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Zaili Zhao

Zhaofeng Yuan

Wuhan University of Technology

Wuhan, China

e-mail: zailizhao@whut.edu.cn

Wuhan University of Technology

Wuhan, China

e-mail: yzf_82@sina.com

accumulation of many units, but a complex, orderly

organism [3]. Therefore, it is essential to carry out model

assumptions before establishing models. It is more

convenient to establish models after simplifying the system.

So model assumptions are the first and important work as

shown in the following part.

influence the thermodynamic perfection of ship main propulsion

plant integrated energy system, and acquiring energy saving

measures in the daily maintenance and management of marine

equipments, the mathematical models of energy and exergy

balance for the system are established by using a

thermodynamic exergy analysis method, and a ship sailing

under stable condition is analyzed as an example. Results

obtained in this paper show that the thermal efficiency of the

system will be improved by adopting a waste heat recovery

system, the management of the main engine is a critical factor

toward ship energy saving, and exergy balance method is more

reasonable than energy balance method in thermodynamic

analysis. The discussions and results of the paper may provide

guidance for research of the integrated energy system and the

daily maintenance and management onboard a vessel.

II.

system diagram [3]. Conversion of energies including

mechanical, electrical and thermal energies is described in

the diagram. The generation of electrical power from a steam

turbine-generator and the supply of saturated steam to

heating services by exhaust gas boiler are effected. The

saturated steam passing through heating services and the

superheated steam passing through the steam turbine are

condensed into water, which is returned subsequently to a

cascade tank. Cooling water through the main engine to the

fresh water generator and jacket water cooler is circulated by

jacket water pumps for making fresh water. Three kinds of

energies mentioned above which are in different quantity and

quality constitute an organism, i.e. the main propulsion plant

integrated energy system.

system; main propulsion plant; exergy loss; exergy analysis

I.

MODEL ASSUMPTIONS

INTRODUCTION

shipbuilding and shipping industries for many years. At

present, energy saving potential for ships is huge; about 1015% of the energy can be saved during daily operation, and

especially the ship management is the most important

approach toward energy saving. In order to improve energy

utilization and obtain energy saving management measures,

exergy analysis for the ship main propulsion plant integrated

energy system should be given much attention [3].

An energy balance method is adopted widely in

traditional thermodynamic analysis because it can reveal

energy losses and utilization in conversion of energy, and

thermal efficiency is the main index [1]. However, there are

irreversible losses existing in systems and equipments, and

the energy balance method fails to reveal these losses.

Nowadays, the exergy analysis method is widely adopted

because the irreversibility can be recognized, and there is a

scale of energy quality that can be quantified by an exergy

analysis method [9]. Therefore, the exergy analysis method

is a better choice for our research, and this paper deals with

the problem of energy conversion in the ship main

propulsion plant integrated energy system with an exergy

analysis method.

Good analysis results mainly depend on wonderful

mathematical models. The main propulsion plant integrated

energy system is not a random combination and disorderly

The actual working process of a diesel engine is so

complicated that it is quite difficult for us to carry out

theoretical analysis. Thus it is necessary to abstract and

assume working process before establishing models. In this

process, some secondary factors should be ignored and the

actual working cycle is reasonable when assumed and

generalized as follows: [4]

Constant volume and pressure combustion processes

are simplified into reversible processes.

Theoretical air is assumed as the working medium,

and specific heat capacity of it will not vary with

different temperatures.

Friction in actual process is ignored. Throttling

losses of intake and exhaust valves are also not taken

into account so that intake pressure is equal to

exhaust one, and push power withstood by piston is

offset. Oxygen consuming in combustion can not be

considered because combustion has already been

simplified into a heating process. Therefore, the

open-cycle is abstracted into the closed-cycle.

Heat exchange between high temperature gas and

cylinder liner is ignored in expansion and

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varied processes, and varied indexes are n1 and n2

respectively.

End time of actual combustion of the diesel engine is

quite difficult to determine. We assume that the

burning process starts when piston reaches top dead

centre (TDC), and the process is composed of

constant volume and pressure combustions. Burning

process finishes when gas pressure in cylinder

reaches the highest one.

Q f = m f Hu ,

is low heat value of fuel oil.

Heat converted into power Qe can be obtained by

following equation:

3

Qe = 3.6 10 Pe ,

Waste heat recovery system (WHRS) is shown in fig.1

[7]. Gas from the diesel engine is used to heat feed water in

the exhaust gas boiler. Saturated steam produced is supplied

for heating services, and superheated steam is sent to steam

turbine for generating electricity. Return steam is discharged

into a condenser where steam is condensed into water, and

then feed water is pumped into a drum through feed water

pipes. All processes form a small Rankine cycle as shown in

fig.2.

Curve 1-2 stands for the heat release process. Curve 7-83-4 stands for the process that feed water is changed into

saturated steam and superheated steam after absorbing heat

in an exhaust gas boiler. Straight line 4-5 stands for the

expansion process of steam in steam turbine. Actual

expansion process in the steam turbine is an irreversible

process in which there are energy losses caused by friction

and vortex flow. So expansion of steam will not end in dot 5s

which is the ending state of theoretical adiabatic expansion

process, while dot 5 is the ending state of the actual

expansion process. If resistance loss of exhaust gas pipe was

ignored, the pressure when the expansion process ends

would be equal to the condensing pressure. Straight line 5-6

stands for condensing process in the condenser, and straight

line 6-7 stands for the process that feed water pressure is

raised to a high value by feed water pump. The actual

compression process should end in dot 7 instead of 7s, which

is an ending state of irreversible adiabatic compression

process.

III.

(3)

Heat taken away by exhaust gas Qex is defined as follows:

Qex = mex c p (t1out t 0 ) ,

ex

(4)

)] is exhaust gas average specific heat at constant pressure,

t1in and t0 [] are exhaust gas outlet temperature and

environmental temperature respectively.

The normal flow meter can not measure gas flow rate due

to high temperature of exhaust gas. According to

conservation of mass principle, mex can be obtained by the

following equations:

mex = ma + m f ,

(5)

ma = 0.001 pe b ,

(6)

oil mass flow rate, b [g/kgh] is consumption rate of fuel oil,

n [r/min] is diesel engine rated revolution, [kg/m3] is fresh

air density, s [l] is diesel engine cylinder volume, i is

cylinders numbers, e is the air charging efficiency, a is

diesel engine excess air coefficient, and k is engine type

coefficient (two stroke diesel engine: k=1; four stroke diesel

engine: k=2).

Heat taken away by cooling water Qcw is obtained by the

following equation:

Balance Method

Marine diesel engine energy balance equation is

described as follows: [6]

Q f = Qe + Qex + Qcw + Qco + Qr ,

(2)

Qcw = mcw c

(t 2out t 2in ) ,

Pw

(1)

is heat converted into power, Qex[kJ/h] is heat taken away by

exhaust gas, Qcw [kJ/h] is heat taken away by cooling water,

Qco [kJ/h] is heat taken away by lubricating oil, and Qr [kJ/h]

is other heat losses.

Heat produced by burning fuel oil Qf can be obtained by

the following equation:

(7)

Where mcw [kg/h] is cooling water mass flow rate, cpw [kJ/(kg

)] is cooling water average specific heat at constant

volume, t2in and t2out [] are cooling water inlet and outlet

temperatures respectively.

Heat taken away by lubricating oil Qco is obtained by

following equation:

Qco = mco c po (t3out t3in ) ,

(8)

Where mco [kg/h] is lubricating oil mass flow rate, cpo [kJ/(kg

)] is lubricating oil average specific heat at constant

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Steam release heat in condenser QL,C is defined as

follows:

pressure, t3in and t3out [] are lubricating oil inlet and outlet

temperatures respectively.

Other heat losses Qr includes heat release loss,

incomplete combustion loss, partial mechanical loss and

exhaust gas push power loss. Qr is quite difficult to measure,

while we can obtain it by the following equation:

QL , P = 0 .

(16)

Balance Method

Exergy balance equation is defined as follows: [3]

Ein + Eqe = Ew + Eqw + E xu1 + Es + Ed ,

(10)

(17)

Where Ein [kJ/h] is fresh air exergy, Eqe [kJ/h] is fuel oil

exergy, Ew [kJ/h] is the power exergy produced by working

medium, Eqw [kJ/h] is the exergy loss caused by heat transfer,

Es [kJ/h] is the increasing exergy in cylinder, Ed [kJ/h] is the

system exergy loss caused by irreversible process, and Exu1

[kJ/h] is the exergy taken away by exhaust gas.

Fresh air exergy Ein is ignored in this paper, so:

Ein = 0 .

(11)

(18)

Eqe = 0.975Qh m f ,

(19)

is fuel oil mass flow rate.

In heat transfer process of the cylinder, exergy is taken

away by cooling water and lubricating oil, the energy grade

of it is defined as follows: [8]

(12)

[kJ/h] is superheated steam mass flow rate, h4 [kJ/kg] is

superheated steam enthalpy of dot 4, and h7 [kJ/kg] is feed

water enthalpy.

If exhaust gas pipe resistance loss and mechanical loss

were ignored, and working medium expansion process was

considered as an adiabatic process, steam turbine output

power WT would be defined as follows:

WT = msu ( h4 h5 ) ,

(15)

assume that it is adiabatic, so

Superheated steam absorption heat is obtained by

following equation:

Qsu = msu h4 h7 ,

WP = msu h7 h6 .

Where QL,P [kJ/h] is feed water pumps heat loss, QL,B [kJ/h]

is boiler heat loss, QL,T [kJ/h] is steam turbine heat loss, QL,C

[kJ/h] is condenser heat loss, WT [kJ/h] is the power

generated by steam turbine and WP [kJ/h] is the power

consumed by feed water pumps.

The boiler heat loss QL,B is obtained by the following

equation:

QLB = Qex 1 ,

(14)

Power consumed by feed water pumps WP is defined as

follows:

(9)

Energy Balance Method

Thermodynamic process calculation of steam is different

from the theoretical mediums. There is no simple equation

of state for steam, so it is impossible to obtain starting and

ending state by analytic methods. Specific heat capacities at

constant pressure and volume are complex functions of

temperature, volume and pressure, so it is hard to get

quantity of heat with specific heat capacity and temperature

difference. Normally we carry out thermodynamic process

calculation of steam by using steam tables and an enthalpyentropy diagram.

Energy balance equation of waste heat recovery system is

defined as follows [5]:

Qex = QL, P + QL, B + QL,T + QL,C + WT WP ,

QL,C = msu h5 h6 ,

= 1

T0

T

.

ln

T T0 T0

(20)

by the following equation:

(13)

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(21)

and T0 [K] is environmental temperature. So the exergy taken

away by cooling water Eqw1 is obtained by the following

equation:

ex

w

T0

T

1

ln 2out

T

T0

2out T0

T0

T

ln 3out

T3out T0

T0

E xu1 = E LP + E LB + E LT

,

+ E LC + E xu 2 + WT WP

E LB = E xu1 E xs E xu 2 ,

n

n 1

1

1 - 1T1 + ( 1) T1 1

n 1

1

Rma . (24)

=

n11

1

(1 )

+ n 1 T1

Ed

E xs = msu

(28)

( h4 h7 ) T0 ( s4 s7 ) .

(29)

n 1

cv ln 1 + R ln

T m . (25)

= + cv ln + c p ln

0 a

n

n2 n1

2

+ c ln

R ln

p

(27)

obtained by equation (27), Exu2 [kJ/h] is exhaust gas outlet

exergy, and Exs [kJ/h] is the exergy received by superheated

steam, which is defined as follows:

Ed is defined as follows:

(26)

Where EL,P [kJ/h] is feed water pumps exergy loss, EL,B [kJ/h]

is boiler exergy loss, EL,T [kJ/h]is steam turbine exergy loss,

EL,C [kJ/h] is condenser exergy loss, Exu2 [kJ/h] is exhaust gas

outlet exergy loss, WT [kJ/h] is power produced by steam

turbine, and WP [kJ/h] is power consumed by feed water

pumps.

1) Exergy analysis of boiler

Boiler exergy loss EL,B is defined as follows:

(23)

)] is lubricating oil average specific heat at constant

pressure, and T3out [K] is lubricating oil outlet temperature.

The power exergy produced by working medium Ew is

defined as follows:

Ew

Exergy Balance Method

Exergy balance equation of waste heat recovery system is

defined as follows: [7]

)] is exhaust gas average specific heat at constant pressure,

and T1out [K] is exhaust gas outlet temperature.

(22)

Where mcw [kg/h] is cooling water mass flow rate, cpw [kJ/(kg

)] is cooling water average specific heat at constant

pressure, and T2out [K] is cooling water outlet temperature.

The exergy taken away by cooling water Eqw2 is obtained

by the following equation:

T out

T0

ln 1

T1out T0 T0

E xu 2 = mex c p (Tout T0 )

ex

T0

T

ln out

Tout T0

T0

(30)

Where mex [kg/h] is exhaust gas mass flow rate, cpex [kJ/(kg

)] is exhaust gas average specific heat at constant

pressure, and Tout [K] is exhaust gas outlet temperature of

boiler.

2) Exergy analysis of steam turbine

Steam is used to generate power in the steam turbine, if

exhaust gas pipe resistance loss was ignored and expansion

process was assumed as an adiabatic one, heat exergy should

be zero. If mechanical loss was ignored, output power of

steam turbine WT should be defined as follows:

follows:

136

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WT = msu ( h4 h5 ) .

Sea water temperature

Average temperature of scavenge air

Average temperature of exhaust gas

Fuel oil low heat value

Exhaust gas outlet temperature of boiler

Main engine power

Lubricating oil mass flow rate

Cooling water mass flow rate

(31)

E LT = msu T0 s5 s4 .

(32)

Condenser heat release and resistance losses are not

taken into account for simplification. Condenser exergy

losses include the internal exergy loss produced by heat

transfer among mediums and the external exergy loss

produced by discharge of cooling water to surrounding, so

condenser exergy balance equation is defined as follows:

E LC = msu [( h5 h6 ) T0 ( s5 s6 )] .

TABLE II.

(33)

follows:

(35)

enthalpy and entropy respectively.

IV.

propulsion plant integrated energy system, we choose a ship

sailing under a certain stable condition as an example, and

carry out calculation according to mathematical models

above. The average exhaust gas temperature of main engine

is considered as the exhaust gas inlet temperature of boiler.

The exhaust gas outlet temperature of the boiler is 187 ,

the temperature of machinery space is considered as

environmental temperature, i.e. 26 , superheated steam

pressure is 0.7 MPa (absolute pressure), superheated steam

temperature is 280 , condenser pressure is 0.006 MPa

(absolute pressure) and steam turbine efficiency is 0.7.

Parameters of main engine are shown in table I.

TABLE I.

Energy balance

Exergy balance

Units

kJ/h

kJ/h

Fuel oil

13.1

100

12.834

100

power

0.00187

0.0143

0.00187

0.146

6.102

46.58

6.102

47.55

0.4

3.05

1.26

9.82

0.13

0.992

0.172

1.34

Other losses

0.192

1.47

0.02

0.156

Internal losses of

main engine

1.01

7.87

0.6276

4.79

2.32

18.08

losses

0.000026

Boiler losses

0.269

2.096

0.442

3.44

Condenser losses

4.56

34.81

0.158

1.23

1.08

8.24

1.08

8.42

flow diagrams are obtained and illustrated in fig.3 and 4

respectively.

From fig.3, condenser energy loss occupies the largest

proportion of integrated energy system energy losses. We

only analyze main engine energy flow in traditional energy

analysis, and results show that main engine exhaust gas loss

is the main one of all energy losses. Thermal efficiency of

integrated energy system is 54.82%, while thermal efficiency

of main propulsion plant without waste heat recovery system

is 46.58%. Thermal efficiency is enhanced because part of

energy is converted into power by the steam turbine.

Normally, exhaust gas loss is quite huge in main propulsion

plant, but it is only 4.79% in integrated energy system

because exhaust gas from main engine is reused in the

exhaust gas boiler for heating and generating electricity.

From fig.4, exergy efficiency of integrated energy system

is 55.79%, exhaust gas and cooling water losses are main

exergy losses, and condenser loss occupies a small

Type

Revolution

Fuel oil mass flow rate

Machinery space temperature

Cooling water inlet temperature

Cooling water outlet temperature

Lubricating oil inlet temperature

Lubricating oil outlet temperature

BALANCE RESULTS

Projects

(34)

W p = msu h7 h6 .

kJ/kg

KW

kg/h

kg/h

Feed water pumps exergy loss EL,P is defined as follows:

E LP = T0 msu ( s7 s6 ) .

115

3

25

333.3

40780

187

1695

10800

15900

WD615.46C-11

197

R. P. M

322.79

kg/h

26

65

71

46

51

137

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calculation, and boiler exhaust gas loss is the main loss in

exergy balance calculation. Exhaust gas is of value due to its

high temperature; however steam in condenser is not suited

for re-use due to its low temperature, so results of exergy

balance calculation will be more reasonable than energy

balance calculation. It is impossible to find ways of

improving energy utilization by considering condenser loss.

From fig.4, internal exergy loss of main engine, exergy

loss of steam turbine and heat transfer loss of boiler occupy

large proportions in all exergy losses. Thus maintenance and

management of these equipments are quite important in daily

operation.

V.

CONCLUSIONS

conclusions are drawn as follows:

The thermal efficiency of the system is improved

due to adoption of a WHRS. The main propulsion

plant designer can make the decision whether or

what kind of WHRS is economical. Thus

shipbuilding should pay much attention to ship

energy saving and application of WHRS. Design of

WHRS should be suited for main engine power in

order that integrated energy system is operated in

optimum working conditions, and consequently

energy saving object when system is designed will

be achieved.

Internal exergy loss of the main engine occupies a

larger proportion, about 7.87%. Maintenance and

management of main engine are quite important in

daily operation, and especially cooling water

temperature of the main engine should be paid

attention and controlled. At present, cooling water

temperature is too low in operation, which is an

obstacle toward energy saving. If cooling water

temperature was risen by 10 [2], main engine

power would be enhanced by nearly 0.8-1.2%

according to previous research. Therefore, cooling

water temperature could be increased appropriately.

from results. In actual situation, the power

proportion will be lower than that because main

engine turbocharger is not considered in analysis.

Normally, cooling water loss is considered as the

main loss in previous research, so it is essential to

reuse cooling water energy. However, temperature

of cooling water is too low to be recovered. Exergy

analysis show that exhaust gas form main engine is

of value due to its high temperature; thus important

thing which should be concerned by us is exhaust

gas instead of cooling water. Thus the exergy

balance method is more reasonable than the energy

balance method.

REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

Analysis of an WGZ220/6.8-1 Type Alkali Recovery Boiler,

Modern Applied Science, 2010, 4 (2), pp. 23-31.

Jiang Zuxing, Energy-level Model of the Integrated Energy Systems

on the Marine Diesel Engine, Ship and Ocean Engineering, 2008, 37

(1), pp. 77-79.

Yao Shouguang, Marine Thermadynamic System Analysis, Science

Publishing House, Beijing, China, 2003, pp. 1-6 and 141-168.

Ling Rumei, Hu Jianhui and Liu Zelong, Study on Mathematical

Modeling of Total Energy System of Full Working Conditions

Characteristics, Journal of Engineering Thermophysics, 1998, 31 (4),

p. 5.

Shen Weidao, Engineering Thermodynamics, Higher Education Press,

Beijing, China, 2005, p. 270.

Yu Xiaoli and Li Ting, Research and Development in Thermal

Balance Simulation for the Engine, Vehicle Engine, 2005, 5, pp. 1-5.

Jiang Zuxing, the Energy Quality Analysis of the General Energy

System in the Primary Power Plant in the Marine Diesel Engine,

Tianjin of Navigation, 2006, 2, pp. 12-14.

George G Dimopoulose, Aristotelis V. Kougioufas and Christos A

Frangopoulos, Synthesis, Design and Operation Optimization of a

Marine Energy System, Energy, 2008, 2 (33), pp. 180-188.

A. Hajimiragha, C. Canizares, M. Fowler, et al, Optimal Energy

Flow of Integrated Energy Systems with Hydrogen Economy

Considerations, Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control, 2007,

VII, pp. 1-11.

Atomosphere

4

6

Exhaust gas

Cooling water

2

10

1 Main engine

2 Fresh water generator

3 Exhaust gas boiler

4 Super-heater

5 Heating services

6 Steam turbine

7 Generator

8 Electricity cosuming services

9 Condenser

10 Condensing pump

12 11 Cascade tank

11

12 Feed water pump

2

T2 8

7

7s

6

T1

5s 5

S

138

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Condenser loss

34.81%

9.82%

8.24%

Exhaust gas loss

4.79%

8.24%

Main engine

internal loss

7.87%

18.08%

3.44%

Fuel oil

100%

Main engine power

46.58%

Feed water pump power

0.0143%

3.05%

Other losses

1.47%

Fuel oil

100%

Lubricating

oil loss

1.34%

47.55%

Feed water

pump power Other losses

0.156%

0.146%

0.992%

Boiler loss

2.09%

Condenser loss

1.23%

139

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