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1.

a) i)
Linear Programming can be defined as a mathematical technique used in computer modeling
(simulation) or in the physical world to find the best possible solution in allocating limited
resources (energy, machines, materials, money, personnel, space, time, etc.) to achieve maximum
profit or minimum cost under those conditions. However, it is applicable only where all
relationships are linear, and can accommodate only a limited class of cost functions. A typical
example would be taking the limitations of materials and labor, and then determining the "best"
production levels for maximal profits under those conditions.

1. a) ii)
Constrained optimization can be defined as the process of optimizing an objective function with
respect to some variables in the presence of constraints on those variables in which most cases
the objective function is either a cost function or energy function which is to be minimized, or a
reward function or utility function, which is to be maximized. For Example, Consumers make
decisions on what to buy constrained by the fact that their choice must be affordable Firms
make production decisions to maximize their profits subject to the constraint that they have
limited production capacity Households make decisions on how much to work/play with the
constraint that there are only so many hours in the day.

1. b) Components of a Linear Programming Model


1. Decision variables mathematically symbols representing levels of activity of a firm.
Decision Variables. The decision variables represent (unknown) decisions to be made.
This is in contrast to problem data, which are values that are either given or can be simply
calculated from what is given.
2. Objective function a linear mathematical relationship describing an objective of the
firm, in terms of decision variables (this function is to be maximized or minimized.
3. Constraints requirements or restrictions places on the firm by the operating
environment, stated in linear relationships of the decision variables.
4. Parameters numerical coefficients and constants used in the objective function
constraints. (URL: http://www.slideshare.net/JosephKonnully/linearprogramming-ppt)

Assumptions of Linear Programming

1. Proportionality: The basic assumption underlying the linear programming is that any
change in the constraint inequalities will have the proportional change in the objective
function. Additivity: The assumption of additivity asserts that the total profit of the
objective function is determined by the sum of profit contributed by each product
separately. Similarly, the total amount of resources used is determined by the sum of
resources used by each product separately. This implies, there is no interaction between
the decision variables.
2. Continuity: Another assumption of linear programming is that the decision variables are
continuous. This means a combination of outputs can be used with the fractional values
along with the integer values.
3. Certainty: Another underlying assumption of linear programming is a certainty, i.e. the
parameters of objective function coefficients and the coefficients of constraint
inequalities is known with certainty. Such as profit per unit of product, availability of
material and labor per unit, requirement of material and labor per unit are known and is
given in the linear programming problem.
Additivity: The assumption of additivity asserts that the total profit of the objective
function is determined by the sum of profit contributed by each product separately.
Similarly, the total amount of resources used is determined by the sum of resources used
by each product separately. This implies, there is no interaction between the decision
variables.
(URL:
https://www.courses.psu.edu/for/for466w_mem14/Ch11/HTML/Sec5/ch11sec5.
htm)

1. c)
We usually use the graphical method for problems with two decision variables. The
reason that we do not use the graphical method for problems with more than two decision
variables is because of the complexity of the visual representation in which the Simplex
method would be utilized instead.