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3, 1888


18, 1888


21, 1888


22, 1888
13, 1888


April 28,



RIZALS TRAVEL (1888-1992)

Rizal left Manila for Hong Kong (British colony).
He stayed at Victoria Hotel.
Welcomed by Jose Ma. Basa and other exiles of 1872.
Jose Sainz de Veranda (former secretary of Gov-Gen Terrero) shadowed
Rizals movement in Hong Kong.
Rizal, accompanied by Basa, boarded the ferry steamer-Kiu-Kiang for
Macao (Portuguese colony).
Rizal was surprised to see Jose Sainz de Veranda boarded in the ferry.
Rizal stayed at the home of Don Juan Francisco Lecaros (last Filipinino
delegate in the Spanish Cortes)
Rizal and Basa returned to Hong Kong.
Observations of Hong Kong:
(1) Noisy celebration of the Chinese New Year
(2) Boisterous theatre with noisy audience
(3)The marathon lauriat party, the longest meal in the world
(4) The Dominican Order was the richest religious order in Hong Kong.
(5) Protestant cemeteries were the most beautiful.
Rizal left Hong Kong on board the Oceanic (an American steamer)
Rizal arrived in Yokohama.
He went to Tokyo
He was visited by Juan Perez Caballero (secretary of Spanish Legation) and
invited Rizal to live at the Spanish Legation. He accepted the invitation
for 2 reasons:
(a) he could economize his living expenses
(b) he had nothing to hide from the Spanish authorities.
He lived at the Spanish legation on March 7, 1888.
He studies the Japanese language, drama, arts, music, and judo.
He toured Japan.
He met Filipino musicians in Japan.
He had romance with O-Sei-San ((Seiko Usui) the daughter of the store
owner andlearned English and French from her private tutors. She taught
Rizal the Japanese painting, and improved his knowledge of the Japanese
O-Sei-Sans almost tempted Rizal to settle down in Japan. If he were a man
of less heroic mould, of less will power, he would have lived permanently
in Japan. He bade farewell to O-Sei-San.
Rizals impression on Japan:
(1) Beautiful country
(2) Cleanliness, politeness, and industry of the Japanese people
(3) Picturesque dress and simple charm of the Japanese women
(4)Few thieves
(5)beggars were rarely seen
(6) rickshaws were drawn by man
April 13,1888, Rizal boarded the Belgic (English steamer), bound for the
United States. While sailing, he met Tetcho Suehiro (Japanese
newspaperman and also an advocate of freedom)
Rizal arrived in San Francisco, California.
May 4 - 6, 1888, Rizal stayed in San Francisco
May 6, 1888 - Oakland

May 24,

er 1888
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May 7, 1888 - Reno

May 8 -Utah
May 9 - Colorado
May 10 - Nebraska
May 11 - Chicago
May 12 - Niagara falls
May 13 - New York
May 16 - He left New York for Liverpool, England on board the City of Rome
(the second largest ship in the world at that time). He saw the Statue of
Rizals impression on America:
(1) material progress shown in the great cities, huge farms, flourishing
industries, and busy factories.
(2) drive and energy of the American people
(3) natural beauties of the land
(4) the high standard livings
(5) the opportunities for better life offered to poor immigrants.
(6) lack of racial equality
- America is the land par excellence of freedom but only for the whites.
Great May 24, 1888 - arrived in Liverpool, England
Britain May 25, 1888 - went to London. He stayed for short time at the house of
Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor. By the end of May, he became a boarder of the
Beckett family.
Rizal came to know Dr. Reinhold Rost (the librarian of the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs and an authority on Malayan languages and customs)
Rizal spent much of his time in the British Museum poring over the pages
of Morgas Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas and other rare historical works
on the Philippines.
News from Home: (Good and Bad)
(1) Persecution of the Filipino patriots of Manila and the surrounding
towns who signed the Petition of 1888
(2) Calamba tenants were being persecuted by the hacienda
(3)Manuel T. Hidalgo ( husband of Saturnina) Rizals brother-in-law, was
exiled to Bohol.
(4) Mariano Herbosa (husband of Lucia) was denied Christian burial
(5) Laureano Viado was imprisoned because a copy of Noli was found in
his possession.
(6) Rev. Vicente Garcia defended the Noli.
Rizals greatest achievement in London - annotation of Dr. Morgas famous
historical work entitled Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas (Mexico, 1609).
Mariano Ponce, one of the propagandists, urged Rizal to edit a newspaper
but Rizal was busy.
Paris He visited Paris for 1 week in order to search for more historical materials
in the Bibliotheque Nationale. He was entertained Juan Lunas family.
Spain He contacted his compatriots and surveyed the political situation with
regards to the agitation for Philippine reforms (Propaganda Movement).
He met for the first time Marcelo H. Del Pilar and Mariano Ponce.
London He spent the Christmas and New Year with the Becketts.
Rizal had a romantic interlude with the oldest of the 3 Becketts - Gertrude
Rizal was loyal to Leonor Rivera that is why he did not reciprocate
Gertrudes affection.



Fall of

He left London because he could not marry Gertrude.

Writings in London:
(a) Annotation of Morgas Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas
(b) La Vision del Fray Rodriguez (published in Barcelona, 1889, under his
pseudonym Dimas Alang) - satire presenting a spirited dialogue
between St. Augustine and Fr. Rpdriguez.
(c) Letter to the Young Women of Malolos (February 1889) - to praise the
young ladies of Malolos for their courage to establish a school where
they could learn Spanish, despite the opposition of Fr. Felipe Garcia
(d) Specimens of Tagal Folklore (published in Trubners Record, a journal
devoted to Asian studies, in May 1889)
(e) Two Eastern Fables (June 1889) -comparative study of Philippine and
Japanese folklore.
Madrid On January 12, 1889, while Rizal was in London, the Filipino patriots and
their Spanish friends in Madrid founded Asociacion Hispano-Filipino for
the purpose of working for the needed reforms. The president was Don
Miguel Morayta.
February 15, 1889 - Graciano Lopez-Jaena founded La Solidaridad
(newspaper of the Propaganda movement)
Rizal became an active contributor to La Solidaridad using the pen-names
Dimas Alang and Laong Laan.
London Rizal, before leaving London, made several fine sculptural works.
(1) Prometheus Bound
(2) The Triumph of Death over Life
(3) The Triumph of Science over Death
(4) carving of the heads of the 3 Beckett sisters
Rizal left London.
Paris The International Exposition of 1889 made it difficult for Rizal to find a
living quarters in Paris.
For a short time, he lived in the house of his friend Valentin Ventura.
He lived in a little room after he stayed in the house of Valentin Ventura.
He spent most of his time in the reading room of the Bibliotheque
In his spare hours, Rizal used to dine at the homes of his friends, such as
the Pardo de Taveras.
Rizal was also a frequent visitor of the Boustead family.
He made 2 statues - The Beggar and The Maid With a Basket.
January 14, 1889 - Rizal proposed to establish an International Association
of Filipinologists to study the Philippines from the Scientific and
historical point of view. Their inaugural convention did not materialize.
He also planned to establish a modern college in Hong Kong but it also did
not materialize.
Towards the end of March 1889, Rizal founded the Kidlat Club which
brought together the young Filipinos in Paris so that they could enjoy
their sojourn in the city during the International exposition.
Indios Bravos - replaced the Kidlat Club. The members pledged to excel in
intellectual and physical prowess in order to win the admiration of the
Paris Wrote Por Telefono (published in booklet form in Barcelona, 1889) - as a
reply to Fr. Salvador Font who masterminded the banning of his Noli. It
was also in this satirical pamphlet that Rizal predicted that people could
carry on overseas telephonic conversations in 1900.

r 1889
after the
New Year
of 1889

28, 1890


Rizal had a romance with Adelina Boustead.

Nelly Boustead was also attracted with Rizal.
Antonio Luna was madly in love with Nelly. Luna became jealous of Rizal.
Celebrated the Christmas with Jose Albert

London Biographers do not know the purpose of his visit. It may be due to the
following reasons:
(1) to compare the annotated edition of Morgas Sucesos with the
original copy
(2) to visit the Gertrude Beckett for the last time.
Paris The Annotation of Morgas Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas was published.
Errors committed by Rizal in the annotation according to Blumentritt:
(1) Appraising the events of the past in the light of present standards
(2) Attacks on the Church were unfair and unjustified because the
abuses of the friars should not be construed to mean that Catholicism is
The Annotation of Morgans work by Rizal was dedicated to the Filipinos.
In the annotation, Rizal proved that the Filipinos were already civilized
before the advent of Spain.
Brussels Rizal left Paris for Brussels, Belgium. Reasons:
(1) the cost of living in Paris was very high (economic reason)
(2) the gay social life of Paris hampered his literary works (especially El
Rizal was accompanied by Jose Albert when he moved to Brussels. Jose
Albert left and was replaced by Jose Alejandrino (engineering student)
They lived in a boarding house run by 2 Jacoby sisters.
Rizal was busy writing the El Filibusterismo.
He also wrote articles for La Solidaridad and letters to his family and
He spent part of his time in the medical clinic.
Rizals articles in La Solidaridad (organ or newspaper of the Propaganda
movement) (Rizal used Dimas Alang and Laong Laan):
(1) La Verdad Para Todos (The Truth For All) (May 31, 1889) - first article
for La Solidaridad
(2) Verdades Nuevas (New Truths)- July 31, 1889
(3)n Una Profanacion (A Profanation) -July 31, 1889; a biting attack
against the friars for refusing to bury Mariano Herbosa in the Catholic
cemetery because he was the brother-in-law of Rizal.
(4) Diferencias (Differences) - September 15, 1889.
(5) Filipinas dentro de Cien Aos (The Philippines a Century Hence) published serially on September 30, October 31, December 15, 1889,
and February 1, 1890.
- it contains a prophecy that someday the Filipinos will rise in revolution
against Spain and win their independence, but later the Philippines shall
come under the rule o the United States.
(6) Ingratitudes (January 15, 1890) - a reply to Gov.-Gen Weyler who,
while visiting Laguna province in company the Dominicans, said that the
people should not let themselves be deceived by the vain promises of
the ungrateful sons.
(7) Sin Nombre (Without Name) - February 28, 1890.
(8) Sobre la Nueva Ortografia de la Lengua Tagala ( On the New
Orthography of the Tagalog Laguage) - April 15, 1890; Rizal advocated
the use of new spelling in Tagalog.
(9) Cosas de Filipinas (Things about the Philippines) - April 30 1890

May 28,


July 1890


(10) Sobre la Independencia de los Filipinos (On the Indolence of the

Filipinos) - July 15-September 15, 1890; a brilliant essay in defense of
Filipino indolence.
Brussels Rizal wrote to M. H. Del Pilar to remind the Filipinos in Madrid that they did
not come to Europe to gamble, but to work for their Fatherlands
They called Rizal Papa (Pope).
Brussels He received bad news from home:
(1) The management of the Dominican hacienda continually raised the
land rents until such time that Rizals father refused to pay his rent.
(2) The Dominican Order filed a suit in court to dispossess the Rizal
family of their lands in Calamba
(3) The tenants, including the Rizal family, were persecuted and ejected
from their lands
(4)Paciano and brothers-in-law Antonio Lopez (husband of Narcisa) and
Silvestre Ubaldo (husband of Olympia) were deported to Mindoro.
Manuel T. Hidalgo (husband of Saturnina) was banished for the second
time to Bohol.
Rizal feared that he would not live long.
Rizal decided to go home but his friends warned him of the danger that
awaited him at home. It was the letter from Paciano that made him
change his mind.
The letter from Paciano related that they lost the case against the
Dominicans in manila, but they appealed it to the Supreme Court in
Spain, hence a lawyer was needed to handle it in Madrid.
Rizal wrote to M.H. del Pilar on June 20, 1890 retaining the latters services
as lawyer.
He informed both del Pilar and Ponce that he was leaving Brussels for
Madrid for the handling of the case.
To My Muse (A Mi...) -1890
- It was against a background of mental anguish in Brussels, during
those sad days when he was worried by family disasters, that he wrote
his pathetic poem A Mi...
Brussels 2 things that made Rizal happy before leaving Brussels:
(1) Summer festival in Belgium
(2) Romance with Suzanne Jacoby
By the end of July 1890, Rizal left Brussels for Madrid, stopping for a few
days in Paris.
Madrid Early in August 1890, Rizal arrived in Madrid.
Upon arrival in Madrid, Rizal immediately sought the help of the Filipino
colony, the Asociacion Hispano-Filipino, and the liberal newspapers (La
Justicia, El Dia, El Globo, La Republica, El Resume, etc) in securing justice
for the oppressed Calamba tenants, including his family.
Together with M.H. del Pilar (acted as a lawyer) and Dr. Dominador Gomez
(secretary of Asociacion Hispano-Filipino), he called on the Minister of
Colonies (Seor Fabie) in order to protest the injustices committed by
Gov-Gen Valeriano Weyler and the Dominicans against the Calamba
From Silvestre Ubaldo, he received a copy of the ejectment order by the
Dominicans against Francisco Rizal and other Calamba tenants.
From Saturnina, he learned the deportation of Paciano, Antonino Lopez,
Silvestre Ubaldo, Mateo Elejorde, and Dandoy to Mindoro.

of 1890
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Day of


He also learned that their parents had been forcibly ejected from their
home and were then living in the house of Narcisa.
Blumentritt urged Rizal to see Queen Regent Maria Cristina but he had
neither powerful friends to bring him to the queens presence nor gold to
grease the palms of influential courtier.
August 19, 1890, Jose Ma. Panganiban, his talented co-worker in the
Propaganda movement died in Barcelona. Rizal wrote a eulogy to
Towards the end of August, 1890, Rizal attended a social reunion of the
Filipinos in Madrid. At that time, Luna became drunk and was bitter
because of his frustrated romance with Nelly Boustead. Deep in his
heart, he was blaming Rizal for his failure to win her. Luna uttered
certain unsavoury remarks about Nelly.
Rizal heard him and challenged Luna to a duel.
Wenceslao E. Retana wrote an article in La Epoca, an anti-Filipino
newspaper in Madrid, asserting that the relatives and friends of Rizal
had not paid their rents so that they were ejected from their lands in
Calamba by the Dominicans.
Rizal was insulted and challenged Retana to a duel. Only Retanas blood or
his apology could vindicate the good name of Rizals relatives and
Retana published a retraction and an apology in the newspapers.
Madrid Rizal attended a play in the Teatro Apollo and there he lost his gold watch
chain with a locket containing the picture of Leonor Rivera.
Madrid Rizal received a letter from Leonor Rivera, announcing her coming
marriage with with an Englishman, Henry C. Kipping, and asking his
Toward the closing days of 1890, there arose an unfortunate rivalry
between Rizal and M.H. del Pilar for supremacy.
Rizals influence declined because he had no patience with his more
frivolous paisanos.
Madrid The Filipinos in Madrid met to reorganize the Asociacion Hispano-Filipino
and to elect new leader who would act as spokesman of the Filipino
cause in Europe.
The Filipinos were divided into 2 rival camps: Rizalistas and Pilaristas.
Rizals presence in Madrid only served to split the Filipinos, hence he
thought it better for the cause to depart and leave Del Pilar without a
rival in Madrid.
France He proceeded to Biarritz, where he was a welcomed guest of the
He proposed marriage to Adelina Boustead but it did not prosper because
of the following reasons:
(1) Adelina was not sure he loved her because of his broken engagement
with Leonor Rivera.
(2)Rizal refused to accept the condition that he become a Protestant like
(3) Adelinas mother opposed the match because Rizal was not rich to
support a family in style.
After a brief vacation in Biarritz, he went to Paris and stayed at the house
of Valentin Ventura.
In Paris, he wrote Jose Ma. Basa on April 4, 1891, expressing his wish to
live in Hong Kong and practice medicine.
In the middle of April, Rizal, instead of going to Hong Kong, returned to

28, 1891

July 5,

August 6,

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18, 1891

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Brussels. Reason:
(1) to finish the El Filibusterismo.
Biarritz October 1887, in Calamba, Rizal started writing the El Filibusterismo.
He wrote more chapters in Paris, Madrid, and Biarritz.
March 28, 1891 - He finished the novel in Biarritz.
He moved to Ghent, where printing was cheaper.
Ghent Rizal and Jose Alejandrino left Brussels for Ghent. 2 reasons why he left
(1) Lower cost of living in Ghent and the price of printing was cheaper
(2) alluring romance with Suzanne Jacoby.
Rizal and Alejandrino stayed at the cheapest boarding house and lived
frugally in Ghent for 3 months from July to September, 1891.
F. Meyer-Van Loo Press - publisher of El Fili; was willing to print his book on
small partial payments.
Ghent The printing of El Fili had to be suspended because he could no longer give
the necessary funds to the printer.
Rizal almost burned the manuscript of El Filibusterismo.
Valentin Ventura sent Rizal the needed funds to finish the publication of
the book.
Ghent El Filibusterismo came off the press.
Rizal sent 2 copies to Hong Kong - one for Basa and one for Sixto Lopez.
Valentin Ventura received the original manuscript of EL Fili and a printed
copy with his autograph.
Marseill Shortly after the publication of El Fili, Rizal left Europe and lived in Hong
Kong. Reasons:
(1) life was unbearable in Europe because of his political differences with
M.H. del Pilar and other Filipinos;
(2)to lead the Propaganda Movement in Hong Kong;
(3) to be near his beloved Philippines and family.
**Rizal told del Pilar that he could not write anymore for La Solidaridad,
that he was retiring from Spains political arena to preserve unity among
the Filipinos in Europe.
After a brief sojourn in Paris from Ghent, he left Marseilles for Hong Kong
on board the S.S. Melbourne.
Hong Rizal arrived in Hong Kong.
Kong He established a medical clinic.

He wrote his parents asking their permission to return home.

Received a letter from Manuel Hidalgo relating the sad news of the
deportation of 25 persons from Calamba, including Do Francisco,
Neneng, Sisa, Lucia, Paciano, and the rest of them.
Shortly before Christmas, Rizal was gladdened by the arrival of his father,
brother, and Silvestre Ubaldo in Hong Kong.
His mother, Lucia, Josefa, and Trinidad also arrived.
His mother suffered so much from Spanish brutality and injustice. The year
before she was arrested on the flimsy charge that she was not using her
official surname of Realonda and despite her advanced age and
blindedness, she was again forced to walk to Santa Cruz.
Christmas in 1891 in Hong Kong was one of the happiest Yuletide
celebrations in Rizals life.
Rizal practiced medicine to earn a living.
Dr. Lorenzo P. Marquez helped Rizal to build a wide clientele.


For the 2nd time, he successfully operated on his mothers eyes.

Borneo Rizal went to Borneo to negotiate with the British authorities for the
establishment of a Filipino colony. His mission was successful. The British
authorities of Borneo were willing to give the Filipino colonists 100,000
acres of land, a beautiful harbour, and a good government for 999 years,
free of all charges.
Rizals friends in Europe endorsed the Borneo colonization project.
Manuel Hidalgo objected to the colonization project. why should we leave
the Philippines, this beautiful country of ours?
In the Philippines, Eulogio Despujol became the governor-general. He
replaced Weyler.
Rizal sent Despujol letters but he did not acknowledge/replied the letter
1st letter to DEspujol (December 23, 1891)
2nd letter (March 21, 1892) - he requested the gov-gen to permit the
landless Filipinos to establish themselves in Borneo. Despujol notified the
Spanish consul-general in Hong Kong to tell Rizal that he could not
approve the Filipino immigration to Borneo.
Writings in Hong Kong:
(1) he tried to finish his 3rd novel in Tagalog but later gave it up because
of his poor command of literary Tagalog.
(2) Ang Mga Karapatan nang Tao (Tagalog translation of the Rights of
Man proclaimed by French Revolutionists in 1789.)
(3) A la Nacion Espaniola (To the Spanish Nation) - which is an appeal to
Spain to right the wrongs done to the Calamba tenants.
(4) Sa Mga Kababayan (To my Countrymen) (December 1891) explaining the Calamba agrarian situation.
(5) Contributed to the British daily newspaper, the Hong Kong Telegraph.
Later, the newspaper was banned in the Philippines.
(6) Una Visita a la Victoria Goal (A Visit to Victoria Goal) - an account of
his visit to the colonial prison in Hong Kong.
(7) Colonization du British North Borneo, par des Familles de Iles
Philippines (Colonization of British North Borneo by Families from the
Philippine Islands)
(8) Proyecto de Colonizacion del British North Borneo por Flipinos
(Project of the Colonization of British North Borneo by the Filipinos)
(9) La Mano Roja (The Red Hand) (June 1892) - denounces frequent
outbreaks of intentional fires in Manila,
(10) Constitution and By-Laws of the Liga Filipina





The idea of establishing the Liga Filipina (Philippine League), an association

of patriotic Filipinos for civic purposes, was originally conceived by Jose
Ma. Basa, but it was Rizal who wrote its constitution and realized its
It was sent by Rizal to Domingo Franco in Manila.
Rizal made up his mind to return to Manila. Reasons:
(1) to confer with Governor Despujol regarding his Borneo colonization
(2) to establish the Liga Filipina in Manila
(3)to prove that Eduardo de Lete was wrong in attacking him in Madrid
that Rizal, being comfortable and safe in Hong Kong, had abandoned the
countrys cause. Letes attack, which was printed in La Solidaridad on
April 15, 1892, portrayed Rizal as cowardly, egoistic, opportunistic - a
patriot in words only.
Rizal, spent his 31st birthday in Hong Kong.

June 20,


June 21,


Wrote 2 letters which he sealed, inscribed on each envelope To be opened

after my death and gave them to his friend Dr. Marquez for
1st Letter - To My Parents, Brethren, and Friends
2nd Letter - To the Filipinos
Wrote his 3rd letter for Gov. Despujol informing him of his coming to
Manila and placed himself under the protection of Spanish government.
Rizal and Lucia left Hong Kong for Manila.
The Spanish consul-general in Hong Kong sent DEspujol a cablegram that
Rizal is in the trap.
A Secret case was filed in Manila against Rizal and his followers for antireligious and anti-patriotic agitation.
Despujol ordered Luis de la Torre to find out if Rizal was naturalized as a
German citizen.