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Exergy Analysis of Ship Main Propulsion Plant Integrated Energy System

Zaili Zhao

Zhaofeng Yuan

School of Energy and Power Engineering


Wuhan University of Technology
Wuhan, China
e-mail: zailizhao@whut.edu.cn

School of Energy and Power Engineering


Wuhan University of Technology
Wuhan, China
e-mail: yzf_82@sina.com
accumulation of many units, but a complex, orderly
organism [3]. Therefore, it is essential to carry out model
assumptions before establishing models. It is more
convenient to establish models after simplifying the system.
So model assumptions are the first and important work as
shown in the following part.

AbstractFor the purpose of revealing fully energy losses which


influence the thermodynamic perfection of ship main propulsion
plant integrated energy system, and acquiring energy saving
measures in the daily maintenance and management of marine
equipments, the mathematical models of energy and exergy
balance for the system are established by using a
thermodynamic exergy analysis method, and a ship sailing
under stable condition is analyzed as an example. Results
obtained in this paper show that the thermal efficiency of the
system will be improved by adopting a waste heat recovery
system, the management of the main engine is a critical factor
toward ship energy saving, and exergy balance method is more
reasonable than energy balance method in thermodynamic
analysis. The discussions and results of the paper may provide
guidance for research of the integrated energy system and the
daily maintenance and management onboard a vessel.

II.

Fig.1 shows the main propulsion plant integrated energy


system diagram [3]. Conversion of energies including
mechanical, electrical and thermal energies is described in
the diagram. The generation of electrical power from a steam
turbine-generator and the supply of saturated steam to
heating services by exhaust gas boiler are effected. The
saturated steam passing through heating services and the
superheated steam passing through the steam turbine are
condensed into water, which is returned subsequently to a
cascade tank. Cooling water through the main engine to the
fresh water generator and jacket water cooler is circulated by
jacket water pumps for making fresh water. Three kinds of
energies mentioned above which are in different quantity and
quality constitute an organism, i.e. the main propulsion plant
integrated energy system.

Keywords-integrated energy system; waste heat recovery


system; main propulsion plant; exergy loss; exergy analysis

I.

MODEL ASSUMPTIONS

INTRODUCTION

Ship energy saving has been a major concern for


shipbuilding and shipping industries for many years. At
present, energy saving potential for ships is huge; about 1015% of the energy can be saved during daily operation, and
especially the ship management is the most important
approach toward energy saving. In order to improve energy
utilization and obtain energy saving management measures,
exergy analysis for the ship main propulsion plant integrated
energy system should be given much attention [3].
An energy balance method is adopted widely in
traditional thermodynamic analysis because it can reveal
energy losses and utilization in conversion of energy, and
thermal efficiency is the main index [1]. However, there are
irreversible losses existing in systems and equipments, and
the energy balance method fails to reveal these losses.
Nowadays, the exergy analysis method is widely adopted
because the irreversibility can be recognized, and there is a
scale of energy quality that can be quantified by an exergy
analysis method [9]. Therefore, the exergy analysis method
is a better choice for our research, and this paper deals with
the problem of energy conversion in the ship main
propulsion plant integrated energy system with an exergy
analysis method.
Good analysis results mainly depend on wonderful
mathematical models. The main propulsion plant integrated
energy system is not a random combination and disorderly

A. Model Assumptions of Diesel Engine


The actual working process of a diesel engine is so
complicated that it is quite difficult for us to carry out
theoretical analysis. Thus it is necessary to abstract and
assume working process before establishing models. In this
process, some secondary factors should be ignored and the
actual working cycle is reasonable when assumed and
generalized as follows: [4]
Constant volume and pressure combustion processes
are simplified into reversible processes.
Theoretical air is assumed as the working medium,
and specific heat capacity of it will not vary with
different temperatures.
Friction in actual process is ignored. Throttling
losses of intake and exhaust valves are also not taken
into account so that intake pressure is equal to
exhaust one, and push power withstood by piston is
offset. Oxygen consuming in combustion can not be
considered because combustion has already been
simplified into a heating process. Therefore, the
open-cycle is abstracted into the closed-cycle.
Heat exchange between high temperature gas and
cylinder liner is ignored in expansion and

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compression processes. Both of them are assumed as


varied processes, and varied indexes are n1 and n2
respectively.
End time of actual combustion of the diesel engine is
quite difficult to determine. We assume that the
burning process starts when piston reaches top dead
centre (TDC), and the process is composed of
constant volume and pressure combustions. Burning
process finishes when gas pressure in cylinder
reaches the highest one.

Q f = m f Hu ,

Where mf [kg/h] is fuel oil mass consumption and Hu[kJ/kg]


is low heat value of fuel oil.
Heat converted into power Qe can be obtained by
following equation:
3
Qe = 3.6 10 Pe ,

B. Model Assumptions of Waste Heat Recovery System


Waste heat recovery system (WHRS) is shown in fig.1
[7]. Gas from the diesel engine is used to heat feed water in
the exhaust gas boiler. Saturated steam produced is supplied
for heating services, and superheated steam is sent to steam
turbine for generating electricity. Return steam is discharged
into a condenser where steam is condensed into water, and
then feed water is pumped into a drum through feed water
pipes. All processes form a small Rankine cycle as shown in
fig.2.
Curve 1-2 stands for the heat release process. Curve 7-83-4 stands for the process that feed water is changed into
saturated steam and superheated steam after absorbing heat
in an exhaust gas boiler. Straight line 4-5 stands for the
expansion process of steam in steam turbine. Actual
expansion process in the steam turbine is an irreversible
process in which there are energy losses caused by friction
and vortex flow. So expansion of steam will not end in dot 5s
which is the ending state of theoretical adiabatic expansion
process, while dot 5 is the ending state of the actual
expansion process. If resistance loss of exhaust gas pipe was
ignored, the pressure when the expansion process ends
would be equal to the condensing pressure. Straight line 5-6
stands for condensing process in the condenser, and straight
line 6-7 stands for the process that feed water pressure is
raised to a high value by feed water pump. The actual
compression process should end in dot 7 instead of 7s, which
is an ending state of irreversible adiabatic compression
process.
III.

(3)

Where Pe [kw] is diesel engine output power.


Heat taken away by exhaust gas Qex is defined as follows:
Qex = mex c p (t1out t 0 ) ,
ex

(4)

Where mex[kg/h] is exhaust gas mass flow rate, cpex [kJ/(kg


)] is exhaust gas average specific heat at constant pressure,
t1in and t0 [] are exhaust gas outlet temperature and
environmental temperature respectively.
The normal flow meter can not measure gas flow rate due
to high temperature of exhaust gas. According to
conservation of mass principle, mex can be obtained by the
following equations:
mex = ma + m f ,

(5)

ma = 0.001 pe b ,

(6)

Where ma [kg/h] is fresh air mass flow rate, mf [kg/h] is fuel


oil mass flow rate, b [g/kgh] is consumption rate of fuel oil,
n [r/min] is diesel engine rated revolution, [kg/m3] is fresh
air density, s [l] is diesel engine cylinder volume, i is
cylinders numbers, e is the air charging efficiency, a is
diesel engine excess air coefficient, and k is engine type
coefficient (two stroke diesel engine: k=1; four stroke diesel
engine: k=2).
Heat taken away by cooling water Qcw is obtained by the
following equation:

ESTABLISHMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS

A. The Model of Main Propulsion Plant Based on Energy


Balance Method
Marine diesel engine energy balance equation is
described as follows: [6]
Q f = Qe + Qex + Qcw + Qco + Qr ,

(2)

Qcw = mcw c
(t 2out t 2in ) ,
Pw

(1)

Where Qf [kJ/h] is heat produced by burning fuel oil, Qe [kJ/h]


is heat converted into power, Qex[kJ/h] is heat taken away by
exhaust gas, Qcw [kJ/h] is heat taken away by cooling water,
Qco [kJ/h] is heat taken away by lubricating oil, and Qr [kJ/h]
is other heat losses.
Heat produced by burning fuel oil Qf can be obtained by
the following equation:

(7)

Where mcw [kg/h] is cooling water mass flow rate, cpw [kJ/(kg
)] is cooling water average specific heat at constant
volume, t2in and t2out [] are cooling water inlet and outlet
temperatures respectively.
Heat taken away by lubricating oil Qco is obtained by
following equation:
Qco = mco c po (t3out t3in ) ,

(8)

Where mco [kg/h] is lubricating oil mass flow rate, cpo [kJ/(kg
)] is lubricating oil average specific heat at constant

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Where h5 [kJ/kg] is superheated steam enthalpy of dot 5.


Steam release heat in condenser QL,C is defined as
follows:

pressure, t3in and t3out [] are lubricating oil inlet and outlet
temperatures respectively.
Other heat losses Qr includes heat release loss,
incomplete combustion loss, partial mechanical loss and
exhaust gas push power loss. Qr is quite difficult to measure,
while we can obtain it by the following equation:

Qr = Q f Qe + Qex + Qcw + Qco .

QL , P = 0 .

(16)

C. The Model of Main Propulsion Plant Based on Exergy


Balance Method
Exergy balance equation is defined as follows: [3]
Ein + Eqe = Ew + Eqw + E xu1 + Es + Ed ,

(10)

(17)

Where Ein [kJ/h] is fresh air exergy, Eqe [kJ/h] is fuel oil
exergy, Ew [kJ/h] is the power exergy produced by working
medium, Eqw [kJ/h] is the exergy loss caused by heat transfer,
Es [kJ/h] is the increasing exergy in cylinder, Ed [kJ/h] is the
system exergy loss caused by irreversible process, and Exu1
[kJ/h] is the exergy taken away by exhaust gas.
Fresh air exergy Ein is ignored in this paper, so:
Ein = 0 .

(11)

(18)

Fuel oil exergy Eqe is obtained by following equation:


Eqe = 0.975Qh m f ,

(19)

Where Qh [kJ/kg] is fuel oil high calorific value and mf [kg/h]


is fuel oil mass flow rate.
In heat transfer process of the cylinder, exergy is taken
away by cooling water and lubricating oil, the energy grade
of it is defined as follows: [8]

(12)

Where QSU [kJ/h] is superheated steam absorption heat, mSU


[kJ/h] is superheated steam mass flow rate, h4 [kJ/kg] is
superheated steam enthalpy of dot 4, and h7 [kJ/kg] is feed
water enthalpy.
If exhaust gas pipe resistance loss and mechanical loss
were ignored, and working medium expansion process was
considered as an adiabatic process, steam turbine output
power WT would be defined as follows:
WT = msu ( h4 h5 ) ,

(15)

There is no heat loss in the feed water pump because we


assume that it is adiabatic, so

Where [%] is boiler thermal efficiency.


Superheated steam absorption heat is obtained by
following equation:
Qsu = msu h4 h7 ,

WP = msu h7 h6 .

Where QL,P [kJ/h] is feed water pumps heat loss, QL,B [kJ/h]
is boiler heat loss, QL,T [kJ/h] is steam turbine heat loss, QL,C
[kJ/h] is condenser heat loss, WT [kJ/h] is the power
generated by steam turbine and WP [kJ/h] is the power
consumed by feed water pumps.
The boiler heat loss QL,B is obtained by the following
equation:
QLB = Qex 1 ,

(14)

Where h6 [kJ/kg] is steam enthalpy of dot 6.


Power consumed by feed water pumps WP is defined as
follows:

(9)

B. The Model of Waste Heat Recovery System Based on


Energy Balance Method
Thermodynamic process calculation of steam is different
from the theoretical mediums. There is no simple equation
of state for steam, so it is impossible to obtain starting and
ending state by analytic methods. Specific heat capacities at
constant pressure and volume are complex functions of
temperature, volume and pressure, so it is hard to get
quantity of heat with specific heat capacity and temperature
difference. Normally we carry out thermodynamic process
calculation of steam by using steam tables and an enthalpyentropy diagram.
Energy balance equation of waste heat recovery system is
defined as follows [5]:
Qex = QL, P + QL, B + QL,T + QL,C + WT WP ,

QL,C = msu h5 h6 ,

= 1

T0
T
.
ln
T T0 T0

(20)

The exergy loss caused by heat transfer Eqw is obtained


by the following equation:

(13)

Eqw = Eqw1 + Eqw2 ,

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(21)

Where T [K] is temperature of high temperature medium,


and T0 [K] is environmental temperature. So the exergy taken
away by cooling water Eqw1 is obtained by the following
equation:

E xu1 = mex c p (T1out t0 )


ex

Eqw1 = mcw c p (T2out T0 )


w

T0
T
1
ln 2out
T
T0

2out T0

T0
T
ln 3out
T3out T0
T0

E xu1 = E LP + E LB + E LT
,
+ E LC + E xu 2 + WT WP

E LB = E xu1 E xs E xu 2 ,

n
n 1
1
1 - 1T1 + ( 1) T1 1
n 1

1
Rma . (24)
=
n11
1

(1 )
+ n 1 T1

Ed

E xs = msu

(28)

( h4 h7 ) T0 ( s4 s7 ) .

(29)

Exhaust gas outlet exergy Exu2 is defined as follows:

n 1
cv ln 1 + R ln

T m . (25)
= + cv ln + c p ln

0 a
n

n2 n1
2
+ c ln
R ln
p

(27)

Where Exu1 [kJ/h] is exhaust gas inlet exergy, which is


obtained by equation (27), Exu2 [kJ/h] is exhaust gas outlet
exergy, and Exs [kJ/h] is the exergy received by superheated
steam, which is defined as follows:

The system exergy loss produced by irreversible process


Ed is defined as follows:

(26)

Where EL,P [kJ/h] is feed water pumps exergy loss, EL,B [kJ/h]
is boiler exergy loss, EL,T [kJ/h]is steam turbine exergy loss,
EL,C [kJ/h] is condenser exergy loss, Exu2 [kJ/h] is exhaust gas
outlet exergy loss, WT [kJ/h] is power produced by steam
turbine, and WP [kJ/h] is power consumed by feed water
pumps.
1) Exergy analysis of boiler
Boiler exergy loss EL,B is defined as follows:

(23)

Where mco[kg/h] is lubricating oil mass flow rate, cpo [kJ/(kg


)] is lubricating oil average specific heat at constant
pressure, and T3out [K] is lubricating oil outlet temperature.
The power exergy produced by working medium Ew is
defined as follows:

Ew

D. The Model of Waste Heat Recovery System Based on


Exergy Balance Method
Exergy balance equation of waste heat recovery system is
defined as follows: [7]

Eqw2 = mco c po (T3out T0 )

Where mex[kg/h] is exhaust gas mass flow rate, cpex [kJ/(kg


)] is exhaust gas average specific heat at constant pressure,
and T1out [K] is exhaust gas outlet temperature.

(22)

Where mcw [kg/h] is cooling water mass flow rate, cpw [kJ/(kg
)] is cooling water average specific heat at constant
pressure, and T2out [K] is cooling water outlet temperature.
The exergy taken away by cooling water Eqw2 is obtained
by the following equation:

T out
T0
ln 1
T1out T0 T0

E xu 2 = mex c p (Tout T0 )
ex

T0
T
ln out
Tout T0
T0

(30)

Where mex [kg/h] is exhaust gas mass flow rate, cpex [kJ/(kg
)] is exhaust gas average specific heat at constant
pressure, and Tout [K] is exhaust gas outlet temperature of
boiler.
2) Exergy analysis of steam turbine
Steam is used to generate power in the steam turbine, if
exhaust gas pipe resistance loss was ignored and expansion
process was assumed as an adiabatic one, heat exergy should
be zero. If mechanical loss was ignored, output power of
steam turbine WT should be defined as follows:

The exergy taken away by exhaust gas Exu1 is defined as


follows:

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WT = msu ( h4 h5 ) .

Fuel oil Inlet temperature


Sea water temperature
Average temperature of scavenge air
Average temperature of exhaust gas
Fuel oil low heat value
Exhaust gas outlet temperature of boiler
Main engine power
Lubricating oil mass flow rate
Cooling water mass flow rate

(31)

Steam exergy loss EL,T is defined as follows:

E LT = msu T0 s5 s4 .

(32)

3) Exergy analysis of condenser


Condenser heat release and resistance losses are not
taken into account for simplification. Condenser exergy
losses include the internal exergy loss produced by heat
transfer among mediums and the external exergy loss
produced by discharge of cooling water to surrounding, so
condenser exergy balance equation is defined as follows:
E LC = msu [( h5 h6 ) T0 ( s5 s6 )] .

TABLE II.

(33)

Power consumed by feed water pumps WP is defined as


follows:

(35)

From equation (29) to (35), h and s stand for specific


enthalpy and entropy respectively.
IV.

CALCULATION AND DISCUSSION

In order to reflect fully energy utilization of the main


propulsion plant integrated energy system, we choose a ship
sailing under a certain stable condition as an example, and
carry out calculation according to mathematical models
above. The average exhaust gas temperature of main engine
is considered as the exhaust gas inlet temperature of boiler.
The exhaust gas outlet temperature of the boiler is 187 ,
the temperature of machinery space is considered as
environmental temperature, i.e. 26 , superheated steam
pressure is 0.7 MPa (absolute pressure), superheated steam
temperature is 280 , condenser pressure is 0.006 MPa
(absolute pressure) and steam turbine efficiency is 0.7.
Parameters of main engine are shown in table I.
TABLE I.

Energy balance

Exergy balance

Units

kJ/h

kJ/h

Fuel oil

13.1

100

12.834

100

Feed water pumps


power

0.00187

0.0143

0.00187

0.146

Main engine power

6.102

46.58

6.102

47.55

Cooling water losses

0.4

3.05

1.26

9.82

Lubricating oil losses

0.13

0.992

0.172

1.34

Other losses

0.192

1.47

0.02

0.156

Internal losses of
main engine

1.01

7.87

Exhaust gas losses

0.6276

4.79

2.32

18.08

Feed water pumps


losses

0.000026

Boiler losses

0.269

2.096

Steam turbine losses

0.442

3.44

Condenser losses

4.56

34.81

0.158

1.23

Steam turbine power

1.08

8.24

1.08

8.42

According to the results of table II, energy and exergy


flow diagrams are obtained and illustrated in fig.3 and 4
respectively.
From fig.3, condenser energy loss occupies the largest
proportion of integrated energy system energy losses. We
only analyze main engine energy flow in traditional energy
analysis, and results show that main engine exhaust gas loss
is the main one of all energy losses. Thermal efficiency of
integrated energy system is 54.82%, while thermal efficiency
of main propulsion plant without waste heat recovery system
is 46.58%. Thermal efficiency is enhanced because part of
energy is converted into power by the steam turbine.
Normally, exhaust gas loss is quite huge in main propulsion
plant, but it is only 4.79% in integrated energy system
because exhaust gas from main engine is reused in the
exhaust gas boiler for heating and generating electricity.
From fig.4, exergy efficiency of integrated energy system
is 55.79%, exhaust gas and cooling water losses are main
exergy losses, and condenser loss occupies a small

PARAMETERS OF MAIN ENGINE

Type
Revolution
Fuel oil mass flow rate
Machinery space temperature
Cooling water inlet temperature
Cooling water outlet temperature
Lubricating oil inlet temperature
Lubricating oil outlet temperature

INTEGRATED ENERGY SYSTEM ENERGY AND EXERGY


BALANCE RESULTS

Projects

(34)

W p = msu h7 h6 .

kJ/kg

KW
kg/h
kg/h

Calculated results are shown in table II

4) Exergy analysis of feed water pumps


Feed water pumps exergy loss EL,P is defined as follows:
E LP = T0 msu ( s7 s6 ) .

115
3
25
333.3
40780
187
1695
10800
15900

WD615.46C-11
197
R. P. M
322.79
kg/h
26

65

71

46

51

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proportion. Condenser loss is the main loss in energy balance


calculation, and boiler exhaust gas loss is the main loss in
exergy balance calculation. Exhaust gas is of value due to its
high temperature; however steam in condenser is not suited
for re-use due to its low temperature, so results of exergy
balance calculation will be more reasonable than energy
balance calculation. It is impossible to find ways of
improving energy utilization by considering condenser loss.
From fig.4, internal exergy loss of main engine, exergy
loss of steam turbine and heat transfer loss of boiler occupy
large proportions in all exergy losses. Thus maintenance and
management of these equipments are quite important in daily
operation.
V.

CONCLUSIONS

According to the results and discussions above, the


conclusions are drawn as follows:
The thermal efficiency of the system is improved
due to adoption of a WHRS. The main propulsion
plant designer can make the decision whether or
what kind of WHRS is economical. Thus
shipbuilding should pay much attention to ship
energy saving and application of WHRS. Design of
WHRS should be suited for main engine power in
order that integrated energy system is operated in
optimum working conditions, and consequently
energy saving object when system is designed will
be achieved.
Internal exergy loss of the main engine occupies a
larger proportion, about 7.87%. Maintenance and
management of main engine are quite important in
daily operation, and especially cooling water
temperature of the main engine should be paid
attention and controlled. At present, cooling water
temperature is too low in operation, which is an
obstacle toward energy saving. If cooling water
temperature was risen by 10 [2], main engine
power would be enhanced by nearly 0.8-1.2%
according to previous research. Therefore, cooling
water temperature could be increased appropriately.

Steam turbine power occupies a proportion of 8.24%


from results. In actual situation, the power
proportion will be lower than that because main
engine turbocharger is not considered in analysis.
Normally, cooling water loss is considered as the
main loss in previous research, so it is essential to
reuse cooling water energy. However, temperature
of cooling water is too low to be recovered. Exergy
analysis show that exhaust gas form main engine is
of value due to its high temperature; thus important
thing which should be concerned by us is exhaust
gas instead of cooling water. Thus the exergy
balance method is more reasonable than the energy
balance method.
REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

[3]
[4]

[5]
[6]
[7]

[8]

[9]

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Analysis of an WGZ220/6.8-1 Type Alkali Recovery Boiler,
Modern Applied Science, 2010, 4 (2), pp. 23-31.
Jiang Zuxing, Energy-level Model of the Integrated Energy Systems
on the Marine Diesel Engine, Ship and Ocean Engineering, 2008, 37
(1), pp. 77-79.
Yao Shouguang, Marine Thermadynamic System Analysis, Science
Publishing House, Beijing, China, 2003, pp. 1-6 and 141-168.
Ling Rumei, Hu Jianhui and Liu Zelong, Study on Mathematical
Modeling of Total Energy System of Full Working Conditions
Characteristics, Journal of Engineering Thermophysics, 1998, 31 (4),
p. 5.
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Beijing, China, 2005, p. 270.
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Balance Simulation for the Engine, Vehicle Engine, 2005, 5, pp. 1-5.
Jiang Zuxing, the Energy Quality Analysis of the General Energy
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Tianjin of Navigation, 2006, 2, pp. 12-14.
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Frangopoulos, Synthesis, Design and Operation Optimization of a
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Flow of Integrated Energy Systems with Hydrogen Economy
Considerations, Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control, 2007,
VII, pp. 1-11.

Atomosphere

4
6
Exhaust gas

Cooling water
2

10

1 Main engine
2 Fresh water generator
3 Exhaust gas boiler
4 Super-heater
5 Heating services
6 Steam turbine
7 Generator
8 Electricity cosuming services
9 Condenser
10 Condensing pump
12 11 Cascade tank
11
12 Feed water pump

2
T2 8
7
7s
6

T1

5s 5
S

Figure 1. Main propulsion plant integrated energy system

Figure 2. T-S chart of Rankine cycle

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Condenser loss
34.81%

Cooling water loss


9.82%

Steam turbine power


8.24%
Exhaust gas loss
4.79%

Steam turbine power


8.24%
Main engine
internal loss
7.87%

Exhaust gas loss


18.08%

Steam turbine loss


3.44%

Fuel oil
100%
Main engine power
46.58%
Feed water pump power
0.0143%

Cooling water loss


3.05%

Other losses
1.47%

Fuel oil
100%

Lubricating
oil loss
1.34%

Main engine power


47.55%
Feed water
pump power Other losses
0.156%
0.146%

Lubricating oil loss


0.992%

Figure 3. Integrated energy system energy flow diagram

Boiler loss
2.09%

Condenser loss
1.23%

Figure 4. Integrated energy system exergy flow diagram

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