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4th International Conference CATAEE 2002/ Philadelphia university Amman Jordan

Enhance effect of the MOV on stability of the power systems


Dr. Maamoon F. Al-Kababji
Mr. Ahmed Nasser B. Al-Sammak
Electrical Engineering Department
University of Mousl
Mousl-Iraq

Indexing terms:
Power Systems Protection, Series Compensator,
MOV, and Stability.
Abstract
Series Compensator (SC) has been widely used to
control power flow in power network. The application of
SC is also increase the damping of dynamic oscillations
in multi-machine power systems, which lead to improve
the stability of power system.
This paper presents clearly the effects of Metal
Oxide Varistor (MOV), which is used to protect the SC,
on stability. The results compare the individual and
combined effects of both SC and MOV. The results show
the details performance of the system across profiles of
voltage, and current when the fault happens. The sample
system used was Iraqi Northern Regional Grid (INRG).

In this paper, the stability of power system is


considered with SC to give higher improvement stability
of the system and considers in detailers the protection of
SC by the MOV and its effect on the operation of the
system. The authors have conducted varies test under
different operation conditions and using a model to
evaluate the influencing parameters which give the
improving stability of the system.
2.

THE TRANSMISSION LINE (TL)


The real transmission line shown in Fig.(1) has

length and resistance, inductance, and capacitance per


unit length R, L, and C, respectively.

Is
Vs

Nomenclature
Vt = Terminal voltage.
MOV= Metal Oxide Varistor.
Xc = Reactance of Series compensator.
fo = Rated frequency.
TL = Transmission Line.
SC = Series Compensator.
s = Subscript for the SC.
Tc = Period of the disturbance.
Tmax = Maximum simulation time.
SCS = Series Compensator System.
(SC and MOV).
1.

INTRODUCTION

The expansion of power systems results in


complicated operations. Utilities face increasing
pressures to satisfy both internal and external load
requirements with stressed transmission facilities and
changing operational environments. As the quantity and
distance of power transmission increases, power system
stability becomes more of an issue.
Recently, authors provide a better understanding
for power system stability problems and more specifically
for the construction of computationally feasible stability
improvement algorithms associated with power system
changes [1-10], which used SC. Most of the researcher
dose not mention the use of MOV, and those mention it
doesnt comment on its effect, while it is important part
in power system protection.

R,L,C,

Ir
Vr

Fig.(1) The distributed parameter model


of a transmission line.

This line can be represented by its characteristic


impedance Zc, propagation constant , and the following
two-port network equation:

Vs A B Vr
Is C D Ir

..(1)

Where,

And,

A(j)= cosh( )

; B(j)= Zc sinh( )

C(j)= sinh( )/Zc


Zc = [(R+jL)/jC]1/2

; D(j)= cosh( )
; =[(R+jL)jC]1/2

The generalized circuit constants A, B, C, and D


of the SC section inserted in series with those of TL
section as shown in Fig.(2), are given by:

A B A1 B1 As Bs A2 B2
C D C1 D1 Cs Ds C2 D2

..(2)

Where the subscripts s stand for SC. This representation


of TL gives higher accuracy in final results. Equation (2)

4th International Conference CATAEE 2002/ Philadelphia university Amman Jordan


show that the SC is inserted in medial point of the long
TL this state provide a good performance for the system
as shown in the results. The sample system was INRG,
shown in Fig.(2).

Subsystem2

Subsystem1
PI Sec.1

PI Sec.2

400 kV
Equ.

400 kV
Equ.
Series
Compensation
B1

B2

Fault
GND

the series capacitor. Flowing fault initiation, high current


will flow through the series capacitor, which results in
correspondingly high voltage across the capacitor and the
metal oxide varistor. The high voltage causes the metal
oxide varistor to conduct the excess current, limiting the
voltage across it, and the series capacitor. This
conduction continues up to limit-level of the varistor. The
performance of MOV is shown in Fig.(3).
The present of MOV is very important for the SC
not only for the protection of capacitor but also for the
stability of the system. When the fault happened without
the present of MOV the system will be unstable, because
SC reduce the TL impedance which lead to increases the
fault current and after clearing the fault the system go
unstable, i.e. for the sample system (INRG) if the fault
bus was bus#2 the fault effect will be very large on the
other buses.

MOV

SC

Typical Capacitor
Voltages

1
out

Fig.(2) Single line diagram of the system


studied (INRG).
3.

THE COMPENSATION

Compensation in a transmission system means


modification of the electrical characteristics of that
transmission system to increase its power transmission
capacity while satisfying the fundamental requirement for
transmission, which are the voltage level and stability.
3.1

Series Compensator (SC)


It is considered that if capacitors are added in
series with TL, then the series reactance is reduced, and
the power equation is;

Vs Vr
sin
X

..(3)

Equation (3) indicates the relation between P & X, where


in the case of SC exist the transmitted power (P) will be
increased and gives higher stability of the system [10].
The cost of the series capacitor depends on its
size. Therefore, it is desirable to select the minimum
compensation level that at the same time can provide the
necessary power transfer and secure the robust stability of
the interconnection. This value of SC must not drive the
system to series resonant. A good value of this SC is 50%
from the TL reactance.
3.2

Metal Oxide Varistor Protective Scheme


Todays a non-linear metal oxide varistor can be
continuously connected in parallel to the series capacitor
[14]. In general system operation during steady state
conditions, all the power frequency current flows through

Varistor Voltage

1
in

Max. Swing
Over Load
Continuous

Varistor Current
Fig.(3) Voltage-Current characteristic of
varistor and its general relationship to typical
capacitor voltage.

4.

STABILITY

The electrical power system stability problem


study necessitates a complete definition of the system
elements in such a manner that a time solution is both
feasible and practical [10,11,16]. Those definitions are
the following:

Complete description of synchronous


machines, salient pole machine aided with their
mechanical performance, by considering the
cylindrical one is a special case of saliency to
which Xd=Xq.

Inclusion of the effect of saturation in the


synchronous machines in a great proximity to
that of the practical behavior.

The effect of the synchronous machines


automatic controllers, those are automatic
voltage regulator and turbine-speed governor in
details.

Development of Coherency-based time


domain equivalent for the generation units.

4th International Conference CATAEE 2002/ Philadelphia university Amman Jordan

Network performance equations.


5.

SIMULATION PROCEDURE

In this work, The simulation have been made with


the use of the step-by-step solution with (dt=0.001) and
the simulation time period is (Tmax=0.4sec). The used
programs are FORTRAN-90 and Matlab version 5.3 1999
to which fast solutions could be obtained with the
complex numbers.
6.

8.

SIMULATION RESULTS

The INRG system has been used to investigate the


response of SC with MOV and its effect on stability. The
system configuration with its data have been taken from
Ref.[16]. This system is composed of 29 bus.
Rearrangement has been made to reduce the system
number of buses, understandable, and centered this work
on the long TL as shown in Fig.(2).
The result features are taken versus time in second
for the voltage, and current profiles, as given in Fig.(5),
Fig.(6) and Fig(7).
7.

DISCUSSION

The stability study have been made for the Threephase fault at bus # 2 which is occurred at t=0.05sec up to
t= 0.15sec, i.e. removal time equal to 0.1sec(Tc=0.1sec).
Once the fault occurred at bus # 2, the terminal
voltage of this bus would be very small nearly zero. At
the same time the voltage of bus #1 will decrease to
v1=If*Zeq, where Zeq= equivalent impedance of TL, in the
case of existence of MOV the value of Zeq will be large
comparable with Zeq without MOV which lead to a
higher voltage stability, this effects are shown in Fig.(5a)
while in the case without MOV the voltage will oscillate
around the 1p.u. voltage. The voltage in Fig(4), for the
case with SCS, decrease to about 0.6 p.u. with small
exponential increase, from (0.05-0.2)sec period of time,
and reach its steady state value . Its also clear from
Fig.(4) due to high fault current (i.e. Low impedance with
small x) with SC only an increase of voltage will appear
at bus#1 (1.45 p.u.) this voltage will start decreasing to
about 0.8p.u. after clearing the fault at t=Tc while the
terminal voltage (bus#2) would start increasing from zero
to more than 1.1p.u. and finally too its steady state value.
1.4
1.2

Voltage (p.u.)

1
0.8
0.6
0.4

with SCS
without SCS

0.2

with SC only
0
0.05

0.075

0.1

0.125

0.15

0.175

0.2

The effects of SC location, in the medial, or with


two end sides of TL, are shown in Fig.(5b and 5c). After
clearing the fault the voltage reach its steady state value
after 0.05sec, with SC in the medial of TL, while in case
of using compensation in two end sides the voltage will
oscillate around 1 p.u. value and reach its steady state
value after 0.09sec

0.225

Time (sec)

Fig.(4) The relationship between voltages


on bus#1.

0.25

CONCLUSION

This paper presents the effect of MOV on the


stability of the power system and on the protection of the
SC where in the cause of using SC only the fault current
will be very high, this lead to the use of very expensive
SC. The low impedance that will appear at fault condition
in this cause will affect the stability. Using MOV give
higher equivalent series impedance that will improve
stability of the system. Fig.(6) shows this state directly
across the current profile where the current reach about
350p.u. in the absence of MOV. Finally the effect of
MOV on the stability can be seen from the voltage
profiles of Fig.(7).
9.

REFERENCES

[1] C.A. Canizares and Z.T. Faur, Analysis of SVC and


TCSC controllers in voltage collapse, IEEE Trans.
Power Systems, Vol.14, No.1, February 1999, pp. 158165.
[2] Dmitry N. Kosterev and Wojtek J. Kolodziej, Bangbang series capacitor transient stability control, IEEE
Trans on Power System.Vol.10, No.2, May 1995,
pp.915-923.
[3] X.R. Chen, N.C. Pahalawaththa, U.D. Annakkage, and
C.S. Kumble, Controlled series compensation for
improving the stability of multi-machine power
systems, IEE Proc-Gener. Transm. Distrib., Vol.142,
No.4, July 1995, pp. 361-366.
[4] K. Ramar and M. S. Raviprakasha, Design of
compensation schemes for long AC transmission lines
for maximum power transfer limited by voltage
stability, Electrical Power & Energy Systems. Vol.17,
No.2, 1995, pp 83-89.
[5] O. J. Smith, Power System Transient Control Capacitor
Switching,IEEE Tran. On Power Apparatus and
system, Vol. PAS-88, No.1, 1969, pp.773-777
[6] G. D. Breuer, H. M. Rustebakke, R. A. Gibley, and H.
o. Simmons, The Use of Series Capacitors to Obtain
Maximum EHV Transmission Capability, IEEE Tran.
On Power Apparatus and system, Vol. PAS-83,
November 1964, pp. 1090-1102.
[7] Richard H. Webster, Ajit P. Mane, and O. J. Simth
Series
Capacitor
Switching
to
Quench
Electromechanical Transients in Power Systems, IEEE
Tran. On Power Apparatus and system, Vol. PAS-90,
No.2, March 1971, pp. 427-432.

4th International Conference CATAEE 2002/ Philadelphia university Amman Jordan

Voltage (p.u.)

0.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2
Time (s)

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

(a)
1.5

0.5

Voltage (p.u.)

[8] M. H. Haque, Maximum Efficiency of Series and


Shunt Compensated AC Transmission Systems,
Electrical Power & Energy System, Vol.15, No.2, 1993,
pp.79-84.
[9] F. Iliceto, and E. Cinieri, Comparative Analysis of
Series and Shunt Compensation Schemes for AC
Transmission System, IEEE Tran. On Power
Apparatus
and
system,
Vol.
PAS-96,
November/December 1977, pp. 1819-1830.
[10] M. Pavella and P.G.Murthy, Transient Stability of
Power Systems, 1994, John wiely &Sons.
[11] J.Arrilaga and C.P.Arnold, Computer analysis of
power systems, John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 1990.
[12] G.jancke, N. Fahlen, and O. Nerf, Series Capacitor in
Power Systems, IEEE Tran. On Power Apparatus and
system, Vol. PAS-94, No.3, May/June 1975, pp. 915925.
[13] S. A. AL-Galaw, Performance of MHO distanceRelay on MOV-protected series-capacitor compensated
INRG, M.Sc., Thesis, Mosul University, 1997.
[14] Daniel, L., A Linearized Model for MOV-protected
series capacitors, IEEE Trans. On Power System. Vol.
PWRS-2, NO.4, Novomber 1987.
[15] Allustiarti R., Hoexter H., and Lai P., Design and
Operation Performance of 500kv metal oxide protected
series-capacitor banks on the table Mountain-Tesla
line, IEEE Trans. On Power Delivery, Vol.3, No.4,
October 1988.
[16] Ahmed N. AL-Sammak, Anew method for transient
stability study, with application to INRG, M.Sc.,
Thesis, Mosul University, 2000.

-0.5

-1

-1.5

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2
Time (s)

(b)
1.5

Voltage (p.u.)

0.5

Appendix: Parameters of the TL for the INRG

-0.5

-1

Table (I) Saddam Dam Baiji transmission line


parameters.

-1.5

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2
Time (s)

(c)

400
0.034
0.315
0.02
247

0.2
0.15
0.1

Voltage (p.u.)

Voltage ( Kv )
R ( / km )
X ( / km )
C (F / km )
l( km )

0.05
0
-0.05
-0.1
-0.15
-0.2

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2
Time (s)

(d)
Fig.(5) Results for the sample TL with fault
on receiving side bus#2.
(a) Voltage on the bus#1 with SCS.
(b) Voltage on the bus#2 with the SCS
in the medial of TL.
(c) Voltage on the bus#2with the SCS
in the two end of TL.
(d) The voltage across SCS.

4th International Conference CATAEE 2002/ Philadelphia university Amman Jordan

1.5

80

60

0.5

20

Voltage (p.u.)

Current (p.u.)

40

0
-20

-0.5

-1

-40

-1.5

-60
-80

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2
Time (s)

0.25

0.3

0.35

-2

0.4

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2
Time (s)

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

(a)

400

300

200

100

Voltage (p.u.)

Current (p.u.)

(a)

0
-100

1
0
-1

-200

-2
-300

-3
-400

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2
Time (s)

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

-4

0.05

0.1

0.15

(b)

0.2
Time (s)

(b)

80

60

0.5

40

Voltage (p.u.)

Current(p.u.)

20
0
-20

-0.5

-40

-1

-60
-80

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2
Time (s)

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

-1.5

(c)

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25
Time (s)

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

(c)

3.5
4

3
2.5
2

Voltage (p.u.)

Voltage (p.u.)

-2

1.5
1
0.5

-4

0
-6

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2
Time (s)

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

-0.5
-1

(d)
Fig.(6) The effect of MOV protection on the
performance of system.
(a) TL current with SCS.
(b) TL current without MOV.
(c) Current of the MOV.
(d) Voltage of the SC without MOV.

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25
Time (s)

(d)
Fig.(7) The effect of both MOV and SC
in the individual shape of:
(a) Voltage on the bus#1 without MOV.
(b) Voltage on the bus#2 without MOV.
(c) Voltage on the bus#1 without SC.
(d) Voltage on the bus#2without SC.