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SHEET METAL OPERATIONS

Press tools:
Press tools are special tools custom built to produce a component mainly out of sheet metal. The
principle operations of sheet stampings include cutting operations (shearing, blanking, piercing, etc.) and
forming operations (bending, drawing, etc.).
Sheet metal items such as automobile parts (roofs, fenders etc.), components of aircraft, parts of ATM
machines, household appliances, sheet metal parts of electronic equipments, precision parts required for
homological industry etc., are manufactured by press tools.

Various operations that are performed in Press tools:


Shearing:
It is a method of cutting sheets without forming chips. The material is stressed in a section which lies
parallel to the forces applied by SLITTING or SHEARING blades.

Blanking:
When a component is produced with one single punch and die with entire periphery is cut is called
blanking. Stampings having an irregular contour must be blanked from the strip. Piercing, embossing,
and various other operations may be performed on the strip prior to the blanking station.

Piercing (punching):
Piercing tools pierce holes in previously blanked, formed, or drawn parts. It is often impractical to pierce
holes while forming because they would become distorted in the forming operation. In such cases they
are pierced in a piercing tool after forming.

Cut-off:
A cutoff operation creates a part from the sheet stock with a single
cut. Preliminary operations before cutting off include piercing,
notching, and embossing. Cutoff lines may be straight, curved, or
jagged. No material scraps in Cutoff operation.

Parting off:
It is similar to cut off operation except the cut is in double line. This
is done for components with two straight surfaces and two profile
surfaces. A parting operation leaves a small amount of scrap
between blanks.

Trimming:
When cups and shells are drawn from flat sheet metal the edge is left wavy and irregular, due to uneven
flow of metal. This irregular edge is trimmed in a trimming die. Shown is flanged shell, as well as the
trimmed ring removed from around the edge. While a small amount of material is removed from the side
of a component or strip is also called as trimming.

Trimming

Shaving

Shaving:
Shaving removes a small amount of material around the edges of a previously blanked stampings or
piercing. A straight, smooth edge is provided and therefore shaving is frequently performed on instrument
parts, watch and clock parts and the like. Shaving is accomplished in shaving tools especially designed
for the purpose.

Bending:
Bending tools apply simple bends to stampings. A simple bend is
done in which the line of bend is straight. One or more bends may be
involved, and bending tools are a large important class of press
tools. During bending, the inside of the bend compresses along the
axis of bend & the outside of the bend stretches instead.

Forming:
Forming tools apply more complex forms to work pieces. The line of bend is curved instead of straight
and the metal is subjected to plastic flow or deformation. The metal flow is not uniform as in bending and
it depends on the shape of the component.

Drawing:

Drawing tools transform flat sheets of metal into cups, shells or other drawn shapes by subjecting the
material to severe plastic deformation. During drawing the sheet experiences a variety of forces and
severe plastic deformation. Drawing is very sensitive to material imperfections, die misalignments, etc.

Drawing