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CHAPTER 5 : SERIES

5.1

Series

5.2

The Sum of a Series


5.2.1 Sum of Power of n Positive Integers
5.2.2 Sum of Series of Partial Fraction
5.2.3 Difference Method

5.3

Test of convergence
5.3.1 Divergence Test
5.3.2 Integral Test
5.3.3 Ratio Test

5.4

Power Series

5.5

Taylor and the Maclaurin Series

Review:
Sequence
What is a sequence? It is a set of numbers which are written in some particular order

u1, u2 ,, un .
We sometimes write u1 for the first term of the sequence, u2 for the second term and so on. We
write the nth term as un .
Examples:
1, 3, 5, 9. finite sequence
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, , n finite sequence
1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, - infinite sequence

5.1

Series

Definition:
The sum of the terms in the sequence is called a series.
For example, suppose we have the sequence

u1, u2 ,, un .
The series we obtain from this is

u1 u2 un .
and we write Sn for the sum of these n terms.
1

For example, let us consider the sequence of numbers


1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, . . . , n .
Then,

S1 1
S2 1 2 3
S3 1 2 3 6
The difference between the sum of two consecutive partial terms, Sn Sn1 , is the nth term of the
series. i.e
un Sn Sn1
If the sum of the terms ends after a few terms, then the series is called finite series.
If the sum of the series does not end, then the series is called infinite series.

Example 1:
The sum of the first n terms of the series is given by
1
Sn (5n2 11n)
4
a) Find the first three terms u1 , u2 , u 3 , and
b) The n-th term of the series.
Summation Notation, .
(read as sigma) is used to represent the sum of the series. In general,
n

Sn u1 u2 un ur . (finite)
r 1

S u1 u2 u3 ui . (infinite)
i 1

Example 2:
Find the r-th term of the following series. Hence, express the series using notation.
a)
b)

2 3 4 ..., to 10 terms.
3 9 27 ..., until 30 terms.

Before we proceed to the next sub-topic, let us review two important sequences/progressions, i.e.
1.
Geometric Sequence
2.
Arithmetic Sequence

Geometric Sequence
-

GS is a sequence where each new term after the first is obtained by multiplying the
preceding term by a constant r, called the common ratio.
If the first term of the sequence is a, then the GS is

a, ar, ar 2 , ar 3 ,...
where the n-th term is an ar n1.
E.g. 2, 6, 18, 54, .. (a 2, r 3)
1, -2, 4, -8
(a 1, r 2)

Arithmetic Sequence
-

AS is a sequence where each new term after the first is obtained by adding a constant d,
called the common difference to the preceding term.
If the term of the sequence is a, then the AS is
a, a d , a 2d , a 3d ,...
where the n-th term is an a (n 1)d
E.g. 8, 5, 2, -1, -4, .. (a 8, d 3)

5.2

Sum of Series

5.2.0 Sum of arithmetic sequence


To sum up the terms of an arithmetic sequence

n
a (a d ) (a 2d ) (a 3d ) ... a (n 1)d (2a (n 1)d ) Thus,
2
n 1
n
Sn a kd (2a (n 1)d )
2
k 0

Example 3:
Find the 4th term and 5th term of the sequence 1, 4, 7, . Hence, find S4 and S5 of the series 1, 4, 7,
.
5.2.1 Sum of Power of n Positive Integers
n

r 1 2 3 n
r 1
n

r 1

n n 1
......(1)
2

1
12 22 32 n2 n n 1 2n 1 ...(2)
6

n n 1
r 1 2 3 n
(3)

r 1
2
2

Example 4:
20

Evaluate

25

and

r 1

r 1

Example 5:
10

Evaluate

2r 1

using formula (2) in 5.2.1

r 1

Example 6:
Find the sum for each of the following series:
2
(a) 22 42 62 2n
(b) 1 3 4 5 7 7 to 30 terms
5.2.2 Sum of Series of Partial Fraction
In this section we shall discuss terms with partial fractions such as
1
1
1

...
2 3 3 4 4 5
We are not able to calculate the sum of the series by using the available formula (so far), but with
the help of partial fraction method, we can solve the problem.
Example 7:
Find the sum of the first n terms of the series
1
1
1

...
2 3 3 4 4 5

The above problem requires quite a long solution. However, in the next sub-topic, we will see a
different approach to solve the same problem. We called the approach, a difference method.

5.2.3 Difference method


n

Let f ( x) be a function of x and the r-th term of the series

u
r 1

is of the form ur f (r ) f (r 1) ,

then

r 1

r 1

ur f (r) f (r 1)
f (1) f (0) f (2) f (1) f (3) f (2)
f (4) f (3) ... f (n) f (n 1)

f (0) f (n)
f (n) f (0).
To conclude,
If ur f r f r 1 , then

r 1

f n f 0 .

Or equivalently
If kur f r f r 1 , then

u
r 1

1
f n f 0 .
k

where k is a constant.
Note: If we fail to express ur into this form, i.e. f r f r 1 , then this method cannot be
used. Here the difference d in the consecutive arithmetic sequence from the factors of each
term has to be the same.
Example 8:
Express the r-th term of the series
1 2 2 3 3 4 ... r (r 1) ... as the difference of two functions of r and r 1. Hence find the
sum of the first n terms of the series.
Solution:
Step 1: Find the general form of the r-th term:
Step 2: Form another sequence f (r ) by adding one more factor to the end of the general term ur :
Step 3: Find f (r 1) :
Step 4: Form the difference:

f (r ) f (r 1)
Step 5: Find the sum :
Tips:
If the general term, ur , of the series is in "product" form, you can add one more factor to
the end of the general term ur , so as to form a sequence f (r ) and then apply the difference
method. For example, if ur r (r 1) , let f (r ) r (r 1)(r 2). Here d=1 for each of the factors.
(A)

If the general term, ur , is in "quotient" form, you can remove one more factor at the end of
the general term ur , so as to form a sequence f (r ) and then apply the difference method.
(B)

Eg.
1. ur

1
1
1

, let f (r )
r 1 r 2
(r 1)(r 2)

2.

Example 9:
By using the difference method, find the sum of the first n terms of the series
1
1
1
1

...
.
2 3 3 4 4 5
(n 1)(n 2)
Example 10:
n

Use the difference method; find the sum of the series

r 2 r 3 .
2

r 1

Example 5.18 (book pg 248)


2
1
1
Prove that
. Hence by using the difference method, find the sum of

r (r 2) r r 2
1
1
1
1
.

...
1.3 2.4 3.5
n(n 2)

Example 5.19 (book pg 249)

2
1
1

Prove that

r (r 1)(r 2)
r 1 (r 2) r (r 1)
Hence by using the difference method show that
1
1
1
1

...
1.2.3 2.3.4 3.4.5
n(n 1)(n 2)
1
1

.
4 2(n 1)(n 2)

5.3

Test of Convergence

5.3.1 Divergence Test

lima

If

0 , or

lima does not exist, then the series is diverges.


r

The original statement of this theorem is

If

a
r 1

converges, then

lima
r

0 (1)

The converse of this statement is not always true. Therefore,


if

lima
r

0 , we may not be able to conclude that

a
r 1

converges!!!

Here the contrapositive of (1) is the statement in the Divergence Theorem above, which is applied to
prove whether or not a series diverge.

Example (11):

Show that the series

n2
diverges.
2
4

5n
n 1

Example 12:
Use Divergence Test to determine whether

r
r 1 ln r

(iii)

1 4r

r
r 1 3

(ii)

1 3r
r
r 1 4

(i)

(1)r 1

(iv)

r 1

diverges or not.

Remark:
If x 1 then lim x n 0 .
x

If x 1 then lim x n
x

5.3.2 The Integral Test


Suppose f is a continuous, positive, decreasing function on 1, and let ar f r . Then the

series

a
r 1

is convergent if and only if the improper integral

f x dx is convergent. In other
1

words
(a) If

(b) If

f x dx is convergent, then
f x dx is divergent, then

r 1

is convergent.

a
r 1

is divergent.

Note: Use this test when f x is easy to integrate.

Example 13:
Use the Integral Test to determine whether the following series converges or diverges.

5.3.3 Ratio Test

Let

a
r 1

be an infinite series with positive terms and let

lim
r

ar 1
.
ar

a)

If 0 1 , the series converges.

b)

If 1 , or , the series diverges.

c)

If 1 , the test is inconclusive.

Example 14:
Use the Ratio Test to determine whether the following series converges or diverges.

(c)

3r 2
1

r 1

5.4

Power Series

Definition
A power series about is a series of the form

a x
n 0

a0 a1x a2 x2 a3 x3 an xn

A power series about is a series of the form

a ( x a)
n 0

a0 a1 ( x a) a2 ( x a)2 an ( x a)n

in which the center a and the coefficients a0 , a1, a2, , an , are constants.

5.4.1 Expansion of Exponent Function


The power series of the exponent function can be written as

ex 1 x

1 2 1 3 1 4
x x x (5.4.1)
2!
3!
4!

The expansion is true for all values of x. In general,

1
e x xn .
n 0 n !
Example (15):
Given

1 2 1 3 1 4
1
x x x xn
2!
3!
4!
n!
Write down the first five terms of the expansion of the following functions
ex 1 x

(a) e2x - replace x with 2x


(b) e x1 - replace x with x-1

Example (16): (PRODUCT OF TWO POWER SERIES)


Write down the first five terms on the expansion of the function, 1 x e x in the form of power
2

series.

5.4.2 Expansion of Logarithmic Function


The expansion of logarithmic function can be written as
1
1
1
1
ln(1 x) x x2 x3 x4 x5
2
3
4
5 (5.4.2 a)
1
1
x6 x7
6
7
The series converges for 1 x 1 . Thus the series ln 1 x is valid for 1 x 1
10

By replacing x with x , we obtain

1
1
1
1
ln(1 x) x x2 x3 x4 x5
2
3
4
5
1
1
x6 x7
6
7
Thus, this result is true for 1 x 1 or 1 x 1.

Example (17) (Application of eqn 5.2.1a)


Write down the first five terms of the expansion of the following functions
(a) ln 1 3x

(b) 3ln 1 2x2 1 3x

Example (18): (PRODUCT OF TWO POWER SERIES)


Find the first four terms of the expansion of the function, 1 x ln 1 2x .
2

5.4.3 Expansion of Trigonometric Function


The power series for trigonometric functions can be written as

x3 x5 x 7 x 9

3! 5! 7! 9!
x2 x4 x6 x8
cos x 1
2! 4! 6! 8!

sin x x

Both series are valid for all values of x.


Example (19):(APPLICATION OF TRIGO IDENTITIES TO FIND P.S. EXPANSION)
Given

x2 x4 x6 x8
cos x 1
2! 4! 6! 8!
Find the expansion of cos 2x and cos 3x . Hence, by using an appropriate trigonometric identity
find the first four terms of the expansion of the following functions:
(a) sin 2 x
(b) cos3 x
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5.5

Taylor and the Maclaurin Series

APPLICATION OF TAYLOR SERIES:


1. TAYLOR SERIES EXPANSION AND APPROXIMATION PROBLEM
Example 20:
Obtain the Taylor series for f ( x) 3x2 6x 5 around the point x 1.
Ans: 2 + 3(x-1)2
Example 21:


Use Taylors theorem to obtain a series expansion of first five derivatives for cos x . Hence
3

0
find the approximation of cos 62 correct to 4 dcp.
Ans: 0.4695
Example 21b
Use Taylors theorem to obtain a series expansion of first five derivatives for
the approximation of 37 correct to 4 dcp.

x 36 . Hence find

12

MANIPULATION OF MACLAURIN SERIES


Remark: The power series expansion of ex ,cos x,sin x,ln(1 x) respectively, as given in Section
5.4 can also be verified using the Maclaurin series for f ( x) .

Example 22: (Good operation manipulation exercise find the product of two power series!!!)
Use Maclaurin series to verify that the power series expansion for ex sin x is given by
1
1
x x2 x3 x5 ...
3
30
i.e find the Maclaurin expansion of ex and sin x respectively, then multiply them out by finding the
coefficients for each nonzero term.

EXPANSION USING SUCCESIVE DERIVATIVES AND EVALUATION AT x=0.


Example 23:
If y ln cos x , show that
2

d2y
dy
1 0
2
dx
dx
Hence, by differentiating the above expression several times, obtain the Maclaurins series of
y ln cos x in the ascending power of x up to the term containing x 4 .

APPLICATION OF MACLAURIN SERIES/TAYLOR SERIES


1. FINDING LIMITS WITH MACLAURIN SERIES.
Example 24:
ex 1 x
Find lim
.
x 0
x2
Ans:

Example 25:

x2 2cos x 2
.
x0
3x4

Evaluate lim

Ans: 1/36

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2. EVALUATING DEFINITE INTEGRALS WITH MACLAURIN SERIES.


Example 26:
Use the first 6 terms of the Maclaurin series to approximate the following definite integral:
1

a)

x
e dx
2

b)

x cos( x )dx
3

Ans: 0.747, 0.440

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