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EEET 3050 - Renewable Energy Systems UG

Practical 2 DFIG Feeding Power to a Grid

through a Transformer and a Line
The aim of this practical is to evaluate the characteristics of a DFIG
based wind power plant connected to the grid through a transformer and a
distribution line using standard MATLAB/SIMULINK blocks given in
- Familiarise with modification/extension of MATLAB Simulink
- Develop the model of a realistic wind power plant feeding power
to a grid
- Investigate the system responses to change in wind speed
Fig.1 illustrates the single line diagram of the wind power plant and the
utility grid considered for this practical. Fig. 2 illustrates the corresponding
Simulink model block diagram develop for the simulations.

Figure 1. Single line diagram of the wind power plant and the grid

Figure 2. Model block diagram develop on Simulink

The model block developed for this project basically consists of a set of
different blocks interconnected for represent the power system. The source
and the series impedance represent the external grid, represent like an
infinite bus with the short circuit impedance in serie with this. then followed
by a section of short line model and a reduction transformer to connect the
generation voltage level (575 V) with the distribution voltage level (11 kV). A
Measure block between the two sections of the system, for recording the
values of voltage and current. On the generation side, a static load is feeding
by the DFIG. The steps block are using for represent the wind speed changes.
The different scoops on the model are using for record the evolution on time
of interest variables. This system is represented by phasors models.
On this practical report, a more realistic model of the generation
systems based on power wind is implemented on Simulink. A generation
system based on a DFIG will be implemented using dynamics blocks
developed by Hydro-Quebec and Mathworks. Thanks to the fact that the
dynamic models are all full integrated, the implementation and test of the
system for different environmental condition can be studied rapidly. Different

variable of the systems will be recorded for discuss how the wind speed
changes affect to these. The effect on the voltage and current on the line
that feed the load and wind turbine will be analyzed too.
On the simulation will be tested how the wind turbine takes advantage
of the increment of the wind speed for obtain the maximal power allowable
for the turbine, and how the control system regulated the pitch angle for
highest wind speed.
1. Include all plots of step 24 with critical analysis and discussions.

Figure 3. Time vs. Wind Speed

On this graph, is observed the changes in the wind speed introducing

in the system for evaluate the response of this and the controllers to these
perturbation. The wind speed start at 8 m/s and each 100 seconds, the wind
speed increases suddenly 2 m/s until reach a final speed of 16 m/s.

Figure 4. Time vs. Active Power

On the graph a transient phenomenon is observed when the simulation
begins, and a interchange of active power occurs between the system and
the wind turbine while the turbine gets at steady state. when the wind speed
increases, the power delivered increases consequently, and the reason is the
turbine, which is able to deliver more power for higher wind speed. For each
step of wind speed increment, the DFIG has a transient until reach a new
(and higher) operation point. In the steps of 300 and 400 second the control
system proceed to change the pitch angle to control the speed and torque on
the turbine, on safe region for the equipment. On this form, the output power

is restricted to a safe value of operation according the control setting. The

final value of power delivered by the DFIG is 0.8778 pu (with a base of 1.5
MW, this is a equivalent power of 1.3167 MW)

Figure 5. Time vs. Reactive Power

Basically, the reactive power has the same behavior of the active
power, with the diference than the final value is 0.03524 pu. A change on the
reactive power delivered to the system when the steps of wind speed
increment occurs and the final value is restricted for longer times to 300
seconds. Is interesting highlight the change of signs of the reactive power.
For low wind speed (8 m/s) the DFIG consume reactive power, but for speeds
greater than this (10 m/s and higher) the reactive power is positive. This is
possible thanks to the power converter of the rotor, that regulated the
current with purpose of control the torque and as consequences, allow

operate the machine on a condition where this deliver reactive power to the

Figure 6. Time vs Pitch angle

On the pitch angle is observed a change at 300 second due to wind
speed increment to 14 m/s, this is the result of the control system. For the
other wind speeds not was necessary move the pitch angle, since the turbine
was able of operate according with the design. But for the highest wind
speed, (14 and 16 m/s) the power absorbed by the turbine is dangerous for
the safe operation of the equipment and, in consequences, the pitch angle
shed some of the power in the wind. A transient phenomenon is observed, a
little overshoot, and is due to the action of the drivers to adjust the pitch

Figure 7. Time vs. Rotor Speed

On the graph is observed first a operation with a initial rotor speed

accordingly to the set slip (0.2, which result in 0.8 pu initial rotor speed). For
each step of wind speed increment, the rotor accelerates to reach a new
steady state of operation, accordingly to the turbine power characteristics.
For the last one two steps, (on 300 and 400 seconds) the pitch control works
for handle the rotor speed on a safe operation region, in agreement with the
design due to the cut-out limit of speed.

Figure 8. Time vs. Mechanical Torque

The mechanical torque in the graph has a value of 0.2433 when the
simulation begin, but when the wind speed increases, the torque increases
consequently to the new wind speed. For higher wind speed, the turbine is
able to absorb more power of the wind and deliver a greater value of torque.
the control system of the pitch angle begins to work for controlling the
mechanical torque when the wind speed is too high for the safe operation on
the turbine. On the steps of 300 and 400 seconds, the pitch control sheds
some of wind to restrict the torque of operation to a safe value, in this case
of 0.7403 pu. Is observed two higher overshoot on of the torque when the
wind speed changes to 14 and 16 m/s, this is due to same overshoot
observed on the pitch angle control.

2. How does the speed of the generator change with wind speed?
The rotor speed ( is the same that the speed of the generator)
increases when the wind speed is incremented on the simulation, this is
because the system move to a new steady state in agreement with the
turbine power characteristic. When is observed this characteristic curve in
the figure below:

Figure 9. Turbine power characteristics

For track the red line, that define the better performance point for each
wind speed, the turbine need to increment the rotational speed as long as
the wind speed increases. For this reason of higher speeds, the wind turbine
increases the rotational speed and deliver more power to the grid too. For
the last one two increment of wind speed (14 and 16 m/s) ther rotor speed is

near to reach a dangerous velocity, so the control system restricts the

velocity to a safe value of operation ( a value between 1.2 pu and 1.25 pu) to
avoid damage on the equipment. The pitch control system is designed for
this purpose.
3. Plot the voltage and current of the DFIG (at 575-V bus) and describe
their variation with the change in wind speed.
The plots of the voltage and currents are shown below:

Figure 10. Phase-to-Phase voltage vs time

As observed, the value of the voltage practically is a constant in all the
simulation. This changes from 1 to 0.9993 ( an insignificant change) and
principally is due to the increment of the current on the system which
increases the voltage drop in the equipments. On the beginning of the

simulation a very short (0.2 second more or less) transient is observed too,
but the voltage value reaches a steady state quickly.

Figure 11. Line current vs time

The behavior of the line current is different, after the transient
phenomenon on the beginning of the simulation, the value of current
increase when the each wind speed increment. This due to the increment of
active power delivered by the turbine to the grid. For higher power, at the
same voltage value, a increment of current must occur. When the pitch
control handles the output power of the turbine to a fixed value ( due to the
limits of operation of the turbine) the value of the current remains constant
4. What is the reason of using the 11kV/575V transformer in the

Basically, the reason of a transformer is the necessity of deliver power

to long distance with lower losses. For higher values of voltage, the
necessary current for deliver the same amount of power is reduced, and
losses are proportional to the current . That is the reason of up transformers
on the generation centers. The electric power is generated at some level of
voltage relatively low ( in this case 575 V) and after that is deliver to the load
center by the distribution system on distribution voltage level ( in this case
on 11 kV).
On this practice, the models developed for mathworks and HydroQuebec was tasted on the simulation of a more realistic representation of a
generation systems based on wind power, using a converter a DFIG. The
system was perturbed with changes of wind speed, increasing this from 8
m/s to 16 m/s on steps of 2 m/s each 100 seconds.
The response of the system with the increase of wind speed basically
incremented the real power delivered to the power systems and the reactive
power change was negligible. By having more energy available in the wind,
the turbine is able to operated on a point where power subtracted from the
wind is highest, accordingly with the turbine power characteristics. Was
observed that the pitch control system was actuated to maintain the
operation of the energy converter on a safe region of operation. For wind
speed highest than 12 m/s, the pitch angle was moved for shed some of the
wind and control the mechanical torque, restricted the value of this.
Consequently, the speed and power delivered by the turbine was restricted
too. This response of the system was observed for time greater than 300
A overshoot is presented on the control system behavior due to the
limited response of the controllers and on consequences, a overshoot was
observed on the torque response. The current presented on the grid
increases with the increment of power delivered to the system as expected if
the terminal voltage is maintained constant. Thanks to the highest speed of
wind the DFIG was able of operated near of the rated point and this allow
take advantage of wind turbine capabilities.