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RAJALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, CHENNAI

INDEX
S.No
Form Nos.
.

Title of the Form

Page
Nos.

CF1

Preface of the Course File

CF2

Subject handled by yester years

CF3

Allocation of subject & class time table


with TCH

CF4

Faculty Time Table

CF5

Syllabus

CF6

Lesson Plan & Learning Structure

CF7

Course Student List

14

CF8

Assignments/ Self Study Topics

16

CF9

Report on frequent absentees

17

10

CF10

Unit test question paper

18

11

CF11

Mark List

23

12

CF12

Result Analysis

25

13

CF13

Action taken on Slow Learners

26

14

CF14

University question paper / question


bank

33

FORM NO.CF1
PREFACE OF THE COURSE FILE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Batch

2015 19

Branch

MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING

Year & Semester

II Year - III Sem

Subject Code

ME 6401

Name of the
Subject

KINEMATICS OF MACHINES

Staff in-charge

Dr.V.Santhanam

FORM NO.CF2
SUBJECT HANDLERS OF YESTER YEARS
DEPARTMENT OF Mechanical Engineering
SUBJECT

Kinematics of machinery

SUBJECT CODE

ME6401

S.No
.

Academic Year

Class &
Section

Name of the Faculty


Member

First time
handler

FORM NO.CF3

FORM NO. CF4


FACULTY TIME TABLE

FORM NO. CF5


RAJALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Thandalam, Chennai 602 105

Faculty Name
Subject Name
Year
Degree & Branch

:
:
:
:

V.Santhanam

KINEMATICS OF MACHINERY
B.E. MECHATRONICS ENGG.

Cours Type
Code
Semester
Section

: CORE
: ME6401
: III
:
-

Department VISION:

To be a globally competent renowned School of Engineering in

Mechatronics
Department MISSION: To impart high quality professional education and produce
Mechatronics Engineers with all round knowledge of multi-disciplinary branches of
engineering and technology.
To foster skill sets required to be a global professional in the areas of intelligent systems,
robotics, research and technology management and to fulfil the expectations of
industry and needs of the society.
To inculcate entrepreneurial qualities for creating, developing and managing global
engineering ventures
Programme Educational Objectives (PEOs): Mechatronics Engg

PEO I
Graduates will have comprehensive knowledge in the analytical , scientific and engineering
fundamentals necessary to model , analyze and solve engineering problems and to prepare them for
graduate studies and for successful careers in industry.
PEO II
Graduates will effectively design and develop products in the areas such as manufacturing,
motion Control, Machine vision, system simulation , Intelligent systems, Automotive Systems and
Robotics.

PEO III
Graduates will acquire Technical expertise, Leadership skills, Ethical practices and Team
spirit with a concern towards society.
Programme Outcomes
(a) Graduates will demonstrate basic knowledge in mathematics, science and engineering.
(b) Graduates will demonstrate the ability to design and conduct experiments, interpret and analyze data, and report
results.
(c) Graduates will demonstrate the ability to design or model or simulate or implement a mechatronics system or a
process that meets desired specifications and requirements.
(d) Graduates will demonstrate the ability to function on engineering and science laboratory teams, as well as on
multidisciplinary design teams.
(e) Graduates will demonstrate the ability to identify, formulate and solve mechatronics engineering problems.
(f) Graduates will demonstrate an understanding of their professional and ethical responsibilities.
(g) Graduates will be able to communicate effectively in both verbal and written forms to enhance their
opportunities to build a successful career.
(h) Graduates will have the confidence to apply engineering solutions in global and societal contexts.
(i) Graduates should be capable of self-education and clearly understand the value of lifelong learning.
(j) Graduates will be broadly educated and will have an understanding of the impact of engineering on society and
demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues.
(k) Graduates will be familiar with modern engineering software tools and equipment to analyze mechatronics
engineering problems.
(l) Graduates will be exposed to industrial practices and acquire the ability to serve in the core engineering industry.
Course Objective:
1. To understand the basic components and layout of linkages in the assembly of a system/machine.
2.To understand the principles in analyzing the assembly with respect to the displacement, velocity, and acceleration at any
point in a link of a mechanism.
3.To understand the motion resulting from the cam mechanisms for specified output motions.
4.To understand the basic concepts of toothed gearing and kinematics of gear trains
5. To understand the effects of friction in motion transmission and in machine components.
Course Outcomes:
After the successful completion of course the students will be able to:
1.

Understand basic kinematic mechanisms and to demonstrate some common mechanisms.

2.

Solve the problems to compute the velocity and acceleration of simple mechanisms.

3.

Understand different types of cams and Draw the cam profile for specified set of output motions.

4.

Solve problems involving gear transmission and gear trains.

5.

Understand the effect of friction in different machine elements

PEOS MAPPING with Course Outcome:

PEO
UNIT

II

III

I
II
III
IV
V

MAPPING OF POS with Course Outcome :

PO
UNIT
I
II
III
IV
V

SYLLABUS:
UNIT
DETAILS
HOURS
BASICS OF MECHANISMS
Classification of mechanisms Basic kinematic concepts and definitions Degree
of freedom, Mobility Kutzbach criterion, Grueblers criterion Grashofs Law
I
Kinematic inversions of four-bar chain and slider crank chains Limit positions
9 (L)
Mechanical advantage Transmission Angle Description of some common
mechanisms Quick return mechanisms, Straight line generators,
Universal Joint rocker mechanisms.
KINEMATICS OF LINKAGE MECHANISMS
Displacement, velocity and acceleration analysis of simple mechanisms
Graphical method Velocity and acceleration polygons Velocity analysis using
II
9 (L)
instantaneous centres kinematic analysis of simple mechanisms Coincident
points Coriolis component of Acceleration Introduction to linkage synthesis
problem.
KINEMATICS OF CAM MECHANISMS
Classification of cams and followers Terminology and definitions
Displacement diagrams Uniform velocity, parabolic, simple harmonic and
III
9 (L)
cycloidal motions Derivatives of follower motions Layout of plate cam
profiles Specified contour cams Circular arc and tangent cams Pressure angle
and undercutting sizing of cams.
GEARS AND GEAR TRAINS
Law of toothed gearing Involutes and cycloidal tooth profiles Spur Gear
IV
terminology and definitions Gear tooth action contact ratio Interference and
9 (L)
undercutting. Helical, Bevel, Worm, Rack and Pinion gears [Basics only]. Gear
trains Speed ratio, train value Parallel axis gear trains Epicyclic Gear Trains.
FRICTION IN MACHINE ELEMENTS
Surface contacts Sliding and Rolling friction Friction drives Friction in
V
9 (L)
screw threads Bearings and lubrication Friction clutches Belt and rope drives
Friction in brakes- Band and Block brakes.
TOTAL HOURS

45 (L)

Text Book(s):
1. Uicker, J.J., Pennock G.R and Shigley, J.E., Theory of Machines and Mechanisms ,3 rd Edition, Oxford
University Press, 2009.

2. Rattan, S.S, Theory of Machines, 3rd Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2009


Reference Book(s):
1. Thomas Bevan, "Theory of Machines", 3rd Edition, CBS Publishers and Distributors, 2005.
2. Cleghorn. W. L, Mechanisms of Machines, Oxford University Press, 2005
3. Robert L. Norton, "Kinematics and Dynamics of Machinery", Tata McGraw-Hill, 2009.
4. Allen S. Hall Jr., Kinematics and Linkage Design, Prentice Hall, 1961
5. Ghosh. A and Mallick, A.K., Theory of Mechanisms and Machines", Affiliated East-West Pvt.Ltd.,
New Delhi, 1988.
6. Rao.J.S. and Dukkipati.R.V. "Mechanisms and Machine Theory", Wiley-Eastern Ltd., New Delhi,
1992.
7. John Hannah and Stephens R.C., "Mechanics of Machines", Viva Low-Prices Student Edition, 1999.
8. Ramamurthi. V, "Mechanics of Machines", Narosa Publishing House, 2002.

9. Khurmi, R.S., Theory of Machines,14th Edition, S Chand Publications, 2005


10. Sadhu Sigh : Theory of Machines, "Kinematics of Machine", Third Edition, Pearson Education, 2012
Lesson plan with dates

S.
No.

Date

Period/
Hours

5.7.16

5.7.16

6.7.16

4.

6.7.16

12.7.16

6.

12.7.16

7
8

13.7.16
13.7.16

1
2

19.07.16

10

19.7.16

11

20.7.16

12

20.7.16

13

26.7.16

14

26.7.16

15

27.7.16

16

27.7.16

17

2.8.16

Unit

Topic(s)

UNIT I BASICS OF MECHANISMS


I
Classification of
mechanisms
I
Basic kinematic concepts
and definitions, Degree of
freedom, Mobility
Kutzbach criterion,
I
Grueblers criterion
Grashofs Law
Kinematic inversions of
I
four-bar chain
Kinematic inversions of
I
slider crank chains
Limit positions
I
Mechanical advantage
Transmission Angle
I
Quick return mechanisms,.
I
Straight line generators,
Universal Joint rocker
I
mechanisms
I
Tutorial 1

T / R*
Book

Book
No.

Page(s)

1-4

1-4

5-7

5-17

5-17

22

*
T

33
33

33

1-33

41-46

41-46

45-60

UNIT II KINEMATICS OF LINKAGE MECHANISMS


Displacement, velocity and
1
II
T
acceleration analysis of
simple mechanisms
Displacement, velocity and
2
II
T
acceleration analysis of
simple mechanisms
3
II
Tutorial 2
*
Graphical method
4
II
T
Velocity and acceleration
polygons
Velocity analysis using
1
II
*
instantaneous centres
2
II
Tutorial 3
T
kinematic analysis of
3
II
T
simple mechanisms

70-74

2
2

45-60

18

2.8.16

II

19

3.8.16

II

20

3.8.16

II

21

9.8.16

II

22

9.8.16

II

23

16.8.16

24

16.8.16

25

23.8.16

26

23.8.16

27

24.8.16

28

24.8.16

29

30.8.16

30

30.8.16

31

31.8.16

32

31.8.16

33

6.9.16

kinematic analysis of
simple mechanisms
Coriolis component of
Acceleration
Coincident points
Introduction to linkage
synthesis problem.
Tutorial 4

108-109
108-109
159-199

UNIT III KINEMATICS OF CAM MECHANISMS


Classification of cams and
3
III
T
followers
Terminology and
4
III
T
definitions
Displacement diagrams
3
III
T
Uniform velocity motions
Displacement diagrams
4
III
*
parabolic motion
Displacement diagrams
1
III
T
simple harmonic motions
Displacement diagrams
2
III
T
cycloidal motions
3
III Tutorial
*
Derivatives of follower
motions, Layout of plate
4
III
T
cam profiles Specified
contour cams
Circular arc and tangent
1
III
T
cams
Pressure angle and
2
III undercutting sizing of
T
cams
3
III Tutorial
*

34

6.9.16

35

7.9.16

36

7.9.16

37

13.9.16

38

13.9.16

UNIT IV GEARS AND GEAR TRAINS


IV Law of toothed gearing
Involutes and cycloidal
IV tooth profiles Spur Gear
terminology and definitions
Gear tooth action contact
IV ratio Interference and
undercutting.
Problems in contact ratio,
IV Interference and
Undercutting.
IV Tutorial

45-60

232-233

232-235

236-238

239-245

239-245

239-245

2
2

239-245

256-270

239-245

372-375

372-378

387-390

387-399

39

20.9.16

IV

40

20.9.16

IV

41
42
43

21.9.16
21.9.16
27.9.16

1
2
3

IV
IV
IV

44

27.9.16

45
46
47
48
50
51
52

28.9.16
28.9.16
4.10.16
4.10.16
5.10.16
5.10.16
11.10.16

53

11.10.16

54

12.10.16

Helical, Bevel, Worm,


Rack and Pinion gears
[Basics only].
Gear trains Speed ratio,
train value Parallel axis
gear trains
Tutorial
Epicyclic Gear Trains
Tutorial

372-416

424-426

T
*

2
427-448

UNIT V FRICTION IN MACHINE ELEMENTS


Surface contacts Sliding
4
V
T
and Rolling friction
1
V
T
Friction drives
2
V
T
Friction in screw threads
3
V
*
Bearings and lubrication
4
V
Tutorial
T
1
V
*
Friction clutches
2
V
Tutorial
T
3
V
T
Belt and rope drives
Friction in brakes- Band
4
V
T
and Block brakes
1
V
Tutorial
*

T Text Book / R Reference Book

279-280

2
2
2
2

286-290
286-287
316-318
302-304

2
2

329-340

329-340

Total Hrs: 42+12(T) =54

Signature of the Staff In-Charge

H.O.D/Mechanical

DELIVERY/INSTRUCTIONAL METHODOLOGIES:
CHALK & TALK
STUD. ASSIGNMENT WEB RESOURCES
LCD/SMART
STUD. SEMINARS
ADD-ON COURSES
BOARDS
ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGIES-DIRECT
ASSIGNMENTS
STUD. SEMINARS
STUD. LAB
PRACTICES
ADD-ON COURSES

STUD. VIVA

TESTS/MODEL
EXAMS
MINI/MAJOR
PROJECTS

ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGIES-INDIRECT
ASSESSMENT OF COURSE OUTCOMES (BY
FEEDBACK, ONCE)
ASSESSMENT OF MINI/MAJOR PROJECTS BY EXT.
EXPERTS

UNIV. EXAMINATION
CERTIFICATIONS
OTHERS

STUDENT FEEDBACK ON FACULTY


(TWICE)
OTHERS

Learning Structure:

Application

Procedure

Understanding, the concepts of links,mechanisms, degree of


freedom, mobility etc.

Implement their knowledge to practical problems and solving.


FORM NO. CF6

To compute motion of mechanisms, this study will help for them.


Principles

Concept

Drawing the velocity andacceleration diagrams

Mobility, linkages, pairs


Facts

Form No. CF7


Name List
Sl
No
1
2
3
4
5

Roll no
2015360
01
2015360
02
2015360
03
2015360
04
2015360
05

Reg No

Name

211615115001

ABDUL RAHMAN S

211615115002

ANWAR IBRAHIM V

211615115003

ARUNKUMAR P

211615115004

ARVIND S

211615115005

BALAYOGESH SL

6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

2015360
06
2015360
07
2015360
08
2015360
09
2015360
10
2015360
11
2015360
12
2015360
13
2015360
14
2015360
15
2015360
16
2015360
18
2015360
19
2015360
20
2015360
21
2015360
22
2015360
23
2015360
24
2015360
25
2015360
27
2015360
28
2015360
29
2015360
30
2015360
31
2015360

211615115006

BHARATH S

211615115007

DHINESHKUMAR A

211615115008

DINESHKUMAR V

211615115009

GAUTHAM S

211615115010

GOUTHAMAN R

211615115011

JAGADEESH CR

211615115012

JAYADEEBAN J

211615115013

JAYADEV KRISHNAN P M

211615115015

JOTHIRRUPINI R

211615115016

KARUNA S

211615115017

KAVIYA P

211615115018

KISHORE KUMAR R

211615115019

KRISHNAMOORTHY S

211615115020

KUMARAVEL S

211615115021

LEEGIN V I

211615115022

LOGU K

211615115023

MANIKANDAN S

211615115024

MANISH KUMAR C

211615115025

MOHAMMED ISHAQ B

211615115026

MOTHISH KUMAR R

211615115027

NAVEEN RAJA V D

211615115028

NUBAIL MOHAMED A

211615115029

PRADEEP KUMAR P

211615115030
211615115031

PRAVEEN KUMARAN V
RAGAV SETHURAM V

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54

32
2015360
33
2015360
34
2015360
35
2015360
36
2015360
37
2015360
38
2015360
39
2015360
40
2015360
41
2015360
42
2015360
43
2015360
44
2015360
45
2015360
46
2015360
47
2015360
48
2015360
49
2015360
50
2015360
51
2015360
52
2015360
53
2015360
54
2015360
55
2015360
56

211615115032

RAJESHKANNAN M

211615115033

RAVI ADHITHYA V T

211615115035

ROHAN R

211615115036

SABARISAN S

211615115038

SHRAVAN KUMAR S

211615115039

SHYAM RAJU S

211615115040

SHYAM SUNDAR NS

211615115041

SIVAGURUNATHAN K

211615115042

SREEDARAN P

211615115043

SRIVATSAN S

211615115044

SUNTHARA PANDIYAN R

211615115045

SUREN KUMAR U

211615115046

SWAMINATHAN R

211615115047

THAMIZHARASAN A

211615115048

VASANTHA RAM K

211615115049

VEERAMANIKANDAN P

211615115050

VIGNESH KUMAR E

211615115051

VIMAL KUMAR S

211615115052

VINOTH S

211615115053

YUTHESH P

211615115014

JAYA HASSAN M

211615115034

RIVIAN T

211615115037

SENTHAMIZHAN S
MUKUNTHAN U (L/E)
(04.07.2016)

55
56
57
58
59
60
61

2015360
57
2015360
58
2015360
59
2015360
60
2015360
61
2015360
62
2015360
63

GOUTHAMKUMAR J (L/E)
(06.07.2016)
DHILIP D (L/E) (06.07.2016)
RUDRAMOORTHY R (L/E)
(06.07.2016)
SIVAKIRUBAKARAN K (L/E)
(11.07.2016)
KARTHIK R (L/E) (11.07.2016)
BHARANIDHARAN M (L/E)
(12.07.2016)
SARAVANAN M (L/E)
(13.07.2016)

FORM NO. CF8

ASSIGNMENTS
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Subject: Kinematics of machinery

Faculty Name:

v.santhanam
Subject Code: ME6401
Year / Semester / Section: II/III
Unit
No.

Topics

Books to
be
Referred

Faculty Code: ME35

Date of
Announcement

Date of
Submission

Inversion of mechanisms

12.07.2016

14.07.16

Velocity
diagram,

8.08.2016

9.08.16

25.08.2016

26.08.16

06.09.2016

07.09.16

12.09.2016

14.09.16

3
4
5

Rattan
acceleration Rattan

cams

Rattan

gears

Rattan

friction

Rattan

FORM NO. CF9

REPORT ON FREQUENT ABSENTEES


Student Name
Nubail
Mohemmed
Batch
2015

201536029

Roll No.

Register No.
211615115028

Semester
III

Department
Mechatronics

Total No. of days as on


No. of days attended as on
Percentage of attendance as
on
Absent Dates
Intimation to students,
Reference & date
Intimation to parents,
Reference & date
Action taken
Reason for Absentism
Measures taken to prevent
absentism

15 20 days
1 week
45%
August 2016 September
2016
Yes
Yes
Medical reason

UT

FORM NO. CF10

QP

ROLL NO

RAJALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, CHENNAI 602 105


UNIT TEST I
Date :
Time : 95
min
Max

III Semester Department of Mechatronics Engineering


ME6401- Kinematics of Machinery
Marks : 60

1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.
1.6.
1.7.
1.8.
1.9.

Answer ALL Questions


[PART A - 9 x 2 = 18 marks]
Write down Kutzhback criterion to find the mobility of a planar mechanism.
Classify constraint motion.
Differentiate the machine and structure.
Define mechanism
What are the three conditions to obtain a four bar crank rocker mechanism?
Define mechanical advantage
Define transmission angle.
State Grueblers criterion for planar mechanism.
Differentiate between closed pair and unclosed pair in kinematic mechanism.

Answer ALL Questions

[PART B - 2 x 12 = 24)

1.10. Sketch and explain the inversions of slider crank mechanism.


(12)
1.11. (a) Discuss the inversions of double slider crank-mechanism with sketches (12)
[OR]
(b). Sketch and explain different classifications of kinematic pairs (12)

Answer ALL Questions

[Part A 3x2=6 Marks]

2.1 What is the total number of instantaneous centers that are possible for a mechanism
consisting n links?
2.2 Name the mechanism in which Corolis component of acceleration is taken into account.
2.3 Define rubbing velocity.

Answer ALL Questions

[Part A 1x12=12 Marks]

2.4 (a) In a four bar chain ABCD, AD is fixed and is 15cm long. The crank AB is 4cm
long and rotates at 120rpm clockwise, angular acceleration is 1200 rad/ sec2. The link
CD (whose length is 8cm) oscillates about D, BC and AD are of equal length. Find the
angular velocity and Angular acceleration of link CD when the angle BAD = 60O.
[OR]
(b) In the mechanism shown in Fig.1 the crank OA rotates at a constant speed equal to
20 rpm anticlockwise and gives motion to the sliding blocks B and D. The dimensions
of various links are OA = 300 mm; AB = 1200 mm; BC = 450 mm and CD = 450 mm.
For the given configuration, determine:
i. Velocities of sliders B and D
ii. Angular velocity of link CD
iii. Linear acceleration of D and
iv. Angular acceleration of CD

Fig 1.

ROLL NO
RAJALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, CHENNAI 602 105
UNIT TEST I
III Semester Department of Mechatronics Engineering
ME6401- Kinematics of Machinery

Date :
Time : 95
min

Answer ALL Questions

1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.
1.6.
1.7.
1.8.
1.9.

Max Marks : 60
[PART A - 9 x 2 = 18 marks]

Differentiate between machine and mechanism.


Define kinematic link, kinematic pair, kinematic chain
What is higher pair?
What is mechanical advantage of mechanism?
Write down Kutzhback criterion to find the mobility of a planar mechanism.
Define transmission angle and its significance.
Sketch an exact straight line mechanism, with link proportions.
List out the inversions of a double slider crank chain.
Give the DOF for a shaft in a circular hole.

Answer ALL Questions

[PART B - 2 x 12 = 24)

1.10. Discuss any two quick return mechanism with neat sketches.

(12)

1.11 (a) Define Mobility and Determine the mobility of the mechanism shown below.

(12)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)
Fig 1

(e)

[OR]
(b) (i) Sketch a four-bar crank rocker mechanism in (i) Maximum transmission angle
position and (ii) toggle position where mechanical advantage is infinity. (6)
(ii) Discuss the inversions of four bar mechanism with neat sketches.
(6)

Answer ALL Questions

[Part A 3x2=6 Marks]

2.1 What are the components of acceleration?


2.2 What are the expressions for radial and tangential component of acceleration?
2.3 What is the objective of Kinematic analysis?

Answer ALL Questions

[Part A 1x12=12 Marks]

2.4 (a) The Crank of a slider crank mechanisms rotates clockwise at a Constant speed of
600 r.p.m. The crank is 125 mm and connecting rod is 500 mm long. Determine 1.
Linear velocity and acceleration of the mid-Point of the connecting rod, and 2. Angular
velocity and angular acceleration of the connecting rod, at a crank angle of 45from
inner dead centre position.
(or)
(b) In a quick return mechanism, as shown Fig 2, the driving crank OA is 60 mm long
and rotates at a uniform speed of 200 r.p.m in a clockwise direction. For the position
shown Find (1) Velocity of the ram R, (2) acceleration of the ram R; and (3)
acceleration of the sliding block A along the slotted bar CD.

Fig 2.

FORM NO. CF 11
S.
NO

ROLL NO

REG No

NAME
ABDUL RAHMAN S
ANWAR IBRAHIM V
ARUNKUMAR P
ARVIND S
BALAYOGESH SL
BHARATH S
DHINESHKUMAR A
DINESHKUMAR V
GAUTHAM S
GOUTHAMAN R
JAGADEESH CR
JAYADEEBAN J
JAYADEV KRISHNAN P
M
JOTHIRRUPINI R
KARUNA S
KAVIYA P
KISHORE KUMAR R
KRISHNAMOORTHY S
KUMARAVEL S
LEEGIN V I
LOGU K
MANIKANDAN S
MANISH KUMAR C
MOHAMMED ISHAQ B
MOTHISH KUMAR R
NAVEEN RAJA V D
NUBAIL MOHAMED A
PRADEEP KUMAR P
PRAVEEN KUMARAN
V
RAGAV SETHURAM V
RAJESHKANNAN M
RAVI ADHITHYA V T
ROHAN R
SABARISAN S
SHRAVAN KUMAR S
SHYAM RAJU S

UT1

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

201536001
201536002
201536003
201536004
201536005
201536006
201536007
201536008
201536009
201536010
201536011
201536012

211615115001
211615115002
211615115003
211615115004
211615115005
211615115006
211615115007
211615115008
211615115009
211615115010
211615115011
211615115012

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

201536013
201536014
201536015
201536016
201536018
201536019
201536020
201536021
201536022
201536023
201536024
201536025
201536027
201536028
201536029
201536030

211615115013
211615115015
211615115016
211615115017
211615115018
211615115019
211615115020
211615115021
211615115022
211615115023
211615115024
211615115025
211615115026
211615115027
211615115028
211615115029

29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

201536031
201536032
201536033
201536034
201536035
201536036
201536037
201536038

211615115030
211615115031
211615115032
211615115033
211615115035
211615115036
211615115038
211615115039

UT2
Model
58
60
3
12
36
50
59
54
19 a
52
50
5
14
4 a
34
22
7
8
19
16
39
73
68
55
1
41
51
27
45
2
8
42
12

5 a
A
a
45
56
45
79
50
33
74
14
28
43
50
14
4
5
10
42
32
18
4
40
37
48
80
4 a
21
25
32
9
10
59
21
19
51
35

66
26
15
95
37 a
18
76
54

62
74
26
76
18
56
8
50
50
8
50
76
50
70
18
28
89
50
68
56

37
38
39
40

201536039
201536040
201536041
201536042

211615115040
211615115041
211615115042
211615115043

41
42
43
44
45

201536043
201536044
201536045
201536046
201536047

211615115044
211615115045
211615115046
211615115047
211615115048

46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61

201536048
201536049
201536050
201536051
201536052
201536053
201536054
201536055
201536056
201536057
201536058
201536059
201536060
201536061
201536062
201536063

211615115049
211615115050
211615115051
211615115052
211615115053
211615115014
211615115034
211615115037

SHYAM SUNDAR NS
SIVAGURUNATHAN K
SREEDARAN P
SRIVATSAN S
SUNTHARA
PANDIYAN R
SUREN KUMAR U
SWAMINATHAN R
THAMIZHARASAN A
VASANTHA RAM K
VEERAMANIKANDAN
P
VIGNESH KUMAR E
VIMAL KUMAR S
VINOTH S
YUTHESH P
JAYA HASSAN M
RIVIAN T
SENTHAMIZHAN S
MUKUNDHAN U
GOUTHAM KUMAR J
DHILIP L
RUDRAMURTHY R
SIVAKIRUBAKARAN
KARTHIK R
BHARANIDHARAN M
SARAVANAN M

27
25 a
48 A
a
52
18 A
41

a
15
2
23
a
29
15
36
34
5
2
a

50
16

56
34
20 a
4
50

52
24

40
50
59
60
4
1
13
20

60
50
57
67
61
9
8
12
14
50
50
50
63
16
50
8

31 A
20
33
37
18
50
4
70
4
58
21
50
2
1

12
62

FORM NO. CF12

RAJALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE


Rajalakshmi Nagar, Thandalam - 602 105
RESULT ANALYSIS - TEST - 1
Semester

: III

Branch and Section

: MCT

Subject Code and Subject Name

: ME6401 - Kinematics of Machinery

Staff Code and Name

: ME35 - Dr.V.Santhanam

Designation and Department

: Professor / MECH-A

Date of Examination

: 27-Oct-2016

Class Strength

: 60

Number Absent

:8

Number Present

: 52
TEST PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

______________________________________________________________________
MARKS
NUMBER
%
______________________________________________________________________
ABSENT
08
13.33
0-10%

12

20.00

11-20%

11

18.33

21-30%

08

13.33

31-40%

07

11.67

41-50%

09

15.00

51-60%

04

06.67

61-70%

01

01.67

71-80%

00

00.00

81-90%

00

00.00

91-100%

00

00.00

______________________________________________________________________

Review of Test - 1
1.
2.
Action Taken
1.
2.
Staff Member

Head of the Department

ACTION TAKEN FOR SLOW LEANERS


Action taken
One assignment is given for a student in the mark range of 0 50 and one retest was
conducted and marks were added .

Outcome of action taken


Students performed well and better

RAJALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE


Rajalakshmi Nagar, Thandalam - 602 105

RAJALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE


Rajalakshmi Nagar, Thandalam - 602 105
RESULT ANALYSIS - TEST - 2
Semester

: III

Branch and Section

: MCT

Subject Code and Subject Name

: ME6401 - Kinematics of Machinery

Staff Code and Name

: ME35 - Dr.V.Santhanam

Designation and Department

: Professor / MECH-A

Date of Examination

: 27-Oct-2016

Class Strength

: 60

Number Absent

:3

Number Present

: 57
TEST PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

______________________________________________________________________
MARKS
NUMBER
%
______________________________________________________________________
ABSENT
03
05.00
0-10%

13

21.67

11-20%

07

11.67

21-30%

04

06.67

31-40%

09

15.00

41-50%

06

10.00

51-60%

10

16.67

61-70%

02

03.33

71-80%

05

08.33

81-90%

00

00.00

91-100%

01

01.67

______________________________________________________________________
Review of Test - 2
1.
2.
Action Taken
1.
2.
Staff Member

ACTION TAKEN FOR SLOW LEANERS

Head of the Department

Action taken
One assignment is given for a student in the mark range of 0 50 and one retest was
conducted and marks were added .

Outcome of action taken


Students performed well and better

RAJALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE


Rajalakshmi Nagar, Thandalam - 602 105

RAJALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE


Rajalakshmi Nagar, Thandalam - 602 105
RESULT ANALYSIS - MODEL EXAM - 1
Semester

: III

Branch and Section

: MCT

Subject Code and Subject Name

: ME6401 - Kinematics of Machinery

Staff Code and Name

: ME35 - Dr.V.Santhanam

Designation and Department

: Professor / MECH-A

Date of Examination

: 27-Oct-2016

Class Strength

: 60

Number Absent

:8

Number Present

: 52
EXAM PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

______________________________________________________________________
MARKS
NUMBER
%
______________________________________________________________________
ABSENT
08
13.33
0-10%

04

06.67

11-20%

12

20.00

21-30%

03

05.00

31-40%

01

01.67

41-50%

00

00.00

51-60%

20

33.33

61-70%

09

15.00

71-80%

03

05.00

81-90%

00

00.00

91-100%

00

00.00

______________________________________________________________________
Review of Exam - 1
1.
2.
Action Taken
1.
2.
Staff Member

Head of the Department

ACTION TAKEN FOR SLOW LEANERS


Action taken
Slow learners class and test was conducted

Outcome of action taken


Students performed well and better

Sl.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

Roll No.
2015360
01
2015360
02
2015360
03
2015360
04
2015360
05
2015360
06
2015360
07
2015360
08
2015360
09
2015360
10
2015360
11
2015360
12
2015360
13
2015360
15
2015360
16
2015360
18
2015360
19
2015360
20
2015360
21
2015360
22
2015360
23
2015360
24
2015360

Name

MECO1
(20)

MECO2
(20)

MECO3
(20)

MECO4
(20)

MECO5
(20)

ABDUL RAHMAN S

12

15

15

ANWAR IBRAHIM V

ARUNKUMAR P

10

13

13

ARVIND S

11

14

14

BALAYOGESH SL

BHARATH S
DHINESHKUMAR A
DINESHKUMAR V

10

13

13

GAUTHAM S

GOUTHAMAN R

JAGADEESH CR

13

17

17

JAYADEEBAN J
JAYADEV KRISHNAN P M

KARUNA S

13

16

16

KAVIYA P

15

17

17

16

17

17

12

14

14

MANIKANDAN S

10

13

13

MANISH KUMAR C
MOHAMMED ISHAQ B

10
2

5
1

13
2

13
2

5
1

KISHORE KUMAR R
KRISHNAMOORTHY S
KUMARAVEL S
LEEGIN V I
LOGU K

24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47

25
2015360
27
2015360
28
2015360
29
2015360
30
2015360
31
2015360
32
2015360
33
2015360
34
2015360
35
2015360
36
2015360
37
2015360
38
2015360
39
2015360
40
2015360
41
2015360
42
2015360
43
2015360
44
2015360
45
2015360
46
2015360
47
2015360
48
2015360
49
2015360
50

MOTHISH KUMAR R

10

13

13

NAVEEN RAJA V D

16

17

17

NUBAIL MOHAMED A

PRADEEP KUMAR P

10

13

13

PRAVEEN KUMARAN V

14

17

17

RAGAV SETHURAM V

RAJESHKANNAN M

17

17

17

RAVI ADHITHYA V T
ROHAN R

SABARISAN S

10

13

13

SHRAVAN KUMAR S

14

17

17

SHYAM RAJU S

12

14

14

SHYAM SUNDAR NS

SIVAGURUNATHAN K

SREEDARAN P
SRIVATSAN S
SUNTHARA PANDIYAN R
SUREN KUMAR U
SWAMINATHAN R
THAMIZHARASAN A

10

13

13

11

14

14

VASANTHA RAM K

12

16

16

VEERAMANIKANDAN P

12

15

15

VIGNESH KUMAR E

10

13

13

VIMAL KUMAR S

12

15

15

48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60

2015360
51
2015360
52
2015360
53
2015360
54
2015360
55
2015360
56
2015360
57
2015360
58
2015360
59
2015360
60
2015360
61
2015360
62
2015360
63

VINOTH S

13

16

16

YUTHESH P

12

15

15

JAYA HASSAN M

RIVIAN T

SENTHAMIZHAN S
MUKUNTHAN U (L/E)
(04.07.2016)
GOUTHAMKUMAR J (L/E)
(06.07.2016)
DHILIP D (L/E)
(06.07.2016)
RUDRAMOORTHY R (L/E)
(06.07.2016)
SIVAKIRUBAKARAN K
(L/E) (11.07.2016)
KARTHIK R (L/E)
(11.07.2016)
BHARANIDHARAN M
(L/E) (12.07.2016)
SARAVANAN M (L/E)
(13.07.2016)

10

13

13

10

13

13

10

13

13

13

16

16

10

13

13

FORM NO. CF14


KINEMATICS OF MACHINERY
Unit 1

1. Define degrees of freedom.


It is defined as the number of input parameters which must be controlled independently in order
to bring the device into a particular position.
The degrees of freedom of a mechanism (n) is given by
n = 3(L-1)-2j-h
L = Number of links
j = Number of joints
h = Number of higher pairs.
2. What is meant by spatial mechanism?
Spatial mechanism have special geometric characteristics in that all revolute axes are parallel and
perpendicular to the plane of motion and all prism axes lie in the plane of motion.
3. Classify the constrained motion.
There are three types.
1) Completely constrained motion (eg. Square bar moving in a square hole)
2) In completely constrained motion ( eg. Circular shaft in a hole)
3) Successfully constrained motion (eg. Piston and cylinder)
4. What is meant by number synthesis?
Expressing mobility or degree of freedom of a mechanism in terms of the number of links and the
number of pair connections of a given type is known as number synthesis.
5. What are the some important inversions of four chain mechanism?
1) Crank-rocker mechanism.
2) Crank-crank mechanism.
3) Rocker-rocker mechanism.
6. What is toggle position?
It is the position of a mechanism at which the mechanical advantage is infinite and the sine of
angle between the coupler and driving link is zero.
7. What is pantograph?
Pantograph is a device which is used to reproduce a displacement exactly in an enlarged or
reduced scale. It is used in drawing offices, for duplicating the drawings, maps, plans, etc. It works on the
principle of 4 bar chain mechanism.
8. What are the applications of single slider crank mechanism?
1) Rotary or Grome engines.
2) Crank and slotted lever mechanism.
3) Oscillating cylinder engine.
4) Bull engine
5) Hand pump.

9. Give some examples for kinematics pairs.


1) Crank and connecting rod
2) Connecting and piston rod
3) Piston and engine cylinder.
10. Discuss Elliptical trammel
Elliptical trammel is an instrument used for drawing ellipses. It is the best example for first
inversion of double slider crank chain.
11. What is movability?
It includes the 6 degree of freedom of the device as a whole, as though the ground link were not
fixed, and this applies to a kinematic chain.
12. What is mobility?
It neglects these and considers only the internal relative motions, thus applying a mechanism.
13. What is meant by transmission angle?
In a four bar chain mechanism the angle between the coupler and the follower link is called as the
transmission angle.
14. What is meant by Ackermann steering?
Ackermann steering is the one of the mechanism used in vehicles. It is obtained by inversion of
four bar chain.
15. Write down the Grashofs Law for a four bar mechanism?
Grashofs law states that the sum of the shortest and longest links cannot be greater than the sum
of the remaining two links lengths if there is to be continuous relative motion between two members.
16. Explain the working principle of bicycle bells.
Bicycle bells are working on the principle of snap action mechanism or toggle mechanism or flip
flop mechanism.
17. What is meant by motion adjustment mechanism?
The mechanism used to adjust or modify the motion of the link are known as motion adjustment
mechanism. Motion adjustment is obtained by wedges, levers and rack and pinion.
18. Whether a cycle chain is kinematic chain or not?
A cycle chain is a combination of several links with turning pair. Hence it is not a kinematic
chain.
19. Define instantaneous centre.
Instantaneous centre of a moving body may be defined as that centre which goes on changing
from one instant to another.
20. What is instantaneous axis?

Instantaneous axis is a line drawn through an instantaneous centre and perpendicular to the plane
of motion.
21. What is resistant body?
A body is said to be resistant if it is capable of transmitting the required force with negligible
deformation. A link need not necessarily be a rigid body, but it must be a resistant body.
22. What is link?
A link or an element is defined as that part of a machine which has motion relative to some other
part. A link need not to be a single unit, but it may consist of several parts which are manufactured as
separate units.
23. What are the different types of links?
1) Rigid link.
2) Flexible link.
3) Fluid link.
24. What is meant by spatial mechanism?
Spatial mechanism have special geometric characteristics in that all revolute axes are parallel and
perpendicular to the plane of motion and all prism axes lie in the plane of motion.
25. What is the use of oldhams coupling?
It is used for transmitting motion between two shafts which are parallel but not coaxial.

Unit 2
1. What is kinematic analysis?
The objective of the kinematics analysis is to determine the kinematic quantities such as
displacements, velocities and accelerations of the elements in a mechanism.
2. What is displacement?
It is defined as the distance moved by a body with respect to a certain fixed point.
3. What is vector?
A vector is a straight line of a certain length possessing a starting point and a terminal point at
which it carries an arrow head.

4. Write down the different types of motion.


1) Rectilinear motion.
2) Curvilinear motion.
3) Circular motion.
5. What is Rectilinear motion?
In this motion, the particles of a body move in straight parallel paths. Such a motion is also
known as Translatory motion or straight line motion.
6. What is Curvilinear motion?
In this motion, the particles of a body move along parallel circular arcs or curved paths.
7. What is Circular motion?
When all the particles of a body travel in concentric circles then the motion is said to be circular
motion.
8. What is the difference between velocity and speed/
Velocity is defined as the rate of change of displacement of a body with respect to the time.
Speed is defined as the rate of change of linear displacement of a body with respect to the time.
9. What are the different methods are used for finding the velocity?
1) Graphical method.
2) Analytical method.
10. Write the different types of graphical method.
1) Relative velocity method.
2) Instantaneous centre method.

11. What is configuration diagram?


It is a skeleton or a line diagram which represents a machine or a mechanism. To study the
velocity and acceleration of any mechanisms, first we have to draw the configuration diagram. It is also
known as space diagram.
12. What is acceleration?
The rate of change of velocity with respect to time is known as acceleration.
13. What is deceleration?
The negative acceleration is known as deceleration or retardation.
14. What is meant by coincident points?
When a point on one link is sliding along another rotating link, then the point is known as
coincident point.

15. What is centrode?


The locus of all instantaneous centre is known as centrode.
16. What is space centrode?
The locus of the instantaneous centre in space during a definite motion of the body is called the
space centrode.
17. What is Body centrode?
The locus of all instantaneous centre relative to the body itself is called the body centrode.
18. What is Instantaneous axis?
A line drawn through an instantaneous centre and perpendicular to the plane of motion is called
instantaneous axis.
19. What is axode?
The locus of Instantaneous axis is known as axode.
20. Write down the different types of Instantaneous centres.
1) Fixed Instantaneous centres.
2) Permanent Instantaneous centres.
3) Neither fixed nor permanent Instantaneous centres.
21. Define Kennedys theorem.
The Kennedys theorem states that if three bodies move relatively to each other, they have three
instantaneous centres and lie on a straight line.

22. What are properties of instantaneous centre?


1) A rigid link rotates instantaneously relative to another link at the instantaneous centre for the
configurations of the mechanism.
2) The two rigid links have no linear velocity relative to each other at the instantaneous centre. At
this point the two rigid links have the same linear velocity relative to the rigid link.
23. What is angular velocity ratio theorem?
The angular velocity ratio theorem states that the angular velocity ratio of any two bodies in
planar relative to a third body is inversely proportional to the segments into which the common
instantaneous centre cuts the line of centres.
24. Explain any two methods of reducing interference in gears.
1. The height of the teeth may be reduced.
2. The pressure angle may be increased.
3. The face of gear tooth may be relieved.

25. What is the effects of centrifugal tension in belt drives?


1. Centrifugal tension will increase the tension on both tight and slack sides.
2. Centrifugal tension has no effect on the power transmitted by the belt drive.

Unit 3
1. What is a cam?
A cam is a rotating machine element which gives reciprocating or oscillating motion to another
element known as follower.
2. Give some examples of cam.
1) Radial or disc cams.
2) Cylindrical or barrel cams.
3) End or face cams.
4) Wedge cams.
3. Define tangent cam.
When the flanks of the cam are straight and tangential to the base circle and nose circle the cam is
known as tangent cam.
4. What ate the different motions of the follower?
1) Uniform motion.
2) Simple harmonic motion.
3) Uniform acceleration and retardation.
4) Cycloidal motion.
5. How can high surface stress in flat faced follower be minimized?
High surface stress in the follower is minimized by machining the flat end of the follower to a
spherical shape.
6. Where are the roller follower extensively used?
Roller followers are extensively used where more space is available such as in stationary gas oil
engines, and aircraft engines.
7. Define dwell period?
The period during which the follower remains at rest is called dwell period.
8. Explain offset follower.
When the motion of the follower is along an axis away from the axis of the cam centre, it is called
offset follower.

9. Define trace point.


It is a reference point on the follower and is used to generate the pitch curve. In case of knife edge
follower the knife edge represents the trace point and the pitch curve corresponds to the cam profile.

10. Define pressure angle with respect to cams.


It is the angle between the direction of the follower motion and a normal to the pitch curve. This
angle is very important in designing a cam profile. If the pressure angle is too large, a reciprocating
follower will jam in its bearings.
11. Define lift or stroke in cam.
It is the maximum travel of the follower from its lowest position to the topmost position.
12. Define undercutting in cam. How it occurs?
The cam profile must be continuous curve without any loop. If the curvature of the pitch curve is
too sharp, then the part of the cam shape would be lost and thereafter the intended cam motion would not
be achieved. Such a cam is said to be undercut.
Undercutting occurs in the cam because of attempting to achieve too great a follower lift with
very small cam rotation with a smaller cam.
13. What do you know about nomogram?
In nomogram, by knowing the values of total lift of the follower and the cam rotation angle for
each segment of the displacement diagram, we can read directly the maximum pressure angle occurring
in the segment for a particular choice of prime curcle radius.
14. How can you prevent undercutting in cam?
1) By decreasing the follower lift.
2) By increasing cam rotation angle.
3) By increasing the cam size.
15. What do you know about gravity cam?
In this type, the rise of the cam is achieved by the rising surface of the cam and the return by the
force of gravity or due to the weight of the cam.
16. Write the different types of follower.
1) Knife edge follower
2) Roller follower
3) Mushroom or flat faced follower
4) Spherical faced or curved shoe follower.
17. What is cam profile?
The surface of cam which comes into contact with follower, is known as cam profile.

18. What is base circle?


It is the smallest circle that can be drawn to the cam profile. The radius of the base circle is called
the least radius of the cam.

19. What is trace point?


It is a reference point on the follower to trace the cam profile. In case of a knife edge follower, the
knife edge itself is a tracing point and in roller follower, the centre of the roller is the tracing point.
20. What is pitch curve?
The locus or path of the tracing point is known as the pitch curve. For the purpose of laying out
the cam profiles, it is assumed that the cam is fixed and the follower rotates around it.
21. What is prime circle?
The smallest circle drawn tangent to the pitch curve is known as prime circle.
22. What is pressure angle?
It is the angle between the direction of the follower motion and a normal to the pitch curve. This
angle is very important in cam design as it represents steepness of the cam profile.
23. What is pitch point?
It is the point on the pitch curve at which the pressure angle is maximum.
24. What is pitch circle?
It is the circle passing through the pitch point and concentric with the base circle.
25. What is cam angle?
It is the angle of rotation of the cam for a definite displacement of the follower.

Unit 4
1. What is an angle of obliquity in gear?
It is the angle between the common normal to two gear teeth at the point of contact and the
common tangent at the pitch point. It is also called as pressure angle.
2. What is bevel gearing? Mention its types.
When the non-parallel or intersecting but coplanar shafts connected by gears, they are called
bevel gears and the arrangement is bevel gearing.
Types.
1) Skew bevel gearing
2) Spiral gearing.
3. What is meant by arc of approach?
It is the portion of the path of contact from the beginning of the engagement to the pitch point.
4. What is meant by arc of recess?
It is the position of the path of contact from pitch point to the end of the engagement to the pitch
point.
5. What is meant by Arc of contact?
It is the path traced by a point on the pitch circle from the beginning to the end of engagement of
a pair of teeth.
6. State law of gearing.
The law of gearing states that for obtaining a constant velocity ratio, at any instant of teeth the
common normal at each point of contact should always pass through a pitch point, situated on the line
joining the centre of rotation of the pair of mating gears.
7. Define normal and axial pitch in helical gears.
Normal pitch is the distance between similar faces of adjacent teeth, along a helix on the pitch
cylinder normal to the teeth.
Axial pitch is the distance measured parallel to the axis between similar faces of a adjacent teeth.
8. What are the methods to avoid interference?
1. The height of the teeth may be reduced.
2. The pressure angle may be increased.
3. The radial flank of the pinion may be cut back.
9. What is the advantage when arc of recess is equal to arc of approach in a meshing gears?
When arc of recess equal to arc of approach, the work wasted by friction is minimum and
efficiency of drive is maximum.

10. What do you know about tumbler gear?


Tumbler gears are those which are used in lathes for reversing the direction of rotation of driven
gears.
11. Define contact ratio.
It is the ratio of the length of arc of contact to the circular pitch is known as contact ratio. The
value gives the number of pairs of teeth in contact.
12. Where will the interference occur in an involute pinion and gear are in mesh having same size of
addendum?
There will be an interference between the tip of pinion and flank of gear.
13. Define interference.
The phenomenon when the tip of tooth undercuts the roots on its mating gear is known as
interference.
14. What you meant by non standard gear teeth?
The gear teeth obtained by modifying the standard proportions of gear teeth parameters is known
as non standard gear teeth.
15. Define cycloidel tooth profile and involute tooth profile.
A cycloid is the curve traced by a point on the circumference of a circle which rolls without
slipping on a fixed straight line.
Involute profile is defined as the locus of a point on a straight line which rolls without slipping on
the circumference of a circle.
16. Define Backlash.
It is the difference between the tooth space and the tooth thickness along the pitch circle.
Backlash = Tooth space Tooth thickness.
17. What is gear train?
Two or more gears re made to mesh with each other to transmit power from one shaft to another.
Such a combination is called a gear train.
18. What are the types of gear trains?
1. Simple gear train.
2. Compound gear train.
3. Reverted gear train.
4. Epicyclic gear train.
19. Write velocity ratio in compound train of wheels?
Speed of last follower- Product of teeth on drives.
Speed of first driver- Product of teeth on followers.
20. Define simple gear train.

When there is only one gear on each shaft, it is called as simple gear train.
21. What is meant compound gear train?
When there are more than one gear on shaft, it is called a compound gear train.
22. What is the advantage of a compound gear train over a simple gear train?
The advantage of a compound gear train over a simple gear train is that a much larger speed
reduction from the first shaft to the last shaft can be obtained with small gears.
23. What is reverted gear train?
When the axes of the first and last wheels are co-axial the train is known as reverted gear train.
24. What are the externally applied torques used to keep the gear train in equilibrium?
1. Impart torque on the driving member.
2. Resisting or holding torque on the driven member.
3. Holding or braking torque on the fixed member.
25. Where the epicyclic gear trains are used?
The epicyclic gear trains are used in the back gear of lathe, differential gears of the automobiles,
pulley blocks, wrist watches, etc.

Unit 5
1. What is dry friction?

The friction that exists between two unlubricated surfaces is known as dry friction.
2. What is greasy friction?
When the two surfaces in contact have a minute thin layer of lubricant between them, then it is
called as greasy friction.
3. What is fluid friction?
When the two surfaces in contact are completely separated by a lubricant, then it is called as fluid
friction.
4. State the laws of dry friction.
1. The frictional force is directly proportional to the normal reaction between the surfaces.
2. The frictional force opposes the motion.
3. The frictional force is independent of the area and the shape of the contacting surfaces.
5. State the laws of fluid friction.
1. The frictional force is almost independent of load.
2. The frictional force is independent of the substances of the bearing surfaces and opposing
tendency is less.
3. The frictional force reduces with increase in temperature of the lubricant.
6. What is angle of repose?
The angle of repose is defined as the maximum inclination of a plane at which a body remains in
equilibrium over the inclined plane by the assistance of friction only.
7. What is limiting angle of friction?
The limiting angle of friction is defined as the angle at which the resultant reaction R makes with
the normal reaction.
8. Define Co-efficient of friction.
It is defined as the ratio of the limiting friction to the normal reaction between two bodies.
= F / Rn
9. What is the efficiency of the inclined plane?
The efficiency of inclined plane is defined as the ratio between effort without friction and the
effort with friction.
10. Why self locking screws have lesser efficiency?
Self locking screws needs some friction on the thread surface of the screw and nut hence it needs
higher effort to lift a body and hence automatically the efficiency decreases.
11. What are the functions of clutches?
1. It supplies power to the transmission system.
2. It stops the vehicle by disconnecting the engine from transmission system.

3. It is used to change the gear and idling the engine.


4. It gives gradual increment of speed to the wheels.
12.What is the difference between cone clutch and centrifugal clutch?
Cone clutch works on the principle of friction alone. But centrifugal clutch uses principle of
centrifugal force in addition with it.
13. Why friction is called as necessary evil?
Friction is the important factor in engineering and physical applications such as belt and ropes,
jibs, clutches and brakes, so it is the necessary one.
If the friction exceeds certain value it will cause heat, damage and wear when applied. So it is
called necessary evil.
14. What are the belt materials?
1. Leather.
2. Cotton or fabric.
3. Rubber.
4. Balata.
5. Nylon.
15. Explain velocity ratio.
It is defined as the ratio between velocity of the driver and follower or driven.
16. State the law of belting.
Law of belting states that the centre line of the belt as it approaches the pulley must lie in a plane
perpendicular to the axis of the pulley or must lie in the plane of the pulley, otherwise, the belt will runoff
the pulley.
17. What is slip?
The relative motion between belt and pulley due to insufficient friction is called slip.
18. What is creep?
The phenomenon of sudden contraction and expansions of belt when it passes from slack side to
tight side is called as creep.

19. What is centrifugal effect on belts?


During operation, as the belt passes over a pulley the centrifugal effect due to its self weight to lift
the belt from the pulley surface. This reduces the normal reaction and hence the frictional resistance.
20. What is the cross belt used instead of open belt?
1. Cross belt is used where the direction of rotation of driven pulley is opposite to driving pulley.
2. Where we need more power transmission there we can use cross belt drive.
21. What is wipping?

If the centre distance between two pulleys are too long then the belt begins to vibrate in a
direction perpendicular to the direction of motion of belt. This phenomenon is called wipping. It can be
avoided by idler pulleys.
22. Why lubrication reduces friction?
In practical all the mating surfaces are having roughness with it. It causes friction. If the surfaces
are smooth then friction is very less. Lubrication smoothens the mating surface by introducing oil film
between it. The fluids are having high smoothness than solids and thus lubrication reduces friction.
23. What you meant by crowning in pulley?
The process of increasing the frictional resistance on the pulley surface is known as crowning. It
is done in order to avoid slipping of the belt.
24. What is brake?
Brake is a device by means of which motion of a body is retarded for slowing down or to bring it
to rest which works on the principle of frictional force, it acts against the driving force.
25. Explain self energizing.
When moments of efforts applied on the break drum and frictional force are in the same direction,
the breaking torque becomes maximum. In such a case the brake is said to be partially self actuating or
self energizing.