is fast, accurate and unique.
Measured movement vectors
are used to define post-blast
ore locations that results in
many millions of dollars of
extra revenue annually.

Next Issue
January/February 2014

RH460 series of DTH hammers


Sandvik Construction
Booth Location: 112

Sandvik Constructions latest member of its tool range is the RH460


series of DTH hammers, which has
been developed in order to provide
customers with the enhanced levels
of penetration rates, longer service
life and lower operating costs that
they now demand. Possessing key
features that optimize the impactenergy transmission into the rock,
utilizing very few parts, they are designed to be reliable, easy to service,
and fast.

Distributed to attendees of
ISEEs 40th Annual Conference
in Denver, Colo.
Case Study on Single Shot Drawbell Blasting
Determining the Origin of Air Overpressure
A Practical Approach to Managing Flyrock Control
Explosives 100 Years Ago
Articles are subject to change

To advertise, contact Dede Manross 801.942.5650 explo@comcast.net


www.isee.org
November/December 2013

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

21

20th

20th Annual
Photo Contest
Honorable Mention
Snoqualmie Pass
Category: Construction Blasting
Submitted by: Corry Goumans
Blaster in Charge: Corry Goumans
Photographer: Corry Goumans

Description of Project:
Project location is Snoqualmie Pass,Washington State
Photos 1 - 4 Chris Elliott is a rock slope supervisor on a
construction project east of Seattle,Washington. His job
is to look after a two man scaling crew working on the
rock bluffs some 300 feet in height along the I-90 interstate just east of the town Hyak. The Washington State
Rock Engineers noticed a very large mass of unstable
rock along the upper rock face and asked us to take it out.
Chris is loading explosives in 1 holes that are 8 to 10
feet deep by 40 feet long with 1 x 8 power primer on
the unstable rock mass that is about 300 feet above the
new road construction. I-90 runs east and west alongside
the new construction note the containment fence and the
ship containers along the highway for protection and Lake
Keechelus in the background.

Photo 2.

Photo 5 After the blast, the scaling crew repels down to


the blast area and scale out any loose rock that may still
be there. This needs to be done after any blasting on the
highway before traffic is to proceed.

Photo 3.

Photo 1.
22

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

November/December 2013

Photo 4.

Photo 5.
November/December 2013

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

23

Calendar of Events
November 2013

January 2014

November 5-7, 2013


Rock Blasting and Overbreak Control
Seminar by PBS
Montville, OH USA
(440) 474-6700

January 11, 2014


Golden West Chapters Annual Business
Meeting
Mt. Pleasant Hall
Lincoln, CA USA
Mike Chiurato, (916) 645-3377

November 7, 2013
Mississippi Valley Chapters Quarterly
Meeting
Holiday Inn, South County I-55 and Butler
Hill Road
www.mvsee.org
November 14-15, 2013
16th Pennsylvania Drilling and Blasting
Conference
The Penn Stater Conference Center Hotel
State College, PA USA
www.outreach.psu.edu/programs/blasting
November 14, 2013
Heartland Chapter Meeting
Springfield, MO USA
Phil Porter, phil@buckleypowder.com
November 19-21, 2013
Underwater Blasting Seminar by PBS
Montville, OH USA
(440) 474-6700

December 2013
December 6, 2013
Black Hills Chapter General Membership
Meeting
AmericInn Lodge & Suites
Rapid City, SD USA
Doug Hoy, (605) 940-1055
dough@sayreassociates
December 11, 2013
University of Kentuckys 3rd Annual Clay
Shoot
Elk Creek Hunt Club and Winery
Owenton, KY USA
isee.uk@gmail.com.

January 16, 2014


Great Lakes Chapter Meeting
Holiday Inn
Willowbrook, IL USA
Janet Schue, cheriamour@aol.com

May 11-14, 2014


CIM Conference and Exhibition
Vancouver Convention Center
Vancouver, BC CANADA
www.cim.org

July 2014
July 17, 2014
Great Lakes Chapter Meeting
Holiday Inn
Willowbrook, IL USA
Janet Schue, cheriamour@aol.com

September 2014
February 2014
February 9-12, 2014
ISEEs 40th Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting Technique
Denver, CO USA
Lynn Mangol, mangol@isee.org
February 23-26, 2014
SME Annual Meeting
Salt Lake City, UT USA
www.smenet.org

March 2014
March 4-8, 2014
Conexpo-Conagg
Las Vegas, NV USA
www.conexpoconagg.com/

April 2014
April 17, 2014
Great Lakes Chapter Meeting
Holiday Inn
Willowbrook, IL USA
Janet Schue, cheriamour@aol.com
April 22-25, 2014
27th Best in the West Drill and Blast Conference
Spearfish, SD USA
doughoy@sayreassociates.com

December 12-13, 2013


Kentucky Blasting Conference
Lexington Center and Hyatt Regency
Hotel
Lexington, KY USA
www.kyblastingconference.com

May 2014

24

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

September 25 28, 2014


Western Canada Chapters Annual General
Meeting
Coast Kamloops Hotel and Conference
Centre
Kamloops, BC CANADA
www.iseewest.org

October 2014
October 16, 2014
Great Lakes Chapter Meeting
Holiday Inn
Willowbrook, IL USA
Janet Schue, cheriamour@aol.com

December 2014
December 4-5, 2014
Kentucky Blasting Conference
Lexington Center and Hyatt Regency
Hotel
Lexington, KY USA
www.kyblastingconference.com

April 2015
April 21-24, 2015
28th Best in the West Drill and Blast
Conference
Spearfish, SD USA
doughoy@sayreassociates.com
For the latest events, see ISEEs web
site at www.isee.org

May 9-15, 2014


World Tunnel Congress
Iguassu Falls, BRAZIL
www.wtc2014.com.br

November/December 2013

3,216 reasons to be an
ISEE member and counting.
The ISEE Explosives Reference Database Online: Search 3,216 documents of
general and research proceedings from the Annual Conference on Explosives and
Blasting Technique, Symposia on Explosives and Blasting Research; papers from
the Journal of Explosives Engineering; RIs and ICs from the U.S. Bureau of Mines;
and the Blasters Catalog.
24-hours-a-day, seven-days-a-week free access for all ISEE members. All you
need is a computer and Internet access.

docs.isee.org

Industry News
ISEE Election Now Underway
Election of Officers and
Directors for 2014

Cleveland The ISEE board elections are now officially underway.


Eligible voters, all members in good
standing with the exception of student members, can cast votes for officers and directors until midnight
eastern standard time on Dec. 1, 2013.
All eligible voters with an email
on file should have received a message with step-by-step instructions for
casting a vote online. Print ballots and
candidate bios have also been mailed
to members who dont have an email
address on file.
Elected officers and directors for Ronald D. Thomas.
2014 will take office at the annual
membership meeting at the 40th An- with IME having served for 15 years as
nual Conference on Explosives and a member and chair of the IME TechniBlasting Technique, to be held Feb. cal Committee.
Rons career spanned 40 years with
9-12, 2014, Hyatt Regency in Denver,
the Ensign-Bickford Company and
Colo.
The candidates are: President, Mike Trojan Corporation filling many roles
J. Koehler; Vice President Administra- in research, technical services, qualtion, John JackW. Eloranta;Vice Presi- ity control, production and the impledent Technical, James P. Daley; Secre- mentation of explosives technology.
tary, Richard M. Hosley, Jr.; Treasurer, During that time he has been much
Alastair C. Torrance. Director Candi- in demand as a presenter at technidates: Kevin J. Hachmeister, Keith M. cal and regulatory conferences and
Henderson, Dean A.Wiegand, Janeen T. published papers regarding the comSmith, Lewis J. Clarke, William J. Reisz, mercial explosives industry, including
many at ISEE conferences. He holds
and Christopher M. Hyle.
Members who have not received a number of patents involving exploa paper or email ballot, can re- sives and ammonium nitrate based
quest one by contacting the ISEE at explosive products and explosives sys440.349.4400. Your opinion matters. tems. Ron joined IME on October 1,
2013 and worked with Lon to effect
Cast your vote today.
an orderly and effective transition into
IME affairs.
IME Selects Ron Thomas as
Lon D. Santis resigned in SeptemNew Manager of Technical
ber as IMEs Manager of Technical Services. After 15 years of exceptional
Services
Washington The Institute of Mak- service to IME and the explosives iners of Explosives (IME) is very pleased dustry, Lon is moving into the world of
to announce the selection of Ronald consulting. IME will continue to retain
D. Thomas to succeed Lon Santis as Lon as a consultant on certain matters
the Manager of Technical Services. to assist with the transition to his sucRon will quickly adjust to his new po- cessor. He will be missed by all and
sition as he spent 40 years in the ex- leaves with the best wishes of the IME
plosives industry and is quite familiar membership.
26

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

B. Todd Jones Sworn in as ATF


Director

Washington B.Todd Jones received


the ceremonial oathofoffice as Director of the Bureau of Alcohol,Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) administered by Vice President Joe Biden
on August 29 at the White House.With
his confirmation, Jones becomes the
agencys first permanent director in
seven years. Jones takes over the law
enforcement agency responsible for
enforcing firearms and explosives laws
that protect communities from violent
criminals and criminal organizations.
I congratulate Todd on being
sworn in as the firstever Senateconfirmed Director of the Bureau of Alcohol,Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives,
said Attorney General Eric Holder. I
can think of no one better qualified
to lead this critical agency, and to reinforce our shared commitment to the
highest standards of professionalism
and integrity in federal law enforcement. For decades, Todds career has
been shaped by a remarkable dedication to public service, and a steadfast
determination to do that which is just
and right. I am confident that he will
be a superb ATF Director, and look forward to continuing to work with him
to protect the American people from
violent crime.
Today is a historic day for ATF, said
Jones.The agency is now in line with
its sister components and has been
given the respect it deserves as a federal law enforcement agency with a
permanent director. I want Americans
to know, ATF is full of hardworking,
devoted public servants who are committed to the mission of professional
law enforcement. I will lead with the
same enthusiasm and dedication that
I see daily from the team tasked with
protecting our communities from the
most violent criminals.
Jones has served as the acting ATF
director since being appointed to the
November/December 2013

4th Annual WipWare Training


Seminar a real blast!

North Bay, ON, CANADA Initial


feedback on WipWares 4th Annual
Training Seminar indicates it was another resounding success!
Participants from across Canada,
the US and as far away as Peru recently
attended the three-day event at the Canadian Ecology Centre in Samuel de
Champlain Provincial Park near Mattawa, Ontario. blasting experts Jack
Eloranta of Eloranta & Associates Inc.
and P.D. (Takis) Katsabanis of Queens
University shared their extensive
knowledge and experience with the
gathering and related real-world exam-

ples of blast optimization successes.


Although the focus was primarily
on blasting and explosives, a number
of attendees from the mineral processing end of operations came away from
the seminar with a new understanding
of the links between blasting and milling relating to mine to mill optimization.
Seminar participants also received
hands-on training with WipWares
WipFrag and Delta software packages
and an overview of the companys
Momentum, Reflex and Solo automated systems. The hands-on sessions
were extremely well-received by all
participants.
4th Annual
Wipware
Seminar
attendees and
trainers.

B. Todd Jones.

post on Aug. 31, 2011.While serving as


the acting director of ATF, Jones was
also the United States Attorney for the
District of Minnesota, a post he held
since Aug. 7, 2009. Jones served as both
ATF Acting Director and U.S. Attorney
until his confirmation as ATF Director.
ATFs primary mission is to protect
Americans from violent criminals and
criminal organizations from the illegal
use and trafficking of firearms and the
illegal use and storage of explosives.
ATF is also responsible for licensing
persons engaged in manufacturing,
importing, and dealing in firearms and
explosives. Additionally, ATF investigates acts of arson and criminal bombings and the illegal diversion of alcohol and tobacco products.
More information about ATF and its
programs is available at www.atf.gov.

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The Journal of Explosives Engineers

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27

E X P L O S I V E S
by Robert B. Hopler

100 YEARS AGO


MORE OR LESS
As much as possible, items are reproduced as
originally printed. Misspelling and usages now
considered archaic have been retained.

DU PONT
BLASTING POWDER
1913

28

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

November/December 2013

DU PONT
BLASTING POWDER
1913 (Continued from previous
Journal)

BLASTING METHODS

Priming
In use, blasting powder is exploded
by a spark from fuse, electric squib
or miners squib, or by a primer of
some high explosive, the last being
employed only in heavy charges on
open work. In mining, and sometimes
in light charges on open work, blasting powder is made into cartridges
by means of a paper tube or cylinder
sealed at one end, which is known as
the Du Pont tamping bag. Sometimes
the paper cylinder is made by the
miner by coiling a section of heavy paper, known as blasting paper, around a
wooden pin, called a cartridge pin, and
securing it with what is called blasting
soap. The removal of the pin leaves a
cylindrical cartridge open at one end,
into which the powder is poured and
the top folded and sealed with blasting soap.
The cartridge form increases safety
by eliminating loose powder about
the bore-hole, protects the blasting
powder from moisture when in the
bore-hole, and makes the charging of
the borehole much easier and quicker.
The cartridge pin should be but
little smaller in diameter than the
bore-hole, so that the cartridges will fit
snugly into the bore-hole without an
air space around them.The air space is
usually objectionable because it tends
to reduce the breaking effect and the
results given by the explosive. It is not
advisable to make the cartridges longer than 18 inches, because they are
then heavy and bulky and likely to
break or become unsealed in handling.
Any length that may be required less
than 18 inches can readily be made.
One or more cartridges may be used
in each bore-hole.
The best way to explode blasting
powder cartridges is with an electric
squib or with a high explosive primer.
The latter should not be used in coal
mines. Other methods are with fuse,
miners squib or electric fuze. The
electric fuze is a very efficient blasting
powder exploder, but is no better than
the electric squib, which costs less, although when a high explosive primer
is employed to explode large charges
of blasting powder an electric fuze is
necessary.
November/December 2013

The advantages of the high explosive primer detonated by an electric


fuze, are that it can be lowered into
a deep hole and properly placed in
the charge more easily than an electric squib, electric fuze or blasting cap
and fuse; that the flame given off and
heat generated by the detonation of
the high explosive primer causes the
blasting powder charge to explode
more nearly simultaneously, and therefore to do more work, and that the explosion can be started in the middle of
the blasting powder charge. A blasting
cap or fuse may be used for detonating
the high explosive primer, but where
this is done the advantage gained by
placing the primer in the center of
the blasting powder charge is lost,
because the side spit from the fuse
almost invariably ignites the blasting
powder before the fuse has burned to
the blasting cap in the high explosive
primer. These are the same difficulties
as occur when the blasting powder
charge is exploded by a fuse or squib
from the outer end.
In the use of fuse or miners squibs,
the charge cannot be first ignited in
the middle. When the explosion of a
charge of blasting powder in a borehole commences at the outer end, the
gases evolved by the first powder exploding blow away the resistance, so
that the latter part of the charge practically burns in the open and much
of its value in breaking the surrounding material is lost. Also, when a long
charge begins to explode at one end,
the shock of the first part of the explosion may break the outer part of the
charge away from the remainder, and
so lose a part of the powder entirely.
Or again, the explosion of one end of

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

the charge before the other may result in throwing partly exploded and
burning powder into the open air in
places where it might cause disastrous
results. It must be understood that the
time required for the explosion to travel from one end to the other of even a
long charge of blasting powder is very
short indeed, but a very much longer
period is required than for the detonation of a high explosive to travel the
same distance, and takes enough time
to cause the results already described.
Other advantages in the use of the
electric squib or the electric fuze,
either with or without a dynamite
primer, are the elimination of smoke
from burning fuse and the ability to
explode a number of charges simultaneously, which results in greater execution. Furthermore, the shot-firer has
absolute control of the time when the
shot explodes, making it possible to
fire when everybody is in a safe place,
and so eliminating the danger resulting
from persons inadvertently entering a
chamber after a slow-burning fuse has
been lighted. Still another advantage in
electrical ignition of blasting powder
charges is that the possibility of misfire is reduced to a minimum and of
hangfire entirely eliminated. Misfires,
hangfires and quickfires occur not infrequently in the use of fuse or miners squibs. Hangfires have probably
caused as many accidents as anything
else connected with the use of explosives.
When the electric squib is used to
explode blasting powder charges in
cartridges, the paper shell already referred to is filled half full of powder,
the electric squib put in, and then the
remainder of the shell is filled with
powder above the electric squib and about the
wires. Enough empty
shell is left at the top to
tie securely about the
wires. The cartridge is
primed in this manner,
and if the charge is to
consist of more than
one cartridge, this one,
known as the primer, is
placed at or near the center of the charge.
When exploding bulk
charges of blasting powder in chambered boreholes on open work with
electric squibs, the squib
should be lowered into
29

100 YEARS AGO


the bore-hole after half of the charge
has been poured in, and the remainder
of the charge poured on top of it.
To lower the squib into the borehole, use a blasting powder cartridge or tie a short stick of heavy
wood to the wires just above the
cap. This will supply the weight
necessary to lower the squib
easily to the bottom of the bore-hole.
Metal or stone or anything else that
could strike a spark should not be
used for this purpose.
Pushing the electric squib into the
bore-hole with the tamping stick, by
spreading the wires just above the cap
and catching the loop thus made on
the end of the tamping stick while the
wires are held taut, should never be
resorted to. The objections to this are
that the pressure on the wires necessary to hold the electric squib in place
is quite likely to break them apart in
the cap; the probability of destroying the cap by striking the end of the
tamping stick against some projection
on the sides of a bore-hole, made irregular by springing, and the difficulty
of withdrawing the tamping stick and
leaving the electric squib in proper
position in the charge.
An easy way to prime a charge of
blasting powder in bulk is to make a
blasting powder cartridge primer with
electric squib. as already described for
blasting in mines, then lowering this
primer into the bulk charge of blasting
powder. This primer, being heavy, can
be readily lowered into place without
aid from a weight or the tamping stick
in the same way as a high explosive
primer. If a primer consisting of high
explosives and an electric fuze be
used for exploding a charge of blasting powder in bulk, it also should be
located somewhere near the center of
the charge.When fuse is employed for
igniting charges of blasting powder in
cartridges, it should be tied into the
cartridge just as the electric squib is,
but it is not necessary to have it extend more than a couple of inches
into the powder. If the charge consists
of more than one cartridge, the one
containing the fuse should be loaded
last. The best way to prime a charge
of blasting powder in bulk, with fuse,
is to tie the fuse into a cartridge and

lower it in this way onto the charge.


The miners squib is employed only
in mine blasting, and when the charge
is in cartridge form.Although the blasting powder charge is not truly primed

30

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

with it, the miners squib is the means


of igniting the charge, and the method
of using it will be described here,
When using the miners squib, the
copper-tipped or brass miners needle

November/December 2013

EXPLOSIVES INSURANCE
is pushed two or three inches into the
end of the blasting powder cartridge
or the outside one, if the charge consists of more than one. The cartridge
is then put into the bore-hole with the
point of the miners needle remaining
in it and the other end of the needle
extending from the mouth of the
bore-hole, the needle having first been
carefully coated with soap.Tamping is
then packed compactly about the needle from the charge to the mouth of
the bore-hole. Careful removal of the
needle leaves a hole about a quarter of
an inch in diameter from the mouth of
the bore-hole into the powder. In this
hole the miners squib is laid, with the
slow match end extending. This is
lighted, and when the fire burns to the
powder train in the squib, the squib
shoots like a rocket back through the
needle hole into the powder and explodes the charge. The miners squib
method of exploding blasting powder
charges is the cheapest, so far as first
cost is concerned; besides having the
disadvantage of starting the explosion
at the end of the charge, like fuse, it
is probably the most uncertain method in its result, because if the needle
is carelessly removed the hole in the
tamping may close up in places and
prevent the miners squib from shooting into the blasting powder. In order
to prevent this, a piece of half-inch
gas pipe, called a blasting barrel, is
sometimes used instead of the miners
needle. One end of this is imbedded
in the end of the outside powder cartridge, while the other end extends
from the mouth of the bore-hole, and
the tamping is packed around it just as
when the needle is used. The blasting

barrel is not withdrawn, however, and


the squib shoots back to the powder
through it, the blasting barrel being
thrown out with the material blasted
when the explosion takes place. It
is then recovered, and sometimes is
used a number of times before it is
destroyed.This is a much more certain
method than the use of the miners
needle, but is almost, if not quite, as expensive as the use of fuse, depending
on the number of shots the blasting
barrel will withstand.
RBH Note: most of the articles printed
recently, from about 1910 onward, describe blasting methods and materials
that most of todays blasters would not
find unusual. However this issue, and
the last, describe materials and methods that few if any present-day readers
have ever encountered. The idea of a
miner making his cartridge by folding
paper over a stick and sealing it with
blasting soap would be totally alien
to a miner today. Also, the use of the
miners squib, a very dangerous (but
inexpensive) priming method was
essentially made obsolete by William
Bickfords safety fuse in 1831, but here
it is in 1913 fully described as a popular method.
It is good to see, however, that
the electrical means of initiation are
stressed as being much more efficient
and safe.
This 63-page booklet goes on to describe in detail the methods of charging and tamping holes, and all other
aspects of the use of blasting powder.
Unfortunately our space is limited to
reprint more of this interesting and
historically important information.

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www.AGA-US.com
November/December 2013

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

31

The Shale Gas


Revolution

The Technology that made


it Possible
By David J. Leidel, Ph.D.

Introduction
A revolution in hydrocarbon well completions within the last thirty years has enabled drillers to tap the resources of known gas plays in an economically viable manner and deliver to market natural gas supplies for industrial, transportation and domestic use without the importation of liquefied natural gas from overseas.An added
benefit has been the convenient location of one of these gas plays, the Marcellus Shale, in the Northeastern states
strategically close to a major natural gas market, namely the cities and towns of the New England and Mid-Atlantic
states. As a sidelight, the development of the tight gas reservoirs and their subsequent production has created
thousands of jobs in an otherwise lackluster economy.
This article presents a brief description of the shale gas reservoir and an overview of horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing in gas well completions, and the environmental impact of shale gas well drilling. Finally, possible
advances in well drilling and completion methods are discussed.

Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology

In describing a rock formation containing oil or gas resources, three types of geologic formations are critical, a
source rock, a reservoir rock and a seal.The source rock is
the sedimentary geologic formation where the oil and gas
resources were formed, generally containing thick layers
of marine sediments rich in organic matter such as algae,
plankton, and marine plant life. Burial of the source rock
with its subsequent increase in temperature above 120C
and millions of years to attain sufficient burial depth converts the organic matter to oil and gas. Further increases in
temperature will convert the thermogenic oil into gas. In
conventional oil and gas reservoirs, the hydrocarbons thus
formed will migrate to a reservoir rock where they accumulate in producible quantities.A good reservoir rock such
as sandstone, limestone or dolomite must be both porous
to provide storage for the hydrocarbons, but must also be
permeable, or the pore spaces must be connected by pore
throats to render productive flow of the hydrocarbons possible. Finally, an impermeable rock seal must envelop the
reservoir rock to prevent the oil and gas resources from
leaking off and dispersing. The naturally occurring folding
or faulting of the seal and reservoir permit the oil and gas
to collect at the highest part of the fold or trap. Since gas
is less dense than oil, the gas will accumulate on the top of
the trap, the oil will accumulate below it and any accumu32

lated water will generally be found below the oil.


In the case of the shale gas resources the shale is both a
source rock and a reservoir rock. Shale is a form of siliceous
mudstone or siltstone, a very fine-grained sedimentary rock
rich in quartz and formed from the compaction of marine
muds composed of silt and clay particles. In the case of the
Marcellus Shale found in western Pennsylvania, eastern
Ohio, New York, West Virginia and Kentucky, the shale is a
Devonian formation between 10% to 60% quartz and 10%
to 35% clays. Porosity is approximately 6% accompanied by
a very low permeability of 7X10-8 to 1X10-4 Darcy, extremely low compared to conventional Ohio sandstones with a
permeability of 1X10-1 to 3X10-1 Darcy. The thickness of
the formation varies from a thin edge to 660 feet.The total
gas resource in the Marcellus was estimated to be approximately 500 trillion cubic feet, (500 tcfg).The gas is found as
free gas in the pore space and fractures of the shale and as
dissolved gas in the carbon and clay. The organic content
of the gas shale ranges from 2% to 10% depending on the
particular shale reservoir.
Decades ago it was known that finding gas in the tight
shale was relatively easy, producing gas was more of a challenge. In the following paragraphs the technologies of
horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing that were developed or applied to extract the gas resources from shale
are described.

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

November/December 2013

Horizontal Drilling and Steering the Drill Bit

Those unfamiliar with the upstream oil and gas industry


generally envision the typical oil or gas well as having been
drilled vertically.Although vertical wells were the norm for
most wells drilled since the mid-nineteenth century, vertical wells severely limit the exposure of the wellbore to
producing reservoirs that are largely horizontally oriented.
With extremely low permeability formations such as the
tight gas shale, the intersection of the wellbore with as
many naturally occurring fractures as possible and exposing as much of the wellbore to the reservoir is a definite
advantage in increasing gas production.
Slant wells were thought to have been drilled in the East
Texas oilfield in the early portion of the twentieth century
as a clandestine means of tapping the subsurface mineral
resources of a unsuspecting neighbors adjacent property.
The first true slanted well was drilled in 1930 in Huntington
Beach, California to produce oil from an offshore reservoir
prior to the construction of offshore oil and gas platforms.
In 1944, a horizontal well was drilled in Venango County,
Pennsylvania to tap the Franklin Heavy Oil Field.The wells
depth was 500 feet. In the mid- 1980s, horizontal drilling
was tested in the Austin Chalk formations of south Texas,
Louisiana, and Mississippi as a method to intersect more of
the vertical fractures in the reservoirs and hence improve
well productivity.
In horizontal drilling, the wellbore is intended to remain
within the reservoir boundaries and parallel the reservoir
boundaries with an angle of inclination between approximately 75 to 125. Inclination angle is the wellbore angle
with respect to the vertical. The method used to endure
proper drill bit tracking is termed measurement-while-drilling, (MWD). A transducer module located behind the drill
bit is used to measure azimuth and inclination of the drill bit,
tool face orientation, temperature, torque on the bit, pressure, and drill bit rotational speed. Data from the MWD tool
may be stored in the tool or transmitted to the surface by
hard-wire, EM communications link, or drilling mud pulse
telemetry.An additional technique may also be used termed
logging-whiledrilling, (LWD)
to
measure
the geological
properties of
the formations
being drilled
to assist in
maintaining
the drill bit
in the desired
formation.
A
safety
related
application
of
MWD systems
involves constant
monitoring of formation pore
pressure
as
frequently
drillers
may
encounter
Figure 1. Resistivity Log.
November/December 2013

shallow gas or biogenic gas that can result in sudden and


unexpected increases in pore pressure possibly resulting in
well kicks or at worst, a loss of well control.
The vertical portion of a horizontal well is generally
drilled using a rotary rig either employing a top drive or
conventional Kelly/rotary table rotating the entire drill
string from the surface. When the kick-off-point, (KOP), is
reached, the drill string begins to re-orient horizontally.The
drill string remains stationary while the drill bit only is rotated by a down-hole mud motor. A short section of drill
pipe bent in a specific angle termed a bent sub angles the
drill bit to the desired non-vertical direction. Drilling horizontally is continued by rotating the drill bit while slowly
rotating the drill string from the surface. Re-orienting the
bent sub will alter the direction of the steerable drill bit
based on data from the MWD and LWD systems. The LWD
system measures the electrical resistance and the naturally
occurring radioactivity of the rock while the MWD data
consists of bottom-hole temperature, pore pressure, weight
on bit, bit rotational speed, torque on bit, azimuth with respect to north and inclination to the vertical.
The general layout of a steerable drill string on a land
rig is shown below. The electrical resistance of oil and gas
bearing rock formations tends to have a higher value than
the surrounding rock formations, thus geosteering uses
formation resistivity measurement to ensure the drill bit remains within the gas producing formation.As an example, a
gas well lease drilled in the Barnett Shale in North Central
Texas was drilled vertically to 4,000 feet to 8,000 feet with
a horizontal distance of up to 7,000 feet.The wells were lo-

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

33

cated in a bedroom community with little available surface


real estate so horizontal drilling enabled the energy company to extract gas resources from otherwise unobtainable
regions of real estate. The local community benefitted immensely from the gas lease income once the wells were
brought into production.

Hydraulic Fracturing of Tight Gas Shale

When the exploration and production portion of the


oil and gas industry is surveyed for well completion techniques, it is found that 60% of all oil and gas wells completed today are fractured to stimulate production. Fracturing
of the hydrocarbon bearing rock not only
increases production rates but significantly
adds to the reserves. In the U.S. alone, over
9 billion barrels of oil and 700 trillion standard cubic feet of gas were added to the
domestic reserves through fracturing since
1949. Fracturing has increased recoverable
oil reserves by 50% and increased gas reserves by 90%. There are very few natural
well completions in todays energy climate.
Stimulation of oil and gas well production dates to 1865 when black powder
torpedoes were used to stimulate production in a well in western Pennsylvania.Well
acidizing began to be used to stimulate
production in the 1930s. In 1949, the Halliburton Oil Well Cementing Company was
granted an exclusive license to hydraulically fracture production wells and completed two frac jobs the same year.
Modern hydraulic fracturing well treatments involve one or multiple high pressure pump trucks of 1300 to 2500 horsepower each operating at 15,000 psi to
20,000 psi to pump a mixture of water,
sand and chemicals into the well to fracture the hydrocarbon bearing formation,
extend naturally occurring fractures and
Figure 2. Typical drillstring components to drill a horizontal wall.
prop the fractures open to increase hydrocarbon production and flatten the
wells decline curve. In 1992, Mitchell Energy completed
the first horizontal well in the Barnett Shale in Wise County,
Texas. Several years later, the well completion costs were
reduced by the application of low cost water/sand fracturing making the shale gas revolution possible. By 2008, there
were 6,600 active wells in the Barnett Shale producing gas
at a rate of 0.5 tcfg per year.
A typical shale gas well hydraulic fracturing job requires
3 to 5 million gallons of water or the watering requirement
for an eighteen hole golf course for one month. The content of a fracturing fluid is 94.62% water, 5.26% fracturing
sand or ceramic, and balance being guar gum, friction reducers, corrosion and scale inhibitors, acid, or antimicrobial agents. The fracturing water is produced back in significant quantities particularly in the weeks following the
well completion and can be recycled or disposed of in rock
formations that can accept it without posing a risk of contaminating subsurface potable water resources. In the case
of the Barnett Shale, the Ellenberger Formation below the
Barnett Shale is a naturally occurring saltwater bearing formation thus makes a suitable formation for sequestration of
the spent fracturing water.

Shale Gas Production and Environmental


Concerns
Figure 3. Constituents of fracturing fluid.
34

Accompanying the recent nationwide surge in the recovery of hydrocarbon resources from tight shale, there has
The Journal of Explosives Engineers

November/December 2013

been serious concern with the possible contamination of


water resources and environmental damage. In New York
State, the concern resulted in an outright ban on hydraulic
fracturing essentially halting the shale gas exploration and
production. In point of fact, hydraulic fracturing has been
applied in the upstream oil and gas industry for approximately six decades as a proven relatively low cost method
to enhance hydrocarbon production while minimizing
potential environmental damage. A concern arose that in
Cleburne, Texas minor earthquakes were a direct result of
the hydraulic fracturing, gas production and fracturing water disposal from nearby gas wells. However, it was overlooked that there existed a minor fault in that area that is
a source of subterranean movement. As is always the case,
well drilling, treatment and production require constant
and competent care to avoid accidents or environmental
damage. Steps being taken to minimize environmental risk
include elimination of biocides in fracturing water by using
UV treatment of water, recycling fracturing water, conversion of pump power from Diesel Fuel to Natural Gas, and
replacement of fracturing fluid additives by chemicals commonly found in the food industry.

The Future of Gas Well Drilling in Unconventional Reservoirs

Improvements in directional drilling and well stimulation methods have made it possible to recover hydrocarbon
resources from wells inaccessible to conventional vertical
well completions in unconventional reservoirs. AnticipatproBlastTREAD.pdf
12:47:08
PM
ing the next
generation of10/6/10
horizontal
drilling
equipment

may involve the application of intelligent control systems


to the drilling operation where the data supplied by the
MWD and LWD sensors are supplied to a control system
that automatically directs the bits orientation thus speeding up the drilling operations by eliminating corrective drill
string trips into the well. Future efforts for improving the
application of hydraulic fracturing and simulation methods
would include the development of more refined reservoir,
economic and production models for improving the well
completion process, particularly determining the optimal
pump horsepower used for the well treatment.
About the Author: Dr Leidel holds B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees
from Drexel University in Engineering with his doctoral dissertation subject being the design of directed energy explosive devices
for underwater metal cutting. He has served as chief engineer on
a tri-service weapons system for a Government contractor and
as a support engineer on military ordnance and space ordnance
systems for his former employer. He has over 27 years of experience in commercial oilfield explosives systems with his principal fields of interest being shaped charge design, hypervelocity
penetration mechanics, ballistics instrumentation techniques,
blast effects modeling, probabilistic risk analysis and RF effects
on electro-explosive devices. He was the past Chair of the Technical Committee of the Institute of Makers of Explosives. He holds
a number of patents and has published many papers in the field
of energetic systems.
Dr. Leidel is a member of the International Society of
Explosives Engineers, Sigma Xi, National Fire Protection Association and is a Life Member of the NRA.

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The Journal of Explosives Engineers

35

Haz Mat 101


By John Brulia and Tom Snyder

PART 2 Hazardous Material Placarding


for Highway Transportation in
Commerce of Explosives, Oxidizers,
and Combustible Liquids
Introduction

The U. S. commercial explosives industry annually transports thousands of tons of hazardous materials (HM) in the
form of explosives, oxidizers, and combustible liquids by
highway in truck-tractor/trailer combinations and straight
trucks, including pickups. Managing risk during transportation is every commercial explosives industry motor carriers number one job.
During the transportation in commerce of HM, hazard
warning placards play a crucial role in a system of hazard
communication that also includes UN identification numbers, hazardous materials shipping papers, package markings and hazard warning labels.

Scope

This article discusses the safety and compliance requirements for the proper selection and display of the most
common placards used by the U.S. commercial explosives
industry. It will cover placards for Class/Division 1.1, 1.4
and 1.5 Explosives (NA0331 and UN0332), Class/Division
5.1 Oxidizers (UN3375 and UN1942), and Class 3 Combustible Liquid (NA1993-diesel fuel).

Safety

When a HM highway transport incident occurs, the effective use of the 2012 Emergency Response Guide (ERG)
by emergency responders is dependent upon the proper
display of the required placards in accordance with the
Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR). By identifying placards at an incident scene, as well as referencing
the ERG, emergency responders are quickly able to determine the potential fire, explosion and health hazards at the
scene, the protective clothing they may need to use, and
the fundamental public safety and evacuation procedures
for spills and fire.

36

Compliance

A failure to understand and to follow the placarding requirements prescribed in Part 172, Subpart F-Placarding of
the HMR, subjects a commercial explosives motor carrier
transporting Class 1, 3 or 5 materials to violations, penalties
and perhaps the loss of operating authority.

Hazardous Materials Safety Permit (HMSP)


The Hazardous Materials Safety Permit (HMSP), granted
by the U.S. Department of Transportations Federal Motor
Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), is without question,
one of the most important authorities that a commercial
explosives motor carrier can ill-afford to lose. The HMSP
authorizes the transport of more than 55 lbs (25 kgs) of
a Class 1, Division 1.1 Explosive or a quantity of Class 1,
Division 1.5 Blasting Agents requiring placarding under
Subpart F.
There are four criteria with fixed rates that determine
HMSP renewal: (1) vehicle out-of-service rate, (2) driver outof-service rate, (3) HM out-of-service rate, and (4) crash rate.
The HM out-of-service rate is 6.82%. One of the ways that
a HMSP holders HM out-of-service rate is affected directly
relates to the improper selection and display of placards.
The Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA) in the
latest version of the North American Standard Out-of-Service Criteria issued April 1, 2013, is the resource used to
determine roadside HM out-of-service conditions.

Placards - An out of service condition exists when


50% or more of the required placards for a hazard class
are missing or any placard(s) misrepresent(s) the HM/
DG being transported.

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

November/December 2013

Compliance, Safety and Accountability (CSA)


Placard violations are part of the HM BASIC in FMCSAs
CSA program. Within the HM BASIC, there are 347 violations of which 23 are Subpart-F Placard violations. Each
placard violation carries a 5-point severity weighting.
Because violations are time-weighted, a single violation
translates to 15-points. If the violation results in an out-ofservice, additional points are added to the severity. A poor
performance in CSA is likely to result in some type of FMCSA intervention.

Placards

Placards are hazard class identifiers. Essentially, their


purpose is to visibly communicate to emergency responders, shipper/carrier employees, and others information
about HM cargo on a transport vehicle. They do not, however, indicate how much HM cargo is onboard a transport
vehicle. HM shipping papers will contain this information.
A hazard class is a group of HM sharing similar dangerous characteristics. There are nine hazard classes. Hazard
classes may be subdivided into hazard divisions. Placards
are the primary method to identify one hazard class and
division from another.
Because of the importance of placards to communicate
hazards, especially during incidents, they are made according to standards.

the placard for Division 1.1 Explosives.


Table 2 materials require the display of placards on
sides and ends for all bulk packages, or when the aggregate
gross (package and contents) weight of nonbulk packages
is 1,001 lbs or greater per transport vehicle. The Class 1 materials located in table 2 include Hazard Class/Division 1.4
and 1.5. Combustible Liquid (diesel fuel) and Class/Division
5.1 Oxidizers are also located in table 2.
According to 49 CFR 172.504(c)(1), a transport vehicle
or a freight container which contains an aggregate weight
less than 1,001 lbs. (454 kg) of a material(s) covered by
table 2 in nonbulk packages is excepted from placarding,
i.e. no placards are required. However, keep in mind when
transporting HM cargo in a transport vehicle under this
threshold that first responders will not be aware of HM if
placards are not displayed. Placarding when any quantity of
HM is present on a transport vehicle, either table 1 or table
2, is the responsible high road to ensure public safety.
Each bulk package containing a table 1 or table 2 material is required to be placarded, whether loaded or empty,
unless it is cleaned and purged of all HM. For example,
residues of Class 1, Division 1.5 Blasting Agents; Class 5,
Division 5.1, Oxidizers, and Combustible Liquids must be
placarded.
Per 49 CFR 172.504(a), if a transport vehicle or freight
container contains multiple bulk packages, they are required to display placards for each different hazard class
on the sides and ends of the transport vehicle or freight
container.

Placard Tables
Placard tables, found in 49 CFR 172.504(e), are used
to determine placard requirements for all classes of HM.
There are two tables (table 1 and table 2) addressing these Compatibility Group Letters
Compatibility group letters are used to categorize differrequirements. As this article pertains to Explosives 1.1, 1.4
ent
types of explosives for segregation on the same transand 1.5; Combustible Liquid; and Oxidizers, table 1 and
port
vehicle. Compatibility letters B, D and S are the
table 2 were modified to only show these materials:
most common ones used in the commercial explosives industry.
For Class 1 Explosives, the compatible group letter appears in the lower half of the placard above the hazard class.
For Class 1, Division 1.1 Explosives, the compatibility group
letter appears to the right of the division number. For Class
1, Division 1.4 and 1.5 Explosives, the compatibility group
Table 1.
letters are above the class number and the division number
is located at the top of the placard.
Per 49 CFR 172.522, the compatibility group letter on a
placard is optional only for highway transportation mode in
the U.S. When explosives are transported by other modes,
for example by vessel or air, the compatibility letter is required to be on the placard.
If a motor carrier uses compatibility group letters on
placards, it is important to display the same compatibility
group letter on all of the placards. For example do not display a 1.4B placard on the ends, while displaying 1.4S placards on the sides.
Table 2.
A common suite of placards used for transporting comPer 49 CFR 172.504(a), Division 1.1 Explosives in table mercial explosives contains the following Class/Division/
1 require the display of placards on the sides and ends of compatibility groupletters: 1.1D, 1.1B, 1.4B, 1.4S and 1.5D
the transport vehicle, regardless of the quantity present. as shown in figure 1.
For example, transporting just a single 1.1D booster or even
a single 1.1B detonator requires the display of placards on
sides and ends of the transport vehicle.
The third (far right) column in the table 1 references
the specific section in the HMR where the details of placarding may be found. For example, 49 CFR 172.522, except
for the size and color, details the information required on Figure 1.
November/December 2013

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

37

Placard Design Standards


Because placards communicate a transport hazard, they
are formatted to a standard shape, size, color and contain
numbers and symbols in most cases.
SHAPE: Geometrically, all placards are squares. Although square in shape, they are required to be oriented
as a square-on-point. A square-on-point is analogous to a
baseball diamond. See figure 1.
SIZE: Placards are required to be a minimum of 9.84
inches (250 mm) on each side. Labels and placards are often confused, because they are both square and resemble
each other. Labels are smaller, 3.9 inches (100 mm) on
sides, and are mostly found on nonbulk packages including,
but not limited to 4G fiberboard cases commonly used for
explosives and detonators.
COLOR: The background colors of most placards are
distinctive for positive hazard identification of the HM class.
The background color for explosives placards is required
to be orange, the color of combustible liquids placards is
required to be red, and the color of oxidizer placards is required to be yellow. Along the edge on all sides of placards
is a contrasting color border. See figure 2.
TEXT: Although text on a placard further communicates the hazard, it is not required on all placards.When required or displayed, it must be written in English and meet
size and location requirements. The text on oxidizer and
combustible placards may be replaced with the proper ID
number in the center of the placard. The text on Class/Division 1.1 and 1.4 is EXPLOSIVES and for Class/Division 1.5
is BLASTING AGENTS See figure 2.
NUMBERS: There are important numbers on placards
indicating the class and division.The class number is always
located at the bottom of the placard. Explosive division
numbers may be accompanied by a compatibility group letter, such as B or D, located above the hazard class number
and adjacent (to the immediate right) of the division number. Compatibility letters on explosive placards are not
required for highway transportation within the U.S. See
figure 2.

SYMBOLS: Symbols for the three classes in this article


are located at the top of placards. See figure 2.

a ladder, an auger or a hose reel.


3. Located at least 3-inches from an advertisement, to include but not limited to a decal of the bulk body manufacturer or a company name/logo or product name that
could reduce its effectiveness.
4. Displayed on a contrasting color background. If this
does occur or there is a question about it, the regulations require a contrasting border around the placard
to ensure it stands out in a recognizable way. When a
placard is in a holder, the information on it cannot be
obscured by any part of the holder.
5. Maintained in a condition that the format, legibility, color and visibility are not substantially reduced. A best
practice is to make sure your hazard placards are clean
before each trip, and to check the color and condition
of every placard on a monthly basis using a new placard
for comparison.

Classes and Divisions

Class 1 Explosives
Class 1 materials are explosives. Class 1 is divided into
six hazard divisions as show in table 3.

Table 3.

Per 49 CFR 172.504(f)(1), transport vehicles hauling several different Class 1 explosives divisions may display only
the placard with the lowest division number. The following table shows the possible combinations for Class 1, Divisions 1.1, 1.4 and 1.5 explosives to display a single class/
division placard as shown in table 4.

Table 4.
Figure 2.

Placard Display Standards


The regulations in 49 CFR 172.516 are specific regarding how to display placards. Here are a few of the display
standards:
1. Clearly visible from the direction they face. Be careful
when attaching placards to a front bumper curved edge
that could inadvertently angle the direction they face.
2. Clear of all appurtenances including, but not limited to
38

Combustible Liquids (Diesel Fuel)


49 CFR 173.120 states that a combustible liquid is a liquid that does not meet the definition of any other hazard
class, and has a flash point of > 60.5C (141F) and 93C
(200F). In North America, diesel fuel is not a flammable
liquid if it is reclassified as per 49 CFR 173.150(f).
Per 49 CFR 172.504(e) table 2, except for size and color,
the placarding requirements for combustible liquids are
found in 49 CFR 172.544. The combustible liquids placard
has a red background, a white fire symbol, a white bor-

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

November/December 2013

der edge, and a white number three for the hazard class
located at the bottom. This standard format is also used
for flammables. Differentiating the placard from the other
Class 3 materials is the text COMBUSTIBLE. This placard
is required to be used in association with a UN identification number (ID) displayed on an orange panel, or the ID
number is required to be directly on the placard. Markings
will be covered in the next article. See figure 3 for both
placard displays.

Shipper Requirements

Per 49 CFR 172.506, shippers who offer HM in commerce have the primary responsibility to ensure their contracted, third-party HM motor carriers are offered the required placards at the time the shipment is loaded. If the
motor carriers have the required placards, they may use
their own.

Summary

Understanding how and when to display the required


placards for explosives, oxidizers and combustibles is a
core responsibility of every U.S. explosives industry motor
carrier that is crucial to transport safety and compliance.
Next Article: Part 3 Markings.

Acknowledgements
Figure 3.

Oxidizers
Division 5.1 Oxidizers are materials that can, by yielding
oxygen, cause or enhance the combustion of other materials. Ammonium nitrate (AN), ammonium nitrate emulsions
(ANE) and ammonium nitrate solutions (ANS or ANSOL)
are all Class 5, Division 5.1 Oxidizers transported by the
commercial explosives industry in bulk packagings in
cargo tanker trailers or in cargo tanks mounted on straight
trucks. See table 5.

Table 5.

The required placards are determined according to the


hazard class. Any quantity of a HM listed in table 1 requires
placards to be displayed, the class/division for explosives
located in table 1 are Class 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3. HM listed in
table 2 in nonbulk packages require placards when the aggregate gross weight of all HM is 1,001 lbs. or more.

1. What is the hazardous material identified by the


placard?
2. What is the hazard class number identified by the
placard?
3. What is the hazard division number identified by the
placard?
4. What is the hazard compatibility letter identified by
the placard?
Answers to Quiz:
1. Explosives 2. Class 1 3. Division 1.1 4. D

In the 2012 ERG, the Table of Placards and Initial Response Guide appearing on pages 6 and 7 show all classes
of placards in conjunction with a corresponding orangecolored guide page number for use if HM involved in a
transport incident cannot be specifically identified.

November/December 2013

About the Authors: John Brulia has 40 years of commercial


explosives experience, and is Austin Powder Companys Director
of Safety and Compliance. Tom (Sarge) Snyder, is an active
member of CVSA and COHMED, and retired after 28 years of
hazmat experience from the Indiana State Police. Since his retirement, he has worked full-time as the Field DOT Specialist for
Austin Powder Company.

Placards: Part 2A - Quiz

Placards for Transport Vehicles or Freight


Containers with Nonbulk Packages

Placards Referenced in the ERG

The authors appreciate the use of placard art in this article provided by JJ Keller.

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

39

SEE Education
Foundation News
2013-2014 SEE Foundation Scholarships

Each year the SEE Education Foundation has the opportunity to be actively involved in post secondary education
through its scholarship program. The program distributes
awards to students pursuing explosives related degrees
based on academic performance, financial need, industry involvement and professional and personal goals. As
evidenced in the success of the Foundation and industry
fund-raising events, we have seen great generosity from
ISEE members, families, friends, chapters, and corporations. Through their continued support, the Foundation
now oversees 26 scholarship funds. One of the most well
maintained scholarship funds is the ISEE Scholarship fund,
which is supported by contributions made when members
pay their annual membership dues.
This year, the SEE Education Foundation has invested
$44,500 in 32 students from ten schools in the United
States and Canada. We expect to see most of the scholarship students remain in the Society as they are already involved in ISEE student chapters. The student consensus is
that scholarships will not only provide for current financial
support, but also lead to future investment into the Society.
Greg Gibson, a mining engineering student from Missouri S&T says, Your (the ISEE) generosity gave me the
support when I needed it most and inspired me to work
hard to achieve my degree in the hope that one day I will
be able to support students just like me to achieve their
goals.
As well, students have expressed that financial assistance have honed their study efforts to be more successful academically,By being able to worry less on finances, I
can now focus more on my academic performance and my
career in the future, says Niklas Folke, a mining engineering student from Montana Tech. Jos Carrasco, a graduate
student from New Mexico Tech agrees on both fronts, I
will make the best use of this scholarship and finish my
graduate studies with the best attitude. This scholarship is
motivation to do better and work harder.
We would be remiss if we did not mention the university faculty who continue to support ISEE student chapters,
help students get to conferences to present papers and to
network with individual members and corporations. The
faculty involvement is essential in passing along the enthusiasm that our members have in working in this industry.
This years recipients include four doctoral candidates, four
working on graduate degrees and 24 undergraduates. We
trust that industry will be looking at these students as they
prepare to graduate.When we track these students careers
we would like to find them among us. Here they are:

Michael Allen, Missouri S&T, Jerry McDowell (Peabody


Match)
Gregory Gibson, Missouri S&T, Jerry McDowell (Peabody
Match)
Katie Sewester, Missouri S&T, David Bowling & Jerry McDowell (Peabody Match)
Jake Waddell, Missouri S&T, Jerry McDowell (Peabody
Match)
Niklas Folke, Montana Tech., Northern Plains Chapter
Jos Carrasco, New Mexico Tech., Paul Muehl
Alan Shi, New Mexico Tech., Paul Muehl
Christopher Brown, Penn State Univ., Eastern Pennsylvania
Chapter & ISEE
Kyle Olivio, Penn State Univ.,Alex Senules
Erin McCullough, South Dakota SMT, Bob Jeremiah, Old &
the Bold, Northern Plains Chapter, Paul Muehl
Yiwen Sun, South Dakota SMT, Bob Martin
Evert Yoku, South Dakota SMT, ISEE
David Vance, Univ. of Alabama, Dugan Nelson
Tianqua Hu, Univ. of British Columbia, ISEE
Joshua Calnan, Univ. of Kentucky, ISEE
Chase Guengerich, Univ. of Kentucky,Tri-State Chapter
Andrew Hill, Univ. of Kentucky, Dugan Nelson
Brett Jackson, Univ. of Kentucky, Heartland Chapter
Catherine Johnson, Univ. of Kentucky, Bud Jenkins
Gabriel Nickell, Univ. of Kentucky, Bluegrass Explosives
Engineers, ISEE, Explosives Distributors Association
Oleg Shteyner, Univ. of Toronto, ISEE
Kyle Brashear,Virginia Tech., Lewis Oriard & ISEE
David Caldwell,Virginia Tech., Paul Muehl
Andrs Dahmen,Virginia Tech.,Alex Senules
Tyler Daugherty,Virginia Tech., Paul Muehl
Philip Farley,Virginia Tech.,Tom Clark & ISEE
Tyler Faulkner,Virginia Tech., Dugan Nelson
Jason Hilsen,Virginia Tech., Roger Prescott & ISEE
Megan Huber,Virginia Tech., ISEE
Edmund Jong,Virginia Tech., Carolinas Chapter
Marion King,Virginia Tech., Ryan Family & ISEE
Xu Ma,Virginia Tech., Per-Anders Persson & ISEE

40

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

November/December 2013

Figure 1. University of Toronto


Oleg Shteyner.
Figure 2. University of British
Columbia Tianquan Hu.
Figure 6. Missouri S&T (left to right) Greg Gibson, Mike Allen,
Dr. Samuel Frimpong, Jake Waddell, Katie Sewester, and
Dr. Paul Worsey.

Figure 3.Virginia Tech--Front row: Marion King, Megan Huber,


Kyle Brashear, Xu Ma. Back row-Mining and Minerals Engineering Professor and Department Head Dr. Greg Adel, David
Caldwell, Phillip Farley, and Tyler Faulkner, Edmund Jong.

Figure 7. Penn State (left to right) Christopher Brown, Dr.


Jamal Rostami, and Kyle Olivio.

Figure 4. South Dakota SMT (left to right) Yiwen Sun, Erin


McCullough, Evert Yoku, and Faculty Advisor Dr. Chuck Kliche.

Figure 5. New Mexico Tech (left to right) Alan Shi, Jos


Carrasco, and Advisor Bin Lim.
November/December 2013

Figure 8. University of Kentucky (top from left) Chase


Guengerich, Gabriel Nickell, Josh Calnan, Andrew Hill, (bottom
from left) Brett Jackson, Catherine Johnson, and Rick Honaker
(Department Chair).

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

41

Mick Fritz Donates More Than 50 Relics to the


SEE Education Foundation Explosives Museum

Former ISEE board member Mick Fritz visited the Societys headquarters in September hauling a unique cargo.
Fritz donated more than 50 explosives-related relics to the
SEE Education Foundation Explosives Museum.The gallery
is a comprehensive collection of blasting memorabilia that
spans more than a century and currently is being revitalized
into a more spacious layout at the Cleveland facility. Some
of Fritzs items included a 60-year-old rack and bar blasting
machine used at Peabody Coal Companys Lynnville (Indiana) Mine, several wooden powder boxes, numerous industry belt buckles, and an extensive mineral collection.These
collectibles will be categorized and displayed along with
countless pieces acquired over many years. The SEE Education Foundation oversees the Explosives Museum and
the Reference Library, both of which can be visited by ISEE
members.Anyone seeking to make a donation to either can
contact the Society at 440-349-4400.
Figure 9. Buck Hawkins (left)
accepts an extensive museum
donation from Mick Fritz
(right) at the SEE Explosives
Museum and Reference Library
in Cleveland, Ohio.

Mark Your Calendar!

Hyatt Regency Denver


at the Colorado Convention Center
Blasters Weekend
February 8-9, 2014

Register online at
www.isee.org
For more information:
International Society of Explosives Engineers
Tel: (440) 349-4400 Fax: (440) 349-3788
www.isee.org
42

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

November/December 2013

21st Annual
Photo Contest
Official Entry Form

WAC Bennett Dam in Hudsons Hope, BC, Canada


Photo by Corry Goumans

Give Us Your Best Shot!


Rules of Entry
A. Entries must be submitted on photographic paper, no larger
than 8 x 10 inches (20.32 x 25.4 cm), along with high resolution
JPGs. Photos with excessive commercialism (company logos,
etc.) will not be accepted. Do not superimpose company logos
into photographs.
B. Entries must include an official entry form, a description of
the project on a separate sheet of paper and a signature of the
photographer.
C. The International Society of Explosives Engineers is granted
unlimited use of all photo entries. Photos may be used in full or
in part in all ISEE publications and marketing materials, without compensation. Entries will not be returned and become the
property of the Society of Explosives Engineers, Inc.
D. Qualifying entries may be displayed at the 40th annual
conference in Denver, Colo., USA.Winning entries may be
displayed in the Journal of Explosives Engineering.
E. Entries will not be accepted on site.You must submit your
entry, along with a completed entry form, by Dec. 20, 2013.
F. Submit entries to: ISEE Photo Contest, 30325 Bainbridge
Road, Cleveland, OH 44139. No entry fee is required. For
more information, contact the photo contest coordinator, (440)
349-4400, or e-mail isee@isee.org.
21st Annual Photo Contest Official Entry Form
Submitted by:
Name:______________________________________________________
Company:___________________________________________________
Addres:_____________________________________________________
City:______________________________State:_____________________
Country:_________________________ Postal Code:_________________
Tel:____________________________E-mail:_______________________
Photographer:_______________________________________________
(Signature of photographer is required. Use one form per photographer.)
Detailed Description of Project(s): (include in a separate file)

Categories of Entry
1. Blasters and Drillers at Work (People Photos)
a) Individual Photo or, b) Series of Photos (Limit of 5 photos)
2. Construction Blasting
a) Individual Photo or, b) Series of Photos (Limit of 5 photos)
3. Quarrying and Mining
a) Individual Photo or, b) Series of Photos (Limit of 5 photos)
4. Demolition Blasting
a) Individual Photo or, b) Series of Photos (Limit of 5 photos)
5. Specialty Blasting
a) Individual Photo or, b) Series of Photos (Limit of 5 photos)
Avalanche control, special effects, or extreme locations.
6. Artistic Photo Alteration
Photos that have been digitally enhanced with artistic filters.
(Limit of 5 photos)
Judging
Entries will be judged on quality, composition, and content.
Photos must depict safe operations to qualify. Entries will be
judged at the 40th annual conference in Denver, Colo.
Award
One $500 gift certificate to ISEE will be awarded to the entry
voted Best in Show.
Entries (use a different form for each photographer)
1. Category of Entry:_________ Entry Name:_______________________
Blaster in charge: _____________________________________________
2. Category of Entry:_________ Entry Name:______________________
Blaster in charge: _____________________________________________
3. Category of Entry:_________ Entry Name:______________________
Blaster in charge: _____________________________________________
4. Category of Entry:_________ Entry Name:______________________
Blaster in charge: _____________________________________________
I ___________________________________(Signature of photographer)
have read and accept the rules of entry.
International Society of Explosives Engineers 30325 Bainbridge Road Cleveland, OH 44139 www.isee.org

Deadline for Entries: December 6, 2013

Chapter News
Western Canada Chapter
Enjoys Largest Event Ever

The ISEE Western Canada Chapter


Frag and Brag a Dynamite Experience Annual General Meeting held
October 3-6, 2013 was a great success and the largest event we have
ever held. Ninety-eight delegates plus
guests enjoyed the conference. The
conference opened with an excellent
course on Managing Safety from a Supervisors Perspective presented by
WorkSafe BC, followed on Friday by
the ISEE Certificate Training Program
-Level ll Quarry Blasting,, and a field
trip to the New Afton underground
mine featuring the block caving mining method.
On Saturday, we had a total of eight
technical presentations and Winston
Forde, Executive Director of ISEE was
the featured guest speaker for the annual banquet. Adam Johnston, a student in Chemical Engineering at UBC,
was this years winner of the $2000
Dick Shaw Memorial Scholarship. The
conference featured 13 trade show
booths, the highest number ever!
Clinton Gray, an excellent comedian
and magician performed after dinner
followed by dancing. We are looking
forward to next years event to be held
September 25-28th at the Coast Kamloops Hotel and Conference Centre,
Kamloops, BC. Mark your calendars!

Figure 2.Western Canadas trade show featured 13 booths.

Figure 3. Winston Forde presenting the Dick Shaw Memorial Scholarship to Adam
Johnston. From L to R, Ron Elliott, Adam Johnston, Mark Grigons Chapter President,
and Winston Forde

Eastern PA Chapter
Welcomes ISEE
President to Iron
Pigs Game

Figure 1. Jose Boudreau from Transport Canada updating blasters on the latest requirements for Emergency Response Plans.
44

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

Members of the Eastern


Pennsylvania Chapter
gathered at the Lehigh
Valley IronPigs baseball
game on Thursday, August 15, 2013. The IronPigs beat Syracuse and
everyone who attended
had a great time networking. Special guest,
ISEE President John
Capers enjoyed his opportunity to attend this
annual event.
November/December 2013

Letters to the Editor


40th Anniversary:
International Society of
Explosives Engineers (ISEE)

At its meeting in Fort Worth on


10 February, 2013, the SAFEX Board
of Governors noted that the International Society of Explosives Engineers
(ISEE) will be celebrating its 40th Anniversary in 2014. As the next SAFEX
Board of Governors meeting will take
place during your celebrations next
year, the SAFEX Board needed to act
now and instructed me to convey to
you, your Board of Directors and every
member of the ISEE, SAFEX Internationals sincerest congratulations on
achieving this significant milestone
next year.
SAFEX is proud to be associated
with the ISEE and notes the valuable
work you have done to promote the
safe and environmentally friendly use
of explosives worldwide during the
past 40 years. As SAFEXs purpose is
to eliminate harm from explosives
anywhere in the world, we are privileged to be able to partner with you in
this endeavour. We salute you for your
commitment to explosives safety and

November/December 2013

acknowledge the sterling work you


are doing in educating users of explosives. We humbly pledge our continued support to your future efforts in
this regard.
May the celebration of this historic
milestone during your 40th International Conference on Explosive and
Blasting Technique in Denver next
year do justice to your proud record.
Sincere regards,
Dr JE (Boet) Coetzee
Secretary General,
SAFEX International

Emeritus Member of ISEE

Thanks for the beautiful certificate,


Emeritus Membership in your wonderful organization.
I have used explosives in my mining, tunneling and oilfield seismic
work for over 55 years. Development
of your organization and magazine
were a most welcome addition and resource for blasters.THANKS.
Your, our magazine has been and
is a nedded addition for those who use
explosives in their work.
Wishing all of you the very best in
the future in your needed endeavor to
inform and educate.
Sincerely,
Byron M. Ishkanian, PE

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

45

Display Advertising Index


AAMCOR .............................................................31

PROFESSIONAL MARKETPLACE

AGA .....................................................................31
Apache Construction Corp..................................27
Atlas Copco .........................................................11
Austin Powder ................................................. OBC
Dyno Nobel ....................................................... IFC
Focus Mining .......................................................44
Instantel ................................................................ 7
ISEE Conference ..................................................42
ISEE Member Benefits............................................1
ISEE Online Database ..........................................25
ISEE Photo Contest ..............................................43
ISEE Blasters Handbook ......................................17
MREL ...................................................................33
Reliable Tire .........................................................27
Tread Corporation ...............................................35
Vibronics ...............................................................5
White Industrial Seismology..................................3

Safety Training Publication


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This series was originally introduced in The Journal of


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Maine Drilling & Blasting is an Equal Opportunity Employer

46

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

November/December 2013

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FAX 1-603-363-4249

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November/December 2013

www.isee.org
Blasting formulas, tables, checklists, forms, training aids,
standards, guides, and more

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

47

PROFESSIONAL MARKETPLACE

Wo o d s C a n
Industries Inc

EXPLOSIVES SECURITY ONLINE


Contains ATF Security Brochure, Reporting Incidents and Accidents, Reporting
Thefts and Security Threats, Security Briefings, and Important Links.

www.isee.org

48

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

November/December 2013

ROFESSIONAL MARKETPLACE
Explosive Tubes
CARAUSTAR has developed an explosive casing especially for the limerock
7TIGMEPX] ,SWI
8YFMRK
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[ [ [ W T I G L S W I  G S Q

drilled hole.

%VI]SYTYQTMRK%2*3##
Explosive Tubes
3YVERXMWXEXMGLSWIMW17,%EGGITXIHJSVYWI
YRHIVKVSYRHEW[IPPEWEFSZIOptions Available:
Waxed I.D. and O.D.
'SRXEGXYWJSVWM^IWERHEZEMPEFMPMX]
Interlocking swedging or connecting inserts.

Oza ad goes here

Shipped with ring and fiberglass screening

(stapled end of bottom tube).


FFIPGSYVX$WTIGLSWIGSQ
&SF &IPGSYVX
Available in I.D. sizes: 3.5, 4, 4.5 and 7.
4L

43 &S\ 
Available
in wall sizes:
.125, .150, and .180.
*\


1ERGLIWXIV
2, 
CARAUSTAR has developed
an explosive casing

especially for the limerock aggregate industry.


The durable casing is used for the containment
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Options Available:

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Available in I.D. sizes: 3.5, 4, 4.5 and 7.
Available in wall sizes: .125, .150, and .180.

CARAUSTAR
1-800-610-8837
188 Comfort Road,
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We add water resistance to ANFO.

Annual Blasters Video Forum

Send your best videos to ISEE for presentation during the Video Round-up at
ISEEs Annual Conference in New Orleans. Videos should be approximately
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349-4400.

48
November/December 2013

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Job Openings

The Journal of Explosives Engineering

The Journal of Explosives Engineers

www.isee.org

March/April 2008

49

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