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frequency, GHr



Fig. 7 Experimental and theoretical S,i-porantrler.~~Jfi~ui-patch




elechical model


The values of

the S12 and Sl,parameters

are in good agreement with

measurement in the neighbourhood of the resonance. The maxima of Slzand S,; parameters obtained with the model are at the same values as the experimenral ones. The shape of the curves represented are acceptable too.

Conclusion: A simple modcl, extracted from a 3D electromagnetic method, is proposed to describe the electrical behaviour of coupled patches. This model takes into account the coupling between dements and is generalised in thc case of a patch array antenna. It can be used in an electrical simulator to calculate the S-parameters with more accuracy. As this method is economical in tcrms of computer time, one can consider that its usc will improve the design of an anay with numerous patches.

  • 0 IEE 2003

I April 2003

Electronics Lellers Online No: 20030627 Dol: IO. 1049/e1:20030627

A. Hafianc, H. Aissat and 0. Picon (ESYCOM, (iniver.vi& de Marne-

  • la- YalUe, 5 Bd Dercarres, 77454 Marne-lo-Yall& Cedex2, France)


  • I SHEEN.% ALLS., ABOUZAHKA.M., and K0NC.J.: 'Application ofthc three- dimensional finite-difference time domain method to the analysis of planar microstep circuits', IEEE MTT-S Inl. Micmw! Symp. Dig., 1990, 38, (7). pp. 218-252

    • 2 WHEELER, H.A.: 'Transmission-line propcliies of a swip on dielectric plane', IEEE MTT-S Inf Microw Sy". Dig., 1977

    • 3 HAPIAN€, A., CIRIO, L., and PICON. 0.: 'Elcct"cal model and mutual coupling betwen microstrip antennas expressed through FDTD method'. Proc. 30th European Microwa\,e Conf., Pans, France. October

popular topic for the DRA. Stacking and parastic-element methods

[I-31 were used but they require more than one DRA. Some attention has been paid to single-DRA configurations to reduce size and cost,

such as the

airgap method (41, conductor-loading method [SI, dielec-

tric-coating method 161, strip-loading method 17, 81, and special-DRA method 191. Recently, it has been found that awidcband DRA can also be obtained by using an annularexcitation slot [IO]. In this Lctter, we extend the annular slot to become a circular aperture, which is coupled by a microstrip lint with a fork-like tuning stub [Ill. To demonstrate the method a cylindrical DRA, excited in its fundamen- tal TM,,,, mode [IO], is used in our configuration. A hemispherical backing cavity, which is concentric with the aperture, is placcd

beneath the tuning fork to block the backside radiation through the circular aperture. The proposed configuration can remarkably offer a bandwidth as wide as 38%. The retum loss, radiation pattern, and antenna gain of the configuration were measured. The results are compared with those without the backing cavity. It is found that thc bandwidth can further be increased to 40% if the backing cavity is removed, at the cost of reducing the antenna gain.

Anlennn confgrrrafion: The perspective view of the antenna con- figuration is shown in Fig. lo, where the cylindrical DRA of radius 0, height h, and dielectric constant E, is concentrically fed by a circular aperture of radius F. The circular aperture was etched on the ground plane ofa 50 0 microstrip feedlinc with a fork-like tuning stub. Bclaw the tuning fork is a backing cavity of radius b, which is placed concentrically with the aperture. Fig. Ih shows the geometry of the tuning fork. As studied in [Ill, a distance I, between the two arms of the fork is required to give B uniform field distribution in the aperture, whereas 1, is used to fine-tune the input reactance. In addition, B small straight microstrip section of length l2 is needed to have a wide

impedance bandwidth. All of them and the microstrip feedline have width W, whereas the substrate has dielectric constant t:?,% and thickness d. Two antennas were measured, namely antenna I and antenna 2. The backing cavity is used for antenna 1. Antenna 2 is the same as antenna 1, except that the backing cavity is removed.





Wideband dielectric resonator antenna excited by cavity-backed circular aperture with microstrip tuning fork

K.W. Leung and C.K. Leung

A wideband dielechic resonator antenna excited by a circular apenurc is investigated enpenmentally. The aperture is coupled by a microship feedline wifi a microsttip fork-like tuning stub. A backing cavity is placcd beneath the stub 10 block undesirable backside radiation. The

rehlm loss, field panem, and antcnna gain of the proposed configura-

tion were measured and the results are compared with those without the backing cavily

lnrroducrion: In the last WO decades, the dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) has received extensivc attention [I-IO] because of its inherent advantages, including its small size, light weight, low loss, low cost, and ease of excitation, Although the bandwidth of a DRA is wide enough for many applications (- 10% for dielectric constant E, - IO), investigation of bandwidth enhancement techniques has been a

Fig. 1 Antenna configurofion

r? Perspective view

b Geometry of tuning fork








frequency, GHI

Fig. 2 Measured relitin Imses of antennas I and 2


10th July 2003

Vol. 39




Table 1: Measured antennas

resonant 1 and 2







- - - 6.35GHz





Fig. 3 Measured rudiatiun patterns ofonrennn I


U Kplvne

h &plane

Rrsrrlls: A cylindiical DRA


U = 6. I mm,

h = I I .5 mm,


E,~= 10 was measured using an HP8SIOC network analyscr. Using a design formula [IO], the predicted TMllo-made resonant frcqucncy ofthe DRA is given by/o=5.57 CHr. The 50 Cl microstrip feedline of W,=2.3 mm was printed on a substrate of ~,~=2.33and d=0.79mm. The radii of the circular apcrturc and hollow hemi- spherical cavity are r=6.0 mm and b=2.5 cm, respectively. For the tuning fork. thc optimum values of I, = 3.2 mm, l7 = I .S mn, and

1, =4.0 mm were used. Fig. 2 shows the measured return

losses of

the two antennas. Antenna 1 is discussed first. As can be observed from Fig. 2, a very good impedance march is observed at resonant

frequency (min (SI,I) f, =5.68 GHz, which

is 2% higher than thc

predicted frequency fn.

A very wide impedance bandwidth

(IS,lI<-lOdB) of3X% is obtained, which is about four times the typical. value for DRAs with 8,"- 10. Next, the return loss of antenna 2 is discussed. With the backing cavity removed, the resonant frequency is shifted tah=S.X0GHr, which is 4.1% higher than the

predicted value. In this case, an even wider bandwidth of 40% is obtained. This is expected as the backside radiation through the aperture will reduce the Q-factor of the system, thus broadening the bandwidth. The results are summarised in Table 1. An antenna with a simple straight tuning stub of length 1=7.5 mm was also fabricated and measured. It was found that the impedance was matched very well at a lower resonant frequency of 5.29 GHr. The bandwidth was found

to be I I%, which is a typical value with no bandwidth enhancement.



shows thc H-planc

(I-. planc) and E-plane,(y-z plane)

radiation patterns of


I. The results were

meaiured at four

diffcrcnt frequencies across the antenna passband. With reference IO

Fig. 3, broadside field panerns are obtained which is to be expected far

thc fundamental TMIIo mode. In

the broadside direction (0=0'), the

cross-polarised fields arc at lcast 14


17 dB weaker

than the co-

polaiised ficlds for the H- and E-plane radiation fields, respectively.

Sidelobes are observed for the E-plane field panern at the highest

passband frequency.f=

7.43 GHz. Nevetheless. the panem still exhibits

B broadside made. It rhguld be mentioned that since the backside radiation of the aperture is already blocked by the backing cavity, the

backlobes are mainly caused by the finite ground plane diffraction. Similar results were obtained for antenna 2, except that antenna 2 has larger backlobes due to the backside radiation through the apemre




Fig. 4 shows the measurcd antenna gains of the 11\10 antennas. For antenna I, thc antenna gain is -4 dBi around the resonance of thc antenna, and that the peak ofthe gain is -S.5 dBi around 6.3 GHr. It is observed from Fig. 4 that antenna 2 has a similar antenna gain curve, but the curve is shifted to a smaller level because some energy is lost in the backside radiation. Note that the shift is less than 3 dB, showing that the ape" does not mdiatc cqually due to the presence of the DRA. Finally, it should be mcntioncd that the hemispherical cavity was uscd merely because it is immediately available in our laboratory, and that it should not be a cntical factor in the design.

Acknowledgment: The work was fully supported by a grant from the Research Grant Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Project No.: CityU I136/00E).

0 IEE 2003

25 March 2003

Elecrronics Larcrs Online Nu: 20030692 Dol: IO. 1O49/e1;2O030692


Leung and C.K. Leung (Wi7eless Comniirnicofions Raearrh

Centre and Drporrment ofElectronic Engimering. Ciry University Hong Kong, Kowluon. Hong Konp)


  • I KISHK. A.A., AHN. B., and KAJPEZ, D.: 'Broadband stacked dielectric

sona at or antennas'. tlecrmn. Lnr., 1989, 25, pp. 1232-1233



loth July 2003

Vol. 39

No. 14


LEUNC, K.W., ef al.: 'Bandwidth enhancemcnt of dielectric resonator

antenna by loading a low-profile dielecttic disk of vety high permittivity', Elecnn. Lerr., 1997. 33, pp. 725-126

  • 3 FAX:. 2 er al.: 'Parasitic coplanar three-element dielectnc resonator antenna rubarmy', Electron. Lex, 1996, 32, pp. 789-790


  • 4 WONG, K.-L., CHEN, N.E., and CHBR, H.-T.: 'Analysis of a hemisphencal dielecttic resonator antcnna with an airgap'. IEEE Microw Cuid. Wave Lett., 1993,3, pp. 355-357

    • 5 LEUNG, K.W.: 'Complex resonance and radiation of hemisphencal dielectric resonator antenna with a concentric conductor'. IEEE Trans. MicmK! Theory Eech., 2001, 49, pp. 524-531

    • 6 CHEN. N.C era/.: 'Analysis ofa broadband slot-coupled dielectric-coated hemispherical diclecttic resonator antenna', Micmb; Opf. Techno/. Leii., 1995,8, pp. 13-16


  • 7 NC. 1l.K , and LEUNG, K.W: 'Conformal-sulp-excited dielectric resonator antenna with a parasitic strip'. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society


Int. Symp. Dig ..

Salt Lzke City, Utah, USA, 2000, Vol. 4. pp. 2080-2083



d:'Use of parasitic strip to produce circular polarisation

and increased bandwidth for cylindtical dielectric resonator antenna', Electron. LetI 2001, 37, pp. 40MOR


  • 9 KISHK, A.A., y.13. Y., and GLISSON, A.W: 'Conical dielectnc resonator antennas for wideband applications', IEEE Tmns. Antennas Pmpag., 2002, 50, pp. 169474

    • 10 LEUNG, K.w., el al.: 'Annular-slot-coupled dielectric resonator antenna', Eiectron. Lerr., 1998,34, pp. 1275-1277

    • 11 SZE. J-Y., and WONG, K.-L.: 'Bandwidth enhancement of a microstrip-line- fed printed wide-slot antenna', IEEE Tmns. Anfennus Pmpog., 200l,49, pp. 1020-1024

Current-fed energy-recovery circuit for plasma display panel

Sang-Kyoo Han, Gun-Woo Moon and Myung-Joong Youn

A new current-fed energy-recovery circuit far B plasma display panel is proposed. All power switcher are tumed on with LCTO-VOIU~C- switching, and its suswining voltage is greatly reduced with the aid of the dischargc cucrenl compensation. Funhennare, it fcatures a simpler structure, less mass, lower current stress, and lower electromagnetic interface than prior circuits. It is well suited for wall-hanging colour TVs.

Introduction: A plasma display panel (PDP) is now expected to be the leading candidate for large-area wall-hanging colour TVs, since it has advantages over conventional display devices, e.g. large screen, wide view angle, and thinness. Since a dielectric layer is encrusted on sustaining and scanning electrodes, an intrinsic capacitance C, exists between these two electrodes inherently. Therefore, a considerable






energy of 2C,>V: far each cycle is dissipated in the parasitic


of the PDP and circuits during charging or discharging transients






' t,



t2 '

' t3



without an energy-recoven circuit (ERC). Furthermore, the excessive surge charging and discharging currents will give rise to electromag-

Fig. 2 Proposed cimcsir and key w0wfovm.i


netic interface (EMI) noises and increase the surge current ratings of power switches. To solve these problems, a prior ERC [I, 21 is

U Proposed circuit h Key waveforms


proposed as shown in Fig. 1. Although the circuit can rzcowr most

Circuit operation: Fig. 2 shows a proposed circuit and its key wave-

of the energy stored in C,, it still has several drawbacks. First, since it has two large auxiliary circuits, the system is complex and bulky, and

the cost is high. Also, the large discharge current (about 150 A for a

  • 42 inch PDP) causes serious voltage drops across the switching

elements and the parasitic resistance of circuits during plasma discharge transients. Therefore, the effective voltage applied to the PDP decreases, as docs the accumulated amnunt of the wall charge [2]. To overcome these drawbacks, a new ERC far a PDP using

drops caused by the large discharge current due to the discharge

forms. One cycle period of a proposed circuit is divided into two half

cycles, t,r,

and t2-fl. Because the operation principles of two half

cycles are symmetric, only the first half cycle is explained.

C, is

assumed to be charged to VJ2. Bcfore to( = ti), vc is maintdincd to V., and V.J2 is applied to L with M, and M1 con%ucting. Thus, i, increases linearly as ;'(I) = - 1, + V<(t~ 4)/(2L), where li =

V,(i> -&)/(4L).


MI and

Mz are turned

off at

lo, mode


current source type as shown in Fig. 2 is proposed in this Letter. Sincc

begins. With the initial conditions of i,,(tO)=lL

and vc,(tc,)=



it has only two inductors and capacitors instcad of the large auxilialy

starts to charge C,,

C,, and C2 and discharge C, and C,

as follows:

circuit, the proposed circuit has desirable advantages such as a simpler stmcture, less mass, lower cost of production, and fewer power switching devices. Furthermore, thcre are no serious voltage

current compensation, which can also greatly reduce the current

where C,, C,, C, and C, are assumed to be equal to C,,,

and L acts as a

flowing through power switches. Thus, the circuit can maintain the

current source lL. With this arrangement. the abrupt charging and

panel to light at lower sustaining voltage [2]. In addition, the pawei

discharging operations of C,, are avoided and the voltage across C,> is

switches arc all turned on with zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) and thus

decreased toward - V,. When vc,, is clamped on


V,, Vy gets to


the proposed circuit has a very improved EM1 and high efficiency.

and Vydrops to 0 Vat I,. M, and Mqare htmed on and mode 2 begins.


10th July


Vol. 39