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CHAPTER

1.2

GRAPH THEORY

(A) 1 and 3

(B) 4 only

(C) 3 only

(D) 3 and 4

branches. The number of links l, with respect to the

(1)

(2)

(A) 2

(B) 3

(C) 4

(D) 5

(3)

(4)

Fig. P.1.1.4

(A) 1 and 2

(B) 2 and 3

(C) 3 and 4

(D) 4 and 1

Node

Branch

Twigs

Link

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

c

(1)

(2)

3

g

Fig. P.1.2.5

(3)

Page

12

(4)

(A) a d e h

(B) a c f h

(C) a f h g

(D) a e f g

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GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

UNIT 1

1 -1 0

(A) -1 0

1

1 -1

0

-1 -1 0

(C) 0

1 1

1 0 -1

1 0 -1

(B) -1 -1 0

1 1

0

1

-1 0

(D) 0

1 -1

1 -1 0

(C)

-1 1 1 0 0 0

0 0 -1 1 1 0

A =

0 -1 0 -1 0 -1

1 0 0 0 -1 -1

(D)

-1 1 1 0 0 0

0 0 -1 1 1 0

A =

0 -1 0 -1 0 0

1 0 0 0 -1 -1

The graph is

2

Networks

The graph is

4

4

3

(A)

(B)

(A)

4

(B)

4

3

(C)

(D)

- 1 0 0 - 1 1 0 0

0 0 0

1 0

1 1

A = 0 0

1 0 0 0 -1

0

1 0 0 -1 -1 0

1 -1 -1 0 0 0 0

(C)

(D)

number of possible tree are

The graph is

2

Fig. P.1.1.16

(A)

Page

14

(A) 8

(B) 12

(C) 16

(D) 20

(B)

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GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

UNIT 1

Networks

1 -1 0 0 0

0 -1 1 0

1

QF =

0

0

0

0

1

0 0 0 1 -1

0

0

1

0

(C)

solid line and links are dotted line. For this tree

1 1 1 0

BF =

1 0 1 1

(A)

(D)

(B)

5

6

Fig. P.1.2.24

(C)

(D)

solid line and links are dotted line. For this chosen tree

fundamental set matrix is given below.

1 1

BF = 0 -1

0 0

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

0

0

(A)

(B)

3

2

(C)

Fig. P. 1.2.23

(D)

twigs are solid line and links are dotted line.

(A)

(B)

Fig. P. 1.2.25

Page

16

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GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Graph Theory

below

1

BF = 0

0

1

0

1

0 -1 -1 0

1 0

1 -1

0

1

0

(D)

0

-1

Chap 1.2

1 -1

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

(A)

i1 0

i 0

2

i3 1

i -1

4 =

i5 1

i 0

6

i

7 0

i8 0

(B)

1 -1

0 -1

0 0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

-1 I1

0 I 2

0 I 3

0 I 4

0

1

current. The number of independent node equation are

(C)

(D)

(A) 4

(B) 5

(C) 6

(D) 7

twigs and dotted line are link. The fundamental loop

is l, then the number of independent node equations

will be

matrix is

i

c

(A) n + l - 1

(B) b - 1

(C) b - n + 1

(D) n - 1

h

1 0

i1 0 0

i -1 -1 -1 0

2

1 0 0 I1

i3 0

i 1 0 0 0 I

4 =

2

i

0

0

1

1

5

I 3

i 1 1 0 -1 I

4

6

i7 1 0 0 0

i8 0 0 0

1

Fig. P.1.2.26

1

0

(A)

0

-1

-1 1 0 0

0 -1 -1 -1

(B)

0 0 0 -1

1 0

1 0

(C)

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0 0

0 0

1 -1

0

1

0

1

0

0

1 0 0 0

1 -1 -1 0

0 0

1 -1

0 -1 0 -1

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

1

0 0

1 0

1 -1

0 -1

0

0

1

0

0 -1

1 0

0 0

0 0

0

0

0

1

current.

29. The rank of incidence matrix is

(A) 4

(B) 5

(C) 6

(D) 8

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Page

17

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

UNIT 1

Networks

8

5

6

5

(C)

2

4

1

(D)

(C)

************

(D)

The number of branches in the network is

(A) 11

(B) 12

(C) 8

(D) 6

loops are

(A) 3

(B) 4

(C) 5

(D) 6

For a network branch voltage and node voltage

relation are expressed in matrix form as follows:

1

v1 1 0 0

v 0

1 0 0

2

1 0 V1

v3 0 0

v 0 0 0

1 V2

4 =

v5 1 -1 0 0 V3

v 0

1 -1 0 V4

6

1 -1

v7 0 0

v8 1 0 -1 0

where vi is the branch voltage and Vk is the node

voltage with respect to datum node.

33. The independent mesh equation for this network

are

(A) 4

(B) 5

(C) 6

(D 7

Page

18

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GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Graph Theory

Chap 1.2

SOLUTIONS

1. (A) The circuit 1 and 2 are redrawn as below. 3 and 4 can

not be redrawn on a plane without crossing other branch.

(A)

(1)

(B)

(2)

Fig. S1.2.1

without crossing

(C)

(1)

(D)

(2)

Fig. S .1.2.7

and 4 are tree

2

(3)

a

Fig. S1.2.1

3. (C) l = b - ( n - 1) = 4.

(1)

2

a

c

1

g

(2)

l=b-n+1=3

given graph

3

e

t = n - 1 = 3,

3

e

b

3

e

f

4

(3)

Fig. S 1.2.5

(4)

2

c

b

a

e

b

c

f

4

(5)

Fig. S. 1.2.6

Fig. S. 1.2.8

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Page

19

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

UNIT 1

i

l1

So reduced

1 0

0 1

Ar =

0 0

0 0

l4

l2

h

l3

Networks

Fig. S 1.2.26

incidence matrix is

0 0

1 0 0

1

0 0 -1 1 0 0

1 0 0 -1 1 -1

0 1 0 0 -1 0

been changed.

27. (A) Number of branch =8

***********

Number of link =4

Number of twigs =8 - 4 = 4

Number of twigs =number of independent node

equation.

28. (D) The number of independent node equation are

n - 1.

29. (A) Number of branch b = 8

Number of link l = 4

Number of twigs t = b - l = 4

rank of matrix = n - 1 = t = 4

30. (B) We know the branch current and loop current

are related as

[ ib ] = [ B T ] [ I L ]

So fundamental loop matrix is

1 1 0

0 -1 0 1 0

0 -1 1 0 0

1 0 0

Bf =

1 -1 0 0 -1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 -1 -1 0 1

branch2 is opposite to other (B only).

31. (B) Independent loops =link

l = b - ( n - 1)

5 = b - 7, b = 12

l = b - ( n - 1) = 4

33. (A) There are 8 branches and 4 + 1 = 5 node

Number of link = 8 - 5 + 1 = 4

Page

22

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