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1.

Discuss the layers of the atmosphere according to its height


Troposphere
The troposphere starts at the Earths surface and extends 8 to 14.5
kilometers high (5 to 9 miles). This part of the atmosphere is the most dense,
it contains most of the mass (about 75% to 80%) of the atmosphere. Almost
all weather occurs in this region.
Stratosphere
The stratosphere starts just above the troposphere and extends to 50
kilometers (31 miles) high. Ozone, an unusual type of oxygen molecule that is relatively
abundant in the stratosphere, heats this layer as it absorbs energy from incoming ultraviolet
radiation from the Sun. Temperatures rise as one moves upward through the stratosphere.
This temperature stratification causes a stable air where jet aircraft tends to fly in (lower
stratosphere).
Mesosphere
The mesosphere starts just above the stratosphere and extends to 85 kilometers (53 miles)
high. This the layer where meteors burns up. Temperature decreases with height throughout
the mesosphere. The mesosphere is the least studied layer of the atmosphere since its
location doesnt allow the aircrafts and weather balloons to fly in.
Ionosphere
The ionosphere is an abundant layer of electrons and ionized atoms and molecules that
stretches from about 48 kilometers (30 miles) above the surface to the edge of space at
about 965 km (600 mi), overlapping into the mesosphere and thermosphere. This dynamic
region grows and shrinks based on solar conditions. This region is what makes radio
communications possible.
Exosphere
This is the upper limit of our atmosphere. It extends from the top of the thermosphere up to
10,000 km (6,200 mi).

2. Explain Latent Heat


latent heat, energy absorbed or released by a substance during a change in its physical
state (phase) that occurs without changing its temperature. The latent heat associated with
melting a solid or freezing a liquid is called the heat of fusion; that associated with vaporizing
a liquid or a solid or condensing a vapour is called the heat of vaporization. The latent heat is
normally expressed as the amount of heat (in units of joules or calories) per mole or unit
mass of the substance undergoing a change of state. Latent heat arises from
the work required to overcome the forces that hold together atoms or molecules in a material.

3. What Causes wind? Explain

Pressure at the earth's surface is a measure of the 'weight' of air pressing down on it.
The greater the mass of air above us, the higher the pressure we feel, and vice-versa.
The importance of this is that air at the surface will want to move from High and low
pressure to equalize the difference, which is what we know as wind. This is caused by the
uneven heating of the earth's surface by the sun. Because the earth's surface is made of different types of
land and water, it absorbs the sun's heat at different rates.

4. What are the SSLc constants for pressure, density, and pressure?